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References - W

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter W. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - W

[Wachsmann 1962] Klaus P. Wachsmann. “The Earliest Musical Instruments”, New Scientist, Volume 16, Number 315, published by Reed Business Information, November 29, 1962, pages 511–514. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Harps and lyres existed in Mesopotamia over 4,500 years ago, but the flute dates back to the early Stone Age. Stone itself was used very early to make gongs and musical stones that are still found in use today in Africa and Asia.

[Wachsmann 1975] Klaus P. Wachsmann, D. Christensen, and H.P. Reineck (editors). Hornbostel Opera Omnia, published by Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 1975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wade 1997] Stephen Wade (music selection and annotation). Library of Congress: A Treasury of Library of Congress Field Recordings, Rounder Records, CD 1500, 30 tracks, 1997, total time 1:10:34, UPC 7-12136-15002-2, ASIN B0010W0MW8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Abstract: One anthology CD containing thirty previously published selections from the Library's series of folk recordings, digitally remastered from original acetate and aluminum discs made between 1933 and 1946. Selected and annotated by Stephen Wade. Forty-page booklet with notes by Wade has introductory historical essay, song histories, and some new information on performers.

[Wade 2003] Nicholas Wade. “Early Voices: The Leap to Language”, The New York Times, July 15, 2003. See the article on the New York Times web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Wade 2012] Stephen Wade. The Beautiful Music All Around Us: Field Recordings and the American Experience, published by the University of Illinois Press, 2012, 504 pages, ISBN 0-252-03688-3 (978-0-252-03688-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Publisher's description: The Beautiful Music All Around Us presents the extraordinarily rich backstories of thirteen performances captured on Library of Congress field recordings between 1934 and 1942 in locations reaching from Southern Appalachia to the Mississippi Delta and the Great Plains. Including the children's play song "Shortenin' Bread," the fiddle tune "Bonaparte's Retreat," the blues "Another Man Done Gone," and the spiritual "Ain't No Grave Can Hold My Body Down," these performances were recorded in kitchens and churches, on porches and in prisons, in hotel rooms and school auditoriums. Documented during the golden age of the Library of Congress recordings, they capture not only the words and tunes of traditional songs but also the sounds of life in which the performances were embedded: children laugh, neighbors comment, trucks pass by.

[Wade-MA 2008] Mark Alan Wade. An Annotated Bibliography of Current Research in the Field of the Medical Problems of Trumpet Playing, D.M.A. dissertation – Ohio State University, 2008, xi + 121 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The very nature of the lifestyle of professional trumpet players is conducive to the occasional medical problem. The life-hours of diligent practice and performance that make a performer capable of musical expression on the trumpet also can cause a host of overuse and repetitive stress ailments. Other medical problems can arise through no fault of the performer or lack of technique, such as the brain disease Task-Specific Focal Dystonia. Ailments like these fall into several large categories and have been individually researched by medical professionals. Articles concerning this narrow field of research are typically published in their respective medical journals, such as the Journal of Applied Physiology. Articles whose research is pertinent to trumpet or horn, the most similar brass instruments with regard to pitch range, resistance and the intrathoracic pressures generated, are often then presented in the instruments’ respective journals, ITG Journal and The Horn Call. Most articles about the medical problems affecting trumpet players are not published in scholarly music journals such as these, rather, are found in health science publications. Herein lies the problem for both musician and doctor; the wealth of new information is not effectively available for dissemination across fields. The purpose of this exhaustive literature search was to produce a single document that collects and annotates current and pertinent research in the field of medical problems of the trumpet player and make it available for the trumpet playing community, music educators, conductors and physicians. The bibliography is divided into sections by topic and entries include a bibliography and abstract. Whenever possible, the abstracts by the original authors are used, as they are the experts on their own research.

[Wade-Martins 1973] Peter Wade-Martins. “A 10th-Century Bone Flute from North Elmham, Norfolk”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 26, published by the Galpin Society, May 1973, pages 142–143. Publication 841122 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This note describes a bone flute which was discovered in 1968 at the North Elmham Park excavations. North Elmham was the site of the bishopric of East Anglia in the 10th and 11th centuries, and the ruins of the 11th-century Saxon cathedral still survive near the present parish church. The bishopric moved to Norwich in 1095.

[Wainapel 1988] Stanley F. Wainapel and Jeffrey L. Cole. “The Not-So-Magic Flute: Two Cases of Distal Ulnar Nerve Entrapment”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 3, June 1988, pages 63–65. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wake 1894] C. Staniland Wake (editor). Memoirs of the International Congress of Anthropology, published by The Schulte Publishing Company, Chicago, 1894, 357 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wakin 2009] Daniel J. Wakin. “Pondering Prehistoric Melodies”, The New York Times, June 27, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Waldron 2009] Janice Waldron. “How Adult Learners Learn Celtic Traditional Music: An Exploratory Case Study «成年學生如何學習塞爾特傳統音樂:一個探索性個案研究»”, Music Education Research International, Volume 3, 2009, pages 57–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study was based on interviews and observations of ten adult learners at the 2005 Goderich Celtic College (GCC), a North American“summer camp” for adults wanting to learn Celtic traditional music (CTM). There was an equal gender mix, the average age of participants was 45 years, and each had been learning CTM between 4 and 15 years. With the exception of one, all had learned to play an instrument at school, but had discontinued playing their school instruments after graduation. They were attracted to CTM and traditional instruments for various reasons, and learned through the medium of “tunes,” rather than scales and exercises. Because CTM is an aural/oral culture, most valued learning “by ear,” but did regard written notation as a useful aid. Information about this kind of informal learning practice has implications for formal school instrumental learning.
Translation: 此研究基于對2005年Goderich Celtic College (GCC)的10位成年學生的訪談與
觀察。GCC是一個爲想學塞爾特傳統音樂(CTM)的成人而設的北美夏令營。
研究參與者男女人數相同,平均年齡爲45歲,已學習塞爾特音樂4年到15年
不等。除1人以外,其他參與者都曾在學校學習演奏一種樂器,但畢業後都
沒有繼續彈奏這一樂器。他們由于各種不同的原因而對塞爾特傳統音樂和傳
統樂器感興趣,幷且通過“曲調”來進行學習,而不是通過音階或練習。因
爲CTM是一種口傳文化,通過“耳朵”來學習最具價值,但記譜也被視爲是
一種有益的補充。從這種非正式學習實踐而得的信息對正式的學校器樂學習
亦有所啓示。

[Walin 2001] Nils L. Wallin and Björn Merker; Steven Brown (editor). The Origins of Music, published by the MOIT Press, 2001, 512 pages, ISBN 0-262-73143-6 (978-0-262-73143-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: What biological and cognitive forces have shaped humankind's musical behavior and the rich global repertoire of musical structures? What is music for, and why does every human culture have it? What are the universal features of music and musical behavior across cultures? In this groundbreaking book, musicologists, biologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, psychologists, neuroscientists, ethologists, and linguists come together for the first time to examine these and related issues. The book can be viewed as representing the birth of evolutionary biomusicology—the study of which will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary precursors of human music, the evolution of the hominid vocal tract, localization of brain function, the structure of acoustic-communication signals, symbolic gesture, emotional manipulation through sound, self-expression, creativity, the human affinity for the spiritual, and the human attachment to music itself.

[Walker 1835] William Walker. The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion (song book), 1835, 336 pages. Reissued in [Walker 1847] and [Walker 1966]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Walker 1847] William Walker. The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion: Containing a Choice Collection of Tunes, Hymns, Psalms, Odes, and Anthems; Selected from the Most Eminent Authors in the United States, New Edition (song book), published by E. W. Miller, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1847, 336 pages. Reissue of [Walker 1835]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: New Britain melody paired with John Newton's Amazing Grace lyrics, Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Walker 1966] William Walker. The Southern Harmony (song book), published by Pro Musicamericana, Los Angeles, California, 1966, 345 pages. Reissue of [Walker 1835]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walker-DE 1988] Deward E. Walker, Jr. (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 12: Plateau, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1988, 808 pages, ISBN 0-16-049514-8 (978-0-16-049514-4). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 41 chapters on Indians of southeastern British Columbia, eastern Washington, northeast and central Oregon, northern Idaho, western Montana, and a small portion of northern California.

[Walker-WH 1998] William H. Walker. “Where Are the Witches of Prehistory?”, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 5, Number 3, September 1998, pages 245–308. Publication 20177387 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Why are certain common classes of ritually destroyed objects (persons, artifacts, or architecture), such as persecuted witches, so difficult to identify in the archaeological record? Although a common topic in cultural anthropology, witches seldom receive the attention of archaeologists. The difficulties archaeologists face in the study of religion derive, in part, from the lack of correlates linking ritual activities to the formation of archaeological deposits. This paper defines ritual as a technology and employs an object life history approach that draws upon ethnographic, archaeological, and experimental research to begin building such linkages--including those describing the persecution and deposition of witches, sorcerers, and other victims of ritual violence. These new directions are illustrated through a case study of anomalous deposits of human skeletal remains from the North American Southwest.

[Wallace 1889] A. R. Wallace. A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, London, New York, and Melbourne, 1889. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wallace-AFC 1960] Anthony F. C. Wallace (editor). Men and Cultures — Selected Papers of the 5th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, September 1–9, 1956, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1960. Publication menandcultures032960mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wallace-RW 2003] Robert W. Wallace. “An Early Fifth-Century Athenian Revolution in Aulos Music”, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 101, published by the Department of the Classics, Harvard University, 2003, pages 73–92. Publication 3658525 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: After a brief opening section to recover one piece of information, the following pages reconstruct several revolutionary developments in the use of the aulos for music research and social playing in early fifth-century Athens, and the reaction against these developments that began around mid-century.

[Wallace-WJ 1978] William J. Wallace. “Music and Musical Instruments”, contained in [Heizer 1978], 1978, pages 642–648. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wallaschek 1893] Richard Wallaschek (1860–1917). Primitive Music — An Inquiry into the Origin and Development of Music, Songs, Instruments, Dances, and Pantomimes of Savage Races, published by Longmans, Green, and Co., London and New York, 1893, 326 pages + 9 pages of musical examples, ASIN B001PZ1GY8, hardcover. Reissued in [Wallaschek 2007] and [Wallaschek 2009]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wallaschek 2007] Richard Wallaschek. Primitive Music — An Inquiry into the Origin and Development of Music, Songs, Instruments, Dances, and Pantomimes of Savage Races, Legacy Reprint Series, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, June 25, 2007, 348 pages, ISBN 0-548-29888-2 (978-0-548-29888-6), softcover. Reissue of [Wallaschek 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wallaschek 2009] Richard Wallaschek. Primitive Music — An Inquiry into the Origin and Development of Music, Songs, Instruments, Dances, and Pantomimes of Savage Races, published by General Books LLC, 2009, 228 pages, ISBN 1-151-09390-4 (978-1-151-09390-5), softcover. Reissue of [Wallaschek 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Waller 2010] Steven J. Waller. “Thunderous Reverberation and Rock Art Thunderstorm Imagery”, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Waller 2012] Steven J. Waller. “Virtual Acoustic Images and Sound-Attenuators as Objects of Ancient Veneration”, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walpole 2012] Jonathan Walpole. Pueblo Bonito Flute Replicas, February 1, 2012, 8 pages. Pueblo Bonito Flute Replicas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (2)

Introduction: This document describes the construction of two working replicas of Mojave flutes found at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The original flutes, estimated to be between 1000 and 1300 years old, are shown in Figure 1. The replicas described
here are of H-4559 and H-4560, both of which are complete flutes.

[Walsh 2005] Jessica Walsh. Music for Native American Flute, Volume 1, 2005. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams, CD included. Contains 40 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walter 1959] W. G. Walter and Dorothy Chaffey. “Bacteriological and Cleaning Studies on the Mouthpieces of Musical Instruments”, Applied Microbiology, Volume 7, Number 2, 1959, pages 126–130. Bacteriological and Cleaning Studies on the Mouthpieces of Musical Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walton 1930] Eda Lou Walton. “Navajo Song Patterning”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 43, 1930, pages 105–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walton-JH 2009] John H. Walton (general editor). Illustrated Bible, Backgrounds, Commentary, five volumes, Third Edition, published by Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2009, 2928 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-310-25573-4, hardcover. See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wan 2010] Catherine Y. Wan and Gottfried Schlaug. “Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span”, Neuroscientist, Volume 16, Number 5, October 2010, pages 566–577, doi:10.1177/1073858410377805. Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging.

[Wang-HM 2012] Hui-Min Wang and Sheng-Chieh Huang. “SDNN/RMSSD as a Surrogate for LF/HF: A Revised Investigation”, Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Volume 2012, Article ID 931943, 2012, 8 pages, doi:10.1155/2012/931943 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Thousands of papers involved in heart rate variability (HRV).However, little was known about one important measure of HRV, the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (RMSSDs). Another fundamental measure SDNN indicates standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals, where R is the peak of a QRS complex (heartbeat). Compared with SDNN, RMSSD is a short-term variation of heart rate. Through a time-frequency transformation, the ratio of low- and high-frequency power LF/HF represents the sympatho-vagal balance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Some research claimed that SDNN/RMSSD was a good surrogate for LF/HF. However, only two special cases supported this hypothesis in the literature survey. The first happened in resting supine state and the other was a group of prefrontal cortex patients. Both of their Pearson correlation coefficients reached 0.90, a reasonable criterion. In our study, a 6-week experiment was performed with 32 healthy young Asian males. The Pearson correlation coefficients had a normal distribution with average values smaller than 0.6 for 3 and 5-minute epochs, respectively. Our findings suggest this surrogate aspect could remain as a hypothesis.

[Wang-L 2011] Lu Wang, Guangyu Cheng, Zemin Sheng, Qianqian Niu, Weiping Cheng, Xiao Feng, Jan Valentini, Ingrid Gaischek, Xinyan Gao, Haixue Kuang, Gerhard Litscher. “Clinical Teleacupuncture Between China and Austria Using Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Depression”, Chinese Medicine, Volume 2, 2011, pages 71–76, doi:10.4236/cm.2011.22013 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In previous studies by the same research group it has been shown in post-stroke patients that the autonomic system can be affected by acupuncture. Within this study, teleacupuncture between China and Austria is used for quantifying the effects of heart rate variability (HRV) in Chinese patients suffering from depression. In 22 Chinese depression patients (17 f, 5 m; mean age ± SD 52.3 ± 10.6 years; range 31 - 70 years) electrocardiographic signals before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Jianshi (PC 5) were recorded in Harbin and analyzed in Graz using teleacupuncture via internet. HRV data were analyzed in the time and frequency domain and a protocol from Austria was sent to the team in China immediately after the treatment and recording session. Mean heart rate decreased significantly (p < 0.001) during and after acupuncture, whereas total HRV increased significantly during (p ≤ 0.034) and after (p < 0.001) acupuncture, always immediately following manual needle stimulation. Furthermore, there is a marked decrease in balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (low frequency/high frequency HRV ratio) during treatment. This study shows that HRV could be a useful parameter for quantifying clinical effects of acupuncture on the autonomic nervous system. Teleacupuncture between China and Austria over a distance of more than 8,500 km has been successfully used.

[Wang-Y 2004] Yuhwen Wang. “The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts”, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Volume 38, Number 1, Spring 2004, pages 89–104. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wapp 1984] Edward R. Wapp (died 2016). The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music, M.A. Thesis – University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 1984, 195 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twenty citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (6), Crafting Native American Flutes, Narratives of the Native American Flute (4), Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (6), The Warble

[Wapp 1984a] Edward Wapp, Jr. “The American Indian Courting Flute: Revitalization and Change”, Contemporary American Indian Issues Series, Number 5, Sharing a Heritage: American Indian Arts, edited by Charlotte Heth and Michael Swarm, published by the American Indian Studies Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, 1984, pages 49–60. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

Introduction: The American Indian courting flute and its music were once an integral part of plains, plateau, woodland, eastern, and southwestern tribal cultures and served important sociaological functions that were connected with courtship, love magic, and entertainment. Around the turn of the century, its traditional role began to wane awith the advent of social and cultural changes that were occurring within tribal structures. These changes were due to the introduction of Euro-American culture and the propagation of the assimilation process. Although flute music went into a decline, a few flute players and makers did continue this art into the twentieth century. However, flute music was rarely heard, except within the family unit or at pow-wows on rare occasions, and flutes were not readily available for purchase. It has only been recently , within the past fifteen years, that the instrument and its music have been experiencing a renaissance.

[Ward 1999] H. Trawick Ward and R. P. Stephen Davis. Time Before History: The Archaeology of North Carolina, published by the University of North Carolina Press, 1999, 328 pages, ISBN 0-8078-4780-1 (978-0-8078-4780-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Plains Style and Woodlands Style Native American Flutes

Abstract: A current hypothesis suggests the purr indicates contentment, however, cats purr when they are severely injured or frightened. Forty-four felids were recorded including cheetahs, ocelots, pumas, domestic cats, and servals. A Sony TCD-D8 Digital Audio Recorder (DAT) and Statham Radio microphones recorded the purrs. FFTs and spectrographs were performed using National Instrument's Polynesia. An accelerometer was also used to measure domestic cat purrs. Every felid in the study generated strong frequencies between 25 and 150 Hz. Purr frequencies correspond to vibrational/electrical frequencies used in treatment for bone growth/fractures, pain, edema, muscle growth/strain, joint flexibility, dyspnea, and wounds. Domestic cats, servals, ocelots, and pumas produce fundamental, dominant, or strong frequencies at exactly 25 Hz and 50 Hz, the two low frequencies that best promote bone growth/fracture healing [Chen et al., Zhong. Wai Ke Za Zhi. 32, 217–219 (1994)]. These four species have a strong harmonic exactly at, or within 2 Hz of 100 Hz, a frequency used therapeutically for pain, edema, wounds, and dyspnea. An internal healing mechanism would be advantageous, increasing recovery time and keeping muscles and bone strong when sedentary.

[Ward-C 2012] Christie Ward (Gunnvôr silfrahárr). Viking Age Music, 2012, retrieved December 5, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Warren 1986] Claude N. Warren and Robert H. Crabtree. “Prehistory of the Southwestern Area”, contained in [dAzevedo 1986], 1986, pages 183–193. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Warren 2005a] Ron Warren. “Is it Really a Pentatonic Instrument?”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 20–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Warren-R 2005] Ron Warren. “Alones and Togethers with Piano”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 3–5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Washburn 1988] Wilcomb E. Washburn (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 4: History of Indian-White Relations, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1988, 838 pages, ISBN 0-16-004583-5 (978-0-16-004583-7). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 57 chapters on the history of Indian-White relations in the U.S. and Canada following 1492.

[Waterman 1917] T. T. Waterman. “Ishi, the Last Yahi Indian”, The Southern Workman, Volume 46, published by the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, 1917, pages 528–537. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Watson 2003] Rubie S. Watson and Castle McLaughlin. “The Ethnography of Lewis and Clark: Native American Objects and the American Quest for Commerce and Science”, retrieved June 19, 2010. See the Peabody Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Watson-AHD 2009] Alan H. D. Watson. The Biology of Musical Performance and Performance-Related Injury, published by Scarecrow Press, Inc., Plymouth, England, 2009, 392 pages, ISBN 0-8108-6359-6 (978-0-8108-6359-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Watson-PJ 1969] Patty Jo Watson, Richard A. Yarnell, Harold Meloy, William Benninghoff, Eric Callen, Aiden Cockburn, Hugh Cutler, Paul Parmalee, Lionell Prescott, and William White. “The Prehistory of Salts Cave, Kentucky”, Reports of Investigations, Number 16, published by the Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois, 1969, 86 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Watson-WGE 1997] Wilfred G. E. Watson. “The "Split Couplet" in Ugaritic Verse”, Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico, Volume 14, 1997, pages 29–42. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wead 1900] Charles K. Wead. “The Study of Primitive Music”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 2, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1900, pages 75–79, retrieved April 18, 2010. Publication americananthropo02ameruoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wead 1902] Charles Kasson Wead. “Contributions to the History of Musical Scales”, Smithsonian Institution Annual Report - 1900, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1902, pages 417–462, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Webb 1946] W. S. Webb. “Indian Knoll, Ohio County, Kentucky”, University of Kentucky Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology, Volume 4, Number 3, Part 1, Lexington, Kentucky, 1946. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Weber-B 1999] Bruce Weber. “Reggae Rhythms Speak to an Insular Tribe”, The New York Times, September 19, 1999. See the article on the New York Times web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Weber-J 1970] Jaroy Weber, Jr. and Robert A. Chase. “Stress Velopharyngeal Incopetence in an Oboe Player”, Cleft Palate Journal, Volume 7, October 1970, pages 858–861. Publication 5273877 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

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30 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (15), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (15)

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Eleven citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Oceana (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Europe

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One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

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[Werner 1996] Kenny Werner. Effortless Mastery, published by Jamey Aebersold Jazz, Inc., 1996, 192 pages, ISBN 1-56224-003-X, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Werner-R 1973] R. Werner. “Nose Flute Blowers of the Malayan Aborigines (Orang Asli)”, Anthropos, Band 68, Heft 1–2, 1973, pages 181–191. Publication 40458177 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[West 1994] M{artin} L{itchfield} West (born 1937). “The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic Texts”, Music and Letters, Volume 75, Number 2, May 1994, pages 161–179. Publication 737674 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Perfect Intervals, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (8)

Abstract: Between 1960 and 1970 a happy sequence of discoveries and correlation of cuneiform texts disclosed the existence of a coherent body of Babylonian doctrine regarding tunings of the lyre (or harp), and a musical notation reflecting this theory. The fragmentary hymns whose music was recorded in this notation about 1250-1200 BC are by far the oldest known examples of notated melody in the world. These revelations have provoked a lively discussion, conducted partly in musicological bu mainly in Assyriological publications. Only in the last few years has it shown some signs of flagging. It is not that all the problems have been solved, bu rather that an impasse has been reached. On may important points there is a consensus. But on others, including the interpretation of the notation, widely divergent positions have been taken up.
At present we have four rival decipherments of the notation, each yielding entirely different results. It is the main purpose of the present article to propose a fifth which I believe to be superior to those advanced hitherto. It is impossible, of course, to extract more from a notation than was put into it in the first place. It may well be that this ancient oriental notation was only capable of expressing the basic outline of a melody, and that many details of execution went unrecorded. Nevertheless, if my interpretation is correct, it will bring us closer to an understanding of the nature of this music.

[West 1994a] Martin Litchfield West. Ancient Greek Music, published by Oxford University Press, April 14, 1994, 410 pages, ISBN 0-19-814975-1 (978-0-19-814975-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia, Classification of Flutes

Publisher's description: Ancient Greece was permeated by music, and the literature teems with musical allusions. Here at last is a clear, comprehensive, and authoritative account that presupposes no special knowledge of music. Topics covered include the place of music in Greek life, instruments, rhythm, tempo, modes and scales, melodic construction, form, ancient theory and notation, and historical development. Thirty surviving examples of Greek music are presented in modern transcription with analysis, and the book is fully illustrated. Besides being considered on its own terms, Greek music is here further illuminated by being considered in ethnological perspective, and a brief Epilogue sets it in its place in a border zone between Afro-Asiatic and European culture. The book will be of value both to classicists and historians of music.

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[Westenholz 1975] Aage Westenholz. Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: Pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht-Sammlung vorderasiatischer Altertümer, Institut für Altertumswissenschaften der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena «Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht Collection of Near Eastern Antiquities, Department of Classical Studies at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena», published by Munksgaard, København, in English and German, 1975, 101 pages, ISBN 87-7304-043-6 (978-87-7304-043-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America (2)

Publisher's description: "The very name "Mato Grosso," or "Thick Forest" as it means in Portuguese, epitomizes the unknown and the unexplored. In the present century this obscure Brazilian wilderness, situated almost in the geographical center of the South American continent, gained worldwide interest with the disappearance of Colonel Fawcet and his party in 1926. Even today, though it may be reached by plane from Rio de Janeiro in less than a day, Mato Grosso is only just beginning to become known to the civilized world. The Upper Xingú River, which is the area of Mato Grosso with which this album is mainly concerned, was first explored by Karl von den Steinen as recently as 1884, and the Chavante Indians were only just peacefully contacted by white men in 1946..."

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One citation: Shenandoah - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Whall-WB 1913] W. B. Whall; R. H. Whall (harmonization); Veronica Whall (illustrations). Ships, Sea Songs and Shanties, Third Edition, published by James Brown & Son, Glasgow, 1913. Publication shipsseasongssha00whal on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Shenandoah - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Wheat 2010] Amanda L. Wheat and Kevin T. Larkin. “Biofeedback of Heart Rate Variability and Related Physiology: A Critical Review”, Applied Phychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Number 3, 2010, pages 229–242, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9133-y. Publication 20443135 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Low heart rate variability (HRV) characterizes several medical and psychological diseases. HRV biofeedback is a newly developed approach that may have some use for treating the array of disorders in which HRV is relatively low. This review critically appraises evidence for the effectiveness of HRV and related biofeedback across 14 studies in improving (1) HRV and baroreflex outcomes and (2) clinical outcomes. Results revealed that HRV biofeedback consistently effectuates acute improvements during biofeedback practice, whereas the presence of short-term and long-term carry-over effects is less clear. Some evidence suggests HRV biofeedback may result in long-term carry-over effects on baroreflex gain, which is an area most promising for future investigations. On the other hand, concerning clinical outcomes, there is ample evidence attesting to efficacy of HRV biofeedback. However, because clinical and physiological outcomes do not improve concurrently in all cases, the mechanism by which HRV biofeedback results in salutary effects in unclear. Considerations for the field in addressing shortcomings of the reviewed studies and advancing understanding of the way in which HRV biofeedback may improve physiological and clinical outcomes are offered in light of the reviewed evidence.

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One citation: Indigenous North American Flutes

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One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[White-J X] John White. Palindromes — for Solo Native American Flute, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Zalo / JP-Publications. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[White-PM 1998] Phillip M. White and Stephen D. Fitt. Bibliography of the Indians of San Diego County: The Kumeyaay, Diegueño, Luiseño, and Cupeño, Volume 21 of G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series; Issue 21 of Native American bibliography series, published by Scarecrow Press, 1998, 313 pages, ISBN 0-8108-3325-5 (978-0-8108-3325-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The Bibliography of the Indians of San Diego County is intended to provide information on the American Indian groups indigenous to the area that is now San Diego County. All aspects of history and culture of the Kumeyaay, Diegueno, Ipai, Tipai, Luiseno and Cupeno Indians are covered, including language and linguistics, arts, agriculture, hunting, religion, mythology, music, political and social structures, dwellings, clothing, and medicinal practices. Materials included in this work are books (or chapters from books), theses and dissertations, journal articles, conference papers, Smithsonian Institution reports, museum publications, and select university press, newspaper and government publications. A section on archival materials is included to guide researchers to major collections covering these tribal groups. Sources of manuscripts and unpublished materials available in special collections of libraries and archives are also included, as well as some materials on the languages and linguistics of the San Diego tribes. Key research articles are reprinted, as well as maps and illustrations. This unique guide fills the void in the research literature for the tribes covered.

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[Whiten 1999] A. Whiten, J. Goodall, W. C. McGrew, T. Nishida, V. Reynolds, Y. Sugiyama, C. E. G. Tutin, R. W. Wrangham, and C. Boesch. “Cultures in Chimpanzees”, Nature, Volume 399, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1999, pages 682–685. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Whitman 2004] Michael Whitman (executive producer); Pete Sutherland (producer); Nadine Laughlin (liner notes). Before Their Time — Memorial Songs and Music, Volume 3, published by Before Their Time, Lyme, New Hampshire, BTT03, 51 tracks, October 2004. See the Before Their Time web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry and Readings for Memorial Services

[Whitman 2008] Emma M. Whitham, Trent Lewis, Kenneth Pope, Sean Fitzgibbon, Richard C. Clark, Stephen Loveless, Dylan DeLosAngeles, Angus Wallace, Marita Broberg, and John O. Willoughby. “Thinking Activates EMG in Scalp Electrical Recordings”, Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 119, Number 5, May 2008, pages 1166–1175, doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2008.01.024. Publication 18329954 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: Fast electrical rhythms in the gamma range (30-100Hz) in scalp (but not intracranial) recordings are predominantly due to electromyographic (EMG) activity. We hypothesized that increased EMG activity would be augmented by mental tasks in proportion to task difficulty and the requirement of these tasks for motor or visuo-motor output.
Methods: EEG was recorded in 98 subjects whilst performing cognitive tasks and analysed to generate power spectra. In four other subjects, neuromuscular blockade was achieved pharmacologically providing EMG-free spectra of EEG at rest and during mental tasks.
Results: In comparison to the paralysed condition, power of scalp electrical recordings in the gamma range varied in distribution, being maximal adjacent to cranial or cervical musculature. There were non-significant changes in mean gamma range activity due to mental tasks in paralysed subjects. In normal subjects, increases in scalp electrical activity were observed during tasks, without relationship to task difficulty, but with tasks involving limb- or eye-movement having higher power.
Conclusions: Electrical rhythms in the gamma frequency range recorded from the scalp are inducible by mental activity and are largely due to EMG un-related to cognitive effort. EMG varies with requirements for somatic or ocular movement more than task difficulty.
Significance: Severe restrictions exist on utilizing scalp recordings for high frequency EEG.

[Whitwell 2011] David Whitwell. The Art of Musical Conducting, Second Edition, published by Whitwell Books, Austin, Texas, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Whitwell 2011a] David Whitwell. Music Education of the Future, published by Whitwell Books, Austin, Texas, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wiand 2001] Lenore L. Wiand. The Effects of a Sacred / Shamanic Music on Trauma Related Disorders: Dissociative Disorders and Music of an Indigenous Native American Flute, Doctoral dissertation – University of Detroit Mercy, Michigan, 2001, 132 pages. The Effects of a Sacred / Shamanic Music on Trauma Related Disorders Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study investigated effects of listening to a particular music played on a Native American flute upon self reports of anxiety and perceptions of interconnectedness with individuals diagnosed with Dissociative Disorders.

The theoretical model proposed that music with an inherent connection to ancestral 129 cosmological concepts of Oneness and interconnectedness as well as sacred sound's use for healing (i.e. restoring wholeness), would positively affect Dissociative Disorder populations due to the disorder's characteristic fragmentation of conscious awareness of self (i.e. lack of interconnectedness) .

The experimental research was a mixed factor design. There were two groups, participants with Dissociative Disorder diagnoses and college students, N=94. The subjects were exposed to either a recording of flute music ("Ancient Spirits" by Aluna) or "placebo music" (new age gerue). Measurements, Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wiand's Interconnectedness Scale, were obtained pre and post 10 minutes of listening to flute or placebo music.

As predicted, hearing this particular flute music led to statistically significant results greater than hearing the placebo music, in both groups. The flute music led to: 1. decrease in anxiety, 2. increase in perceptions of interconnectedness, 3. decrease in anxiety which mediated an increase in perceptions of interconnectedness, 4. increase in perceptions of interconnectedness also had mediating effects decreasing anxiety and 5. increase in perceptions of universal interconnectedness.

The flute music led to significant increases in perceptions of individual interconnectedness for both groups. While this was expected for the Dissociative Disorder group, the unexpected increase for the normal group coupled with the interview data (documenting expanded perceptual experiences and integrative experiences, esp. of affect, memory and alters for the DD group) suggests this music facilitates expanded states of awareness.

The Interconnectedness Scale developed for this study appears to have far reaching psychological and spiritual implications.

This particular recording played on an indigenous flute was shown to have shamanic characteristics and facilitated integrative experiences for the Dissociative Disorder participants, as well as expanded states of awareness for both groups. The statistically significant findings were richly illustrated through interview material of previously undocumented dissociative experiences. The ethno-musicological, cross-cultural, psychological and spiritual implications appear highly significant.

[Wiand 2006] Lenore L. Wiand. “The Effects of Sacred / Shamanic Flute Music on Trauma and States of Consciousness”, Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, Volume 17, Number 3, published by ISSSEEM, 2006, pages 249–284. ISSN: 1099-6591. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This research investigated the effects of listening to a particular music played on a Native American flute upon self reports of anxiety and perceptions of interconnectedness with individuals diagnosed with a trauma related disorder. It was a combined statistical and qualitative study.

The results supported the theoretical model which included ancient indigenous and mystical cosmological concepts of interconnectedness and sound as healing (i.e. returning to wholeness). The research identified a recording of flute music (Ancient Spirits) as facilitating perceptual experiences of integration related to trauma, as well as expanded consciousness. Also illustrated were previously undocumented dissociative processes. The results support a dissociative continuum which includes not only trauma related dissociation, but also wholeness related to concepts of spirituality and expanded consciousness. The study introduced a new testing measurement, the Interconnectedness Scale, with application in fields of psychology, spirituality and consciousness. The research points to the inclusion of sacred or shamanic world music's trans-cultural use, therapeutically and for consciousness exploration.

[Wichita 2010] Wichita State University Libraries. Thurlow Lieurance Papers, retrieved February 6, 2010. See the Wichita State University Library Special Collections web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wickwire 1988] Wendy C. Wickwire. “James A. Teit: His Contribution to Canadian Ethnomusicology”, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, Volume 8, Number 2, 1988, pages 183–204. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: James A. Teit is well-known for his many contributions to the ethnography of the British Columbia interior Indians published between 1896 and 1930. Few are aware, however, of his very extensive collections of music recordings from these same people. Now housed primarily in Ottawa, these cylinders are complemented by detailed notes providing rich background material to this valuable collection.
Translation: James A. Teit est bien connu pour ses nombreux articles publiés entre 1896 et 1930 sur l'ethnographie des autochtones de l'intérieur de la Colombie britannique. Mais très peu de gens connaissent, cependant, ses vastes collections de musique enregistrée de ces mêmes autochtones. Gardés maintenant principalement à Ottawa, ces cylindres sont parachevés par des notes détaillées qui fournissent du matériel magnifique de l'arrièreplan à cette collection de valeur.

[Widdess 1996] Richard Widdess. “The Oral in Writing: Early Indian Musical Notations”, Early Music, Vol. 24, No. 3, Early Music from Around the World. (Aug., 1996), pp. 391-402+405., Volume 24, Number 3 (Early Music from Around the World), August 1996, pages 391–405, doi:10.2307/3128257. Publication 3128257 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wied 1839] Prince Maximilian zu Wied (1782–1867) and Karl Bodmer (1809–1893). Reise in das innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis 1834 «Travels in the Interior of North America in the years 1832 to 1834», Two Volumes, published by Coblenz, in German, 1839–1841, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Wied 1840] Prince Maximilian zu Wied; Karl Bodmer (illustrations); H. Evans Lloyd (translation). Reise in das innere Nord America — Voyage dans l’intérieur de l’Amérique du Nord, exécuté pendant les années 1832, 1833 et 1834, par le prince Maximilien de Wied-Neuwied. Ouvrage accompagné d’un atlas de 80 planches environ, format demi-colombier, dessinées sur les lieux par M. Charles Bodmer., Three Volumes and Atlas, published by Arthus Bertrand, Paris, in French, 1840–1843, hardcover. Library of Congress call number E165 .W66. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Portrait of Màndeh-Pàhchu with a Native American Flute (2), The Development of Flutes in North America

[Wied 1843] Prince Maximilian zu Wied; Karl Bodmer (illustrations); H. Evans Lloyd (translation). Maximilian, Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, published by Ackermann & Company, London, 1843–1844, hardcover. Reissued in [Wied 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Wied 2007] Prince Maximilian zu Wied; Karl Bodmer (illustrations); H. Evans Lloyd (translation). Maximilian, Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, Volume 97c, First Edition, published by Applewood Books, Carlisle, Massachusetts, January 31, 2007, 352 pages, ISBN 1-4290-0238-7 (978-1-4290-0238-7), hardcover. Reissue of [Wied 1843]. See the Applewood Books web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Names of the Native American Flute (3)

[Wiggermann 2010] F. A. M. Wiggermann. “The Image of Dumuzi — A Diachronic Analysis”, contained in [Stackert 2010], 2010, pages 327–350. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Wilbur-JR 2001] Janice Roberts Wilbur, Michael Wilbur, Michael Tlanusta Garrett, and Meredith Yuhas. “Talking Circles: Listen, or Your Tongue Will Make You Deaf”, Journal for Specialists in Group Work, Volume 26, Number 4, published by the American Counseling Association, December 2001, pages 368–384. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide a description of the Native American talking circle in terms of (a) its group structure and process, (b) selected examples and descriptions of group incidents to illustrate the process, and (c) qualitative findings based on group member comments that support the group’s development of sense of community and members’ listening and empathy skills. Although the talking circle process presented here is based on a peer education program with college-level students, we nevertheless believe its adaptation and generalization to other populations and contexts are possible and worthwhile.

[Wilcox 2002] David R. Wilcox and Don D. Fowler. “The Beginnings of Anthropological Archaeology in the North American Southwest: From Thomas Jefferson to the Pecos Conference”, Journal of the Southwest, Volume 44, Number 2, Tuscon, Arizona, Summer 2002. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: This special monograph issue of Journal of the Southwest presents a developmental history of anthropological archaeology in the North American Southwest within the context of western American exploration, the rise of Americanist anthropology, and the larger cultural milieu in which they took place. Our time frame is roughly 1780 to 1950, although that boundary is permeable. As vehicles for our discussion, we will focus on certain anthropological and archaeological issues, the intellectual and sociocultural factors underlying and giving rise to them, and research agendas developed to resolve them.

[Wilford 2009] John Noble Wilford. “Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age Music”, The New York Times, June 24, 2009. See the article on the New York Times web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Hohle Fels Griffon Vulture Flute<br>held by Nicholas Conard, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Wilkinson 1878] J. G. Wilkinson (1797–1875); Samuel Birch (editor) (1813–1885). The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, Three Volumes, 1878. Publications mannerscustomsof01wilk, mannerscustomsof02wilk, and mannerscustoms03wilk on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Will 1999] Udo Will. “La baguette magique d’ethnomusicologie: Re-penser la notation et lanalyse de la musique «The Magic Wand of Ethnomusicology: Re-thinking the Notation and Analysis of Music»”, Cahiers de Musiques Traditionelles, Volume 12, Georg, Genève, in French, 1999, pages 9–34. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Will 1999a] Udo Will. The Magic Wand of Ethnomusicology: Re-thinking Notation and its Application in Music Analyses, English translation of [Will 1999], 1999. The Magic Wand of Ethnomusicology Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: One of the striking features of music and speech, in fact of all sound events, is their behavior in time, their evanescence: they are gone the moment we perceive them, with nothing left but fainting memory traces. Repeated exposure and training may help to recognize, recall, and even reproduce them. It remains immensely difficult to ‘talk about’ them - oral cultures have no music theory. Things seem to be different in literate cultures, though. Through the very invention of writing systems man has acquired means to cope with the elusiveness of sounds: the transformation from an aural-temporal form into a visual-spatial one. Sounds seems to be tamed and time seems more under control if treated spatially, however, this is only seemingly so because the accomplishments of such a transformation are limited and can at times be deceiving. Nevertheless, once invented, writing systems create their own momentum for further development and dissemination of the way they are applied and how man ‘thinks with’ and ‘thinks about’ them. Invented for mnemonic and communicative purposes they were also to be used, sooner or later, to record and communicate aspects of musical practices. In the succession of essential changes and new developments of the writing system following the Greek invention of alphabetic writing we also see the emergence of new notational systems for music in the Occident, which after a long development came to be a major shaping force for western music. Considering the central role that music writing plays in western music, it is no wonder, that notation became an important object of musicological research, the scientific inquiries into the world of music. Moreover, as notation was thought to represent music, inferences about music on the basis of the written form turned into a central methodological approach in musicology as well as in one of its later off-springs, comparative musicology.

[Will 2004] Udo Will. Oral Memory in Australian Aboriginal Song Performance and the Parry-Kirk Debate: A Cognitive Ethnomusicological Perspective, 2004. Oral Memory in Australian Aboriginal Song Performance and the Parry-Kirk Debate Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Will-RT 1997] Richard T. Will. Teachers Guide to Teaching Tools: Maine Prehistoric Archaeology, Teacher Resource Kit, published by Archaeological Research Consultants, Inc., Ellsworth, Maine, 1997. Teachers Guide to Teaching Tools Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Williams 1916] Edward T. Williams. “Confucianism and the New China”, The Harvard Theological Review, Volume 9, Number 3, July 1916, pages 258–285. Publication 1506984 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Williams-BB 1988] B. B. Williams and J. L. Wilkinson. “Excavation of a Bronze Age Cist at Knockroe, County Tyrone”, Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, 1988, pages 85–90. Publication 20568117 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Williams-GI 2009] Gail I. Williams and David C. Williams. “Foster Extension for Flutes”, United States Patent 7,476,793 B2, Granted January 13, 2009, 10 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Foster Extension for Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Williams-J 2010] Jenevora Williams. The Implications of Intensive Singing Training on the Vocal Health and Development of Boy Choristers in an English Cathedral Choir, Doctoral dissertation – Institute of Education, University of London, 2010, 364 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

[Williamson 1879] John Poage Williamson and Alfred Longley Riggs (editors). Dakota Odowan — Dakota Hymns, Fifth Revision and Enlargement, published by The Dakota Mission of the American Missionary Association and the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, in Dakota and English, 1879, 135 pages. printed by the American Tract Society, New York, 1911. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Willoughby 1922] Charles C. Willoughby (1857–1943). “The Turner Group of Earthworks, Hamilton County, Ohio”, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Volume 8, Number 3, 1922. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Willoughby 1935] Charles C. Willoughby. Antiquities of the New England Indians — With Notes on the Ancient Cultures of the Adjacent Territory, Antiquities of the New World, Volume 17, published by the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachussets, 1935, 314 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Willoughby 1973] Charles C. Willoughby; Stephen Williams (introduction). Antiquities of the New England Indians — With Notes on the Ancient Cultures of the Adjacent Territory, published by AMS Press, New York, 1973, 314 pages, ISBN 0-404-57317-7 (978-0-404-57317-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Willson 1910] Minnie Moore Willson. The Seminoles of Florida, published by Moffat, Yard and Company, New York, 1910, 213 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wilson 1898] Thomas Wilson. Prehistoric Art; or, The Origin of Art as Manifested in the Works of Prehistoric Man, contained in the Report of the U. S. National Museum for 1896, 1996, pages 325–664. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Wilson-CG 1994] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories, published by World Music Press, Danbury, Connecticut, 1994, ISBN 0-937203-57-2 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (6), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (6)

[Wilson-HL 1997] Heston L. Wilson. “Asthma and the Clarinet”, Clarinet, Volume 24, Number 2, February/March 1997, page 26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The article discusses how playing woodwind instruments such as clarinets can help treat asthma. It depicts the similarities between the method used in enhancing the role of the abdominal muscles in breathing for asthmatics and the technique used to train the brass and woodwind instrumentalist. It highlights the article "Musical Wind Instruments in Rehabilitation of Asthmatic Children," by Meyer B. Marks which stresses the use of wind instruments in the treatment of the allergy.

[Wilson-P 2004] Pat Wilson. “On Singing Staws and Water Bottles: The Physics of Pressure”, Australian Voice, Volume 10, 2004, pages 16–19. On Singing Staws and Water Bottles Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wilton 2004] David Wilton. Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends, published by Oxford University Press, 2004, 221 pages, ISBN 0-19-517284-1 (978-0-19-517284-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Winchell 1911] N. H. Winchell, Jacob V. Brower, Alfred J. Hill, and Theodore H. Lewis. “The Aborigines of Minnesota”, published by the Minnesota Historical Society, 1911, 761 pages. The Aborigines of Minnesota Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Subtitle: A Report Based on the Collections of Jacob V. Brower, and on the Field Surveys and Notes of Alfred J. Hill and Theodore H. Lewis.

[Wing 1951] Anne Hinshaw Wing. “Notes on the Song Series of a Hermit Thrush in the Yukon”, The Auk, Volume 68, Number 2, published by the University of California Press for the American Ornithologists' Union, April 1951, pages 189–193. Publication 4081183 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wingerson 2008] Lois Wingerson. “Rock Music”, Archaeology, Volume 61, Number 5, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, September–October 2008, pages 46–60. Publication 41781201 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Winship 1896] George Parker Winship (1871–1952). The Coronado Expedition, 1540–1542, Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1892-93, Part 1, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1896, pages 329–613, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu14118921893smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Winslow-M 2006] Michael Winslow and Hayley Winslow. “Using the Native American Flute in a Beginning Instrumental Classroom”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 92, Number 3, published by The National Association for Music Education (MENC), January 2006, pages 46–49, doi:10.2307/3401140. ISSN: 0027-4321. Publication 3401140 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Although the National Standards include achievement standards for improvisation for elementary school students, music teachers sometimes are reluctant to pursue improvisation study with young students. First- and second-year instrumental students, often older elementary or middle school students, may have difficulty studying improvisation because they must also focus on such fundamentals of music as melody, rhythm, and new notes, while learning the basic principles of playing an instrument, such as fingerings and bowings. As many teachers know, trying to cover all the basics with beginners is difficult, but trying to implement all the aspects of music as outlined by the nine National Standards, including improvisation (Standard 3: Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments), with these beginning students can be overwhelming. There is a way to help students get started with improvisation that eliminates many of the difficulties just mentioned. This approach focuses on free improvisation, which is the creation of only a melody on any instrument. The Native American flute is a useful tool for teaching free improvisation, and it offers the additional benefit of providing exciting possibilities for incorporating Native American music into the instrumental music curriculum.

[Winters 1969] Howard Dalton Winters. The Riverton Culture — A Second Millennium Occupation in the Central Wabash Valley, Monograph No. 1 of the Illinois Archaeological Survey, published by the Illinois State Museum, 1969, 164 pages + 48 plates. Publication monograph11969illi on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Preface: The following report deals with excavations in the Robeson Hills, Riverton, and Swan Island shell middens of the central Wabash Valley during the spring, summer, and fall of 1962 and the summer of 1963 at the Riverton Site. All three are closely related components within a hitherto unreported Archaic culture typified by a distinctive micro-tool industry in chert. The culture has been named the Riverton Culture after the site at which the micro-tool tradition was first noted in surface collections.

[Wiora 1959] Walter Wiora. “Older than Pentatony”, contained in [Rajeczky 1959], 1959, pages 183–206, retrieved April 11, 2011. Publication stdiamemoriaebel000107mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[WIPO 2003] World Intellectual Property Organization. Guide to the Copyright and Related Rights Treaties Administered by WIPO and Glossary of Copyright and Related Rights Term, published by the World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, 2003, 317 pages, ISBN-13 978-92-805-1200-7. Publication #891. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia.com Legal Information

Abstract: This guide seeks to clarify and explain the legal principles enshrined in the Copyright and Related Rights Treaties administered by WIPO, and their relationship with policy, economic, cultural, and technological considerations. It will be particularly helpful to governments, creators, businesses, the legal profession, academics, consumers and students, in all WIPO Member States.

[Wisniewski 2011] Joseph S. Wisniewski. Oiling Your Recorder, January 26, 2011. See the article on Dolmetsch Online Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Care and Maintenance of the Native American Flute

[Wissler 1905] Clark Wissler (1870–1947). “The Whirlwind and the Elk in the Mythology of the Dakota”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 18, Number 71, October–December 1905, pages 257–268. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Narratives of the Native American Flute, Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Wissler 1908] Clark Wissler and D. C. Duvall. “Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 2, Part 1, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, September 1908, pages 1–164. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wissler 1910] Clark Wissler. “Material Culture of the Blackfoot Indians”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 5, Part 1, New York, 1910, pages 1–176. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Withrow 1995] Rob Withrow. “Wing-Bone Whistle”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Witmer 1973] Robert Witmer. “Recent Change in the Musical Culture of the Blood Indians of Alberta, Canada”, Anuario Interamericano de Investigacion Musical, Volume 9, 1973, pages 64–94. Publication 779907 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Witmer 1982] Robert Witmer. The Musical Life of the Blood Indians, National Museum of Man Mercury Series, published by the National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, 1982, ix + 185 pages. ISSN 0316-1854, Canadian Ethnology Service, Paper number 86. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wolf 2001] R. A. Wolf. Flute Shop: A Guide to Crafting the Native American Style Flute, 2001, 88 pages, comb binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Native American Flute Bore Diameters, FAQ about Crafting Native American Flutes (3), Flute Crafting Dimensions (4), Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (2)

[Wolf 2002] R. A. Wolf. Native Flutes — Over 250 Photos of Authentic 19th Century Native American Flutes, Lewisville, Texas, 2002, CD-ROM. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute (2)

Product description: This CD Contains photos of Native American flutes from the Dayton Miller Collection at the Library of Congress and from The Smithsonian Institutions' Museum of Natural History. There are 265 photos of 97 different flutes representing 25 tribes. The photos play in a self-starting slide show that has captions indicating the tribe for each different flute. Alternatively, the individual slides can be opened with your web browser.

Historical information collected by Russ Wolf about each of the flutes is contained in a Word document. Over 250 Photos of Authentic 19th Century Native American Flutes.

[Wolf 2003] R. A. Wolf. More Native Flutes — Over 240 Photos of 19th and 20th Century Native American Flutes, Lewisville, Texas, 2003, CD-ROM. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Image Detail: McKinley Standing Flute

Product description: This is the "sister" CD to the original one titled "Native Flutes". This CD contains photos of Native American flutes from the Dr. Richard W. Payne collection. There are 245 photos of 39 different flutes representing 20 tribes. The photos play in a self-starting slide show that has captions indicating the tribe for each different flute.

Historical information about each of the flutes is contained in the Word document 'Payne Collection'. These are Russ Wolf's notes on each flute, numbered to correspond to the photos. A great companion to the Native American Plains Flute book by Richard W Payne or the Toubat video, which offer further insight into his rare flute collection.

[Wolf 2004] R. A. Wolf. Flute Shop: A Guide to Crafting the Native American Style Flute, Revised Edition, published by Wolf Song Publications, December 1, 2004, 109 pages, ISBN 0-9761543-0-7 (978-0-9761543-0-3), comb binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Native American Flute Bore Diameters (2), Crafting Native American Flutes, FAQ about Crafting Native American Flutes

[Wolf-B 2004] Bearded Wolf. English-Cherokee Words and Phrases, August 4, 2004, retrieved October 29, 2012. See the Dictionary web page. English-Cherokee Words and Phrases Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Wolf-B 2006] Bearded Wolf. Bearded Wolf Song Collection, Posted online February 6, 2006, retrieved February 9, 2010. Contains 24 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wolf-L 2011] Lea Wolf and Thomas Wolf. Music and Health Care, August 2011, 55 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wolfe 2003] Joe Wolfe and John Smith. “Cutoff Frequencies and Cross Fingerings in Baroque, Classical, and Modern Flutes”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 114, Number 4, Part 1, October 2003, pages 2263–2272, doi:10.1121/1.1612487. Publication 14587623 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Cutoff Frequencies and Cross Fingerings in Baroque, Classical, and Modern Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Baroque, classical, and modern flutes have successively more and larger tone holes. This paper reports measurements of the standing waves in the bores of instruments representing these three classes. It presents the frequency dependence of propagation of standing waves in lattices of open tone holes and compares these measurements with the cutoff frequency: the frequency at which, in an idealized system, the standing waves propagate without loss in such a lattice. It also reports the dependence of the sound field in the bore of the instrument as a function of both frequency and position along the bore for both simple and "cross fingerings" (configurations in which one or more tone holes are closed below an open hole). These measurements show how "cross fingerings" produce a longer standing wave, a technique used to produce the nondiatonic notes on instruments with a small number of tone holes closed only by the unaided fingers. They also show why the changes from baroque to classical to modern gave the instruments a louder, brighter sound and a greater range.

[Wolff 1996] Michele Wolff. Thurlow Lieurance Memorial Music Library, March 23, 2007, retrieved November 23, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: By the Waters of Minnetonka - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, Flutopedia Image Detail: Thurlow Lieurance, 1922

[Wolkstein 1983] Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer (born 1897). Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth, published by Harper and Row, 1983, 227 pages, ISBN 0-06-090854-8 (978-0-06-090854-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Wolterbeek 1985] Marc Wolterbeek. “Unibos: The Earliest Full-Length Fabliau — Text and Translation”, Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Volume 16, Number 1, 1985, retrieved September 7, 2010. See the eScholarship web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Woltz 2006] Jennie D. Woltz. “The Economics of Cultural Misrepresentation: How Should the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 Be Marketed?”, Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal, Volume 17, Issue 2, 2006, 59 pages. See the Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Honoring the Tradition

Introduction: Counterfeit goods are everywhere. In an age where counterfeiters sell knock-off designer bags and watches with impunity and society hardly recognizes the casual purchase of counterfeits as a moral wrongdoing, counterfeit goods—whether in the form of a trendy handbag or burned CD—serve as a prevalent thread in the weave of modern America’s cultural fabric. Why stop, then, at creating goods that add to culture, when culture itself can be counterfeited? Factories in Asia produce rugs, dolls, and dream catchers—among other items—that are shipped to America as “authentic American Indian goods,” where retailers rapidly sell these ersatz wares to (usually) non-Indian consumers hungry for a piece of Indian culture.

[Wong 1997] Kate Wong; Bonnie Blackwell (photograph); Portia Rollings (drawing). “Neanderthal Notes: Did Ancient Humans Play Modern Scales?”, Scientific American, Volume 277, Number 3, September 1997, page 28. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wood-A 1944] Alexander Wood. The Physics of Music, published by Methuen & Co, Strand, London, Great Britain, February 17, 1944, 258 pages. Publication physicsofmusic006900mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wood-WR 1963] W. Raymond Wood; Charles R. McGimsey, III (editor). Arkansas Archeology, 1962 — An Annual Report on Archeological Research, Investigations, Activities, and Progress in the State of Arkansas, published by the Arkansas Archeological Society, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1963, ASIN B002IEXZ7Q Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Breckenridge Flute

[Woodbury 1954] Richard B. Woodbury. Prehistoric Stone Implements of Northeastern Arizona, Reports of the Awatovi Expedition, Report Number 6, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Volume 34, published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussets, 1954, 324 pages. Publication prehistoricstone00wood on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woods 2010] Christopher Woods, Geoff Emberling, and Emily Teeter. Visible Language, Oriental Institute Museum Publications, Number 32, published by The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2010, 240 pages, ISBN 1-885923-76-7 (978-1-885923-76-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woody 1999] Linda R. Rowland Woody. Resources for the Practice of Native American Songs and Dances in the Elemenary Classroom, Doctoral dissertation – University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 1999, 184 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woolley 1921] Leonard Woolley (1880–1960), T. E. Lawrence, and D. G. Hogarth. Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, Volume 2: The Town Defenses, published by The British Museum, London, 1921. Publication carchemishreport02brit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woolley 1934] C. L{eonard}. Woolley. Ur Excavations, Volume 2: The Royal Cemetery - Text and Plates, published by The Joint Expedition of the British Museum and The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia, 1934, 604 pages + 273 plates. A Report on the Predynastic and Sargonid Graves Excavated between 1926 and 1931. Ur Excavations Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2), The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Woolley 1952] Leonard Woolley and R. D. Barnett. Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, Volume 3: The Excavations in the Inner Town, published by The British Museum, London, 1952, 290 pages. Publication carchemishreport03brituoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright 1998] H. A. K. Wright and D. M. Campbell. “Analysis of the Sound of Chilean Pifilca Flutes”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 51, published by the Galpin Society, July 1998, pages 51–63. Publication 842760 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-B 1979] Barton Wright. Hopi Material Culture: Artifacts Gathered by H.R. Voth in the Fred Harvey Collection, published by Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona, 1979, 127 pages, ISBN 0-87358-189-X (978-0-87358-189-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Wright-DP 2002] David P. Wright. “Music and Dance in 2 Samuel 6”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 121, Number 2, published by the Society of Biblical Literature, 2002, pages 201–225. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-E 2011] Eric Wright. “Dynamic Breathing and Respiratory Mechanics for Brass Players and Teachers”, International Trumpet Guild Journal, Volume 35, Number 3, March 2011, pages 32–36. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-FA 1914] F. A. Wright. “Greek Music”, The Edinburgh Review, Volume 220, published by the Leonard Scott Publication Co., 1914, pages 115–134. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-LD 2006] Leonard D. Wright. “Meditation: A New Role for an Old Friend”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Volume 23, Number 4, August–September 2006, pages 323–327, doi:10.1177/1049909106289101. Publication 17060297 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Meditation has been a spiritual and healing tradition for centuries. In 1972, Keith Wallace and Herbert Benson published a landmark article looking at meditation from a scientific perspective. The author reviewed their article, plus selected scientific literature on meditation since that time, to see if there was enough evidence to warrant the inclusion of meditation in the treatment protocols of serious disease. This review, plus an illustrative case study, demonstrated that such inclusion is warranted and further research is necessary.

[Wright-LJ 2010] Lindsay Jordan Wright. Investigating Improvisation: Music Performance and the Disciplinary Divide, Undergraduate dissertation – Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, April 2010, 87 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-McLeod 2005] Brian Wright-McLeod. The Encyclopedia of Native Music — More than a Century of Recordings from Wax Cylinder to the Internet, published by the University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, Arizona, April 1, 2005, 464 pages, ISBN 0-8165-2448-3 (978-0-8165-2448-8), softcover. American Museum of Natural History call number ML156.4.I5 W75 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[WSU A] Washington State University. Guide to the Loran Olsen Papers 1960-1993 — Cage 658, published by Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Guide to the Loran Olsen Papers 1960-1993 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The papers of Loran Olsen are available in Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections (MASC) at the WSU Libraries. This collection includes materials related to the Nez Perce Music Archive project; it is open and available for use in MASC, in the Terrell Library at the WSU Pullman campus.

[WSU B] Washington State University. Guide to the Nez Perce Music Collection Fieldwork Materials 1988-1995 — Cage 636, published by Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Guide to the Nez Perce Music Collection Fieldwork Materials 1988-1995 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wu 2010] Dan Wu, Chaoyi Li, Yu Yin, Changzheng Zhou, and Dezhong Yao. “Music Composition from the Brain Signal: Representing the Mental State by Music”, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, Volume 2010, Article ID 267671, published by the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2010, 6 pages, retrieved September 23, 2010, doi:10.1155/2010/267671. Music Composition from the Brain Signal Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state andmusic emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between themind world and themusic. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

[Wulstan 1968] David Wulstan. “The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp”, Iraq, Volume 30, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1968, pages 215–228. Publication 4199852 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conclusion: We now know that the Babylonians had seven octave species similar to, but far antedating, those known from Greek sources. How far these represent theoretical, rather than practical, tunings we cannot at present tell. Nor can it be said, on the basis of the material available so far, what connection, if any, the tunings had with "modality" if such a concept existed. The indications are, however, that Greek musical thought owed some debt to the Babylonians.

[Wulstan 1971] David Wulstan. “The Earliest Musical Notation”, Music & Letters, Volume 52, Number 4, published by the Oxford University Press, October 1971, pages 365–382, doi:10.1093/ml/LII.4.365. Publication 734711 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Wulstan 2005] David Wulstan. “Bring on the Dancing-Girls — (a Gadibus usque auroram)”, Al-Masāq, Volume 17, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, September 2005, pages 221–249, doi:10.1080/09503110500222344 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In Greece and Rome, Ionic rhythm appears to have been associated with erotic dances. A tune-type going with this rhythm is found in several of Alfonso's Cantigas (second half of the thirteenth century) and in folk music from around the Mediterranean, recorded from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. Could these tune-types (and their associated ground-basses) go back as far as Martial's Dancing-girls of Cádiz – and indeed to Euripides and Aristophanes? There is also a possible link with the kharjas of the Andalusian muwashsha.(h)āt, and a substantial connexion with the dance known from later sources as the Canaries. Not only is there evidence of a rhythm and associated melodic motive stretching over more than two millennia, but we can discern, even hear, parts of an unwritten tradition of improvised instrumental music and discover a harmonic vocabulary which mostly emerges on the written page only in the Renaissance.

[Wyatt 2012] Simon Wyatt. “Sound Production in Early Aerophones”, contained in [Eichmann 2012], 2012, pages 393–398. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Im folgenden Beitrag, der erstmals auf der 32. Konferenz der Theoretical Archaeology Group (Bristol, Dezember 2010) präsentiert wurde, werden die Methoden der Klangerzeugung mit Blasinstrumenten aus den Höhlen von Hohlefels und Isturitz untersucht. Hierfür kommen hypothetisch drei unterschiedliche Techniken in Frage: Sie können ohne Hilfsmittel wie eine Flöte oder ein lip-buzzed aerophone (z.B. Trompete, Didgeridoo) angeblasen worden sein, oder mit Hilfsmittel, wie ein Rohrblattinstrument (Klarinette). Für die Überprüfung des Gebrauchs als Rohrblattinstrument, wird die experimentelle Herstellung von Rohrblättern besprochen.
Translation: In this paper, presented for the first time at the 32nd conference of the Theoretical Archaeology Group (Bristol, December 2010), the methods of sound production on wind instruments from the Hohle Fels and Isturitz caves are examined. Three different hypothetical playing techniques are proposed: like a flute, like a lip-vibrating aerophone (such as a trumpet or didgeridoo), or with the addition of a reed (such as a clarinet). For the case of a reed instrument, the experimental production of reeds are discussed.

[Wyatt 2016] Simon Wyatt. “Musiqualia and Vultural Adaptation”, Studien zur Musikarchäologie X, Symposiums der Internationalen Studiengruppe Musikarchäologie, Ethnologischen Museum der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, September 9–12, 2014, editors: Ricardo Eichmann, Lars-Christian Koch, and Jianjun Fang (editors), published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2016, pages 169–194, ISBN-13 978-3-89646-667-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This paper explores a possible reason why people from the Aurignacian to the Magdalenian used vulture bones to make aerophones. This was not the sole material of choice and other large bird bones were also used, as was mammoth ivory. Although the bones of diurnal raptors are the ideal, practical material for constructing aerophones, being very large, hollow and durable, they also make perfect containers for ochre or bone needles. Yet, as Kartomi has noted, symbolism is paramount in the classification of musical instruments within a culture, and if a cultural representation persists, then the goal of researchers should be to interpret why it retains its cognitive significance. This interpretation is like a vulture: it scavenges models from anthropology, psychology and neuropsychology, which is, perhaps, fitting for its subject matter.
Translation: Zusammenfassung: Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit den Gründen, warum Geierknochen über Zehntausende von Jahren zur Herstellung von Instrumenten genutzt wurden. Musikinstrumente kommen in Ritualen vor, die sich mit dem Einzelnen, der Gesellschaft und dem Kosmos befassen. Häufig wird angenommen, dass sie von Geistern beseelt sind. Anthropologische Modellvorstellungen legen nahe, dass Artefakte über eine Wirkmacht verfügen. Im Folgenden soll ein interdisziplinäres Modell vorgestellt werden, das die Nutzung von Geierknochen über lange Zeiträume erklärt. Hierfür werden Erkenntnisse der Neurowissenschaften, der Psychologie und der kognitiven Anthropologie herangezogen und mit allgemeinen Beobachtungen zum Leben von Geiern verbunden.

[Wyatt 2016a] Simon Wyatt. “Whistle Up a Storm — A Further Report on Sound Production in Early Aerophones”, Studien zur Musikarchäologie X, Symposiums der Internationalen Studiengruppe Musikarchäologie, Ethnologischen Museum der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, September 9–12, 2014, editors: Ricardo Eichmann, Lars-Christian Koch, and Jianjun Fang (editors), published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2016, pages 201–212, ISBN-13 978-3-89646-667-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wysham 1890] H. Clay Wysham. “Egyptian Flutes”, The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Volume 31, Number 574, December 1, 1890, page 746. Publication 3362070 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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