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Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

This page provides a listing of ethnographic and reference recordings from North America that are related to world flutes. They are sorted by culture and then chronologically.

This page is a collaborative effort with Steve Bliven, who provided information on many of the entries in this set of pages. He also provided these notes pertaining to the listings:

The recordings on the following listing were collected over a wide range of time by people with widely varying understandings of Native Americans, their music, and its uses. Further, in most cases, the field notes pertaining to these flute and vocal songs are either missing or so brief as to be almost non-descriptive. It is quite probable that many of those who sang or played these songs did not understand that their recordings would be made available to non-tribal members over the course of the next decades or centuries.

Some of these songs are clearly “social songs” intended to be shared with others (e.g., those of Richard Fool Bull and Dan Red Buffalo). Others may be personal/spiritual songs important to the individual playing them or ceremonial songs important to the culture and religion of tribes, clans, or other social groups. Great caution is urged in the dissemination of the songs listed here to avoid any adverse cultural impacts or what might be considered an insult to the persons or social groups involved.

Some of these songs may no longer be available through the archives listed. Many items, including songs and stories, of religious and/or cultural import are being “repatriated” to remaining tribal members for review prior to dissemination.

The intellectual property rights surrounding access to and use of these recordings are complex – far more complex than materials created or published in the United States jurisdictions proper. For a survey of the many legal issues surrounding these recordings, see Martin Skrydstrup's Towards Intellectual Property Guidelines and Best Practices for Recording and Digitizing Intangible Cultural Heritage ([Skrydstrup 2009] Towards Intellectual Property Guidelines and Best Practices for Recording and Digitizing Intangible Cultural Heritage — A Survey of Codes, Conduct and Challenges in North America).

Please refer to the Ethnographic Flute Recordings Overview Page for background on these listings.

Ethnographic Flute Recordings from North America

These entries are sorted first by culture and then by the date (sometimes approximate) of the recording.

The term “collector” is used to indicate the researcher who oversaw the effort to record the material. In many cases, this person also serves as the recording engineer, although this role is typically not specified.

In the case of the publication of multiple editions of the audio material on different media (for example, LP, cassette, and compact disc), only the most recent edition is cited. However, the text of liner notes from earlier editiions is sometimes provided. Click on the citation tag to see the listing of all published editions.

[Hicks 1941] Leah K. Hicks. Love Song. Solo flute. Recorded 1941, Fort Wingate, New Mexico, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 4, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 11.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 11.


[McKenzie 1964-02] Sebastian McKenzie; Owen R. Jones, Jr. (collector). Bear Hunting Song. vocal. Recorded September 1964, Schefferville, Province of Quebec, Canada, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in Music of the Algonkians — Woodland Indians, Cree, Montagnais, Naskapi1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE 4253 [Jones-OR 1972]), Side A, band 2.
» Recording published in Music of the Algonkians — Woodland Indians, Cree, Montagnais, Naskapi (audio CD, FE 4253 [Jones-OR 2007]), track 2.

1Liner notes: Sings of hunting black bear in the winter time. A sharpening pole is poked through the snow and wakes the sleeping bear who, as he emerges, is shot.


[BalaSinem 1973 01] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Taos Round Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:51.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants1 (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 1.

1Liner notes: A popular social dance among the American Indian people of many tribes.


[BalaSinem 1973 02] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Pawnee Peyote Chant. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:32.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 2.


[BalaSinem 1973 03] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Apache Chant. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:09.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 3.


[BalaSinem 1973 04] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Hopi Harvest Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:40.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 4.


[BalaSinem 1973 05] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Jemez Buffalo Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:37.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 5.


[BalaSinem 1973 06] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Zuni Comanche Dance Song. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:03.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 6.


[BalaSinem 1973 07] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Santa Ana Bow and Arrow Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:38.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 7.


[BalaSinem 1973 08] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Hopi Buffalo Dance Song. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:21.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side A, Track 8.


[BalaSinem 1973 09] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Navajo Squaw Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:16.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 1.


[BalaSinem 1973 10] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Athabaskan Bear Raven Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:52.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 2.


[BalaSinem 1973 11] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Creek Duck Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:53.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 3.


[BalaSinem 1973 12] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Athabaskan Tanana Cross. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:02.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 4.


[BalaSinem 1973 13] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Osage Soldier Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:25.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 5.


[BalaSinem 1973 14] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Hopi Long-Hair Katchina. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 2:40.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 6.


[BalaSinem 1973 15] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Arapaho Handgame Song. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:14.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 7.


[BalaSinem 1973 16] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Mohave Bird Dance. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:23.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 8.


[BalaSinem 1973 17] Bala-Sinem Choir (performer); Mark Romancito (conductor). Crow Handgame Song. Vocal. Recorded 1973, Length: 1:25.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Chants (C-6110 [BalaSinem 1973]), Side B, Track 9.


[Snake-St 1984 01] Stan Snake. Memorial Song / A Sacred Beginning. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 6:50.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side A, Band 1.

It's not entirely clear on this album where each song / track begins and ends. The fifth track, listed on the liner notes on side B, actually appears to be on Side A.


[Snake-St 1984 02] Stan Snake. The Eagle in the Morning. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 5:19.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side A, Band 2.


[Snake-St 1984 03] Stan Snake. Amazing Grace. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 2:50.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side A, Band 3.


[Snake-St 1984 04] Stan Snake. The Dawn of Love. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 3:00.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side A, Band 4.


[Snake-St 1984 05] Stan Snake. The Geese Song / Love, the Eternal Privilege. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 2:06.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 1.


[Snake-St 1984 06] Stan Snake. Ponca Love Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 2:26.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 2.


[Snake-St 1984 07] Stan Snake. Nature's Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 1:35.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 3.


[Snake-St 1984 08] Stan Snake. Grass Dance / You are Sacred, I Am Sacred. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 3:20.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 4.


[Snake-St 1984 09] Stan Snake. I Wait for You. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 2:01.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 5.


[Snake-St 1984 10] Stan Snake. Warrior's Dream. Solo Flute. Recorded 1984, Length: 6:59.
» Recording published in Dawn of Love ([Snake-St 1984]), Side B, Band 6.


[Rainer 1986-02] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Northern Plains. flute. Recorded before 1986, Length: 3:34.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 2.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 2.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 2.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 2.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 2.

1Liner notes: A popular song of Northern Plains origin usually sung by groups (usually men) called "drums."

2Track listing: Northern

3Track listing: Northern Plains Drum Group

4Track listing: Northern

5Track listing: Northern; American Indian


[Rainer 1986-06] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Northern Plains Pow Wow Group. flute. Recorded before 1986, Length: 4:10.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 6.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 6.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 6.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 6.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 6.

1Liner notes: Another popular song sung by Northern Plains singing groups at inter-tribal gatherings called "Pow Wow," where Indians gather to sing, dnace and renew friendships.

2Track listing: Northern Plains Pow Wow

3Track listing: Northern Plains Pow Wow Group

4Track listing: Northern Plains Pow Wow

5Track listing: Northern Plains Pow Pow; American Indian


[Rainer 1986-08] John Rainer (died 2011), Jr.; Carnes Burson (composer). Who Am I?. flute. Recorded before 1986, Length: 2:18.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 8.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 8.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 8.

1Liner notes: "Who Am I" - melody used by permission of the composer Carnes Burson and Lamanite Publishers - Kirt Olsen - from the Pageant, "The Eagle's Bed."

2Track listing: Who Am I?

3Track listing: "Who Am I?"

4Track listing: Who Am I?

5Track listing: Who Am I?; American Indian


[Rainer 1986-10] John Rainer (died 2011), Jr., Lillian Ranier, and Sherrie Everett. Variations on "The Eagle's Bed". flute. Recorded before 1986, Length: 2:23.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 4.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 10.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 4.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 10.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 10.

1Liner notes: Variations on Hymn - choral accompaniment by Lillian Ranier, Sherrie Everett, and John Ranier, Jr.

2Track listing: The Eagle's Bed

3Track listing: Variations on "The Eagle's Bed"

4Track listing: The Eagle's Bed

5Track listing: Eagle's bed; American Indian


[Rainer 1986-11] John Rainer (died 2011), Jr. and Tiem Chou. Red in the Rainbow. flute. Recorded before 1986, Length: 3:06.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 5.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 11.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 5.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 11.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 11.

1Liner notes: Composed by the artist for his son David, whose Indian name given by his great-grandmother, Crucita Reyna, is "Red in the Rainbow". Guitar by Tiem Chou.

2Track listing: Red in the Rainbow

3Track listing: Red in the Rainbow

4Track listing: Red in the Rainbow

5Track listing: Red in the rainbow; American Indian


[Nakai 1987-05] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Athabascan Song. flute. Recorded 1987, Length: 2:29.
» Recording published in Earth Spirit1 (CR-612 (Volume 4) [Nakai 1987]), Track 5.

1Liner notes: An arrangement of a Bead Chant song called "When they saw each other."


[Nakai 1987-07] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Song of the Evening Star. flute. Recorded 1987, Length: 3:41.
» Recording published in Earth Spirit1 (CR-612 (Volume 4) [Nakai 1987]), Track 7.

1Liner notes: Traditional Kiowa song, arranged from ethnomusicological notes by Frances Densmore.


[Nakai 1987-13] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Omaha Song. flute. Recorded 1987, Length: 1:44.
» Recording published in Earth Spirit1 (CR-612 (Volume 4) [Nakai 1987]), Track 13.

1Liner notes: An arrangement of a transcription (c. 1900) by C. W. Cadman.


[Hensley 1989-01] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:33.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 1.


[Hensley 1989-02] Betty Austin Hensley. Flute Call / Love Song. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 1:18.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 2.


[Hensley 1989-04] Betty Austin Hensley. Flute Song. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:25.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 4.


[Hensley 1989-05] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:14.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 5.


[Hensley 1989-07] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:20.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 7.


[Hensley 1989-09] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:26.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 9.


[Hensley 1989-11] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:25.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 11.


[Hensley 1989-13] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:26.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 13.


[Hensley 1989-14] Betty Austin Hensley. Flute Call. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:39.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 14.


[Hensley 1989-15] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:19.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 15.


[Hensley 1989-17] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 17.


[Hensley 1989-18] Betty Austin Hensley. Lullaby. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:48.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 18.


[Hensley 1989-19] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:20.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 19.


[Hensley 1989-21] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:31.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 21.


[Hensley 1989-22] Betty Austin Hensley. Song by Young Eagle. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 1:19.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 22.


[Hensley 1989-23] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:11.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 23.


[Hensley 1989-24] Betty Austin Hensley. Flute Sounds. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:52.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 24.


[Hensley 1989-25] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:30.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 25.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 01] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Zuni Sunrise Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 4:57.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 1.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 02] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Tribute to Sam. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 2:09.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 2.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 03] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Yah-vey-tsee-kee-nah. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 3:34.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 3.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 04] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Round Dance Medley. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 3:30.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 4.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 05] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Belo Tay-daw-gyah-daw. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 2:23.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 5.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 06] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Brazos River Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 3:25.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side A, Band 6.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 07] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Kiowa Eagle Spirit. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 4:31.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 1.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 08] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Sate-tah-lee. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 3:22.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 2.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 09] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). White Mountain Dream. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 3:09.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 3.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 10] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Black Jack. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 2:29.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 4.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 11] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Northern Brother. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 2:50.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 5.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 12] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Corn Harvest Prayer. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 2:42.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 6.


[Mauchahty-Ware 1989 13] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (1949–2015); Millard Clark and Paul Pahdocony (percussion); Sands-B (engineering and mixing); Carolyn McBride (photography). Indian Sounds. Solo Flute. Recorded 1989, Length: 0:53.
» Recording published in Sunrise — American Indian Flute (audio cassette, IS-5051 [Mauchahty-Ware 1989]), Side B, Band 7.


[Cellicion 1990-02] Fernando Cellicion. Northern Round Dance. flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 4:51.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side A, Band 2.


[Cellicion 1990-05] Fernando Cellicion. Jemez Eagle Dance Song. flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 3:09.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side A, Band 5.


[Cellicion 1990-07] Fernando Cellicion. Round Dance Song. flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 3:48.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side A, Band 7.


[Cellicion 1990-09] Fernando Cellicion. Turkey Dance Song. flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 3:09.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 2.


[Hensley 1989-03] Betty Austin Hensley. Remarks. flute. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:26.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 3.


[Locke 1990 01] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). First Flute Song - Story 1. Narrated Story. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:47.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 02] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). First Flute Song - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:47.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 03] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). First Flute Song - Story 2. Narrated Story. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:55.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 04] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). First Flute Song - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:32.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 05] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Waaie Ki - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:36.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 2.


[Locke 1990 06] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Waaie Ki - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:40.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 2.


[Rainer 1990-01] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Southern Plains Social Dance Song #1. flute. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 1.


[Rainer 1990-02] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Southern Plains Social Dance Song #2. flute. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 2.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 2.


[Rainer 1990-03] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Southern Plains Social Dance Song #3. flute. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 3.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 3.


[Rainer 1990-06] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). From the Eagle's Bed. flute. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 6.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 6.

1Liner notes: Used by permission of the composer, Carnes Burson, and Lamanite Publishers - Kirt Olsen - from the Pageant, "The Eagle's Bed."


[Rainer 1990-11] John Rainer, Jr. and Tiem Chou (died 2011). Northern Plains Song. flute. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side B, Band 3.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 11.

1Liner notes: A melody from the Northern Plains people. Guitar by: Tiem Chou.


[Locke 1990 07] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Takuwe Oyaglake - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 3:41.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 3.


[Locke 1990 08] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Takuwe Oyaglake - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:53.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side A, Band 3.


[Locke 1990 09] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Nioie Weksuye - Story. Narrated Story. Recorded 1990, Length: 4:00.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 10] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Nioie Weksuye - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:52.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 11] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Nioie Weksuye - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:53.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 1.


[Locke 1990 12] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Amape Najinye - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:57.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 2.


[Locke 1990 13] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Amape Najinye - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:53.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 2.


[Locke 1990 14] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Iyotiyewakiye - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:43.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 3.


[Locke 1990 15] Kevin Locke (Tokeya Inajin) (born 1954). Iyotiyewakiye - Vocal. Vocal. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:44.
» Recording published in Lakota Love Songs and Stories ([Locke 1990]), Side B, Band 3.


[Nevaquaya 1992 01] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Flight of the Spirit. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 3:51.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side A, Band 1.

1Liner notes: by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 02] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Doc Tate's Lament. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 2:49.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side A, Band 2.

1Liner notes: by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 03] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). 45th Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 4:15.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side A, Band 3.

1Liner notes: adaptation for flute by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 04] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Pizza Pie. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 1:21.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side A, Band 4.

1Liner notes: by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 05] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Prairie Wind. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 1:48.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side A, Band 5.

1Liner notes: by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 06] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Zuni Sunrise. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 3:12.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side B, Band 1.

1Liner notes: adaptation for flute by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 07] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Adobe Walls. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 3:04.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side B, Band 2.

1Liner notes: adaptation for flute by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 08] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Comanche Victory Song. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 2:56.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side B, Band 3.

1Liner notes: adaptation for flute by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Nevaquaya 1992 09] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). Comanche Moon. Solo Flute. Recorded 1992, Length: 3:15.
» Recording published in The Master1 ([Nevaquaya 1992]), Side B, Band 4.

1Liner notes: adaptation for flute by Doc Tate Nevaquaya


[Retro 1997-12] Unknown performer. Humming Bird Song. vocal. Recorded before 1997, Length: 2:21.
» Recording published in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 1, Track 12.


[Burton-B 1998] Bryan Burton (born 1948). No title. flute.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Description by Robert Damm: Burton and Kreiter's Voices of the Wind (1998, with C.d.) included a collection of 11 authentic, traditional and contemporary flute songs "selected for their accessibility and appropriateness" (p. 3). Contents also included information on history, construction and playing techniques. The text was supplemented with model lesson plans and suggestions for using the songs in the elementary classroom for listening units and to study improvisation and elements of music.


[Bludts 1999-02] Carl Bludts. Duck Dance «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:17.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 2.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this tune from players John Sarantos and Joel Shaber. This is a nice and happy song; just imagine two little ducks crossing your path on the way to the pond.


[Bludts 1999-04] Carl Bludts. Wium «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 4.

1Description in the songbook: Also learned from the playing of Betty Hensley.


[Bludts 1999-06] Carl Bludts. Song for Grandfather «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:00.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 6.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from the playing of several artists.


[Bludts 1999-09] Carl Bludts. Oie Namahon «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:46.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 9.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from the playing of Kevin Locke. Kevin learned this song from William Horn Cloud at Pine Ridge. He plays it on his recording The Seventh Direction. This one is also known as "Brother-in-Law" and you can find this version on Kevin's recording Love Songs of the Lakota (Indian House 4315).


[Bludts 1999-11] Carl Bludts. Traveling Alone «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:37.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 11.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this very beautiful melody from the playing of Kevin Locke. You'll find Kevin's rendition on the Keepers of the Dream CD. He also sings this song on the CD so you can hear and compare the vocal and flute versions.


[Bludts 1999-12] Carl Bludts. Heikimoglu «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:39.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 12.

1Description in the songbook: This is an ideal song to do some improvising around the melody. You can hear me playing some variations the second time through.


[Bludts 1999-13] Carl Bludts. Take Up the Cross «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:08.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 13.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from the palying of Keith Bear. You'll find Keith's rendition on his excellent CD, Echoes of the Missouri (Makoche Records).


[Bludts 1999-16] Carl Bludts. Grandfather, Look at Me «REF». flute. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:56.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 16.

1Description in the songbook: "Grandfather, Look at Me" Learned from the playing of Kevin Locke. You'll find the original recording on the Keepers of the Dream CD. The main difficulty here is to keep the rhythm going. You can do some improvising once you've got the rhythmic part in your fingers.


[Payne 1999-02] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). One Eyed Ford (49 Song) «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 2.


[Payne 1999-03] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Whisper (Grace Smith) «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 3.


[Payne 1999-07] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Robyn Syng «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 7.


[Payne 1999-11] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Mighty Lonesome (Minnie Bointy) «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 11.


[Payne 1999-17] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Oklahoma Round Dance (Lynn Heunneman) «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 17.


[Payne 1999-22] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Follbull's Love Song «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 22.


[Payne 1999-23] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Jan 20 «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 23.


[Payne 1999-24] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Eula «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 24.


[Payne 1999-25] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Wedding Song «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 25.


[Payne 1999-26] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Mark and Cindy «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 26.


[Payne 1999-27] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Eca Moole (Hand Game Song) «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 27.


[Payne 1999-31] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). AIM War Dance Song «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 31.


[Perkins 2000-07] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot War Song. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 0:51.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 7.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 8 and 18.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 6.


[Perkins 2000-08] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Uhpiye. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 2:15.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 8.


[Perkins 2000-09] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Qayuwa. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:12.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 9.


[Perkins 2000-10] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. TuhTuwas. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 2:24.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 10.


[Perkins 2000-11] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Eliyaha. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 2:33.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 11.


[Perkins 2000-12] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Sami Motoweyu. Solo flute. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:19.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 12.


[Bludts 2003-05] Carl Bludts. Canyon Riding Song «REF». flute. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:37.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 5.

1Description in the songbook: I like to play this song because it's a natural for improvisation. You'll notice that the first six bars are especially open for a lot of variations.


[Bludts 2003-10] Carl Bludts. First Flute Song «REF». flute. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:59.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 10.

1Description in the songbook: This song is also known as "The Original Flute Song," and you'll easily find excellent versions palyed by Kevin Locke and Zbryan Akipa. I'm very fond of this style of playing as it comes closes to the Native American singing style. It must have sounded like this in the "old days".


[Bludts 2003-13] Carl Bludts. They Have Taken the One I Love «REF». flute. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 3:09.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 13.

1Description in the songbook: This haunting melody is traditional from the Armenian duduk repertoire. A duduk is a primitive ancestor of our oboe. Divan Gasparian, the most famous duduk player, provided the music for the Academy Award winning film The Last Emperor. I transcribed in "parland" style as it uses a freer rhythm than can be represented within fixed measures of of music notation. THe pauses are indicated by a caesura "," symbol.


[Bludts 2003-16] Carl Bludts. The Long Road Home «REF». flute. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 3:12.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 16.

1Description in the songbook: Traditional, adapted by Carl Bludts. This song is based on a Chinese traditional called "Three Variations on a Plum Blossom". It provides good practice for your trills and slides.


[Payne 2004-02] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Eula «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 5:33.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 2.


[Payne 2004-03] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Lament (Memory Song) «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 3:07.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 3.


[Payne 2004-04] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Mark and Cindy «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 4.


[Payne 2004-05] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Northwest Whistles «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:22.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 5.


[Payne 2004-06] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Robert and Julia «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:49.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 6.


[Payne 2004-08] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Rock of Ages «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 8.


[Payne 2004-09] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Indian Wedding Song «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 9.


[Payne 2004-11] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Whisper (Grace Smith) «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 5:33.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 11.


[Payne 2004-13] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Jewels «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 13.


[Payne 2004-15] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Battle Hymn of the Republic «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:49.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 15.


[Payne 2004-17] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Robin's Song «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 17.


[Payne 2004-20] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Will the Circle Be Unbroken «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 3:07.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 20.


[Payne 2004-21] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Penitente Story «REF». Story and Solo Flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 21.


[Payne 2004-26] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). I Am Mighty Lonesome «REF». Solo flute. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 26.


[Siva 2004 37] Ernest H. Siva. Amazing Grace - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:04.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 37.


[Siva 2004 38] Ernest H. Siva. America - Flute. Solo Flute. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:38.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 38.


[Siva 2004 39] Ernest H. Siva. Chamaqanich (Thoughts). Vocal. Recorded 2004, Length: 20:13.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 39.


[Nakai 2007-01] R. Carlos Nakai and Udi Bar-David. Omaha Song. flute and cello. Recorded 2007, Length: 4:33.
» Recording published in Voyagers1 (CR-7078 [Nakai 2007]), Track 1.

Liner notes say "melody composed by R. Carlos Nakai"

1Liner notes: Omaha Song (4:29, Native American flute melody composed by R. Carlos Nakai, cello arrangement by Udi Bar-David)


[Nakai 2007-07] R. Carlos Nakai and Udi Bar-David. Amazing Grace. flute and cello. Recorded 2007, Length: 3:57.
» Recording published in Voyagers1 (CR-7078 [Nakai 2007]), Track 7.

1Liner notes: Amazing Grace (3:53, traditional, arranged for Native American flute & cello by R. Carlos Nakai & Udi Bar-David)


Acoma

[Cellicion 1988-08] Fernando Cellicion. Acoma Rainbow Dance Song. flute, Acoma culture. Recorded 1988, Length: 2:16.
» Recording published in The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion1 (audio cassette, IS-5060 [Cellicion 1988]), Side B, Band 4.

1Liner Notes: Thanks to … Belemino Vicente, Aldon Keyope, Bernie Martinez and the Acoma Intercultural Dance Group for the Acoma Songs.


[Cellicion 1988-10] Fernando Cellicion. Acoma Rainbow Dance Song #2. flute, Acoma culture. Recorded 1988, Length: 3:10.
» Recording published in The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion1 (audio cassette, IS-5060 [Cellicion 1988]), Side B, Band 6.

1Liner Notes: Thanks to … Belemino Vicente, Aldon Keyope, Bernie Martinez and the Acoma Intercultural Dance Group for the Acoma Songs.


[Hensley 1989-20] Betty Austin Hensley. Acoma Song. flute, Acoma culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 1:17.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 20.


[Cellicion 1990-11] Fernando Cellicion. Acoma Rainbow Dance Song. flute, Acoma culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 4:23.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 4.


[Cellicion 1990-12] Fernando Cellicion. Acoma Basket Dance Song. flute, Acoma culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:34.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 5.


Alaskan Eskimo

[Ahkivigak 1946] Otis Ahkivigak; Laura Boulton (collector). Inviting-in Dance Song. Solo flute, Alaskan Eskimo culture. Recorded 1946, Barrow, Alaska, Length: 0:50.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 5, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 15.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 29.


[Sikvayunak 1946] Joe Sikvayunak; Laura Boulton (collector). It Was a Very Lovely Day When the Water Was Calm. Solo flute, Alaskan Eskimo culture. Recorded 1946, Point Barrow, Alaska, Length: 0:40.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 1, #4.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 4.


Apache

[CrookNeck 1909-01] Crook Neck (performer); Pliny Earle Goddard (collector) (1869–1928). No title. Apache culture. Recorded 1909.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #32.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Goddard 1903.1.
Bliven ID: Apache 2


[CrookNeck 1909-02] Crook Neck (performer); Pliny Earle Goddard (collector) (1869–1928). Flute Solo. Solo Flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1909, Length: 2:48.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8756.14.

Is this an overtone flute? Music starts at 1:19
Bliven ID: Apache 3

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Tracks 1: 54-103-F; EC10" 340 item 14. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[CrookNeck 1909-03] Crook Neck (performer); Pliny Earle Goddard (collector) (1869–1928). Flute Solo. Solo Flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1909, Length: 1:45.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8756.15.
Bliven ID: Apache 4

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Tracks 2: 54-103-F; EC10" 340 item 15. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Peaches 1951-01] Clarence Peaches and David Dazen (performers); Willard Rhodes (collector). Apache Vocal Love Song. vocal, Apache culture. Recorded 1951, Cibecue, Arizona.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indian: Apache — From the Archive of Folk Culture1 (AFS L42 [Rhodes 1954d]), Side A, band 6.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #38.

1Liner notes: A5, A6 and B3-Love Songs
Songs in this category are distinguished by their lyricism and by the intimacy of thought and emotion they express. The words rarely consist of more than a simple statement that is broken into two or three phrases and repeated over and over. But to the singer and the person to whom the song is addressed there is an inner meaning not apparent in the words themselves. The circumstances and situation attending the making of the song, the emotional relationship between the singer and the subject, memories, and associations shed an aura of warmth and feeling on the love songs.
The Apache violin played on band A5 by Clarence Peaches is unique among the musical instruments of the Indians of North America. It is made of a hollowed out mescal stock, rarely more than two feet in length, played with a bow strung with rosined horsehair. The sound produced is rather raucous and squeaky, and the intervals at best are a vague approximation of those of the song when it is sung. The repertoire consists of tulpai drinking songs. Professor McAllester reports, "The Apache also make a whistle flute of river cane with three stops which usually produce notes approximating do-mi-fa-sol of the European scale. Brief melodies on those notes are repeated over and over with a breathy quavering technique. Flutes and flute-playing are associated with love and magic." These recordings were made at Cibecue, Arizona, in 1951.


[Apache 1955] Unknown Apache performer; David P. McAllester and Donald Nelson Brown (collectors). Flute Melody. Solo flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1955, Cibecue, Arizona, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, KCMS-1204 [McAllester 1962]), Side B, band 5.
» Recording also published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (audio CD [McAllester 2009]), Track 14.
» Liner notes re-published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho ([McAllester 2011]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #19.

Performer is an "Apache man ca. 60" based on liner notes of the 2009 CD.
Bliven ID: Apache 1


[Ortega 1973] Paul Ortega (performer); James B. Wright (collector). Eskimo Flute (with electronic echo). Solo flute, Apache culture. Recorded November 25, 1974, Native American Folk Festival, Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Arizona.
» Recording part of James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs ([CSWR 2010] James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs), CD 12, 1 of 2, Item 244.
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM. Box 1, CD 12, 1 of 2, item #244.

Tribal affiliation of A. Paul Ortega is noted by Edward Wapp Wahpeconiah in the liner notes of [NMAH 1992]


[Wilson-CG 1994-03] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. Blessing Song. Vocal, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 3.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: blessing


[Wilson-CG 1994-04] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. Blessing Song. Violin / Flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 4.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: blessing


[Wilson-CG 1994-11] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. I'll Go With You. Vocal, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 11.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: social


[Wilson-CG 1994-12] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. I'll Go With You. Violin / Flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 12.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: social


[Wilson-CG 1994-17] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. When I Was Young. Vocal, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 17.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: social


[Wilson-CG 1994-18] Chesley Goseyun Wilson. When I Was Young. Violin / Flute, Apache culture. Recorded 1994?.
» Recording published in When the Earth Was Like New: Western Apache Songs and Stories ([Wilson-CG 1994]), track 18.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Table 16: social


[Payne 1999-12] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Geronimo's Song «REF». Solo flute, Apache culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 12.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race1 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 323-326.
» Song transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book)2 (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 68.
» Song transcribed in The Rhythm of the Red Man: In Song, Dance and Decoration3 ([Buttree 1930]), song 10.

There are several other transcriptions of songs by Geronimo in [Densmore 1906e], [Curtis 1907], [Howard 2002], and [Tate 2004] which are different melodies.

1Liner notes: "Medicine-Song Sung by Chief Geronimo"

2Liner notes: Apache Medicine Song sung by Geronimo

3Liner notes: "Geronimo's Medicine Song"


[Payne 2004-23] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Geronimo's Song «REF». Solo flute, Apache culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:49.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 23.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race1 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 323-326.
» Song transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book)2 (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 68.
» Song transcribed in The Rhythm of the Red Man: In Song, Dance and Decoration3 ([Buttree 1930]), song 10.

There are several other transcriptions of songs by Geronimo in [Densmore 1906e], [Curtis 1907], [Howard 2002], and [Tate 2004] which are different melodies.

Excerpt from Geronimo's Song (excerpt)

1Liner notes: "Medicine-Song Sung by Chief Geronimo"

2Liner notes: Apache Medicine Song sung by Geronimo

3Liner notes: "Geronimo's Medicine Song"


Arapaho

[Arapaho 1894-06] Unknown; James Mooney (collector) (1861–1921). Father, Have Pity on Me. Solo flute, Arapaho culture. Recorded 1894, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 2, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 6.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 6.


[Arapaho 1894-30] Unknown; James and Charles Mooney (collectors) (1861–1921). When I Met Him Approaching. Solo flute, Arapaho culture. Recorded 1894, Length: 0:58.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 6, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 16.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 30.


[Payne 1999-13] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Arapaho Ghost Dance «REF». Solo flute, Arapaho culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 13.


[Payne 2004-25] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Arapaho Ghost Dance Song «REF». Solo flute, Arapaho culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 25.


BlackFifeDrum

[Young 1959-01] Ed Young (flute), Lonnie Young, Sr. (bass drum), and G. D. Young (snare). Church, I Know We Got Another Building. flute, BlackFifeDrum culture. Recorded 1959, Length: 2:22.
» Recording published in Wave the Ocean, Wave the Sea: Alan Lomax's ''Southern Journey'' 1959-1960 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, MR-057 [Lomax 2010]), Side A, band 3.
» Recording published in The Southern Journey of Alan Lomax Words, Photographs, and Music1 (audio CD [Jukebox 2012]), track 1.

1Liner notes in the accompanying hardcover book: Title: Church, I Know We Got Another Building (Not Made With Hands). Ed Young, fife; Lonnie Young Sr., bass drum; G. D. Young, snare drom. Como, Mississippi. Spetember 21, 1959. In 1942, during a joint research project of the Library of Congress and Nashville's Fisk University, Alan Lomax made the first ever recordings of the fife and drum music of the Mississippi Hill Country, east of the Delta. "Finding this music still alive, "he later wrote, "was the greatest surprise of all my collecting trips in America." Played now exclusively for entertainment at country picnics and dances, its roots stretch to before the Revolutionary War, when black fife and drum corps accompanied local militias - one of Thomas Jefferson's slaves is said to have played in such a corps. Their music is considered to be one of the oldest extant forms of African music in North America. Lomax recalled in 1993: "Watching the Young brothers' line of fife and drums sashay across the yard, enclosed by their dancing family, I saw in my mind's eye the jazz parades of New Orleans ... I remembered the Mardi Gras parades in Trinidad and Rio and the wild rara parades of Haiti and the films I'd seen of African processionals, and I could see that this family party in northern Mississippi belonged to that African tradition. "Sacred pieces have seldom been recorded by fife and drum ensembles; this one is widespread in the black congregational repertoire. The Young brothers' band was later christened the Southern Fife and Drum Corps and appeared at the Newport Folk Festival and a Friends of Old-Time Music concert in the 1960s.


[Turner 1989-01] Otha Turner. Shimmy She Wobble (Live). flute and drum ensemble, BlackFifeDrum culture. Recorded 1989, Length: 1:31.
» Recording published in Otha Turner - Live 1989 - Memphis Music & Heritage Festival (audio digital download, CSF 1906 [Turner 1989]), track 1.


[Turner 1999-01] Otha Turner. Shimmy She Wobble. flute and drum ensemble, BlackFifeDrum culture. Recorded February 1999, Length: 4:43.
» Recording published in From Senegal to Senatobia (audio CD [Turner 1999]), track 1.


Blackfoot

[Tailfeathers 2004-02] Olivia Tailfeathers. Buffalo Song. vocal, Blackfoot culture. Recorded 2004.
» Recording published in Ninihkssin (audio CD [Tailfeathers 2004]).


Blood / Blackfoot

[Nakai 1982-01] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Round Dance Song. Solo Flute, Blood / Blackfoot culture. Recorded 1982.
» Published in Native American Flute Music (audio cassette, NAMF1 [Nakai 1982]), Side B, Band 8.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#11). Transcription on page 141.


[Nakai 1983-14] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Blood Round Dance Song. flute, Blood / Blackfoot culture. Recorded 1983, Length: 2:26.
» Recording published in Changes1 (CR-615 [Nakai 1983]), Track 14.

1Liner notes: Blood Round Dance Song (2:20) uses a melody from the social songs sung at the traditional gatherings of the Blood people of western Canada.


Caddo

[Payne 1999-30] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Caddo Song «REF». Solo flute, Caddo culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 30.


Cahuilla

[Siva 2004 03] Ernest H. Siva. Coyote's Waiting - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:53.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 3.


[Siva 2004 04] Ernest H. Siva. Coyote's Waiting - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:17.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 4.


[Siva 2004 09] Ernest H. Siva. Peon (Stick Game) Song - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:01.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 9.


[Siva 2004 10] Ernest H. Siva. Peon (Stick Game) Song - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:11.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 10.


[Siva 2004 11] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 1 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:12.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 11.


[Siva 2004 12] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 1 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:43.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 12.


[Siva 2004 13] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 2 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 13.


[Siva 2004 14] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 2 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:45.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 14.


[Siva 2004 15] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 3 (Wood Rat Song) - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:52.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 15.


[Siva 2004 16] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 3 (Wood Rat Song) - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:58.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 16.


[Siva 2004 17] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 4 (Ground Owl Song) - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:00.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 17.


[Siva 2004 18] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 4 (Ground Owl Song) - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:20.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 18.


[Siva 2004 19] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 5 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:16.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 19.


[Siva 2004 20] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 5 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 20.


[Siva 2004 21] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 6 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:12.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 21.


[Siva 2004 22] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 6 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:14.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 22.


[Siva 2004 23] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 7 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:01.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 23.


[Siva 2004 24] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 7 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 24.


[Siva 2004 25] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 8 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 25.


[Siva 2004 26] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 8 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:56.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 26.


[Siva 2004 27] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 9 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:18.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 27.


[Siva 2004 28] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 9 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:25.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 28.


[Siva 2004 29] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 10 - Flute. Solo Flute, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:03.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 29.


[Siva 2004 30] Ernest H. Siva. Bird Song No. 10 - Vocal. Vocal, Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 30.


Cherokee

[Handle 1950] Tom Handle; Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Lullaby. Solo flute, Cherokee culture. Recorded 1950, Oklahoma, Length: 0:48.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 1, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 16.


[Sam 1975 08] Singers: Archie Sam (leader), Jobie L. Fields, Van Johnson, Eli Sam (drum), Cedo Screechowl, Robert Sumpka, Luman Wildcat, Squirrel Wildcat, Leona Wikdcat, Luman Wildcat. Stomp Dance. Vocal, Cherokee culture. Recorded August 1975, Medicine Spring ceremonial ground (Tsalagi Abihka), Sequoyah County, Oklahoma, Length: 7:07.
» Recording published in Songs of Earth, Water, Fire and Sky1 (audio CD, 80246 [Heth 1976]), Side B, band 3.

1Liner notes: Stomp Dance-Cherokee
Recorded at Medicine Spring ceremonial ground (Tsalagi Abihka), Sequoyah County, Oklahoma,August 1975
The singers and shell shakers are the same as those in the Gar Dance; ELI SAM (drum), LEONA WILDCAT (lead shell shaker), LUMAN WILDCAT (leader)
The Cherokee once occupied a large territory in the southeastern United States. In the late 1830s the federal government forced them to march from their homeland to Indian Territory. This infamous “Trail of Tears” caused poverty and death.The Cherokee were split into two geographically separate groups. The North Carolina Cherokee managed to stay behind and buy back some of their former land, while the Oklahoma Cherokee had to start anew in an alien land.
Some Oklahoma Cherokee still practice their old religion. The Stomp Dance is the culmination of a day's activities at the ceremonial ground. The name is given both to a musical dance- ritual event and to a separate dance within that event. The Stomp Dance usually contains a variety of different dances with their accompanying music. The ceremony begins with a Friendship Dance or other opening dance, is followed by a series of stomp dances, and closes with an Old Folks or a Morning Dance. Animal dances like the Gar Dance, or other dances like the Doublehead, may be interspersed with the stomp dances throughout the evening.
After dark on the night appointed for the dance, members of the ceremonial ground, friends, and visitors assemble around the sacred fire. The firekeeper calls for the dancing and singing to start, and the ancient ritual begins. The dance and song around the sacred fire invoke the Creator in prayer and worship.
The caller or organizer chooses the song-dance leaders, consulting with each in turn. He then moves to the east side of the fire and gives the call for the designated man and his helpers to come out. In a Stomp Dance the men enter from the west side of the ground and begin walking around the fire counterclockwise. The shell shakers and other women take their places alternately between the men, and the singing begins.
Introductory formulas and songs vary from leader to leader, but some general observations can be made. The first call and response is followed by a shout from the men. A series of short responsorial (leader-chorus) introductory formulas follows, with minimal pitch or text changes. Just before the first song begins, the text and the melody change noticeably. The one or two pitches used in the introduction expand to three or more, and the fiat-footed running step of the men and women begins, accompanied by the double shake of the shell shakers and the rhythmic pulse of the drum.
Near the end of each song, the leader gives a hand signal, the shell shakers break into a single shake, and everyone stops or slows down. In most Stomp Dances another shout from the men marks the end of the song. The selection on this recording, however, omits that shout. On the beginning of the second and following songs, activity starts again as described in the first song, but without any introduction. At the end of the song cycle, a higher pitched. louder shout (whoop) follows. Then the words “wado,wado” (“thank you, thank you”) express pleasure for the dance just concluded.
The text of this dance consists entirely of vocables. Although the leader speaks Cherokee, Creek, and English, he chose not to use words from any of these languages in his songs.
The leader may choose from among any songs in his repertoire. Certain songs are popular and appear more frequently than others. A few are usually sung by one person, by members of the same family, or by friends. The leader is also free to improvise during the songs within the cycle.
Each Stomp Dance becomes a unique creation.
The texture of the Stomp Dance sequence is basically monophonic with rhythmic accompaniment throughout. There are moments of multipart singing (harmony in thirds) that add a vertical relationship to the primarily linear texture. The leader uses a slightly nasal voice. Breaks in the voice and glides between pitches are other vocal characteristics.
In the Stomp Dance, the introductory section is rendered in a rather free rhythm until the shell shakers begin. Then a pulse is established that varies little throughout the cycle until the faster ending section.
The scales in the opening and closing sections have three pitches, while the bulk of the songs have five-pitch scales. The range is wide (an eleventh), and the tessitura is high.
Because Medicine Spring has members from the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Natchez tribes, the costumes vary from individual to individual. They are good everyday clothes with the addition of hats and dance belts on the men and long skirts on the women.
The crackling of the fire and the background conversation of some of the children are expected elements in a Stomp Dance.


Cheyenne

[TurkeyLegs 1920] Turkey Legs (performer); Frances Densmore (collector (provisional)) (1867–1957). Flute Melody. flute, Cheyenne culture. Recorded about 1920 (questionable), Length: 0:14.
» Recording Published on Wild Horse Mountain Flutes1 ([Jones-OW 2010]), Loop 2.

1Web site description: The final excerpt has a rather different story. Frances Densmore in her written contributions to the series, "Bureau of American Ethnology" wrote of recording some flute music during he study of Native American music. I had an opportunity to visit the Library of Congress to see the collection of flutes under the library's care. During the visit I sought out a research librarian hoping to find a recording of the old flute music. I was told that none existed but when I could document that Ms. Densmore had published data on such recordings we went to the basement of the Library of Congress and began searching amongst boxes that had been there for almost 50 years. Finally a small dusty carton was found in a far corner of the Library basement and sure enough there was a wax cylinder marked "flute music recording". The library staff kindly and laboriously made a tape from that cylinder. The background noise is almost overwhelming but through it all one can hear a plaintive melody played by Turkey Legs, Cheyenne. This one is the last excerpt, easily recognized by its background noise but nonetheless, a remnant of flute playing by a man from a long ago time.


[Lieurance 1929-04] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963). Love with Tears (Cheyenne). Solo flute, Cheyenne culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey, Length: 0:31.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side B, Track 2.
» Published in Music of American Indians1 (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, E-89 [RCA-Victor 1947]), Catalog number 45-5072-B, Master E1EB-2947, Disk 1, Side B, Track 2.
» Published in Music of American Indians (set of 45 rpm 7" audio discs, Album WE-89, RCA Victor 41-6158 [RCA-Victor 1956]), Side B, Track 2.
» Recording described in Thurlow Lieurance2 ([Crawford 2002]).

Liner notes for the 1947 version courtesy of Discogs.com. Recording date and location from Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), by the University of California at Santa Barbara Library (Victor matrix BVE-51814)

1Liner notes: Indians were highly skilled in expressing amazingly intricate rhythms. Their melodies, however, were simple, brief, repetitious, and were always sung or played in unison.
It is not surprising, then, that melodic instruments were less well developed than the rhythmic percussive type. There were no stringed instruments, even though constant use of bow and arrow as a weapon put Indians in daily contact with the vibrating, "Singing" bow-string. So a primitive reed flute, or flageoplet, was their only melodic instrument. This was usually made of some kind of soft wood and had five tones corresponding to "do-re-mi-so-la" of our scale, or approximating the sound of the black keys on the piano.
A common use of flageoplets was for "courting". The custom of the Indian brave serenading the maiden of his choice with his flute song, and her way of expressing her pleasure or disapproval is explained in the program notes for "Winnebago Love Song". The brave's flute song was his own property and, unless he sold it, belonged only to him throughout his lifetime.
"Love With Tearts," though similar to "Winnebago Love Song" in the plaintiveness of its melody, is more compelling and insistent. The bird call, which is imitated in the opening measures, resembles the shrill, strident cry of a wild bird.
The poem, "Coyote and the Locust", translated from Zuni by Frank Cushing, bears an interesting parallel to the use of the flute in this piece. The poem is in "Sung under the Silver Umbrella," Macmillan Company, New York.

2Liner notes: Thurlow also apparently did present indigenous music of the Native American Flute without apparent alteration as opposed to his lengthy compositions. I have a 1947 RCA Victor, 78 RPM, record, upon which Thurlow plays four songs with the Native American Flute in 3 minutes and five seconds. The length is pretty much in keeping with available transcriptions of indigenous music recorded by early ethnomusicologists, i.e. Frances Densmore and Alice C. Fletcher. This one record was part of an album collection of four records titled: “Music of American Indians” and was presented as part of the RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools.
The four songs presented on the RCA Victor Record, played by Thurlow, were: “Winnebago Love Song;” “Love with Tears” (Cheyenne); “Pueblo Lullaby” (Taos) and “Omaha Ceremonial.” The album jacket says that “Pueblo Lullaby” was originally heard by Thurlow as a Vocal song while the other three are flute songs.


[Hensley 1989-26] Betty Austin Hensley. Cheyenne Peace Song. flute, Cheyenne culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 1:06.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 26.


Chippewa / Ojibway

[Beaulieu 1913] Rev. Clement Hudson Beaulieu (1845–1926) (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Chippewa Melody. flute, Chippewa / Ojibway culture. Recorded before 1913, Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Chippewa Music II1 ([Densmore 1913]), pages 41-42.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 85, Chippewa Melody.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 104, Chippewa Melody.

Information on C. H. Beaulieu is from documents of "John C. Beaulieu paper" located in the Archives/Manuscripts Divsion of the Minnesota Historical Society.
Bliven ID: Chippewa/Ojibway 2

1Densmore description: The love songs were unaccompanied by any instrument, but lovers frequently played on a musical instrument commonly called a flute, but similar in construction to a flageolet, being blown at the end instead of at the side. The instrument is called pĭbĭ´gwûn. This instrument was procured at Lac du Flambeau, from a middle-aged woman, who said it had belonged to her grandfather. It is 21½ inches long and 1⅛ inches in diameter. A test of the instrument shows its lowest tone to be about a quarter tone above G, second line, treble clef; in the octave above this the tones are clear, but in the second octave the instrument does not respond. It is worthy of note that the fourth produced by this instrument was less accurate than other intervals and that the seventh was very faulty and not a clear tone. Uncertain intonation on the fourth and seventh is noted in Bulletin 45, pages 4-5. The following melody, played on this instrument, was furnished by Rev. C. H. Beaulieu; it is said to be very old.

Transcription of Chippewa Melody by Frances Densmore

Transcription of Chippewa Melody by Frances Densmore Larger image


Chippewa

[Maifigans 1908] Maifi'gans (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Work Steadily. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1908, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song1 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 11.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music II ([Densmore 1913]), page 293.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #25.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Earth_Indian_Reservation

1Liner notes: B11-"Work Steadily" (Cat. no. 270, no. 170, Bull. 53.)
Many of the Chippewa love songs can be sung by either a man or a woman but this is a woman's song. It was recorded by Maifi'gans (Little Wolf) at White Earth, about 1908. The tempo is slow, as is a majority of Chippewa love songs, the fourth above the apparent keynote is prominent and the melody has a peculiar, pleading quality.


[Gagebines 1908] Gage'binĕs' (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). I Am Going Away. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1908, Red Lake Reservation, Minnesota.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 16.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music1 ([Densmore 1910]), pages 183-184.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #22.

Recording loc based on [Densmore 1910] page 185. Recording date from [Densmore 1910] page 1: The songs comprised in this paper were obtained during 1907, 1908, and 1909, from Chippewa Indians on the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake reservations in Minnesota, ...

1Analysis: This melody is particularly graceful and pleasing. The tempo is not rigidly maintained. The metronome mark indicates the general tempo and the song is divided into measures by means of the accents. The words are not sufficiently distinct for transcription.


[Manidogicigokwe 1908-01] Manido'gicĭgo'kwe (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Chippewa vocal love song. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1908, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song1 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 14.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music2 ([Densmore 1910]), page 149 (top).
» Information about the performer Louise Erdich's Tracks: "Native Americans and Other Western Traditions" ([Miskin 2014] Louise Erdich's Tracks: "Native Americans and Other Western Traditions").
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #20.

Have photo of the performer, Bull 45, plate 11 as well as a Prezi about her - See [Miskin 2014]. Recording loc based on [Densmore 1910] page 155. Recording date from [Densmore 1910] page 1: The songs comprised in this paper were obtained during 1907, 1908, and 1909, from Chippewa Indians on the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake reservations in Minnesota, ...

1Liner notes: The two songs next following were recorded by a woman of unique personality whose name was Manido'gicĭgo'kwe (Spirit day woman). She was a member of the Mide'wiwin and recorded two Mide' songs connected with the use of "love medicine." Like other songs of that organization, they were represented by "song pictures," and she drew these when she recorded the songs. In one of these pictures a woman is drawing a man by the hand, though he appears reluctant. Neither of these songs is in the present series.
This interesting woman lived alone in a log cabin, on a point of land extending into a small lake. Back of the cabin stretched the forest, broken only by a wagon road whose single track was marked by stumps beneath and drooping branches overhead. There she and her dogs guarded the timber of her government allotment, and there I called upon her, being allowed to photograph her in the door of her ...

2Analysis: This was said to be a very old song. The peculiar quality of tone assumed bj the Chippewa in singing their love songs renders it impossible to convey a correct impression by means of notation. This quality is nasal, with a slight drawling and a sliding of the voice from one tone to another. The range of this song is two octaves, and the intervals are found to be correct, though difficult at first to recognize beneath their disguise of mannerism. The remarkable change of pitch in the tenth measure was given with more accuracy than many less wide intervals, following the general rule that uncommon intervals are more accurately sung than common intervals. A very explosive tone was given on the notes marked with an accent.

The singer of this and the following song is a unique personality, living all alone. (See pl. 11.) On each side of her log cabin is a little lake. Back of it stretches the forest, broken only by a wagon road whose single track is marked by stumps beneath and drooping branches overhead. In this desolate place Manido'-gidgo'kwe and her dogs guard the timber of her government allotment, the while she gathers roots from which she makes love powders to sell to the children of men. In her hand she usually carries a small hatchet. There is a smoldering fierceness in her small eyes, but her voice in speaking is low and musical and she laughs like a child.


[Manidogicigokwe 1908-02] Manido'gicĭgo'kwe (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Chippewa vocal love song. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1908, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song1 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 15.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music2 ([Densmore 1910]), page 149 (bottom).
» Information about the performer Louise Erdich's Tracks: "Native Americans and Other Western Traditions" ([Miskin 2014] Louise Erdich's Tracks: "Native Americans and Other Western Traditions").
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #21.

Have photo of the performer, Bull 45, plate 11 as well as a Prezi about her - See [Miskin 2014]. Recording loc based on [Densmore 1910] page 155. Recording date from [Densmore 1910] page 1: The songs comprised in this paper were obtained during 1907, 1908, and 1909, from Chippewa Indians on the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake reservations in Minnesota, ...

1Liner notes: The two songs next following were recorded by a woman of unique personality whose name was Manido'gicĭgo'kwe (Spirit day woman). She was a member of the Mide'wiwin and recorded two Mide' songs connected with the use of "love medicine." Like other songs of that organization, they were represented by "song pictures," and she drew these when she recorded the songs. In one of these pictures a woman is drawing a man by the hand, though he appears reluctant. Neither of these songs is in the present series.
This interesting woman lived alone in a log cabin, on a point of land extending into a small lake. Back of the cabin stretched the forest, broken only by a wagon road whose single track was marked by stumps beneath and drooping branches overhead. There she and her dogs guarded the timber of her government allotment, and there I called upon her, being allowed to photograph her in the door of her ...

2Analysis: This melody, though apparently simple in outline, is very free in movement. The tones are those of the key of F, yet the melody does not affiliate with the principal chords of that key and shows little feeling for a keynote.


[Mee 1908] Mrs. Charles Mee (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Fairwell to the Warriors. Vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded about 1908, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota, Length: 1:09.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), track 22.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music ([Densmore 1910]), page 163.
» Recording also archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Archive of Folk Song 10, 522B4 (wax cylinder transferred to tape).

1PDF of liner notes from the LP edition, Folkways Records FA 37777: Now / it is time / for you to go / on a long journey. As the warriors started out, the women would accompany them for a little distance, then turn back toward the village, singing this love song. Of the two renditions here recorded, the second has the melody embroidered with an imitation flute-obbligato. This is one of the two ways in which women singers imitate their lover's flute. The other is demonstrated in band IV, no 3.
Collected at White Earth Reservation, Minnesota
Source: Archive of Folk Song 10, 522B4 (wax cylinder transferred to tape)


[Spears 1908] Julia Warren Spears (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). I Have Found My Lover. Vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded about 1908, White Earth Reservation, Minnesota, Length: 0:20.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians1 (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), track 26 of the CD release; side B, band 4, #3 of the 1979 LP edition.
» Recording also published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song2 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, band 13.
» Song analyzed in Chippewa Music II ([Densmore 1913]), page 300.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#2) on the accompanying tape. Transcription on page 134.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #26.

1Liner notes from the 1979 LP edition of A Cry from the Earth: Indian women do not play the flute. But in singing love songs they often imitate, or echo, the flute. In this tiny song -
Oh
I am thinking
Oh
I am thinking
I have found
my lover
Oh
I think it is so

- the woman sings in a nasal, almost squawking tone, similar to the sound of the Yuchi music heard in the previous selection.
Sung by Julia Warren Spears. Collected by Frances Densmore at White Earth Reservation, Minnesota, about 1908. Source: of Folk Song disc AFS-L22 (the original source is a wax cylinder).
References: Frances Densmore, "Songs of the Chippewa" (booklet accompanying AFS-L22), 1950, p. 10; Densmore, Chippewa Music II, 1913, p. 300.

2Liner notes: B13-"I Have Found My Lover" (Cat. no. 286, no. 177, Bull. 53.)
Mrs. Julia Warren Spears, who recorded this and one other love song, was a sister of William W. Waren, historian of the tribe. (Cf. footnote p. 2) She was born in 1833 at La Pointe, the Chippewa village on Madeline iland in Lake Superior. When she was 17 years of age her brother Willian was employed to escort the first party of Chippewa that came to Minnesota. They numbered about 800 and she was the only woman. She never returned to La Pointe to live, and in later years made her home with her daulhter, Mrs. Charles W. Mee, at White Earth, where the sings were recorded, probably in 1908. ...


[Kimiwun 1909] Kimiwun; Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). One Wind. Solo flute, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1909, Cross Lake, Minnesota, Length: 1:47.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 4, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 10.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 10.


[Odjibway 1909] Odjibway (born 1820); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Song for a Woman Who Was Brave in War. Solo flute, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1909, Old People's Home, White Earth Agency, Minnesota, Length: 0:35.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 3, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 9.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 23.


[Djisiasinokwe 1910] Dji'sia'sino'kwe (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Weeping for my Love. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1910, Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song1 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 12.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music II ([Densmore 1913]), page 220.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #24.

1Liner notes: B12-"Weeping for my Love" (Cat. no. 443, no. 110, Bull. 53.)
This song was recorded by Dji'sia'sino'kwe (Deceiving Woman), the wife of Mec'kawiga'bau. As stated, they recorded songs in their home at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, in 1910. She recorded two love songs, naively insisting that her husband depart while she recorded them and be recalled to hear them, when they were played on the phonopaph.


[Meckawigabau 1910] Mec'kawiga'bau (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). You Desire Vainly. vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1910, Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin.
» Recording published in Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song1 (78 rpm audio disc, AFS L22 [Densmore 1950]), Side B, Band 10.
» Analyzed in Chippewa Music II ([Densmore 1913]), page 218.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #23.

1Liner notes: B10-"You Desire Vainly" (Cat. no. 430. no. 107, Bull. 53.)
This song was recorded at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, in 1910 by Mec'kawiga'bau (Stands firmly). Sixteen songs were recorded by this singer including songs of the Drum-presentation ceremony in which he was a leader. He owned a house and a few acres of land near the Indian vollage. The phonograph was taken to his house for recording his songs and two that were recorded by wife (Cf. B12).


Roi Clearwater
with Drum and Flute,
by Helene
Stratman-Thomas, about
August 17, 1946

Roi Clearwater
with Drum and Flute,
by Helene
Stratman-Thomas, about
August 17, 1946 Larger image

[Clearwater 1946-01] Roi Clearwater (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Love Song. Vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Wisconsin, Length: 1:33.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side B, Band 12 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 29 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #27.

This is a vocal version of the same melody that is played on a flute in [Clearwater 1946-02].

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Attractive melodies played on a cedar flute and love songs popular with the Chippewas in Wisconsin and Minnesota for several generations.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.


[Clearwater 1946-02] Roi Clearwater (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Love Song. Solo flute, Chippewa culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Wisconsin, Length: 1:15.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side B, Band 13 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 30 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Described in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music3 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #1 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 133.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #30.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #01.

This is a cedar flute version of the same melody that is done on voice in [Clearwater 1946-01].
Bliven ID: Chippewa/Ojibway 1-F (a)

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Attractive melodies played on a cedar flute and love songs popular with the Chippewas in Wisconsin and Minnesota for several generations.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.

3Description from page 70: The Chippewa Melody (No. 1) is in varied strophic form (a term generally applied to vocal music in which all the stanzas of the text are sung to the same music). The three phrases (A B C) are repeated four times creating a balanced structure indicative of relatively recent composition. This is the only example of this form, further separating the Chippewa melody from the other flute melodies in the Algonkian area.


[Clearwater 1946-03] Roi Clearwater (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Love Song. Vocal, Chippewa culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Wisconsin, Length: 1:36.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side B, Band 14 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 31 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #27.

This track seems to be from the same audio source as [Clearwater 1946-01]. It may be an example of a recording with audio processing to remove surface noise and distortion.
Bliven ID: Chippewa/Ojibway 1-V

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Attractive melodies played on a cedar flute and love songs popular with the Chippewas in Wisconsin and Minnesota for several generations.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.


[Clearwater 1946-04] Roi Clearwater (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Love Song. Solo flute, Chippewa culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Wisconsin, Length: 1:18.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side B, Band 15 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 32 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music3 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #1 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 133.

This track seems to be from the same audio source as [Clearwater 1946-02]. It may be an example of a recording with audio processing to remove surface noise and distortion.
Bliven ID: Chippewa/Ojibway 1-F (b)

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Attractive melodies played on a cedar flute and love songs popular with the Chippewas in Wisconsin and Minnesota for several generations.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.

3Description from page 70: The Chippewa Melody (No. 1) is in varied strophic form (a term generally applied to vocal music in which all the stanzas of the text are sung to the same music). The three phrases (A B C) are repeated four times creating a balanced structure indicative of relatively recent composition. This is the only example of this form, further separating the Chippewa melody from the other flute melodies in the Algonkian area.


[Pamptopee 1954] Betty Pamptopee; Gertrude P. Kurath (collector) (1903–1992). Methodist Hymn. Solo flute, Chippewa culture. Recorded 1954, Isabella Reservation, Michigan, Length: 0:37.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 6, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 18.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 32.


Choctaw

Robert Henry
at the 1933
recording session

Robert Henry
at the 1933
recording session Larger image

[Henry-R 1933] Robert Henry (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Whistle Melody. flute, Choctaw culture. Recorded January 1933, Choctaw Indian Agency, Philadelphia, Mississippi, Length: 2:39.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Choctaw Music1 ([Densmore 1943a] Choctaw Music), pages 117-118, 128-130, and plate 20.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Choctaw Music (softcover [Densmore 2007a] Choctaw Music), pages 117-118, 128-130, and plate 20.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS21265: #14.
Bliven ID: Choctaw 1

1Densmore description from pages 129-130: The blowing of cane whistles by the medicine men before and during a ball game has been mentioned. Robert Henry has three of these whistles, which he is accustomed to use at the game, and he recorded the sound of each, playing one after another in rapid succession. Each whistle had its special marking. The first was 12½ inches in length and etched (burned) with the design shown in figure 3. The second is shown in plate 20, figure 1, and is in the possession of the United States National Museum. This and the third whistle were 11 inches in length. The third whistle was etched with Robert Henry's personal mark (fig. 4). The performance on the second whistle was transcribed, the others being studied and found to contain the same melody. The pitch of the first whistle was a semitone lower than the transcription. The pitch of the third was a whole tone higher than the transcription. The length of the whistle was the same, but the fingerholes were spaced differently. As shown in the portrait of Robert Henry blowing the whistle (pl. 20, fig. 2), the first finger of each hand was placed over a sound hole, the middle finger of the player's left hand being placed between the two sound holes.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Choctaw; Mississippi, January 1933; AFS 21265:14 -- whistle melodies (described as "flute playing" in Densmore's book, p. 130) by Robert Henry

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 10: Choctaw Whistle Melody. AFS 21265:#14. Frances Densmore Collection.

Transcription of Whistle Melody by Frances Densmore

Transcription of Whistle Melody by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Payne 2004-16] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Choctaw Story «REF». Solo flute, Choctaw culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:22.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 16.


Christian

[Rainer 1986-05] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Variation on "I Need Thee Every Hour". flute, Christian culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 2:45.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 5.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 5.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 5.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 5.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 5.

1Liner notes: Variation on a Hymn - "I Need Thee Every Hour".

2Track listing: I Need Thee Every Hour

3Track listing: Variation on "I Need Thee Every Hour"

4Track listing: I Need Thee Every Hour

5Track listing: I Need Thee Every Hour; with American Indian


[Cellicion 1990-08] Fernando Cellicion. How Great Thou Art. flute, Christian culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:51.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 1.


[Cellicion 1990-13] Fernando Cellicion. Jesus Loves Me. flute, Christian culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 1:45.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 6.


[Bludts 2000-06] Carl Bludts. Palms of Victory «REF». flute, Christian culture. Recorded 2000, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:54.
» Recording published in Feathered Pipe Memories — Solos for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2000]), track 6.

1Description in the songbook: Many great hymn tunes have passed in to the folk tradition, and are used a traditional airs, despite being composed as hymns. This beautiful hymn has been parodied by "Bawb" Dylan as Paths of Victory. I learned it from a guitar rendition by Martin Simpson.


[Payne 2004-12] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Alleluia «REF». Story and Solo Flute, Christian culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 3:07.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 12.


[Payne 2004-18] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Just a Closer Walk with Thee «REF». Solo flute, Christian culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 18.


[Payne 2004-19] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Revive Us Again «REF». Story and Solo Flute, Christian culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 5:33.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 19.


Comanche

[Comanche 1894] Unknown; James Mooney (collector) (1861–1921). Yellow Light from Sun Is Streaming. Solo flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1894, Length: 0:52.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 2, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 7.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 7.


[Nevaquaya 1976] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (performer) (1932–1996). Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land. Solo flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1976.
» Recording published in Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land (audio cassette [Nevaquaya 1976]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #13.
Bliven ID: Comanche 1


Doc Tate Nevaquaya

Doc Tate Nevaquaya Larger image

[Nevaquaya 1978] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996) (performer); Verna Gillis (producer); Bradford Graves (liner notes drawings). Comanche Moon Song. Solo flute, Comanche culture. Recorded July 1978, Length: 3:17.
» Recording published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), tracks 22 and 23.


[Nevaquaya 1979-01] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Comanche and English Greeting. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:30.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 1.


[Nevaquaya 1979-02] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). I Saw an Eagle Fly Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:10.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 2.


[Nevaquaya 1979-03] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). I Saw an Eagle Fly. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 3:13.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 3.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#12). Transcription on pages 142-143.


[Nevaquaya 1979-04] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Edmund Wayne Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:13.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 4.


[Nevaquaya 1979-05] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Edmund Wayne Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:29.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 5.


[Nevaquaya 1979-06] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Discussion of Flute. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 3:38.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 6.


[Nevaquaya 1979-07] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). When the Moon is Full Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:30.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 7.


[Nevaquaya 1979-08] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). When the Moon is Full. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 3:27.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 8.


[Nevaquaya 1979-09] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Comanche Riding Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 1:03.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 9.


[Nevaquaya 1979-10] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Comanche Riding Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:27.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 10.


[Nevaquaya 1979-11] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Flute Wind Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:39.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 11.


[Nevaquaya 1979-12] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Flute Wind Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:29.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 12.


[Nevaquaya 1979-13] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Omaha Wind Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:21.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 13.


[Nevaquaya 1979-14] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Omaha Wind Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:07.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 14.


[Nevaquaya 1979-15] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Richard FoolBull's Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:53.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 15.


[Nevaquaya 1979-16] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Richard FoolBull's Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 3:04.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 16.


[Nevaquaya 1979-17] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Riding Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:34.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 17.


[Nevaquaya 1979-18] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). If You Really Loved Me Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:53.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 18.


[Nevaquaya 1979-19] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). If You Really Loved Me. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:10.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 19.


[Nevaquaya 1979-20] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Jesus I Always Want to be Near to You Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:41.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 20.


[Nevaquaya 1979-21] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Jesus I Always Want to be Near to You. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:28.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 21.


[Nevaquaya 1979-22] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Comanche Moon Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:33.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 22.


[Nevaquaya 1979-23] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Comanche Moon Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:44.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 23.


[Nevaquaya 1979-24] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Round Dance Song Introduction. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 0:14.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 24.


[Nevaquaya 1979-25] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); Verna Gillis (collector). Round Dance Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1979, Length: 2:03.
» Published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music (audio cassette, F-4328 [Nevaquaya 1979]).
» Published in Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio CD, SFW CD 50403 [Nevaquaya 2004]), track 25.


[Wapp 1982-04] Edward Wapp (died 2016). Horse-Back Riding Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#13). Transcription on page 144.


[Wapp 1982-05] Edward Wapp (died 2016). Modern Courting Song. Solo Flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#14). Transcription on page 145.


[Nevaquaya 1991-01] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Alan Govenar (recording and production); Nancy Lamb (editing and narration). Audio Biography. flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1991, Dallas, Texas, Length: 4:52.
» Recording published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio stream [Govenar 2016]), track 1.


[Nevaquaya 1991-02] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Alan Govenar (recording and production). Flute Solo 1. flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1991, Dallas, Texas, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio stream [Govenar 2016]), track 2.


[Nevaquaya 1991-03] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Alan Govenar (recording and production). Flute Solo 2. flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1991, Dallas, Texas, Length: 1:01.
» Recording published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio stream [Govenar 2016]), track 3.


[Nevaquaya 1991-04] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Alan Govenar (recording and production). Flute Solo 3. flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1991, Dallas, Texas, Length: 0:35.
» Recording published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio stream [Govenar 2016]), track 4.


[Nevaquaya 1991-05] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Alan Govenar (recording and production). Vocal Solo. vocal, Comanche culture. Recorded 1991, Dallas, Texas, Length: 0:56.
» Recording published in Doc Tate Nevaquaya (audio stream [Govenar 2016]), track 5.


[Bludts 1999-10] Carl Bludts. Comanche Hymn «REF». flute, Comanche culture. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:05.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 10.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from the playing of the late Doc Tate Nevaquaya. Doc plays this song on a diatonically tuned flute but we can get around this by using the fifth hole as the lowest note.
Tom Mauchaty Ware also has an interesting version of this song. See his Flute Songs of the Kiowa and Comanche (Indian House 2512).


[Payne 1999-08] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Comanche Hymn «REF». Solo flute, Comanche culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 8.


[Payne 2004-01] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Comanche Hymn «REF». Solo flute, Comanche culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:13.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 1.


Copper Eskimo

[Anivyunna 1915] Anivyunna; Diamond Jenness (collector) (1886–1969). To Quiet a Raging Storm. Solo flute, Copper Eskimo culture. Recorded 1915, Bernard Harbor, Length: 0:31.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 1, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 3.


Cree

[Loon 1975-01] Morley Loon (1948–1986) (vocal); R. Daignault (flute); J. Kelly (percussion). Agajee Dona Nooch «Nie mehr jagen / To Hunt No More». Vocal, Flute, and percussion, Cree culture. Recorded before 1975, Length: 4:07.
» Recording published in Cree Songs Composed and Sung by Morley Loon (33⅓ rpm 7" vinyl audio disc, QCS-1302 [Loon 1975]), Side 1, Track 1.
» Recording published in O Du Mein Land Im Norden «Cette Terre du Nord Qui Est Mienne / The Northern Land That Is Mine / Oh, My Country in the North» (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, 11-143 [Loon 1981]), Side 1, Track 1.

The translation "To Hunt No More" is from the Weird Canada / Departures Revisited web site.


[Loon 1975-02] Morley Loon (1948–1986) (vocal); R. Daignault (flute); J. Kelly (percussion). Amendo Na Nooch «Compagnons et Frères / Companions and Brothers». Vocal, Flute, and percussion, Cree culture. Recorded before 1975, Length: 1:33.
» Recording published in Cree Songs Composed and Sung by Morley Loon (33⅓ rpm 7" vinyl audio disc, QCS-1302 [Loon 1975]), Side 1, Track 2.
» Recording published in O Du Mein Land Im Norden «Cette Terre du Nord Qui Est Mienne / The Northern Land That Is Mine / Oh, My Country in the North» (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, 11-143 [Loon 1981]), Side 1, Track 2.
» Recording archived at The Canadian Museum of Civilization1, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. MCH/CMH ARCHIVES : Sound Recordings DISC 3218.

¹On-line listing: Title: Cree songs composed and sung by Morley Loon [sound recordings]
Author: Loon, Morley.
Publisher / Date: [Toronto] : CBC Northern Service Recording, [1982?].
Description : 1 sound disc : analog, 33 1/3 r/min ; 18 cm.
Summary: Commercially released recording entitled "Cree songs composed and sung by Morley Loon." Other musicians include R. Daignault (flute) and J. Kelly (percussion). A CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) Northern Service Broadcast Recording.
Credits: Singer: Morley Loon ; flute: R. Daignault ; percussion: J. Kelly.
Language note: In Cree and English.
Control no.: 3218
Publisher no.: QCS-1302 (CBC Northern Service Recording)
Accession no.: AV2007-52


Creek

[Payne 1999-14] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Creek Stomp Dance «REF». Solo flute, Creek culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 14.


Crow

[Rainer 1986-04] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Crow Traditional Song. flute, Crow culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 1:39.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 4.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 4.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 4.

1Liner notes: Crow Style - a unique flute playing style with much use of grace notes and octave jumps, typical of the Crow Indians from Crow Agency, Montana.

2Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

3Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

4Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

5Track listing: Crow Traditional Song 1; with Crow Indian


[Rainer 1986-09] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Crow Traditional Song. flute, Crow culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 1:39.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 3.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 9.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 3.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 9.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 9.

1Liner notes: Crow Style, with contemporary accompaniment.

2Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

3Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

4Track listing: Crow Traditional Song

5Track listing: Crow Traditional Song 2; with Crow Indian


[Bludts 2003-09] Carl Bludts. Crow Style «REF». flute, Crow culture. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:30.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 9.

1Description in the songbook: The original version of this song can be hear on "Songs of the Indian Style Flute Vol 1" by John Rainer Jr.


Delaware

[Williams 1950] Charlton L. Williams; Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Peyote Song. Solo flute, Delaware culture. Recorded 1950, Oklahoma, Length: 0:56.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 6, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 17.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 31.

From the description of Canyon Records CR-6054 Peyote Ceremonial Songs: Since the mid-1800's an intertribal religion, the Native American Church has developed a philosophy and ritual around the use of the peyote cactus. The peyote ceremony of the Native American Church includes prayers and quiet meditative songs accompanied by a special rattle and water-drum.


Diegueno

[Coleman 1927] Kate Coleman; George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Wildcat Dance. Solo flute, Diegueno culture. Recorded 1927, Campo, California, Length: 1:16.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 3, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 9.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 9.


Diegueño

[Trinidad 1905-01] José Trinidad (likely performer); Constance Goddard Dubois (collector). Eagle Feather Skirt Dance 1. Solo flute, Diegueño culture. Recorded about 1905, Warner's Ranch, San José, California, Length: 2:09.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATM-54-113-F.
» Source Institution The American Museum of Natural History2, New York, NY.

High-pitched flute playing - barely audible.
Bliven ID: Diegueno 1

¹Archives of Traditional Music information: Archives of Traditional Music Library number 8789, track 1, .7a, shelf EC 10", item 386.51a-c. Original from 170 RPM, coarse groove, 2⅛" x 4¼" cylinders.
-------------------
From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 3: 54-113-F; EC10" 386 item 51c. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.

²AMNH record: American Museum of Natural History PR number 342. Eagle Feather Skirt Dance José Trinidad [?]. Cylinder strips: a) man speaking, b) man speaking, c) solo flute. Deposited at the Archives of Traditional Music by the American Museum of Natural History under Option 2.


[Trinidad 1905-02] José Trinidad (likely performer); Constance Goddard Dubois (collector). Eagle Feather Skirt Dance 2. Solo flute, Diegueño culture. Recorded about 1905, Warner's Ranch, San José, California, Length: 2:25.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATM-54-113-F.
» Source Institution The American Museum of Natural History2, New York, NY.

High-pitched flute - a bit clearer than track 1.
Bliven ID: Diegueno 2

¹Archives of Traditional Music information: Archives of Traditional Music Library number 8790, track 1, .1a, shelf EC 10", item 387.2a-d. Original from 170 RPM, coarse groove, 2⅛" x 4¼" cylinders.
-------------------
From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 4: 54-113-F; EC10" 387 item 2a-d. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.

²AMNH record: American Museum of Natural History PR number 344. Eagle Feather Skirt Dance José Trinidad [?]. Cylinder strips: a-d) solo flute. Deposited at the Archives of Traditional Music by the American Museum of Natural History under Option 2.


Flathead

[Flathead 1934] Unknown Flathead performer; Claude Everett Schaefer (collector). No title. flute, Flathead culture. Recorded 1934, Length: 3:18.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress1, Washington, DC. AFS11024:A1 (Song 1).
Bliven ID: Flathead 7

¹From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 16: Flathead Flute Melody. AFS 11024:A1 (Song 1). Claude Everett Schaefer Collection.


[BigSam 1950-01] Ellen Big Sam (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Sweathouse Song. vocal, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:36.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Side A, band 9.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 9.

1Liner notes: Side 1, Band 9: SWEATHOUSE SONG -- Sweating is a common practice among the Flathead. For this purpose a low framework of willow branches is covered with blankets or canvas, heated stones introduced into a special pit and covered with cold water while the
bather sings. This song, sung by Ellen Big Sam, is one of seven given her uncle by spirits in order to cure an eye affliction. In a vision he saw seven men, each of whom represented a part of the sweathouse -- the frame, the rocks, the stick used to pound the rocks while singing, the hole in which the rocks are placed, the fork used to bring the rocks inside, the grass strewn on the floor, the fire - - and each of whom taught him a song representing one of these parts. The singer cannot now remember which song is which.


[Charley 1950-01] Madeline Charley (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Life Song. vocal, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:52.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Side B, band 4.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 13.

1Liner notes: Side 2, Band 4: LIFE SONG -- Again an unusual song type among the Flathead, this is best described in the words of the informant who said that it "expresses a joy of living. " Sung by Madeline Charley, it is divided in the middle by a spoken section in which the singer says: "This is my heart as I travel all over; my spirit, my life and living." Musically the downward slurs between tones and as a release, as well as the diminuendo at the end of the song, are to be noted.


[Delaware 1950-01] John Delaware (performer); Alan P Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). No title. flute, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, Length: 1:23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. OT 6647.2.
Bliven ID: Flathead 5

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 26: 66-129-F, OT 6647, item 3. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Delaware 1950-02] John Delaware (performer); Alan P Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). No title. flute, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, Length: 2:15.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. OT 6647.1.
Bliven ID: Flathead 6

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 25: 66-129-F, OT 6647, item 2. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Finley 1950-01] Paul Finley (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Flathead Vocal Love Song. vocal, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 0:57.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Side A, band 4.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 11, page 189.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 4.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #36.

1Liner notes: Side 1, Band 4: LOVE SONG - - Love songs among the Flathead are more or less the personal property of the individual; such is the case with this song, sung by Paul Finley. He says about it: "There's two little marriage birds; you see them way down in the meadows, in the hay fields, in the grain fields. That's where they hang around in the summer. They're nice little birds. They sound lonesome when the sun is going down; they sing this song. I learned this from the marriage birds." The song is distinctly minor, and downward slurs both between two notes and in the release are used; upward slurs and releases do not occur. At the end of the song the singer says: "This is my own love song."


[Flathead 1950-01] Unknown Flathead performer; Alan P. Merriam (collector) (1923–1980). Song 7. flute, Flathead culture. Recorded 1950.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 7, page 182.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #M1.
Bliven ID: Flathead 3

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam Larger image


[Flathead 1950-02] Unknown Flathead performer; Alan P. Merriam (collector) (1923–1980). Song 8. flute, Flathead culture. Recorded 1950.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 8.
Bliven ID: Flathead 4

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam Larger image


[NinePipe 1950-01] Catherine Nine Pipe (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Flathead Vocal Love Song. vocal, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:36.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Side A, band 6.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 14, page 190.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 6.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #37.

1Liner notes: Side 1, Band 6: LOVE SONG -- This song, sung by Catherine Nine Pipe, was her mother's personal love song. In singing it the performer underwent a trying emotional experience, for it reminded her of her parents. Much of the deep emotion it elicited is apparent to the listener.


[Vanderburg 1950-01] Jerome Vanderburg (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Love Song A. Solo flute, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:28.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Track 5, part A.
» Instrument descriptions in Flathead Indian Instruments and Their Music ([Merriam-AP 1951]).
» Transcription and analysis in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 5, page 181.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 5, second half.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #49 (first part).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #18.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music2, Bloomington, IN. OT 6639.18.

Crawford recording has the **flute scale** at the end.
Bliven ID: Flathead 1 and 2

Excerpt from Love Song A (excerpt)

1Liner notes: Side 1, Band 5: LOVE SONGS, with Flageolet -- Among the Flathead, as among a good many other Indian tribes, the flageolet is virtually restricted to a repertoire of love songs. For the most part these songs are public property in the sense that anyone may play them; at the same time certain songs are known to be the property of the individual and, in some cases, songs of personal power are assigned to the flageolet. At present the techniques of construction and performance on the instrument are restricted to a small number of older men, a restriction due mainly to lack of interest among young men, which in turn is a source of bitterness to the traditionalists of the tribe. These two songs are played by Jerome Vanderburg on a flageolet made by the musician from a short piece of nickel tubing. The first is a song which the player "learned from the old timers" when he was "about sixteen or seventeen" (some 45 years ago); the second is a song with no special reference. Both are pitched in a pentatonic scale based on AB.

²From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 22: 66-129-F, OT 6639, items 18-19. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam Larger image


[Vanderburg 1950-02] Jerome Vanderburg (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Love Song B. Solo flute, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:28.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Track 5, part B.
» Instrument descriptions in Flathead Indian Instruments and Their Music ([Merriam-AP 1951]).
» Transcription and analysis in Ethnomusicology of the Flathead Indians ([Merriam-AP 1967]), Song 6, page 182.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 5, second half.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #49 (second part).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #17.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music2, Bloomington, IN. OT 6639.18.
Bliven ID: Flathead 1 and 2

Excerpt from Love Song B (excerpt)

1Liner notes: Side 1, Band 5: LOVE SONGS, with Flageolet -- Among the Flathead, as among a good many other Indian tribes, the flageolet is virtually restricted to a repertoire of love songs. For the most part these songs are public property in the sense that anyone may play them; at the same time certain songs are known to be the property of the individual and, in some cases, songs of personal power are assigned to the flageolet. At present the techniques of construction and performance on the instrument are restricted to a small number of older men, a restriction due mainly to lack of interest among young men, which in turn is a source of bitterness to the traditionalists of the tribe. These two songs are played by Jerome Vanderburg on a flageolet made by the musician from a short piece of nickel tubing. The first is a song which the player "learned from the old timers" when he was "about sixteen or seventeen" (some 45 years ago); the second is a song with no special reference. Both are pitched in a pentatonic scale based on AB.

²From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 22: 66-129-F, OT 6639, items 18-19. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam

Transcription by Alan P. Merriam Larger image


[Vanderburg 1950-03] Jerome Vanderburg (performer); Alan P. Merriam and Barbara W. Merriam (collectors). Flathead Lullaby. vocal, Flathead culture. Recorded Summer 1950, in the Arlee area of the Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana, Length: 1:28.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FW04445 [Merriam-AP 1953]), Side B, band 3.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Flathead Indians (audio CD, FE 4445 [Merriam-AP 2007]), Track 12.

I question whether there is not a second, uncredited singer, possibly Annie Vanderburg (who is credited as singing on other selections on this album).

1Liner notes: Side 2, Band 3: LULLABY -- The lullaby is not a song type frequently recognized among the Flathead as such; while songs are sung to soothe children there seems to be no direct translation of the word in Salish. This lullaby, sung by Jerome Vanderburg, is one which he learned from his father who in turn learned it from the wild doves. The melody is charming, the second section sung in high voice but not falsetto.


Fox

[Kipayo 1928-01] Lucile (IUCat says Oscar) Kipayo (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #24.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 772.18.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 4

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 7: 54-188-F, 12-676, Side A, Band 3. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Kipayo 1928-02] Lucile Kipayo (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). No title. Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #25.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Randle 772.19.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 5


[Kipayo 1928-03] Lucile Kipayo (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). No title. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Randle 772.20.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 6


[Kipayo 1928-04] Lucile Kipayo (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). No title. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #27.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Randle 772.21.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 7


[Kipayo 1928-05] Lucile Kipayo (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #28.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 772.22.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 8

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 8: 54-188-F, 12-676, Side B, Band 3. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-01] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Flute Solo 1. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #19.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.13.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 1-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 1: 54-188-F, ATL 766.13. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-02] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Vocal Solo 1. Vocal, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.15.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 1-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 2: 54-188-F, 12-657, Side B, Band 1. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-03] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Flute Solo 2. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #21.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.20.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 2-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 3: 54-188-F, 12-658, Side A, Band 1. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-04] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Vocal Solo 2. Vocal, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #22.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.21.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 2-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 4: 54-188-F, 12-658, Side A, Band 2. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-05] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Flute Solo 3. Solo flute, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.23.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 3-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 5: 54-188-F, 12-658, Side B, Band 1. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


[Poweshick 1928-06] Jim Poweshick (born 1859) (performer); Martha Champion Huot Randle (collector). Vocal Solo 3. Vocal, Fox culture. Recorded 1928.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Randle 766.24.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 3-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 6: 54-188-F, 12-658, Side B, Band 2. This CD contains signal-processed version of the source recordings.


Gabrielino

[Gabrielino 1933] Unknown Gabrielino performer; J. P. Harrington (collector). Song They Played on Flute. Gabrielino culture. Recorded 1933, San Gabriel and Soboba area, California.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS 20348:#2.

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
J.P. Harrington; Gabrielino; San Gabriel & Soboba area, California; 1933
AFS 20348:2 -- 2nd song of four on the cylinder is identified as "Song they played on flute" (text refers to burrowing owl)


Haida

[Haida 1942-01] Unknown Haida performer; Laura Boulton (collector) (1899–1980). Haida Love Song. vocal, Haida culture. Recorded likely 1941-1942, Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada, Length: 1:29.
» Recording published in The First Americans (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [SM 1971]), Side A, band 8.

Likely recorded 1941-1942 by Laura Boulton during the one trip to Canada listed in the Center Tape Index from the Ethno Center at Columbia University. She also provided the material in two films "People of the Potlatch (1944)" and "Totems (1944)".


[Williams-Davidson 2009] Terri-Lynn Williams-Davidson. Skidegate Love Song. vocal, Haida culture. Recorded 2009, Length: 3:04.
» Song may be transcribed in Northern Haida Songs, Illustrated Edition (hardcover [Enrico 1996]), Song 122.


Hidatsa

[Rainer 1990-05] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Hidatsa Contest Song. flute, Hidatsa culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 5.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 5.

1Liner notes: The pause towards the end of the song is an attempt to throw the dances off step. The dancer who can stop on the pause wins the contest. The song was taught to Mr. Ranier by the late Arlo Goodbear, a Mandan-Hidatsa.


[Burton-B 1993-04] Bryan Burton (born 1948). Hidatsa Dance Song. flute, Hidatsa culture. Recorded 1993?.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Description by Robert Damm: Burton (1993) includes a chapter on American Indian flute music, which tonatind three flute legends, description fo the flute, an explanation of playing style and technique, five transcribed songs with background information, and resources for recommended listening.


[Bludts 2003-06] Carl Bludts. Hidatsa Contest Song «REF». flute, Hidatsa culture. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:30.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 6.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from a cassette tape, "Songs of the Indian Flute Vol 2" by John Rainer Jr, who learned it from the late Arlo Goodbear, a Mandan Hidatsa.


Hopi

[Makawatiweh 1903] Makawatiweh; Natalie Curtis (collector). Flute Ceremony. Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded 1903, Oraibi, Arizona, Length: 1:07.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 2, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 6.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 20.


[Hopi 1906-01] Unknown Hopi performers; Otto Abraham (collector) (1872–1926). Liebesgesang mit Trommel, Händeklatschen und Fussstampfen «Love Song with Drums, Clapping and Foot Stomping». Vocal, Hopi culture. Recorded December 15, 1906, Length: 1:09.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 18, item 1 of the PDF on the CD-ROM; file Archiv_Hopi_1a.wav on the CD-ROM.
» Recording published in CD-Konvolut: Music! 100 Recordings «100 Years of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv 1990-2000» (set of audio CDs [Simon 2000]).
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin2, Berlin, Germany.

Note that the wikimedia version is called "Eagle Song".

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: This track is item 1a) from this list:
Dokumentation nach der im Haus verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste. Liste vollständig.
Hopi-Indianer Phonogramme, aufgenommen von Dr. Otto Abraham,
Berlin, d. I5. Dezember 1906.
1) Liebesgesang mit Trommel, Händeklatschen und Fussstampfen.
1 a) Wiederholung. (Schluss mit aufgenommen.)
---
Translation (Google Translate):
Documentation for the in-house written typewritten list. List is complete.
Hopi Indians phonograms, taken by Dr. Otto Abraham
Berlin, d. I5. December 1906.
1) love song with drums, hand clapping and foot stomping.
1 a) repetition. (No more was added.)

²SMB-digital database record: Archiv Hopi; Walzensammlung
Otto Abraham (1872-1926), Sammler; Aufnahmejahr: 1906
Aufnahmeort: Berlin, Circus Schumann
Kontinent: Nordamerika; Region: USA; Ethnie: Hopi [Moki]
Ident.Nr. VII WS 12
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description : Die originale Beschriftung der Walzen ist: AB HO. Ausführliche handschriftliche Dok. liegt vor. Die W. 7 wurde als Nr. 64 in die Demonstrationssammlung aufgenommen. Zeitungsnotiz im Berliner Tageblatt:Indianer in Berlin vom 17.12.1906: "Die bisher im Zirkus Schumann gastierenden Moki-Indianer waren einer Einladung der Ethnologischen Gesellschaft gefolgt und hatten sich mit ihrem Impresario Major Crager unter der Führung des Barons v. Hagen im Gebäude der Gesellschaft in der Dorotheenstraße eingefunden. Ungefähr 300 Gelehrte usw. hatten sich dort versammelt, um die Rothäute in Augenschein zu nehmen. Am Schluß der Vorstellung wurden die Kriegsgesänge der Indianer phonographisch aufgenommen, um sie auf diese Weise auch dem Kaiser vorführen zu können. Kaiser Wilhelm hatte den Wunsch geäußert, die Gesänge für seine Privatsammlung zu besitzen. Zum Dank für die Gefälligkeit der Indianer ließ der Kaiser jedem von ihnen eine kleine mit dem kaiserlichen Namenszug versehene Börse überreichen, in der sich fünf nagelneue Zwanzigmarkstücke befanden. Die Freude der Rothäute war groß. Sie steigerte sich noch, als die Ethnologische Gesellschaft jedem eine Kiste Zigarren und mehrere hundert Zigaretten zum Geschenk machte." Eine Transkription von W. 7 findet sich in Stumpf 1911, ebenso in Leden 1952. Es existieren Parallelaufnahmen der Fa. Favorite auf Schallplatten, dazu Briefwechsel.. W. 7 veröffentlicht auf LP 4175, W. 3 veröffentlicht auf CD 100 Jahre.

Archive Hopi; roll collection
Otto Abraham (1872-1926), collector, recording year: 1906
Location: Berlin, Circus Schumann
Continent: North America; Region: United States; Ethnicity: Hopi [Moki]
Ident.Nr. VII WS 12
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: The original caption of the rolls is: AB HO. Detailed handwritten doc is available. W. 7 was included as # 64 in the demonstration collection. Newspaper article in the Berliner Tageblatt: Indians in Berlin on 17/12/1906: "The date in the Circus Schumann Dovico Moki Indians were invited by the Ethnological Society followed and had her impresario Major Crager under the leadership of Baron von Hagen in the building society in the Dorotheenstrasse gathered. Approximately 300 scholars, etc. had gathered there to take the redskins inspected. at the end of the presentation the war songs of the Indians were phonographically added in order to be able to demonstrate to the Emperor in this way. had Kaiser Wilhelm expressed a desire to have the songs for his private collection. gratitude for the kindness of the Indians, the Emperor had each of them hand over a small bearing the imperial signature exchange in which there were five brand new twenty-mark pieces., the joy of the Redskins was great. you still increased when the Ethnological society every one box of cigars and cigarettes made ​​several hundred to the present. "A transcription of 7 W. Stumpf found in 1911, also in Leden 1952. There are parallel to Favorite shots from the company records, this correspondence .. W. 7 released on LP 4175, published on CD 100 W. 3 years.


[Hopi 1906-08] Unknown Hopi performers; Otto Abraham (collector) (1872–1926). Flötensolo mit Fusstreten, zum Schlangenanlocken «Solo Flute with Foot Kicking, to Attract Snakes». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded December 15, 1906, Length: 2:05.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 18, item 8 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. VII_W_1134_ARCHIV_HOPI_8.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: This is item 8 from this list:
Dokumentation nach der im Haus verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste. Liste vollständig.
Hopi-Indianer Phonogramme, aufgenommen von Dr. Otto Abraham,
Berlin, d. I5. Dezember 1906.
...
8) Flötensolo mit Fusstreten, zum Schlangenanlocken.
-------------
Translation (Google Translate):
Documentation for the in-house written typewritten list. List is complete.
Hopi Indians phonograms, taken by Dr. Otto Abraham
Berlin, d. I5. December 1906.
...
8) Solo flute with foot kicking, to attract snakes [Schlangen Anlocken].


[Hopi 1906-09] Unknown Hopi performers; Otto Abraham (collector) (1872–1926). Flötenskala «Flute Scale». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded December 15, 1906, Length: 2:40.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 18, item 9 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany. VII_W_1135_ARCHIV_HOPI_9.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: This is item 9 from this list:
Dokumentation nach der im Haus verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste. Liste vollständig.
Hopi-Indianer Phonogramme, aufgenommen von Dr. Otto Abraham,
Berlin, d. I5. Dezember 1906.
...
9) Flötenskala.
-------------
Translation (Google Translate):
Documentation for the in-house written typewritten list. List is complete.
Hopi Indians phonograms, taken by Dr. Otto Abraham
Berlin, d. I5. December 1906.
...
9) Flute Scale.


[Cellicion 1990-14] Fernando Cellicion. Hopi Buffalo Dance Song. flute, Hopi culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 4:08.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side B, Band 7.


[Payne 1999-19] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Hopi Lullaby (On Hopi Flute) «REF». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 19.


[Payne 1999-20] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Hopi Butterfly Dance «REF». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 20.


[Payne 1999-21] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Hopi Flute Song (Louis Ballard) «REF». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 21.


[Payne 2004-07] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Hopi Flute Story «REF». Solo flute, Hopi culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:22.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 7.


Hupa

[Goddard 1901] Unknown Hupa performer; Pliny Earle Goddard (collector) (1869–1928). Song and brief segment of flute playing. Vocal and Solo Flute, Hupa culture. Recorded 1901, Length: 1:34.
» Recording listed in A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology1 ([Keeling 1991]), page 201.
» Recording archived at The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, CA. item 24-1722.
» Information provided by The California Language Archive2. item 14102.

1Keeling 1991 listing: Series 28; Hupa (1901)
Hupa recordings collected by Pliny Earle Goddard in 1901 (24-1722 through 24-1731). Location unidentified.
24-1722 (14-1287)
Subject or Title: Song and brief segment of flute playing
Duration: 1'34"
Recording speed: 150

²California Language Archive listing: Performer unidentified. Distributed on California Indian Music Project, Northwest region, tape 5, side B. Original cylinder 14-1287. 150 speed.


Huron

The performers.
Plate 6 from
[Barbeau 1915]

The performers.
Plate 6 from
[Barbeau 1915] Larger image

[Johnson-C 1911-01] Catherine Johnson and Mary Kelley (performers); Marius Barbeau (collector). Flute Song. Vocal, Huron culture. Recorded 1911, Wyandotte, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, Length: 0:22.
» Background on the performers Huron and Wyandot Mythology, With an Appendix Containing Earlier Published Records1 ([Barbeau 1915]), page ix.
» Recording archived at The Canadian Museum of History2, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. III-H-125b (219).
Bliven ID: Huron/Wyandot 1

1Background on Catherine Johnson: Catherine Johnson (maiden name: Coon), of Wyandotte reservation, Oklahoma, is a half-breed Wyandot, of the Deer clan, and speaks Wyandot almost exclusively. Her personal name, in Wyandot, is Ya˘roña'awi' (she is sailing or floating in the sky). She was slightly over 60 years of age, in 1911. Her mother was Mary Coon, Ja˘hi'no', of the Deer clan, and her father Da˘ta'es, John Coon, of the Porcupine clan. Late Allen Johnson, sen., Sku'tac, of the Big Turtle clan, was her husband. Mrs. Johnson contributed a considerable number of the following myths and tales, which were mostly recorded in Wyandot text, subsequently translated with the help of interpreters. It seems that, in the course of the two seasons of field-work in Oklahoma, Mrs. Johnson visited many of her old acquaintances on the reservation with a view to refreshing her memory on a number of these tales, which she had at first almost forgotten.

²On-line catalog record: Title: Wyandotte (Huron) music - Flute song [sound recordings]
Publisher / Date: 1911
Description: 1 song.
Summary: Yatorecasta yanehetawe.
Performer / Participant: Catherine Johnson & Mary Kelley.
Notes: Title based on content.
Language note: In Iroquoian.
Other formats: Also available: CD-ROM2005-0007, CD-ROMmp3-2006-0004.
Provenance: Fonds Marius Barbeau.
Related material: See related manuscripts B-G-87.2.
Cultural group: Huron (Wyandotte)
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
Place of research: Wyandotte, Ottawa, Oklahoma, United States
Control no.: III-H-125b (219)
Previous no.: III-H-9T
Image no.: B-G-87.2.1
CD File no.: CD2005-0521-B-G-87.2.1
AU-CD2005-0007-004

Original notes of Marius Barbeau

Original notes of Marius Barbeau Larger image


Original notes of Marius Barbeau

Original notes of Marius Barbeau Larger image

[Johnson-C 1911-02] Catherine Johnson and Mary Kelley (performers); Marius Barbeau (collector). Lyric Flute Song. Vocal, Huron culture. Recorded 1911, Wyandotte, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, Length: 0:22.
» Background on the performers Huron and Wyandot Mythology, With an Appendix Containing Earlier Published Records1 ([Barbeau 1915]), page xi.
» Recording archived at The Canadian Museum of History2, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. III-H-126a (220).
Bliven ID: Huron/Wyandot 2

1Background on Mary Kelley: Mary Kelley (maiden name, Whitewing) is a half-breed Wyandot, of Wyandotte reservation, Oklahoma, and belongs to the Deer clan. Her Indian name is Te˘we'so' (always walking about). Mrs. Kelley's father, Jacob Whitewing, named Ronate'ka' (sky burning), was a member of the Small Turtle clan. Her services—mostly as interpreter—were utilized during the first season of field-work in Oklahoma, in 1911.

²On-line catalog record: Title: Wyandotte (Huron) music - Lyric flute song [sound recordings]
Publisher / Date: 1911
Description: 1 song.
Summary: Dekeha ayenotrakeso...
Performer / Participant: Catherine Johnson & Mary Kelley.
Notes: Title based on content.
Language note: In Iroquoian.
Other formats: Also available: CD-ROM2005-0007, CD-ROMmp3-2006-0004.
Provenance: Fonds Marius Barbeau.
Related material: See related manuscripts B-G-87.2.
Cultural group: Huron (Wyandotte)
Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
Seneca (Onodowaga)
Sénéca (Onodowaga)
Place of research: Ottawa, Oklahoma, United States
Control no.: III-H-126a (220)
Previous no.: III-H-10T
Image no.: B-G-87.2.1
B-G-87.2.2.220
CD File no.: CD2005-0521-B-G-87.2.1
CD2005-0521-B-G-87.2.2.220
AU-CD2005-0007-005


[Mills 1960] Alan Mills (1913–1977). The Huron Carol (Jesous Ahatonhia). Vocal, Huron culture. Recorded about 1960, Length: 3:45.
» Recording published in Canada's Story in Song1 (audio CD, FW03000 [Mills-A 1960]), Track 7.

Excerpt from The Huron Carol (Jesous Ahatonhia) (excerpt)

1PDF of liner notes from album FW 3000: The missionary was closely associated with the explorer and the trader in opening up the New World to French contacts. The first permanent Indian mission was established by the Recollet friars in 1615, and ten years later the first Jesuits
arrived.

The most famous of the Jesuit priests was Father Jean de Brebeuf. He spent some twenty-two years ministering to the Hurons, learning their language, preparing a grammar, and a dictionary, and translating the catechism into the Huron tongue.

In an effort to make the Christmas story real to his flock Father Brebeuf wrote the first Canadian Christmas carol. Using the tune of a sixteenth-century French carol, he interpreted the Nativity in terms the Indians would understand, speaking of Jesus as "the Great Spirit" and of the Wise Men as three chiefs . His carol was probably sung first in 1641 or 1642, and thereafter each Christmas until the fatal year of 1649.

In 1649 an Iroquois war party invaded Huronia, killing or driving out all the Hurons, and destroying the missions. Refusing to leave their flock at St. Joseph, Fathers Brébeuf and lalement were captured and died at the stake after enduring many hours of savage torture.

Some of the Hurons escaped to Lorette, near Quebec City, and there their descendants live to this day. They did not forget Father Brébeuf's carol, and about 1750 another Jesuit, Father de Villeneuve, heard them singing it and wrote it down. Then it was translated into French under the title “Jesus est né” and it is still sung in that form in Quebec. In 1926, a Canadian poet, J. E. Middleton, wrote the English words, which have become widely known.

Huron:
Estaiaron de tsonoué, Jesous ahatorulia.
Onna-ouadé oua d'oki n'ou ouanda skoua an tak.
An noujian skouatchi ho-tak, n'ou ouandi roun-ra chata,
Jesous ahatonhia, Jesous ahatonhia, Jesous ahatonhia.

French:
Chrétiens, prenez courage, Jésus Sauveur est né!
Du malin les ouvrages a jamais sont ruinés
Quand il chante merveille, aces troublants appas,
Ne pretez plus l'oreille: "Jésus et né: in excelsis gloria!"

English Version:
1. T'was in the moon of winter-time, when all the birds had fled,
That mighty Gitchi-Manitou sent angel choirs instead;
Before their light the stars grew dim, and wand'ring hunters heard the hymn:
"Jesus your King is born! Jesus is born! In excelsis gloria."
2. Within a lodge of broken bark the tender Babe was found,
A ragged robe of rabbit skin enwrapped His beauty 'round;
And as the hunter braves drew nigh, the angel song rang loud and high:
"Jesus your King is born! Jesus is born! In excelsis gloria!"
3. The earliest moon of winter-time is not so round and fair
As was the ring of glory on the helpless Infant there.
The chiefs from far before Him knelt with gifts of fox and beaver pelt.
"Jesus your King is born! Jesus is born! In excelsis gloria!"
4. "O children of the forest free, O sons of Manitou,
The Holy Child of earth and heaven is born today for you.
Come kneel before the radiant Boy Who brings you beauty, peace and joy.
"Jesus your King is born! Jesus is born! In excelsis gloria!"


Indianist

[Lieurance 1917-01] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963), Princess Watahwaso, and Hubert Small. Two Songs: Pa Pup Ooh and The Sacrifice. voice, flute, piano, Indianist culture. Recorded 1917, Length: 2:57.

First attempt was done 4/7/2015 in /Flutopedia_Music/UnivIowa but got no recordings out of it … Tried again 4/11-12/2017 and was able to fetch the recordings.

1from http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/tc/id/17/rec/16: Title Pa-pup-ooh; The sacrifice (Two Indian songs)
Creator - Performer Princess Watahwaso; Small, Hubert
Creator - Composer Lieurance, Thurlow, 1878-1963
Publisher Victor Talking Machine Company
Catalog Number Victor 18444-A
Date Original 1917
Description "Composer at the piano, flute by Hubert Small"--F. Crane's notes.
Chronological Subject 1910-1920
Type (DCMIType) Sound
Type (AAT) 78 rpm records
Type (IMT) mpeg
Digital Collection Traveling Culture - Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century
Iowa Sounds
Related Collections Records of the Redpath Chautauqua Collection (MsC 150) http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/traveling-culture/inventory/MSC150.html ; Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/chautauqua/
Contributing Institution University of Iowa. Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
Contributor Crane, Frederick
Note This digital collection of early sound recordings was compiled by Frederick Crane, Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. It features music and spoken word recordings of artists, bands, choral groups, and other “talent” affiliated with the Redpath Lyceum Bureau, an organization that booked cultural programming throughout much of the United States and Canada as part of the Chautauqua movement. For more information on Chautauqua, see http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/redpath.htm
Crane Compilation Number Cassette 06: Side A
Crane Track Number 03
Rights Management Material in the public domain. No restrictions on use.
Contact Information Contact Special Collections at The University of Iowa Libraries: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/sc/contact
Digitization Specifications bit rate 256kpbs; channels 2 (stereo); audio sample rate 44kHz
Duration 00:02:57
Date Digital 2007-10-23


[Lieurance 1917-02] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963), Princess Watahwaso, and Hubert Small. A Sioux Serenade. voice, flute, piano, Indianist culture. Recorded 1917, Length: 2:35.

First attempt was done 4/7/2015 in /Flutopedia_Music/UnivIowa but got no recordings out of it … Tried again 4/11-12/2017 and was able to fetch the recordings.

1from http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/tc/id/17/rec/16: Title A Sioux serenade
Creator - Performer Princess Watahwaso
Small, Hubert
Creator - Composer Lieurance, Thurlow, 1878-1963
Publisher Victor Talking Machine Company
Catalog Number Victor 18431-B
Date Original 1917
Description "Composer at the piano, flute by Hubert Small"--F. Crane's notes.
Chronological Subject 1910-1920
Type (DCMIType) Sound
Type (AAT) 78 rpm records
Type (IMT) mpeg
Digital Collection Traveling Culture - Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century
Iowa Sounds
Related Collections Records of the Redpath Chautauqua Collection (MsC 150) http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/traveling-culture/inventory/MSC150.html ; Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/chautauqua/
Contributing Institution University of Iowa. Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
Contributor Crane, Frederick
Note This digital collection of early sound recordings was compiled by Frederick Crane, Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. It features music and spoken word recordings of artists, bands, choral groups, and other “talent” affiliated with the Redpath Lyceum Bureau, an organization that booked cultural programming throughout much of the United States and Canada as part of the Chautauqua movement. For more information on Chautauqua, see http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/redpath.htm
Crane Compilation Number Cassette 06: Side A
Crane Track Number 02
Rights Management Material in the public domain. No restrictions on use.
Contact Information Contact Special Collections at The University of Iowa Libraries: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/sc/contact
Digitization Specifications bit rate 256kpbs; channels 2 (stereo); audio sample rate 44kHz
Duration 00:02:37
Date Digital 2007-10-23


[Lieurance 1917-03] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963), Princess Watahwaso, and Hubert Small. By the Waters of Minnetonka. voice, flute, piano, Indianist culture. Recorded 1917, Length: 2:22.

First attempt was done 4/7/2015 in /Flutopedia_Music/UnivIowa but got no recordings out of it … Tried again 4/11-12/2017 and was able to fetch the recordings.

1from http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/tc/id/17/rec/16: Title By the waters of Minnetonka
Creator - Performer Princess Watahwaso
Small, Hubert
Creator - Composer Lieurance, Thurlow, 1878-1963
Publisher Victor Talking Machine Company
Catalog Number Victor 18431-A
Date Original 1917
Description "Composer at the piano, flute by Hubert Small"--F. Crane's notes.
Geographic Subject Minnetonka, Lake (Minn.)
Chronological Subject 1910-1920
Type (DCMIType) Sound
Type (AAT) 78 rpm records
Type (IMT) mpeg
Digital Collection Traveling Culture - Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century
Iowa Sounds
Related Collections Records of the Redpath Chautauqua Collection (MsC 150) http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/traveling-culture/inventory/MSC150.html ; Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/chautauqua/
Contributing Institution University of Iowa. Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
Contributor Crane, Frederick
Note This digital collection of early sound recordings was compiled by Frederick Crane, Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. It features music and spoken word recordings of artists, bands, choral groups, and other “talent” affiliated with the Redpath Lyceum Bureau, an organization that booked cultural programming throughout much of the United States and Canada as part of the Chautauqua movement. For more information on Chautauqua, see http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/redpath.htm
Crane Compilation Number Cassette 06: Side A
Crane Track Number 01
Rights Management Material in the public domain. No restrictions on use.
Contact Information Contact Special Collections at The University of Iowa Libraries: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/sc/contact
Digitization Specifications bit rate 256kpbs; channels 2 (stereo); audio sample rate 44kHz
Duration 00:02:23
Date Digital 2007-10-23


[Lieurance 1929-01] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963). By the Waters of Minnetonka (Solo Indian flute). Solo flute, Indianist culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side A, Track 1.

Have only a transfer from the 1929 version done by Tom Duffield onto MP3s received 3/10/2016.


[Lieurance 1929-02] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963) and Clement Barone. By the Waters of Minnetonka (Flute and Piano). flute and piano, Indianist culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side A, Track 2.

Have only a transfer from the 1929 version done by Tom Duffield onto MP3s received 3/10/2016.


[Lieurance 1930-01] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963) and Princess Watahwaso (1883–1969). "Aooah" (Pueblo Indian love Song; "Her blanket" (Navajo Indian). voice, flute, piano, Indianist culture. Recorded 1930, Length: 3:24.

First attempt was done 4/7/2015 in /Flutopedia_Music/UnivIowa but got no recordings out of it … Tried again 4/11-12/2017 and was able to fetch the recordings.

1from http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/tc/id/17/rec/16: Title "Aooah" (Pueblo Indian love Song; "Her blanket" (Navajo Indian)
Creator - Performer Princess Watahwaso
Creator - Composer Lieurance, Thurlow, 1878-1963
Publisher RCA-Victor Company, inc.
Catalog Number Victor22316-B
Date Original 1930
Description "With piano and flute, electrical"--F. Crane's notes.
Chronological Subject 1930-1940
Type (DCMIType) Sound
Type (AAT) 78 rpm records
Type (IMT) mpeg
Digital Collection Traveling Culture - Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century
Iowa Sounds
Related Collections Records of the Redpath Chautauqua Collection (MsC 150) http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/traveling-culture/inventory/MSC150.html ; Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/chautauqua/
Contributing Institution University of Iowa. Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
Contributor Crane, Frederick
Note This digital collection of early sound recordings was compiled by Frederick Crane, Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. It features music and spoken word recordings of artists, bands, choral groups, and other “talent” affiliated with the Redpath Lyceum Bureau, an organization that booked cultural programming throughout much of the United States and Canada as part of the Chautauqua movement. For more information on Chautauqua, see http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/redpath.htm
Crane Compilation Number Cassette 06: Side A
Crane Track Number 06
Rights Management Educational use only, no other permissions given. U.S. and international copyright laws may protect this digital object. Commercial use or distribution is not permitted without prior permission of the copyright holder.
Contact Information Contact Special Collections at The University of Iowa Libraries: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/sc/contact
Digitization Specifications bit rate 256kpbs; channels 2 (stereo); audio sample rate 44kHz
Date Digital 2007-10-23


[Lieurance 1930-02] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963) and Princess Watahwaso (1883–1969). By the Weeping Waters (Chippewa Indian mourning song). voice, flute, piano, Indianist culture. Recorded 1930, Length: 2:07.

First attempt was done 4/7/2015 in /Flutopedia_Music/UnivIowa but got no recordings out of it … Tried again 4/11-12/2017 and was able to fetch the recordings.

1from http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/tc/id/17/rec/16: Title By the weeping waters (Chippewa Indian mourning song)
Creator - Performer Princess Watahwaso
Creator - Composer Lieurance, Thurlow, 1878-1963
Publisher RCA-Victor Company, inc.
Catalog Number Victor 22316-A
Date Original 1930
Description "With piano and flute, electrical"--F. Crane's notes.
Chronological Subject 1930-1940
Type (DCMIType) Sound
Type (AAT) 78 rpm records
Type (IMT) mpeg
Digital Collection Traveling Culture - Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century
Iowa Sounds
Related Collections Records of the Redpath Chautauqua Collection (MsC 150) http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/traveling-culture/inventory/MSC150.html ; Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/chautauqua/
Contributing Institution University of Iowa. Libraries. Special Collections Dept.
Contributor Crane, Frederick
Note This digital collection of early sound recordings was compiled by Frederick Crane, Professor of Music at the University of Iowa. It features music and spoken word recordings of artists, bands, choral groups, and other “talent” affiliated with the Redpath Lyceum Bureau, an organization that booked cultural programming throughout much of the United States and Canada as part of the Chautauqua movement. For more information on Chautauqua, see http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/redpath.htm
Crane Compilation Number Cassette 06: Side A
Crane Track Number 05
Rights Management Educational use only, no other permissions given. U.S. and international copyright laws may protect this digital object. Commercial use or distribution is not permitted without priorpermission of the copyright holder.
Contact Information Contact Special Collections at The University of Iowa Libraries: http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/sc/contact
Digitization Specifications bit rate 256kpbs; channels 2 (stereo); audio sample rate 44kHz
Duration 00:02:08
Date Digital 2007-10-23


Inoca

Transcription from
[Martin-F 1861]

Transcription from
[Martin-F 1861] Larger image

[Kirts 2005] Jamie Kirts. A Song of the Inoca Calumet Ceremony. Vocal, Inoca culture. Recorded 2005, Parkland College, Champaign, Illinois, Length: 1:36.
» Recording published in Inoca (Ilimouec, Illinois, Illini, Peoria) Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1667-17001 ([Stelle 2005] Inoca (Ilimouec, Illinois, Illini, Peoria) Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation,  1667-1700), sub-page titled: Father Marquette's Song of the Calumet.
» Transcription published in Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610—1791, Volume 59: Lower Canada, Illinois, Ottawas 1667—16692 ([Thwaites 1899]), pages 310-311.
» Transcription published in Relations Inédites de la Nouvelle-France, 1672-1679, Pour Faire Suite aux Anciennes Relations, 1615-1672 «Canada's Missions: Untold Relations of New France, 1672-1679, In Response to Former Relations, 1615-1672», In Two Volumes3 ([Martin-F 1861]), Volume 2, page 273.

Performer is spelled "Jamie Kirts" on the web page, but "Jamie Kirtz" in the ID tags in the MP3 file. Recording date of 2005 from the MP3 ID tags.

1Web page text: A song of the Calumet ceremony of the Inoca. Father Jacques Marquette in 1673 includes the first stanza in his journal. Thwaites (Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Vol. LIX, 1899: 310-311) provides the score and completing words in a footnote.

Marquette indicates that songs were employed during the "first scene" of a three scene ceremony. He was taught the songs, the dance, and was given a pipe by the inhabitants of the first Inoca (Peoria) village he encountered. The village was located along the Des Moines River in southeastern Iowa. The gift was intended to offer him protection in his dealings with the Nations that he would subsequently encounter along the Mississippi River. It was to prove its worth many times over.

Jamie Kirts, an Anthropology 101 student at Parkland College, performs the song. Bear in mind that it has not been heard in almost 330 years and many questions remain regarding how it should "sound." Ms. Kirts lowered it one octave (that her voice might reach the higher notes) and took a moderate cadence. The result is a rather soft, lyrical melody described by one listener as sounding rather like Ojibwa religious music. Contemporary Native American music often employs falsetto voice and a rapid drum beat. Honestly, the correspondence of this iteration to the character of the original sound remains unknown.

2Liner notes: Martin, in Douniol edition (t. ii., p. 273), gives the entire chant (of which but one sentence is found in the Montreal MS.), with both words and musical notation. He gives as his authority "a manuscript preserved by the Jesuits, at Paris, in which appear the notation of the song in the calumet dance, and the beginning of the seventh section." The song is as follows: [image of song transcription]

Cf. illustrated description of calumet dance, as practiced among the Omaha Indians, given in U. S. Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1881-82, pp. 276-282.

3Liner notes: Voici quelqu'une des chansons qu'ils ont coutume de chanter ; ils leur donnent un certain ton qu'on ne peut assez exprimer par la note, qui néanmoins en fait toute la grâce.

[Google Translate:] Here is one of the songs they are accustomed to singing; they give them a certain tone that one can fairly express the note, which nevertheless makes all grace.


Iroquois

[Buck 1941] Joshua "Billy" Buck; William N. Fenton (collector) (1908–2005). Dream Song. Solo flute, Iroquois culture. Recorded 1941, Ohsweken, Ontario, Canada, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 2, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 5.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 19.


[Sundown 1959] Corbett Sundown; Wallace L. Chafe (collector). Drum Dance. Solo flute, Iroquois culture. Recorded 1959, Tonawanda Reservation, Bascom, New York, Length: 0:36.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 5, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 12.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 12.


Karuk

[Karuk 1926-01] Unknown Karuk performer; Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Song of the Eel. Vocal, Karuk culture. Recorded 1926, Length: 1:33.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress1, Washington, DC. AFS19875:#4.
Bliven ID: Karuk 1

¹From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 17: Karuk Song of the Eel. AFS 19875:#4. Helen Heffron Roberts Collection.


[Maddux 1926-01] Phoebe Maddux (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Flute Tune Sung. Vocal, Karuk culture. Recorded 1926, Orleans, California.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS19874:#2.

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Karuk; Orleans, California; 1926
AFS 19874:2 -- 2nd of 7 songs on cylinder labeled "flute tune sung by Phoebe [Maddux]"


[Maddux 1926-02] Phoebe Maddux (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Flute Tune. Vocal, Karuk culture. Recorded 1926, Orleans, California, Length: 0:57.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS19881:#2 (Song 1).

The Library of Congress recording does seem to be a vocal melody … it may be Maddux 1926-01. Beautiful melody!
Bliven ID: Karuk 2

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Karuk; Orleans, California; 1926
AFS 19881:2 -- 1st 2 of the 9 items on the cylinder labeled "flute tune" and "repetition" (also by Phoebe Maddux)

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 18: Karuk Flute Tune. AFS 19881:#2 (Song 1). Helen Heffron Roberts Collection.


[Maddux 1926-03] Phoebe Maddux (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Flute Tune. Vocal, Karuk culture. Recorded 1926, Orleans, California, Length: 1:24.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS19881:#2 (Song 2).

Repitition of [Karuk 1926-02]
Bliven ID: Karuk 3

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Karuk; Orleans, California; 1926
AFS 19881:2 -- 1st 2 of the 9 items on the cylinder labeled "flute tune" and "repetition" (also by Phoebe Maddux)

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 19: Karuk Flute Tune. AFS 19881:#2 (Song 2: Repetition of song on Track 18). Helen Heffron Roberts Collection.


Kiowa-Comanche

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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-01] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Kiowa Flag Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:11.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 1.

1Liner Notes: This song is sung during Indian events to honor our colors and the country we love.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-02] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Canyon Riding Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 1:43.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 2.

1Liner Notes: This is the kind of song that is sung while riding, before actual courting begins. (He doesn't really have the one he loves yet, but he hopes that he will someday.)


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-03] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Kiowa Love Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:10.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 3.

1Liner Notes: This is one of the songs derived from a dream of an elderly man speaking to Mauchahty-Ware in Kiowa.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-04] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Kiowa Love Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 1:50.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 4.

1Liner Notes: This song was played from time to time by the Late Steve Mopope.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-05] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Hummingbird Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 1:43.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 5.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#18) on the accompanying tape. Transcription on page 149.

1Liner Notes: The flight and fast wings of the tiny hummingbird inspired the composing of this song.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-06] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Mauchahty Courting Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:10.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 6.

1Liner Notes: The old man in the dreams sang this song and said, "It's yours."


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-07] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Forty-nine Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 1:54.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 7.

1Liner Notes: This song is dedicated to all the late night dancers. The song has English words which say, "Come up and see me sometime."


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-08] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Courting Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 1:59.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 8.

1Liner Notes: This song is used for round dance and two-step nowadays. The older people say that if you round dance or two-step with our husband or wife, you are jealous.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-09] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Love Song of the Birds. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:24.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 9.

1Liner Notes: This song was inspired by watching and listening to many birds gathered in a large tree. Two birds of a dark color sat facing each other. The larger bird (male) with brighter color in the winds sang a beautiful tune as if courting the female, then flew away with the smaller (female) in close pursuit.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-10] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). War Dance Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:00.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 10.

1Liner Notes: When this song is sung in Kiowa, the words are:
I like this song. This is the one.
I'm glad to hear this song.
It's good that I still hear this song.
I dedicate this song to Barney Oheltoint.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-11] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Comanche Prayer Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:31.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 11.

1Liner Notes: When sung, the Comanthe words are as follows, translated by Pearl Pewo Ware:
Jesus is calling us to the good and kind home,
and telling us to hurry.
And I heard that when our world turns over (ends),
we'll wake up to a world of flowers (Paradise),
And you'll always live in that place.
That's what He said.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-12] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Comanche Prayer Song. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 2:30.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 12.

1Liner Notes: My Master, Jesus, I wan to always be near You.
You must lead me on this earth, always.
Lead me in happiness each day.
On that love that He has for me,
let me always live that way.


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[Mauchahty-Ware 1978-13] Tom Mauchahty-Ware (performer) (1949–2015). Memorial Song to our Forefathers. Solo flute, Kiowa-Comanche culture. Recorded June 1, 1978, Hog Creek, Oklahoma, Length: 3:12.
» Published in Flute Songs Of The Kiowa and Comanche1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, IH 2512 [Mauchahty-Ware 1978]), Track 13.

1Liner Notes: Comanches call this song Adobe Walls, as it is from the Battle of Adobe Walls in which many died. Many of our forefathers of all tribes are forgotten. They left us a very rich heritage to remember them by. We must follow in their footsteps so we'll always be proud Native Americans.


Kiowa

Belo Cozad image from
a postcard, courtesy
of Eric Kalita

Belo Cozad image from
a postcard, courtesy
of Eric Kalita Larger image

[Cozad 1941-01] Belo Cozad (1864–1950) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Kiowa Story of the Flute. Story and Solo Flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded Summer 1941, Riverside Indian School, Anadarko, Oklahoma, Length: 3:59.
» Recording published in Library of Congress: A Treasury of Library of Congress Field Recordings1 (CD 1500 [Wade 1997]), Track 30.
» Recording originally published in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L39 [Rhodes 1954c]), Side A, band 10.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song ([Korson 1969]), page 301.
» Description in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1982] Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 14.
» Description in The Beautiful Music All Around Us: Field Recordings and the American Experience3 ([Wade 2012]), page 12.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #15 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 146.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #45.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #14.
Bliven ID: Kiowa 1 and 2

1Liner notes provided by Rounder Records: Spoken and played on the flute by Belo Cozad. Recorded by Willard Rhodes in Anadarko, Oklahoma, summer 1941.
This story by the renowned Kiowa flute maker Belo Cozad (1874-1950) provides another look at the folk process from a non-European American perspective. In his story Cozad establishes a kinship that he now extends to his audience, Indians and others alike. His evident willingness to share a precious musical heritage with society in general – “And keep it, keep it as long as you live” – is a healthy contrast to the balkanization of so much current thought and effort in cultural matters.
Many of the Archive’s field notes reflect the comments of performers on how they first took up their instrument or otherwise relate the special events that caused them to become musicians. In this recording Belo Cozad describes an ancestor who went up on a mountain and, after four days, received this music from a spirit. Subsequently, Cozad himself received that music as a gift. The piece he plays on his handmade cedar flute is rooted in that particular experience.
Cozad’s account is not as exotic as it might at first seem. W.E. Claunch’s daughter said of her father’s abilities: “It was just a natural talent God had given Daddy.” Katherine Shipp also spoke of her mother, Mary, whose aptitude for composition came as a “revealin’ to her.” Time and again musicians have attributed their music as coming from spiritual powers or from someone they admire. Either way, the transfer of music in the human community proceeds by gift. And this Belo Cozad articulates with heartwarming grace.

2Liner notes: Belo Cozad was a famous Kiowa flute maker and a gentleman of great charm. We are fortunate to have his playing and his story of the flute as recorded in Anadarko, Oklahoma, in the summer of 1941. I have transcribed his speech as it appears on the record without attempting to edit or correct his English. I believe the warm, lovable personality of the man manifests itself in his voice.

I glad to met you, brother, and I want tell you something about myoId, old lifetime to-far, far[?] back, you know. And, eh, I'm a Kiowa tribe; my daddy he's the chief of the 'Pache Indian. And he's the first one went to Washington City see the Uncle Sam, and a lot ofKiowas went out with him, and, eh, they all die out, and I'm only one living-Qldest one living today. I am seventy-seven years old now. I'm pretty old. A.nd, eh, I like to, to-to-to give you some kind of news said [?] about this music, music I got, you know. And if you like it, I gon' fetch it up for you, sing, sing for you, and you, you could have that long as you live. And, eh, remember me and tell all your friends that, that I, that you saw me right here at this Riverside Indian School. I like to play music for you and to put good song that, that I know myself-I made it myself-good song that I gonna put it in for you. And keep it just long as you live. I got this music from way back in, in, eh, Montana. One of the poor boy, he, he ain't got no home, and he went up on the mountain and stayed out four nights there, and he learn-ed, learned this music and got it-he got it from some kind of spirit that give it-He give it to him, show him to make it this way and make it good music. And keep it, keep it long as you live and you make you good living. Because these trees is, eh, good, good · trees. We call cedar trees. Cedar. Cedar trees. It's a great tree, you know, and that's where he got this, you know. He's an orphan boy, he ain't got no home. From now on hegot-t h{s music and he's come into well-off. He got, got welloff womans and good home. He has well-off boys, and he got raising children, and today, today, I think that I am the one of 'em. Because that children grown up and just keeping coming and coming, and today I think we, we raise from that, you know. I'm gonna play it for you, to you. I want you to hear good.

3Liner notes: … Kiowa Indian Belo Cozad playing a cedar flute he carved himself. In the summer of 1941, during a recording he made at the Riverside Indian School in Anadarko, Oklahoma, Belo told how his tune came about. Before he played it, he described an ancestor who went up on a mountain and after four days received this music as a gift. Subsequently it transferred to Belo. Recounting this saga to the ethnomusicologist recording him, he says "Keep it. Keep it as long as you live." Belo is giving this stranger operating a disc machine a place in a precious musical heritage.


[Cozad 1941-02] Belo Cozad (1864–1950) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Kiowa Vocal Love Song. Vocal, Kiowa culture. Recorded Summer 1941, Anadarko, Oklahoma.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L39 [Rhodes 1954c]), Side B, Band 1a.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song ([Korson 1969]), page 301.
» Description in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture1 ([Rhodes 1982] Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 15.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #15 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 146.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #47.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #35.

Vocal version of [Cozad 1941-03]
Bliven ID: Kiowa 3-V

1Liner notes: Love songs were not only sung with words but were played on the flute, which was regarded as a courting instrument. After singing the song, which is addressed to his wife, Ema, Bela Cozad plays the melody on the flute.
Ema, come here,
I want to tell you something.
Hurry up, come here.
Ema, come here,
I want to ask you something.
Hurry up, come here.


Belo Cozad image from
a postcard, courtesy
of Eric Kalita

Belo Cozad image from
a postcard, courtesy
of Eric Kalita Larger image

[Cozad 1941-03] Belo Cozad (1864–1950) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Kiowa Love Song. Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded Summer 1941, Anadarko, Oklahoma.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L39 [Rhodes 1954c]), Side B, Band 1b.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song ([Korson 1969]), page 301.
» Description in Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1982] Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 15.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #15 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 146.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #46.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #15.

Flute version of [Cozad 1941-02]
Bliven ID: Kiowa 3-F

1Liner Notes: Love songs were not only sung with words but were played on the flute, which was regarded as a courting instrument. After singing the song, which is addressed to his wife, Ema, Bela Cozad plays the melody on the flute.

Ema, come here,
I want to tell you something.
Hurry up, come here.
Ema, come here,
I want to ask you something.
Hurry up, come here.

2Liner notes: Love songs were not only sung with words but were played on the flute, which was regarded as a courting instrument. After singing the song, which is addressed to his wife, Ema, Bela Cozad plays the melody on the flute.
Ema, come here,
I want to tell you something.
Hurry up, come here.
Ema, come here,
I want to ask you something.
Hurry up, come here.


[Anquoe 1963] Kenneth Anquoe. Kiowa Gourd Dance. Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded 1963, Length: 1:16.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 6, #4.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 19.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 33.


[Cozad-E 1964] Everett Cozad. Kiowa Melody. Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded 1964.
» Brief description in Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 28.
» Published in Kiowa Indian Love Call (SC 248 [Cozad-E 1964]), Side B.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #16.

Recording is an example of the warble, according to [Crawford 2006].
Bliven ID: Kiowa 4


[Burton-B 1993-09] Bryan Burton (born 1948). Kiowa Love Song. flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded 1993?.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Description by Robert Damm: Burton (1993) includes a chapter on American Indian flute music, which tonatind three flute legends, description fo the flute, an explanation of playing style and technique, five transcribed songs with background information, and resources for recommended listening.


[Payne 1999-04] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Kiowa Love Song «REF». Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 4.


[Payne 1999-06] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Kiowa Love Song «REF». Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 6.


[Payne 1999-09] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Kiowa Hymn «REF». Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 9.


[Payne 1999-10] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Belo's Song «REF». Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 10.


[Payne 2004-10] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). El Tajin Story and Kiowa Hymn «REF». Solo flute, Kiowa culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:13.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 10.


Kwakiutl

[Yagalnala 1893] Yagalnala (performer); Franz Boas (collector) (1858–1942). The Kwakiutl Indian Yagalnala singing at a Potlatch. Vocal, Kwakiutl culture. Recorded 1893, Chicago World's Fair 1893, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, Length: 2:48.
» Recording published in MusikWeltKarte — Der Edison-Phonograph und die musikalische Kartographie der Erde «The World Map of Music - The Edison Phonograph and the Musical Cartography of the Earth»1 (CD-ROM [Wegner 2007]).

1Notes from the application on the CD-ROM: The Kwakiutl Indian Yagalnala singing at a Potlach. Cylinder recording: Franz Boas. Collection "Boas Kwakiutl", cylinder 67. Chicago World's Fair, 1893, Vancouver Island British Columbia, Canada


[Assu 1947] Billy Assu (1867–1965); Ida Halpern (collector) (born 1914). Raven Song. Solo flute, Kwakiutl culture. Recorded 1947, Cape Mudge, British Columbia, Canada, Length: 1:26.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 1, #2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 2.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 2.


Laguna

[Cellicion 1988-04] Fernando Cellicion. Laguna Butterfly Song. flute, Laguna culture. Recorded 1988, Length: 3:42.
» Recording published in The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5060 [Cellicion 1988]), Side A, Band 4.


Lakondo

[Payne 1999-15] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Lancondon Lament «REF». Solo flute, Lakondo culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 15.


Lakota

[Horncloud 1971-11] William Horncloud (1905–1988) (performer); Raymond Boley and Mary Boley (collectors). Lakota Love Song. Vocal, Lakota culture. Recorded July 1971, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 3:45.
» Recording published in Sioux Songs of War and Love1 (78 rpm 12" audio disc, ARP-6150 [ARP 1971]), Side B, band 4.
» Recording published in Sioux Songs of War and Love2 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, CR-6150 [CR 1976]), Side B, band 4.
» Recording published in Traditional Lakota Songs3 (audio CD, CR-6150 [CR 1998a]), Track 11.

Note that this recording is 3:45 on [ARP 1971] and reported as 3:51 (iTunes) or 4:27 (Canyon Records web site) on [CR 1998a].

1Liner notes: Title: Love Song 3
The next four songs deal with love and courtship. The first three are called Love Songs (Wioste olawan) and the fourth is a Round dance (Naslohan Wacipi) danced by men and women. Love is a favorite theme of songs composed after the turn of the century. Love songs are characterized by a woman bemoaning her sadness over an unsuccessful love affair. Although men always sing love songs, they sing the words of women. Love songs are sometimes humorous, but most often they reflect the sadness of unrequited love.
Translation: Why did you say those things?
And I suffered so.
I suffered so.
Why did you say those things?
And I suffered so.
If I can't have you on earth,
I'll have you above.
Pity me.
And don't make me suffer anymore.

2Liner notes: Title: Love Song

3Liner notes: Title: Love Song


[Nakai 1982-02] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Love Song. Solo Flute, Lakota culture. Recorded 1982.
» Published in Native American Flute Music (audio cassette, NAMF1 [Nakai 1982]), Side B, Band 7.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#23). Transcription on pages 156-157.


[Nakai 1983-03] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Wioste Olowan Toki Ya. flute, Lakota culture. Recorded 1983, Length: 1:57.
» Recording published in Changes1 (CR-615 [Nakai 1983]), Track 3.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race2 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 56-58 and 82.

"Wiö'weśte Olo'waŋ" ([Densmore 1918], page 509) and "Wiówešte Olówaŋ" (lakotadictionary.org, retrieved 6/15/2016) = "Love Song" in Lakota Sioux.

1Liner notes: Wioste Olowan Toki Ya (1:50), a teasing song, and Wioste Olowan Inkpa Ta-Ya (2:43), a lullaby, are arrangements of Lokota melodies. Nakai found these melodies in a study by ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore.

2Liner notes: Sung by Capa-Tanka (Big Beaver, Frank Goings)


[Nakai 1983-07] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Wioste Olowan Inkpa Ta-Ya. flute, Lakota culture. Recorded 1983, Length: 2:51.
» Recording published in Changes1 (CR-615 [Nakai 1983]), Track 7.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race2 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 56-58 and 83.

"Wiö'weśte Olo'waŋ" ([Densmore 1918], page 509) and "Wiówešte Olówaŋ" (lakotadictionary.org, retrieved 6/15/2016) = "Love Song" in Lakota Sioux.

1Liner notes: Wioste Olowan Toki Ya (1:50), a teasing song, and Wioste Olowan Inkpa Ta-Ya (2:43), a lullaby, are arrangements of Lokota melodies. Nakai found these melodies in a study by ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore.

2Liner notes: Sung by Capa-Tanka (Big Beaver, Frank Goings)


[Burton-B 1993-11] Bryan Burton (born 1948). Lakota Courting Song. flute, Lakota culture. Recorded 1993?.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Description by Robert Damm: Burton (1993) includes a chapter on American Indian flute music, which tonatind three flute legends, description fo the flute, an explanation of playing style and technique, five transcribed songs with background information, and resources for recommended listening.


[Bludts 1999-01] Carl Bludts. Sleep Little One Sleep «REF». flute, Lakota culture. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:37.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 1.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this tune from the playing of Kevin Locke. Kevin plays this tune on his CD Keepers of the Dream (EarthBeat Records). Kevin bases his flute arrangements on vocal songs; he learns the vocal rendition first and then adapts it to the flute. The Lakota words to this song are simple: abu, bebe, abu, bebe.


[Locke 2015-01] John Coloff (1880–1954) (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Hé Miyé Ye. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 6:27.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 1.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: John Coloff


[Locke 2015-02] William Horncloud (1905–1988) (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Tákuwe Oyáglakiŋ Na Iyótiyewakiye?. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 5:30.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 2.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: William Horn Cloud


[Locke 2015-03] John Coloff (1880–1954) (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Howókawiŋh Waú We. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 5:52.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 3.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: John Coloff


[Locke 2015-04] William Horncloud (1905–1988) (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Očhíčihiŋyiŋ Kte. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 5:44.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 4.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: William Horn Cloud


[Locke 2015-05] Ben Black Bear Sr. (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Yaú Čháŋna Iyápi Óta Ye. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 4:57.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 5.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: Ben Black Bear Sr.


[Locke 2015-06] Ben Black Bear Sr. (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Amáphe Nážiŋ Yé. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 5:07.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 6.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: Ben Black Bear Sr.


[Locke 2015-07] Eli Taylor (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Napé Mayúza Yé. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 7:21.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 7.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: Eli Taylor


[Locke 2015-08] William Horncloud (1905–1988) (composer and performer); Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather (performers). Nióiye Wéksuye. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 6:40.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 8.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: William Horn Cloud


[Locke 2015-09] Kevin Locke (born 1954) and Douglas Good Feather (performers); Madonna Beard (composer). Théhaŋ Níŋ Kte. flute, Lakota culture, Length: 6:11.
» Recording published in Lightning & Wind1 ([Locke 2015]), Track 9.

1iTunes M4A Metadata: Composer: Madonna Beard


Luiseño

[Siva 2004 07] Ernest H. Siva. Song of the Islands - Flute. Solo Flute, Luiseño culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:37.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 7.


[Siva 2004 08] Ernest H. Siva. Song of the Mountains - Flute. Solo Flute, Luiseño culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:43.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 8.


Maliseet

[Perkins 2000-01] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Maliseet Love Song. Solo flute, Maliseet culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 3:14.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 1.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race1 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 12-13 and 27.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 8.

1Liner notes: This song comes from St. John, New Brunswick. It is a hunter's farewell song. In the autumn the youth sets out for the long winter hunt, and parts from his love, telling her to watch for him at the breaking of the ice in the spring, that she may see him coming down the river in his canoe. The Wabanakis have many such songs. They call them "Songs of Loneliness."
Look oft up the river, look oft and oft.
In spring at the breaking of the ice,
look oft;
You may see me coming down in my
canoe.
Look oft up the river, look anew, anew.


[Perkins 2000-02] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Maliseet Dance Song. Solo flute, Maliseet culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 2:22.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 2.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 9-10 and 23.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), pages 9-10.


Mandan

[Benson-B 1915] Ben Benson (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Mandan Origin of the Flageolet Melody. Mandan culture. Recorded between 1915 and 1918.
» Transcribed in Mandan and Hidatsa Music ([Densmore 1923] Mandan and Hidatsa Music), page 83.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 85, Flageolet Melody - To Bring Forth Snow.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 104, Flageolet Melody - To Bring Forth Snow.

Ben Benson - also known as Buffalo Bull Head
Bliven ID: Mandan 1

Transcription of the Mandan Origin of the Flageolet Melody by Densmore

Transcription of the Mandan Origin of the Flageolet Melody by Densmore Larger image


Maricopa

[James-A-Maricopa 1929-01] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song played twice in repitition. Solo flute, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:45.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 46 EC 337.46.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 1-F

¹ATM notes: The lowest stop often did not sound; at the end of the phrases the melody usually went down there – from C to A flat.
--------------
From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 9: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 46. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-02] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song. Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 47 EC 337.47.

Vocal version of [James-A-Maricopa 1929-01]. Excellent example of issues with playback speed and the "chipmunk effect".
Bliven ID: Maricopa 1-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 10: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 47. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-03] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). First song of the boys turned toward the North. Solo flute, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:06.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 48 EC 337.48.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 2-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 11: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 48. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-04] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). First song of the boys turned toward the North. Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 0:55.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 49 EC 337.49.

Vocal version of [James-A-Maricopa 1929-03]
Bliven ID: Maricopa 2-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 12: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 49. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-05] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Second song of the boys turned toward the North. Solo flute, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 0:57.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 50 EC 337.50.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 3-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 13: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 50. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-06] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Second song of the boys turned toward the North. Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 51 EC 337.51.

Vocal version of [James-A-Maricopa 1929-05]
Bliven ID: Maricopa 3-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 14: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 51. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-07] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Third song of the boys turned toward the South. Flute followed by Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:29.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 52 EC 337.52.

Flute solo followed by vocal version of the same melody.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 4-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 15: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 52. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-08] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Fourth song of the boys turned toward the East. Flute followed by Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:12.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.1. 53 EC 337.53.

Flute solo followed by vocal version of the same melody.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 5-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 16: 54-288-F, EC 10" 337, Item 53. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-09] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song of the Owl to the Girls. Solo flute, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:25.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. .1 EC 338.1.

Recorded twice, first time faulty.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 6-F

¹ATM notes: “Not a real flute song, but is played on it.”
------------------
From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 17: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 1. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-10] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). No title. Solo flute, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:07.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. .8 EC 338.8.

Maricopa version of [James-A 1929-03]
Bliven ID: Maricopa 7-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 22: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 8. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-11] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). No title. Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:20.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. .9 EC 338.9.

Vocal version of [James-A-Maricopa 1929-10]
Bliven ID: Maricopa 7-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 23: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 9. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-12] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song of the Older Boy. Flute followed by Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:27.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. .10 EC 338.10.

Maricopa version of the Pima Song of the Older Boy
Bliven ID: Maricopa 8-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 24: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 10. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A-Maricopa 1929-13] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song made by NaasiA. Flute followed by Vocal, Maricopa culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. .11 EC 338.11.
Bliven ID: Maricopa 9-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 25: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 11. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


Menominee

Playing the Lover's Flute
Photo by courtesy of the
Public Museum, Milwaukee
from [Skinner 1921] plate 101

Playing the Lover's Flute
Photo by courtesy of the
Public Museum, Milwaukee
from [Skinner 1921] plate 101 Larger image

[Perote 1919] San Baptiste Perote (performer); Alanson Skinner (collector) (1886–1925). Flute Love Song. Vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded June 1919, near Keshena, Wisconsin, Length: 2:01.
» Flutes described in Material Culture of the Menomini1 ([Skinner 1921]), pages 355-357.
» Recordings mentioned in Songs of the Menomini Medicine Ceremony2 ([Skinner 1925]), page 304.
» Cited in Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 99.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog3 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress4, Washington, DC. AFS 8905:B5; Cylinder number 6,821.

Nice melody!
Bliven ID: Menominee 5

1Skinner description: Whistles, six inches to a foot long, are made of reeds from the Mississippi valley, or from split alder with the pith removed. They give a feeble, piping note, and are used in war and in war-bundle ceremonies to call the Thunderers to the assistance of the braves.

Flutes or flageolets are carved of two pieces of cedar, hollowed, carefully glued, and lashed together. They are of large size, measuring some two feet or more in length and two or two and one-half inches in thickness. As these instruments are used almost exclusively in courting, they are highly prized, and usually handsomely ornamented with strips of otter- or mink-fur fastened around them in bands. The slide by which the tone of the flageolet is regulated, is often carved to represent some animal of especially amorous nature. Fig. 73, for example, shows a spirited stallion's head. It is notable that in general form these carved slides closely resemble the problematical bird-stones of archeology. Flageolets usually possess six holes, and it is the intention of the player in each instance to imitate as nearly as possible the actual words of the song he is rendering. If he is able to make his notes quaver as well, he is considered an artist (pi. ci). Flutes which have been used in successful courtships soon acquire a reputation for their power over female affections, and become in great demand among the youths. Such instruments are rented out at a good price. The native name of the flute is pipi'gwûn, and it finds frequent mention in folklore and in mythology.

2Description from [Skinner 1925]: A few records were taken on non-medicine songs, both those sung in the ordinary manner, and those the words of which are imitated on the flute. Only love songs fall in the latter class.
Love Songs.
36. Kutl‘s pina in& kewa’nom ni’nimosao, kina kitia kita’-
“Now you had better go home, my sweetheart, for
pame kewa’nom ni’nimosao !
your mother (at least) cherishes you.”
The lover, having persuaded his sweetheart to leave her home for him, tires of her and sends her away with these words.

3Federal Cylinder Project listing: Menomonee Indian Music. The Alanson Skinner Collection; Cylinder No. 6, 821; AFS No. 8905; B5: Song 1) [Flute love song].
Personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011, provides additional information:
Alanson Skinner; Menominee; near Keshena, Wisconsin, June 1919; one broken, uncopied cylinder labeled "Flute song. Love song."; AFS 8905:B5 (first half of the cylinder) -- "Flute love song" by San Baptiste Perote

4Listing of the Wisconsin Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture: AFC 1947/009: Alanson Skinner Collection of Menominee Cylinder Recordings
Twenty-two 4-inch cylinders of Menominee songs recorded by Alanson Buck Skinner in June 1919 near Keshena, Wisconsin. The cylinders, primarily containing songs of the Medicine Ceremony (Mita'win), were received by exchange from the Milwaukee Public Museum in 1947. Skinner published texts and commentary on these songs in "Songs of the Menomini Medicine Ceremony," American Anthropologist n.s. 27 (1925): 290-314. (includes AFS 8904-8906) (LWO 5111 reels 159-160)
-----------------------
From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 23: Menominee Fltue Love Song (Vocal version). AFS 8905:B5. Alanson Skinner Collection.

Skinner's diagram of the Menomini flute, plate 73

Skinner's diagram of the Menomini flute, plate 73 Larger image


[Mocihat 1925-01] John Mocihat´ (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody No. 1. Flute followed by Vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Keshena, Wisconsin, Length: 0:26.
» Melody transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music1 ([Densmore 1932a]), pages 208-210.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #D1.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10687:B7.

Title is based on the name given by Frances Densmore.
Bliven ID: Menominee 3

1Frances Densmore's description: The flute used by the Menominee is of wood and similar in construction to the wooden flute used by other tribes (see p. 11 and pl. 7, a). It was used as a courting instrument and an informant said that a man who played the flute always carried "love medicine," indicating that magic was called to the aid of his music.

An intelligent Menominee said, "Long ago there was a kind of singing which had no words and was in imitation of the flute. This was intended as a love song and it was different from any other land of singing." Another stated that the use of words in such singing (or
vocalization) came later, and that the love song with words arose in this manner. Both Chippewa and Menominee use a peculiar nasal tone in singing love songs which is different from that used in any other class of songs. This is not pleasing to members of our race, but is supposed to be an imitation of the flute.

Four records of flute playing were recorded, two by Mocihat and two by Okimase, and each player "sang" one of his performances, adding words to the melody he had played on the flute. A comparison of Flute Melody No. 1 and Song No. 135 shows a resemblance, though they are not identical in every respect. It would be difficult to sing the exact tones played on a flute but this represents an attempt to do so. The song corresponding to Flute Melody No. 3 was not transcribed. These records of flute playing were made possible by the courtesy of John V. Satterlee, who lent the flute and secured the services of skillful performers.

2Federal Cylinder Project listing: Menomonee Indian Music. The Frances Densmore Collection; Cylinder No. 3, 183; AFS No. 10,687; B7-B8; BAE Cat. No. 1646; 1647: Song 1) [Flute melody (1) - - 1646] and Song 2) [Flute Melody (2) - - 1647].

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 1: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10687:B7. Frances Densmore Collection.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Mocihat 1925-02] John Mocihat´ (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody No. 2. Flute followed by Vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Keshena, Wisconsin, Length: 1:58.
» Transcribed in War Whoops and Medicine Songs (hardcover [Hofmann 1952]), page 23.
» Melody transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music ([Densmore 1932a]), pages 208-210.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 86, Flute Melody #2.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 105, Flute Melody #2.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #D2.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS10687:B8.

Title is based on the name given by Frances Densmore.
Bliven ID: Menominee 4

1Federal Cylinder Project listing: Menomonee Indian Music. The Frances Densmore Collection; Cylinder No. 3, 183; AFS No. 10,687; B7-B8; BAE Cat. No. 1646; 1647: Song 1) [Flute melody (1) - - 1646] and Song 2) [Flute Melody (2) - - 1647].

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 2: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10687:B8. Frances Densmore Collection.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Mocihat 1925-03] John Mocihat (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Menominee Vocal Love Song. vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Wisconsin.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music ([Densmore 1932a]), Song No. 135, page 210.

Date based on [Densmore 1932a] page v: The material comprised in this paper was collected among the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin in 1925, 1928, and 1929, the recording of songs being done at Keshena, Neopit, and Zoar.


[Mocihat 1925-04] John Mocihat (performer), Frances Densmore (recording) (1867–1957). Menominee Vocal Love Song. vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Wisconsin.
» Recording published in Songs of the Menominee, Mandan and Hidatsa1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, Long-playing record L33 (AFS L33) [Densmore 1952]), Side B, Band 8.
» Transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music2 ([Densmore 1932a]), Song No. 136, page 210.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #28.

Date based on [Densmore 1932a] page v: The material comprised in this paper was collected among the Menominee Indians of Wisconsin in 1925, 1928, and 1929, the recording of songs being done at Keshena, Neopit, and Zoar.

1Liner notes: B8 - Love Song (Cat. no. 1631, Ser. no. 136)
Six love songs were recorded among the Menominee, none expressing personal affections, though one has the words "I will keep on courting until morning." The words of the next song are taunting in character. Similar words were found in a Chippewa love song, and "teasing" is not uncommon among friendly Indians.
It was said that the flute was used in courting and that a man who played the flute for such a purpose always carried "love medicine," indicating that he used magic in connection with his music. Mocihat, who recorded the next song, was a skillful player on the flute and recorded two performances on that instrument. After one of them he added words to the melody that he had played. It was said that the use of words in love songs arose in this matter.
Free Translation: You had better go home, your mother loves you so much.

2Densmore's description: The mention of weeping occurs only in love songs, which were closely associated with intoxication.


[Okimase 1925-01] John Okima´sĕ (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody No. 3. Flute followed by Vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Keshena, Wisconsin, Length: 1:09.
» Recording published in Songs of Love, Courtship & Marriage (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, LBC 2 [Spottswood 1976]), Side A, band 3(a) of the 1976 LP edition, titled "Two Menominee Flute Songs".
» Melody transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music ([Densmore 1932a]), pages 208-210.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #02.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS 10686 B9.

Title is based on the name given by Frances Densmore.
Bliven ID: Menominee 1

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Menominee; Keshena, Wisconsin, 1925; AFS 10687:B7-B10 -- 4 flute melodies by Mocihat or Okimase; [BAE Catalog Numbers 1646-1649 -- pp. 208-9 in Densmore's book]

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 3: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10687:B9. Frances Densmore Collection.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Okimase 1925-02] John Okima´sĕ (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody No. 4. Flute followed by Vocal, Menominee culture. Recorded 1925, Keshena, Wisconsin, Length: 1:25.
» Recording published in Songs of Love, Courtship & Marriage (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, LBC 2 [Spottswood 1976]), Side A, band 3(b) of the 1976 LP edition, titled "Two Menominee Flute Songs".
» Melody transcribed and analyzed in Menominee Music ([Densmore 1932a]), pages 208-210.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 86, Flute Melody #3.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 105, Flute Melody #3.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #03.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS 10686 B10.

Title is based on the name given by Frances Densmore.
Bliven ID: Menominee 2

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Menominee; Keshena, Wisconsin, 1925; AFS 10687:B7-B10 -- 4 flute melodies by Mocihat or Okimase; [BAE Catalog Numbers 1646-1649 -- pp. 208-9 in Densmore's book]

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 4: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10687:B10. Frances Densmore Collection.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


Meskwaki

[Roberts 1952] Wilson Wapanuetak Roberts (died 1952) (performer); Gertrde Prokosch Kurath (collector) (1903–1992). Love Song for Flute. Solo flute, Meskwaki culture. Recorded 1952, Length: 6:15.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of the Great Lakes Indians1 (audio CD, FW04003 [Kurath 1956]), Track 1, section F (time 4:56 through 6:11).
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music2 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #3 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 135.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #18.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #07.

This track is a medley that includes vocal and drum recording os Buffalo Head Dance 1 and 2, Bear Claw or Grizzly Bear Dance, Pipe of Peace or Calumet Dance, Soldier or Victory Round Dance, and finally Love Song for Flute. The solo flute portion is from 4:56 to 6:11.
Audio is primarily monophonic on the right track.
The name "Wapanuetak" is from the ID Tags of the purchased Smithsonian Folkways MP3 file and also in the liner notes.
Bliven ID: Fox/Mesquakie 9

Excerpt from Love Song for Flute (excerpt)

1Liner notes: Wilson Roberts, Wapanuetak, reflects in his singing the aristocratic dignity of his bearing. Too shy to perform at the public shows, he confined his art to religious rites. He also knew the songs for social dances, was one of the few flute players, and a skillful imitator of bird calls. He made frequent trips to Wistonsin and Kansas reservations and thereby enlarged his repertoire. He made a living with careful and artistic bead work. He and his nephew Luther were constant visitors at the powwow campfire of my small expedition of two boys and a woman, and of the young ethnologists at the local University of Chicago House. Two months after the recording of his voice in 1952, came word of his sudden death.

Side 1, Band 1, f: Love Song for Flute: This wandering melody in four-tone scale typifies the Indian courtship music. It is called “Don't Leave Me.” Wilson Roberts recorded three of these and also sang them with words. He was particularly proud of his skill with the flute. It is a typical Woodland lover's flute, of two half-cylinders of wood glued togetehr, with six holes spaced three and three, held as shown on the photograph. Though all of Roberts' melodies used the same scale as the Powwow dance in Band 2, other sclaes can be produced as heard on Iroquois flageolets of similar construction.

2Liner notes: Steve Bliven Notes: Side 1, Band 1(f) consists of a "Love Song for Flute (Don't Leave Me)". It is described as follows, "This wandering melody in four-tone scale typifies the Indian courtship music. It is called 'Don't Leave Me". It was played on a "typical Woodland lover's flute, of two half cylinders of wood glued together, with six holes spaced three and three,..".
Recorded in 1952.
Wilson Roberts (Meswaki of Tama, Iowa) was "one of the few flute players". He died in 1952.

3Description from page 68: The wide distribution of durational values aids in producing a "rubato" effect by slight variations in rhythm between the repetitions. The Meskwaki melody (No. 3) has eleven different rhythmic values ranging from double grace notes to a dotted half note tied to an eighth note. The first phrase of the Meskwaki melody and its first variation ... exemplify this type of minor variation.


Mohave

[Chiyerekavasuk 1908] Chiyerekavasuk (performer); A. L. Kroeber (collector) (1876–1960). Yuma's Crying. Solo flute (wilwil), Mohave culture. Recorded March 1908, Length: 2:11.
» Instrument mentioned in The Yuman Musical Style ([Herzog 1928]), pages 188-189.
» Recording listed in A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology1 ([Keeling 1991]), page 138.
» Recording archived at The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, CA. item 24-1370.
» Information provided by The California Language Archive2. item 12493.

1Keeling 1991 listing: Three recordings of Mohave flute music performed by Chiyerekavasuk or by Guy Howard and collected by AL. Kroeber in March 1908 (24-1370 through 24-1372).
Major sources concerning music and culture of the Mohave are listed at the beginning of Series 5A (preceding 24-585). The instrument is called "wilwil" in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189).
24-1370 (14-992)
Subject or Title: Flute piece entitled "Yuma's Crying"
Performed by Chiyerekavasuk
Duration: 1'54"
Recording speed: 150

²California Language Archive listing: Flute piece entitled "Yuma's Crying" (1908 March)
Item number: 24-1370
Contributors: Chiyerekavasuk (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Mojave
Duration: 1 minute, 54 seconds
Description: Keeling catalog note: "The instrument is called 'wilwil' in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189)." Distributed on California Indian Music Project, Southeast region, tape 15, side B. Original cylinder 14-992. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology


[Howard 1908-01] Guy Howard (performer); A. L. Kroeber (collector) (1876–1960). Yuma's Crying. Solo flute (wilwil), Mohave culture. Recorded March 1908, Length: 2:44.
» Instrument mentioned in The Yuman Musical Style ([Herzog 1928]), pages 188-189.
» Recording listed in A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology1 ([Keeling 1991]), page 138.
» Recording archived at The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, CA. item 24-1371.
» Information provided by The California Language Archive2. item 12494.

1Keeling 1991 listing: Three recordings of Mohave flute music performed by Chiyerekavasuk or by Guy Howard and collected by AL. Kroeber in March 1908 (24-1370 through 24-1372).
Major sources concerning music and culture of the Mohave are listed at the beginning of Series 5A (preceding 24-585). The instrument is called "wilwil" in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189).
24-1371 (14-993)
Subject or Title: Flute piece entitled "Yuma's Crying"
Performed by Guy Howard
Duration: 2'28"
Recording speed: 150

²California Language Archive listing: Flute piece entitled "Yuma's Crying" (1908 March)
Item number: 24-1371
Contributors: Guy Howard (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Mojave
Duration: 2 minutes, 28 seconds
Description: Keeling catalog note: "The instrument is called 'wilwil' in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189)." Distributed on California Indian Music Project, Southeast region, tape 15, side B. Original cylinder 14-993. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology


[Howard 1908-02] Guy Howard (performer); A. L. Kroeber (collector) (1876–1960). Courting Tune, Played at Night. Solo flute (wilwil), Mohave culture. Recorded March 1908, Length: 2:35.
» Instrument mentioned in The Yuman Musical Style ([Herzog 1928]), pages 188-189.
» Recording listed in A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology1 ([Keeling 1991]), page 138.
» Recording archived at The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, CA. item 24-1372.
» Information provided by The California Language Archive2. item 12495.

1Keeling 1991 listing: Three recordings of Mohave flute music performed by Chiyerekavasuk or by Guy Howard and collected by AL. Kroeber in March 1908 (24-1370 through 24-1372).
Major sources concerning music and culture of the Mohave are listed at the beginning of Series 5A (preceding 24-585). The instrument is called "wilwil" in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189).
24-1372 (14-994)
Subject or Title: Courting tune, played at night
Performed by Guy Howard
Duration: 2'19"
Recording speed: 150

²California Language Archive listing: Courting tune, played at night (1908 March)
Item number: 24-1372
Contributors: Guy Howard (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Mojave
Duration: 2 minutes, 19 seconds
Description: Keeling catalog note: "The instrument is called 'wilwil' in the Mohave language, and its music is described in Herzog (1928:188-189)." Distributed on California Indian Music Project, Southeast region, tape 15, side B. Original cylinder 14-994. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology


Navajo

[Begay 1950] Sandoval Begay; Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Night Chant. Solo flute, Navajo culture. Recorded 1950, Length: 2:14.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 2, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 5.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 5.


[Navajo 1951 01] Unknown Navajo singers; Willard Rhodes (recording) (1901–1992). Night Chant: Yeibichai «Grandfather of the Gods». Vocal, Navajo culture. Recorded 1951, Length: 1:41.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians of the Southwest1 (FW04420 [Rhodes 1951]), Side B, Band 1.
» Recording published in Primitive Music of the World2 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE 4581 [Cowell 1962]), Side 3, Band 1.

This recording was included on the "gold record" sent on the Voyager spacecraft.

1Liner notes: Navajo religion is an elaborate, highly developed complex of beliefs, mythology, rituals, songs, and prayers, which pervades every aspect of Navajo life. It is through the living of their religion, and the careful observance and practice of fixed rituals and ceremonies that "the people" maintain a harmonious relationship with the mysterious forces of the universe and gain a sense of security. There are thirty-five major ceremonials, generally referred to as chants, most of which are directed toward curing sickness. These ceremonials, varying in length from two to nine days, are conducted by a medicine man known as a singer. It is believed that the ceremonials and the esoteric lore of the singer have been transmitted through an unbroken succession of singers from the gods who gave ceremonial power to the first Navajos.

The Night Chant, popularly known as the Yeibichai (Grandfather of the Gods), is an important nine day ceremony which may not be performed until after the first killing frost. It is at this ceremony that boys and girls are initiated into the ceremonial life of the tribe by two masked dancers who impersonate the grandfather of the monsters and female divinity. On the last night of the ceremony which is open to the public, Yeibichai appears with a company of masked dancers. After a wierd, unearthly call of the gods, the dancers shake their rattles with a sweeping movement from the ground to their heads, then whirl to the opposite direction and repeat the rattling. Following this formalized introduction, the dancers begin their rhythmic dance and song, accompanying themselves with the rattles.

The Yeibichai songs, generally regarded as the most characteristic and attractive of Navajo music, are unique in style. They are readily recognized by their most obvious feature, the manner of singing, a technique which alternates between the normal singing voice and an incredibly high falsetto or employs exclusively the falsetto, as in the example offered here. Other distinctive stylistic features are the florid, melismatic character of the melodies which adhere in their outline to the tones of the major triad, the upward leaping intervals of a sixth or an octave, the formalized introduction and coda with their insistent repitition of the tonic tone, the melodic weight given to the moninant tone, certain rhythmic subtlties, and the accompaniment of a gourd rattle.

2Liner notes: A falsetto song on a five-tone scale … "The Yeibichai songs, generally regarded as the most characteristic and attractive of Navajo music, are unique in style. They are readily recognized by their most obvious feature, the manner of singing, a technique which alternates between the normal singing voice and an incredibly high falsetto or employs exclusively the falsetto, as in the example offered here. Other distinctive stylistic features are the florid, melismatic character of the melodies which adhere in their outline to the tones of the major triad, the upward leaping intervals of a sixth or an octave, the formalized introduction and coda with their insistent repitition of the tonic tone, the melodic weight given to the moninant tone, certain rhythmic subtlties, and the accompaniment of a gourd rattle." -- Willard Rhodes


[Cellicion 1990-03] Fernando Cellicion. She Na Sha (A Navajo Song). flute, Navajo culture. Recorded 1990, Length: 2:59.
» Recording published in The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion (audio cassette, IS-5061 [Cellicion 1990]), Side A, Band 3.


Geraldine Barney

Geraldine Barney Larger image

[Barney 1992] Geraldine Barney (performer); Jack Loeffler (engineer). Tsídii-Bird. Solo flute, Navajo culture. Recorded January 28, 1992, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Length: 1:24.
» Recording published in Music of New Mexico: Native American Traditions1 (CD SF 40408 [NMAH 1992]), track 15.

Excerpt from Tsídii-Bird (excerpt)

1Edward Wapp Wahpeconiah liner notes: Tsídii-Bird was composed by Geraldine Barney in 1990. It was inspired as the composer remembered sitting on her grandfather's knee when he was teaching her the Navajo language. "My grandfather would say tsídii, then bird." Tsídii is the Navajo word for bird. After a brief introduction in the flute's lowest range, the song's melody begins on a high pitch, descending with undulating phrases to the flute's lowest pitch. The melody is played in a modern style with elaborate ornamentation that embellishes and accents the melodic line. The cedar flute used for this recording was made by Paul Thompson (Navajo) of Albuquerque. It was modeled from a Sac and Fox flute made at the turn of the twentieth century.


[Bludts 2003-01] Carl Bludts. Navaho Riding Song «REF». flute, Navajo culture. Recorded 2003, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:46.
» Recording published in The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 2003]), track 1.

1Description in the songbook: A nice easy song. You'll notice that after the first time through I added some grace notes, slide, and rhythmic changes.


Nez Percé

[Armstrong 1909] Ralph Armstrong; Edward S. Curtis (collector). Power Song of the Eagle. Solo flute, Nez Percé culture. Recorded July 31, 1909, Lapwai, Idaho, Length: 1:19.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 2, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 4.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 18.


[NezPerce 1911-01] Unknown Nez Percé performer; Edward S. Curtis (collector) (1868–1952). Nez Percé Lover's Air. flute, Nez Percé culture. Recorded before 1911.
» Description and transcription in The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes1 (hardcover [Curtis-E 1911c] The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes), Volume 8, page 49-50.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #C1.

The title is provisional - a title is not provided by Edward S. Curtis for this song.
Bliven ID: Nez Perce 1

1Edward S. Curtis description: The Nez Perce youth wooed his sweetheart whenever chance or design favored him with an opportunity to speak to her; and when fortune was unkind he laid siege to her heart with plaintive strains on his flute, such as the accompanying air. When two lovers agreed to marry, they reported the fact to their parents, and the young man's parents went to the father and the mother of the girl and obtained their consent to the match. Then either at once or after an interval of some days the girl was taken to the home of the youth. After two or three weeks she informed her parents that she was coming home on a certain day, and when that day arrived she and the family of her husband went with presents and partook of the feast which her relatives had prepared, receiving in return for their presents gifts of equal value. Marriage might be arranged without any wooing. The young man would tell his father that he desired a certain girl for his wife, and the father would cause a friend to ask the girl's parents for her hand, promising them a certain number of horses or other presents. If they consented, she was at once taken home by the mother or the sisters of the young man, and after the usual interval came the marriage feast and the exchange of presents. As a rule a couple lived for about two years with the parents of the man.

Transcription by Edward S. Curtis

Transcription by Edward S. Curtis Larger image


[NezPerce 1911-02] Unknown Nez Percé performer; Edward S. Curtis (collector) (1868–1952). Nez Percé Vocal Love Song. vocal, Nez Percé culture. Recorded before 1911.
» Transcribed in The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes (hardcover [Curtis-E 1911c] The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes), volume 8, pages 184-185.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #C3.


Northern Paiute

Flute-related excerpts
from [Steward 1933]

Flute-related excerpts
from [Steward 1933] Larger image

[Tom 1927] Bridgeport Tom (performer); Julian H. Steward (collector). Doctor's Flute Song (used in doctoring). Story and Solo Flute, Northern Paiute culture. Recorded about 1927-1928, Length: 2:00.
» Recording listed in A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology1 ([Keeling 1991]), page 420.
» Transcribed in Ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute ([Steward 1933]), page 279.
» Recording archived at The Phoebe Apperson Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, CA. item 24-2882.
» Information provided by The California Language Archive2. item 11683.

1Keeling 1991 listing: Recording of Bridgeport Tom (Mono Lake Paiute) collected by Julian H. Steward circa 1927-1928 (24-2882 only). Location unidentified.
Sources are listed under 102A.
24-2882 (14-2616)
Subject or Title: Doctor's Flute Song (used in doctoring)
Duration: 2'00"
Recording speed: 180

This recording begins with a short spoken section followed by a long flute solo. Evidently it is associated with the song transcribed in Steward (1933:279), for the melodies are quite similar. Steward translates the song as "My flute I sing you hear some-place."

²California Language Archive listing: Keeling catalog note: "This recording begins with a short spoken section followed by a long flute solo. Evidently it is associated with the song transcribed in Steward (1933:279), for the melodies are quite similar. Steward translates the song as 'My flute I sing you hear some-place'." Distributed on California Indian Music Project, Sierra region, tape 13, side B. Original cylinder 14-2616. 180 speed.


Northern Plains

[Bearstail 1975-04] Colin Bearstail (leader) and The Los Angeles Northern Singers. Rabbit Dance. Vocal, Northern Plains culture. Recorded October 1975, Los Angeles, California, Length: 3:20.
» Recording published in Songs of Earth, Water, Fire and Sky1 (audio CD, 80246 [Heth 1976]), Side A, band 4.

1Liner notes: Rabbit Dance-Northern Plains
Recorded in Los Angeles, October 1975
The Los Angeles Northern Singers: COLIN BEARSTAIL (leader)
The Rabbit Dance is one of the few dances of the Plains in which men and women are allowed to dance together. The women choose their partners. The couples hold hands crossed in front of them and dance in a clockwise circle around the drum. It is a social dance and a time for merriment.
The English words give some idea of the joking and interplay that go on:
Hey, sweetheart, I always think of you.
I wonder if you are alone tonight.
I wonder if you are thinking of me.
The song begins with the leader; he is seconded by the chorus, and all sing in virtual unison until the end of the song.This song is repeated four times in the same manner. In common practice several Rabbit Dance songs would follow each other in the same dance. There is less heterophony among the voices in this song than in the Eagle Dance. The range is smaller (an octave). But the tessitura still lies very high. Pulsation and terminal glides remain as vocal characteristics.
The melodic contour is again terraced descending, hut the intervals are more conjunct. The scale is pentatonic. Again, the pitch framework drifts down about a tone during the song.
The meter is triple.The rhythm is relatively steady throughout, with the softer second beat occasionally omitted.


Northern Pomo

[Campbell 1926-01] George Campbell (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Pomo Love Song. Solo flute, Northern Pomo culture. Recorded 1926, Round Valley Reservation, California, Length: 0:37.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS11029 (Song 3).
Bliven ID: Pomo 1

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Northern Pomo; Round Valley Reservation, California; 1926
AFS 11029: A3-A4 -- Flute tune & repetition identified as "Pomo love song" played by George Campbell

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 20: Northern Pomo Flute Tune (Pomo Love Song). AFS 11029 (Song 4). Helen Heffron Roberts Collection.


[Campbell 1926-02] George Campbell (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Pomo Love Song. Solo flute, Northern Pomo culture. Recorded 1926, Round Valley Reservation, California, Length: 0:56.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS11029 (Song 4).

Repeat of [Campbell 1926-01]
Bliven ID: Pomo 2

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Northern Pomo; Round Valley Reservation, California; 1926
AFS 11029: A3-A4 -- Flute tune & repetition identified as "Pomo love song" played by George Campbell

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 21: Northern Pomo Flute Tune (Pomo Love Song). AFS 11029 (Song 4. Repetition of Song on Track 20). Helen Heffron Roberts Collection.


[Campbell 1926-03] George Campbell (performer); Helen Heffron Roberts (collector) (1888–1985). Jim Brown's Flute Piece. Solo flute, Northern Pomo culture. Recorded 1926, Round Valley Reservation, California.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS11029 (Piece between 5 and 6).

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Helen Roberts; Northern Pomo; Round Valley Reservation, California; 1926
AFS 11029: piece between A5 and A6 -- identified as "Jim Brown's flute piece" played by George Campbell


Omaha

[Omaha 1893-01] Unknown Omaha performer; Alice C. Fletcher (collector); John Comfort Fillmore (transcription). Flageolet Piece No. 91. Omaha culture. Recorded before 1893, Nebraska.
» Transcription and analysis in A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore1 ([Fletcher 1893]), pages 72-74 and 151.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 87, Flageolet Piece.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 106, Flageolet Piece.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #F1.
Bliven ID: Omaha 4

1Alice Fletcher notes: No. 91, a flageolet piece which I transcribed in Nebraska, illustrates somewhat imperfectly the defects of this flageolet as regards the key relationship of tones. This piece seems to be in the key of F# minor, omitting G#. But the fundamental tone of the flageolet is nearer F than F#. The key relationship of the tones A, B, C#, D# and F# (fifth line) are tolerably correct; but the lower tone being almost a major third lower than the A makes the piece sound very badly out of tune. The upper F, meant for the octave of the fundamental, is about a quarter of a tone sharp. The fundamental is, of course, produced by closing all the six holes with the fingers. The upper F the Indians produce by opening all the holes except the lower one. The true octave of the fundamental, or nearly so, may be obtained by opening the fifth hole only and blowing with considerable pressure. But this I have not seen Indians do. Blowing with less pressure produces the over-fifth of the fundamental. The upper F# is produced by opening the sixth hole only and increasing the wind-pressure. A true minor third (Ab) to the fundamental, or nearly so, is produced by opening the first hole. Opening the first and second holes produces Bb ; opening the first three holes produces C. but flat. With the first four holes open we get D; with the first five open, E; with all six open, F, but almost a semi tone sharp. All these values are approximate only. The tones used in this piece (No. 91) are all produced with the first hole closed, except the upper F# which is produced as above described, and excepting, of course, also the fundamental. In producing the A, the second hole only is open; the second and third holes open give B, the second, third and fourth holes open give C#; the second, third, fourth and fifth holes open give D#; all the holes open except the first give F, or E#. It is the fundamental which is most out of tune with the rest.

Transcription by John Comfort Fillmore

Transcription by John Comfort Fillmore Larger image


[Omaha 1893-02] Unknown Omaha performer; Alice C. Fletcher (collector); John Comfort Fillmore (transcription). Flageolet Piece No. 92. Omaha culture. Recorded before 1893.
» Transcription and analysis in A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore1 ([Fletcher 1893]), pages 72-74 and 151.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #F3.
Bliven ID: Omaha 5

1Alice Fletcher notes: No. 92 illustrates the same points [as Flageolet Piece No. 91].

Transcription by John Comfort Fillmore

Transcription by John Comfort Fillmore Larger image


[Miller-G 1895 05] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Funeral Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:31.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 5.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1895 06] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). He'dewachi Call. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:23.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 6.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress1, Washington, DC. AFS 20,310: 8a.

Alternate Titles: He'dewachi Song; Tribal Dance Song

¹Library of Congress information: Performer(s): Miller, George (Inke'tonga) (Big Shoulder)
Merrick, Joseph (Gion'zethinge) (None to teach him)

Recordist(s): La Flesche, Francis Jr.

Notes
This song was collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. It is included on Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (AFC L71).

From the liner notes of the Omaha Indian Music album: Follows the four drum beats that mark the beginning of the ceremony.

In the last half of the 19th century, the He'dewachi ceremony concluded the series of rituals surrounding the Sacred Pole. Like the Hethu'shka dance, He'dewachi dances imitated and celebrated the exploits and honors of warriors, and gifts were exchanged during the ceremony and dance which added to these honors, but the He'dewachi may also contain symbolism relating it to the cultivation of corn (1893, pp. 19-21, 82; 1911, pp. 251-260).

On the third day of the Thanksgiving festival the Hae-de-wache or tribal dance took place conducted by the In-kae-sabbae gens; the singing of the songs was the duty of the Wa-the-ge-zhae subgens. The dance was highly dramatic especially that part wherein the past experiences of the warriors was depicted. The scene was full of action and color, the whole tribe took part in it; every one was in gala dress, there was hardly an Omaha too old or too young not th have upon him some token of this festivity. Fragments of ancient tribal rites are discernible in this dance, as well as bits of tribal history; the music . . . [is] fitted to the movements of the dancing men and women as they pass in a vast circle around a pole, the male singers and drummers sitting at its base (1893, p. 20).

Fletcher and La Flesche describe the He'dewachi ceremony in their 1911 ethnography, which includes John Comfort Fillmore's harmonized transcriptions of five songs from the ceremony (pp. 251-260).

Probable years of birth of George Miller and Joseph Merrick are 1852 and 1845, respectively.

Created/published
1895/09

Original Format
wax cylinder recording

Alternate Title(s)
He'dewachi Song
Tribal Dance Song

Call Number
AFS 20,310: 8a

Digital ID
afcomaha 2031008a


[Miller-G 1895 07] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). He'dewachi Dance Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:15.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 7.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate Titles: He'dewachi Song; Tribal Dance Song


[Miller-G 1895 08] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). He'dewachi Dance Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:19.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 8.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate Titles: He'dewachi Song; Tribal Dance Song


[Miller-G 1895 09] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). He'dewachi Dance Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:15.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 9.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate Titles: He'dewachi Song; Tribal Dance Song


[Miller-G 1895 10] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). He'dewachi Prayer Sung As Two Bearers Hold Up the Sacred Pipes. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:21.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 10.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate Titles: He'dewachi Song; Tribal Dance Song


[Miller-G 1895 21] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hon'hewachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:30.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 21.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate name: Night Dance Society Song


[Miller-G 1895 22] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hon'hewachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:33.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 22.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate name: Night Dance Society Song


[Miller-G 1895 23] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hon'hewachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 23.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate name: Night Dance Society Song


[Miller-G 1895 24] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hon'hewachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:38.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 24.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate name: Night Dance Society Song


[Miller-G 1895 25] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hon'hewachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 25.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate name: Night Dance Society Song


[Miller-G 1895 26] George Miller (born 1852), Charles Wells, and Ardent Saunsoci (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Mi'kachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:36.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 26.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Wolf Song


[Miller-G 1895 27] George Miller (born 1852), Charles Wells, and Ardent Saunsoci (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Mi'kachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:36.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 27.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Wolf Song


[Miller-G 1895 28] George Miller (born 1852), Charles Wells, and Ardent Saunsoci (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Mi'kachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 28.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Wolf Song


[Miller-G 1895 29] George Miller (born 1852), Charles Wells, and Ardent Saunsoci (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Mi'kachi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:33.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 29.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Wolf Song


[Miller-G 1895 36] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Mi'gthintonin, and an unidentified woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wau'waan Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:42.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 36.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Woman Song


[Mitchell-A 1895 35] Arthur Mitchell (born 1846) and Noah La Flesche (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Song of Lover. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 35.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate titles: Mi'kachi Song, Wolf Song


[Morris-G 1895 04] Gilbert Morris (born 1865) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Death Song Composed by Ka-hi-gi-un. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 0:50.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 4.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate titles: Nagthewaan Song; Captive Song


[Omaha 1895 40] Four unidentified singers (two men and two women) (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:32.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 40.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[Omaha 1895 42] Four unidentified singers (two men and two women) (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:29.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 42.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[Omaha 1895 43] Four unidentified singers (two men and two women) (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 43.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[Omaha 1895 44] Four unidentified singers (two men and two women) (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 1895, Length: 0:28.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 44.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[White-M 1895 31] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Rally Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 1:02.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 31.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Woman Song


[White-M 1895 32] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Rally Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 1:27.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 32.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Woman Song


[White-M 1895 37] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 0:31.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 37.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[White-M 1895 38] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 0:24.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 38.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[White-M 1895 39] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 0:25.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 39.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[White-M 1895 41] Mattie White (born 1866) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Wewa'chi Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1895, Length: 0:35.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 41.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Victory Dance Song


[LaFlesche-FSr 1896 20] Francis La Flesche (born 1822), Sr. (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr. (performer and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded January 18,1896, Length: 1:02.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 20.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[LaFlesche-FSr 1896 34] Francis La Flesche (born 1822), Sr. (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Song of Approach from the Wa'wan. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded January 18, 1896, Length: 0:35.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 34.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Pipes of Fellowship Ceremony


[Morris-G 1896 30] Gilbert Morris (born 1865) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Na'gthewaan Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded January 16, 1896, Length: 0:35.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 30.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Alternate title: Captive Song


[Robinson-J 1896 33] James Robinson (born 1811) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Ritual fo the Maize. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 24, 1896, Length: 2:24.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 33.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Fields-J 1897 11] Josiah Fields (born 1855), Richard White, Arthur Mitchell, and Edward Cline (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 6, 1897, Length: 1:14.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 11.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Fields-J 1897 12] Josiah Fields (born 1855), Richard White, Arthur Mitchell, and Edward Cline (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 6, 1897, Length: 1:07.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 12.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Fields-J 1897 13] Josiah Fields (born 1855), Richard White, Arthur Mitchell, Edward Cline, and Bertram Mitchell (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 6, 1897, Length: 1:24.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 13.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Fields-J 1897 14] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 26, 1897, Length: 0:47.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 14.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Fields-J 1897 15] Josiah Fields (born 1855), Richard White, Arthur Mitchell, Edward Cline, and Bertram Mitchell (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded September 6, 1897, Length: 1:26.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 15.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 01] George Miller (born 1852) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Bice'waan Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 24, 1897, Length: 0:44.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 1.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC.

1Liner notes: Composers of love songs used melody and vocables to convey emotion (1893, pp. 53-54, 146-150; 1911, pp. 319-321).
The true love-song, called by the Omaha Bethae waan, an old designation and not a descriptive name, is sung generally in the early morning, when the lover is keeping his tryst and watching for the maiden to emerge from the tent and go to the spring. They belong to the secret courtship and are sometimes called Me-the-g'thun wa-an - courting songs. . . . They were sung without drum, bell or rattle, to accent the rhythm, in which these songs is subordinated to tonality and is felt only in the musical phrases. . . . Vibrations for the purpose of giving greater expression were not only affected by the tremolo of the voice, but they were enhanced by waving the hand, or a spray of artemesia before the lips, while the body often swayed gently to the rhythm of the song (Fletcher, 1894, p. 156).
George Miller's probable year of birth is 1852.

²Library of Congress information: Performer(s)
Miller, George (Inke'tonga) (Big Shoulder)
Notes
This song was collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. It is included on Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (AFC L71).
From the liner notes of the Omaha Indian Music album: Composers of love songs used melody and vocables to convey emotion (1893, pp. 53-54, 146-150; 1911, pp. 319-321).
The true love-song, called by the Omaha Bethae waan, an old designation and not a descriptive name, is sung generally in the early morning, when the lover is keeping his tryst and watching for the maiden to emerge from the tent and go to the spring. They belong to the secret courtship and are sometimes called Me-the-g'thun wa-an - courting songs. . . . They were sung without drum, bell or rattle, to accent the rhythm, in which these songs is subordinated to tonality and is felt only in the musical phrases. . . . Vibrations for the purpose of giving greater expression were not only affected by the tremolo of the voice, but they were enhanced by waving the hand, or a spray of artemesia before the lips, while the body often swayed gently to the rhythm of the song (Fletcher, 1894, p. 156).
George Miller's probable year of birth is 1852.
Created/published
1897/08/24
Original Format
wax cylinder recording
Alternate Title(s)
Love Song
Related Audio
Commentary on Bice'waan Song
Call Number
AFS 20,313: 2a
Digital ID
afcomaha 2031302a


[Miller-G 1897 02] George Miller (born 1852) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Bice'waan Song «Love Song». Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 24, 1897, Length: 0:37.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 2.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 03] George Miller (born 1852) (performer); Francis La Flesche, Jr. and Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collectors). Bice'waan Song «Love Song». Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 24, 1897, Length: 1:08.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 3.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 16] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Charles Wells' grandmother, and an unidentified Ponca woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 26, 1897, Length: 1:12.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 16.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 17] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Charles Wells' grandmother, and an unidentified Ponca woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 26, 1897, Length: 0:53.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 17.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 18] George Miller (born 1852), Joseph Merrick, Charles Wells' grandmother, and an unidentified Ponca woman (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 26, 1897, Length: 1:03.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 18.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Miller-G 1897 19] George Miller (born 1852) and Joseph Merrick (performers); Francis La Flesche, Jr (recording and collector); Alice Cunningham Fletcher (collector). Hethu'shka Society Song. Vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded August 26, 1897, Length: 0:46.
» Recording published in Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc [Lee 1985]), Track 19.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


[Omaha 1911-01] Unknown Omaha performer; Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). No title. Omaha culture. Recorded before 1911.
» Transcription and analysis in The Omaha Tribe ([Fletcher 1911] The Omaha Tribe), page 319.
» Transcription and analysis in Indian Story and Song from North America1 (hardcover [Fletcher 1900] Indian Story and Song from North America), page 69.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition (comb binding [Crawford 1999]), page 87, Love Call.
» Transcribed and arranged by Tim R. Crawford Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition ([Crawford 2006]), page 106, Love Call.
» Transcription and analysis in A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore2 ([Fletcher 1893]), Flageolet Piece 91 and page 72-73.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #F2.
Bliven ID: Omaha 6

1Liner notes: Is this the same melody???

2Liner notes: Similar melody - not exact.

Transcription by Alice Fletcher

Transcription by Alice Fletcher Larger image


[Omaha 1911-02] Unknown Omaha performer; Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Bice'waan No. 1 - Omaha Vocal Love Song. vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded before 1911.
» Transcribed in The Omaha Tribe ([Fletcher 1911] The Omaha Tribe), page 320.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #F4.


[Omaha 1911-03] Unknown Omaha performer; Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Bice'waan No. 2 - Omaha Vocal Love Song. vocal, Omaha culture. Recorded before 1911.
» Transcribed in The Omaha Tribe ([Fletcher 1911] The Omaha Tribe), page 320.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #F5.


[Lieurance 1929-06] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963) and Clement Barone. Omaha Ceremonial. Indian and modern flutes, Omaha culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey, Length: 1:23.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side B, Track 4.
» Published in Music of American Indians1 (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, E-89 [RCA-Victor 1947]), Catalog number 45-5072-B, Master E1EB-2947, Disk 1, Side B, Track 4.
» Published in Music of American Indians (set of 45 rpm 7" audio discs, Album WE-89, RCA Victor 41-6158 [RCA-Victor 1956]), Side B, Track 4.
» Recording described in Thurlow Lieurance2 ([Crawford 2002]).

Liner notes for the 1947 version courtesy of Discogs.com. Recording date and location from Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), by the University of California at Santa Barbara Library (Victor matrix BVE-51814)

1Liner notes: This solemn, pleading song was used in a part of a tribal ritual - perhaps as an invocation to the Great Spirit for rain, for protection from evil, or for wisdom. It is played on a long flute made of cedar. As in "Winnebago Love Song", a second flute adds "white man's harmony" and a duet is heard as the melody is repeated.
A photograph of the bronze statue, "Appeal to the Great Spirit", by Cyrus Dallin is of special interest with this ceremonial.

2Liner notes: Thurlow also apparently did present indigenous music of the Native American Flute without apparent alteration as opposed to his lengthy compositions. I have a 1947 RCA Victor, 78 RPM, record, upon which Thurlow plays four songs with the Native American Flute in 3 minutes and five seconds. The length is pretty much in keeping with available transcriptions of indigenous music recorded by early ethnomusicologists, i.e. Frances Densmore and Alice C. Fletcher. This one record was part of an album collection of four records titled: “Music of American Indians” and was presented as part of the RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools.
The four songs presented on the RCA Victor Record, played by Thurlow, were: “Winnebago Love Song;” “Love with Tears” (Cheyenne); “Pueblo Lullaby” (Taos) and “Omaha Ceremonial.” The album jacket says that “Pueblo Lullaby” was originally heard by Thurlow as a Vocal song while the other three are flute songs.
The album jacket notes for the “Omaha Ceremonial” song comment that:
“This solemn, pleading song was used as part of a tribal ritual-perhaps as an invocation to the Great Spirit for rain, for protection from evil, or for wisdom. It is played on a long flute made of cedar.” (RCA)


Eunice and George Stabler's
wedding photograph in
Walthill, Nebraska, 1912.
Courtesy of the Hollis
StablerFamily Collection,
Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

Eunice and George Stabler's
wedding photograph in
Walthill, Nebraska, 1912.
Courtesy of the Hollis
StablerFamily Collection,
Pawhuska, Oklahoma. Larger image

[Stabler 1945-01] George Stabler (performer) (1886–1964). Omaha Flute Music 1. Solo flute, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1945, Length: 0:27.
» Recording published in Tribal Prayer & Flute Song (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, ARP 601 [ARP 1945]), Disc 4 (ARP 601), Side A, track title Omaha Flute Music: Three Selections, part A.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins & Pearls: International 78s (audio CD [CTS 2012]), Track 17(a); Amazon.com Song ID: 230284288.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins And Match Heads: International 78s (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, MR-083 and 004 [MR 2011]), Side A, band 3(a).
» Background on the Stabler family found in Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains1 ([Nelson-E 2009] Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #10.
Bliven ID: Omaha 1

Excerpt from Omaha Flute Music 1

1from [Nelson-E 2009]: Hollis Stabler [son of George and Eunice Woodhull Stabler] remembers sitting many nights on the family porch while he listened to an unlikely chorus line: his mother singing in sharp falsetto, accompanied by his father's handmade flute, the deep, opera-style voice of their Italian neighbor, and the beat of the Winnebago family's drum. These gatherings were important to Hollis's understanding of the Omaha way because he was exposed to the significant meanings behind food, music, and community within his heritage.


[Stabler 1945-02] George Stabler (performer) (1886–1964). Omaha Flute Music 2. Solo flute, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1945, Length: 0:37.
» Recording published in Tribal Prayer & Flute Song (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, ARP 601 [ARP 1945]), Disc 4 (ARP 601), Side A, track title Omaha Flute Music: Three Selections, part B.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins & Pearls: International 78s (audio CD [CTS 2012]), Track 17(b); Amazon.com Song ID: 230284288.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins And Match Heads: International 78s (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, MR-083 and 004 [MR 2011]), Side A, band 3(b).
» Background on the Stabler family found in Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains ([Nelson-E 2009] Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #11.
Bliven ID: Omaha 2


[Stabler 1945-03] George Stabler (performer) (1886–1964). Omaha Flute Music 3. Solo flute, Omaha culture. Recorded about 1945, Length: 0:33.
» Recording published in Tribal Prayer & Flute Song (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, ARP 601 [ARP 1945]), Disc 4 (ARP 601), Side A, track title Omaha Flute Music: Three Selections, part C.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins & Pearls: International 78s (audio CD [CTS 2012]), Track 17(c); Amazon.com Song ID: 230284288.
» Recording also published in Brass Pins And Match Heads: International 78s (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, MR-083 and 004 [MR 2011]), Side A, band 3(c).
» Background on the Stabler family found in Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains ([Nelson-E 2009] Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains).
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #12.
Bliven ID: Omaha 3


[Payne 1999-32] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Omaha Prayer (Stabler) «REF». Solo flute, Omaha culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 32.


[Payne 2004-24] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Omaha Prayer «REF». Solo flute, Omaha culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 0:22.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 24.
» Transcription in Omaha Prayer1 ([Sarantos 2003]), page 24.

1Liner notes: Omaha Prayer. Played by Dr. Richard W. Payne on November 22, 2002, a the Armadillo Flute Society's Native American Flute Retreat — Flower Mound Texas. The Omaha Prayer is a very meaningful early song of the Plains tribes. It was given the name from an old recording of George and Eunice Stabler put out by Canyon Records (45 RPM). This old song is a pure example of old Plains songs. It is very simple, cascading down to a warbling tonic. The lower note of each phrase can be lengthened, perhaps with a liberal vibrato. I played this song on an F# Major flute. — Dr. Richard W. Payne.


Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa

[Webster 1992-01] Louis Webster (born 1949). Honor Song. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 3:01.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-02] Louis Webster (born 1949). My One and Only. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 3:29.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-03] Louis Webster (born 1949). My Darling Sweetheart. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:39.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-04] Louis Webster (born 1949). Strawberries When I'm Hungry, Wiskey When I'm Dry. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 1:47.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-05] Louis Webster (born 1949). Woodland Rhapsody. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:37.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-06] Louis Webster (born 1949). Lac Courte Oreilles Serenade. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 3:35.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-07] Louis Webster (born 1949). Song for Eleanor. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 4:03.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-08] Louis Webster (born 1949). Water Bird Love. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 1:58.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-09] Louis Webster (born 1949). The Love In My Heart. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:01.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-10] Louis Webster (born 1949). Taps. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:10.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-11] Louis Webster (born 1949). Coming Home to You. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:02.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-12] Louis Webster (born 1949). Lake Side Medley. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 2:21.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-13] Louis Webster (born 1949). Lake Side Medley (4 songs). flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 6:29.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-14] Louis Webster (born 1949). Amazing Grace. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 3:26.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


[Webster 1992-15] Louis Webster (born 1949). You Got to Walk That Lonesome Valley. flute, Oneida, Menominee, Ojibwa culture. Recorded March 20, 1992, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, Length: 1:21.
» Recording published in Woodland Rhapsody — Solo American Indian Flute (audio CD, Cassette: C-002; Audio CD: CD-006 [Webster 1992]), Track 1.


Papago

[Garcia 1920-06] Sivariano Garcia (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Four Fires on the Ground. vocal, Papago culture. Recorded February 1920, San Xavier village, near Tucson, Arizona, Length: 0:59.
» Recording published in Songs of the Papago1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, Long-playing record L31 (AFS L31) [Densmore 1952a]), Side A, Band 6.

1Liner notes: Story of the Origin of the Flute
The scene of this story, like the preceding, is in the large village in the Sacaton Valley. Fifteen of its songs were recorded at San Xavier by Sivariano Garcia, three being presented. Papago stories are so long that they are interrupted by periods of rest, or "pauses.. " After the first pause, this story is about two boys who saw a bamboo in a lake with a rattlesnake coiled around it. The rattlesnake cut down the bamboo and they took it to their mother who cut it two lengths of two joints each. She made a flute from each piece of bamboo and gave them to the children who blew into them but could not play them. One day she played a melody on the flute and taught each boy to imitate her.. Next is the melody that she played, and if no flute is available when the story is told the melody is sung with these words.
"Four Fires on the Ground" (Cat. no .. 967, Bull. 90, no. 33) Translation: One in the corner, in the square on the ground, A fire in each corner, four fires on the ground.


[Garcia 1920-07] Sivariano Garcia (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). The Girls Are Approaching. vocal, Papago culture. Recorded February 1920, San Xavier village, near Tucson, Arizona, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in Songs of the Papago1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, Long-playing record L31 (AFS L31) [Densmore 1952a]), Side A, Band 7.

1Liner notes: The two daughters of Brown Buzzard now enter the story, dressed in their best. The boys could feel that the girls were approaching so they played the following tUIle on the flutes. The words are sung if no flute is available when the story is told.
"The Girls Are Approaching" (Cat. no. 969, Bull. 90, no. 35) Free Translation: From the east the girls are approaching They came to the place of the singing They are here.


[Garcia 1920-08] Sivariano Garcia (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Song to Make the Boy Invisible. vocal, Papago culture. Recorded February 1920, San Xavier village, near Tucson, Arizona, Length: 0:52.
» Recording published in Songs of the Papago1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, Long-playing record L31 (AFS L31) [Densmore 1952a]), Side A, Band 8.

1Liner notes: The story proceeds through many incidents and the sections of bamboo next appear as game implements. A certain boy bad such "medicine power" that he could make them fly through the air0 He intended to use one of them in killing his grandfather, who had deeply offended him. Before he started on the journey to find his grandfather he showed this power to his grandmother who sang a song to make him inviSible, so he could reach his destination safely. She put her bands on his shoulders as she sang this song.
Song to Make the Boy Invisible (Cat. no. 913, Bull. 90, noo 39) Free Translation: My poor grandchild, my poor grandchild, It is the head gaming stick that always wins, Throw it forward.


[Homer 1920-01] Joe Homer (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). I Will Make a Flute. Papago culture. Recorded 1920, San Xavier, Arizona.
» Transcribed in Yuman and Yaqui Music ([Densmore 1932]), pages 49-50.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS 10641:B1.

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Tohono O'odham; San Xavier, Arizona; 1920
AFS 10641:B1-B2 -- "I will make a flute" and "I have finished the flute" (songs by Joe Homer, from the story of Pokohan); See pp. 49-50 in Densmore's book.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Homer 1920-02] Joe Homer (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). I Have Finished the Flute. Papago culture. Recorded 1920, San Xavier, Arizona.
» Transcribed in Yuman and Yaqui Music ([Densmore 1932]), pages 49-50.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS 10641:B2.

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Tohono O'odham; San Xavier, Arizona; 1920
AFS 10641:B1-B2 -- "I will make a flute" and "I have finished the flute" (songs by Joe Homer, from the story of Pokohan); See pp. 49-50 in Densmore's book.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Papago 1920] Unknown Papago performer; Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Songs connected with the story of the origin of the flute. Papago culture. Recorded 1920, San Xavier, Arizona.
» Discussed in Papago Music ([Densmore 1929]), pages 57-76.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS 10612:B2 through 10613:B2.

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Tohono O'odham; San Xavier, Arizona; 1920
AFS 10612:B2 through 10613:B2 are all songs "connected with story of the origin of the flute" -- but no flute melodies. See pp. 57-76 in her book, _Papago Music_


Cipriano Garcia Playing
a Papago Flute, 1919

Cipriano Garcia Playing
a Papago Flute, 1919 Larger image

[Garcia 1929-01] Silvariano Garcia (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody 1. Solo flute, Papago culture. Recorded 1920.
» Transcription and analysis in Papago Music1 ([Densmore 1929]), pages 77 and 217.
» Transcription also published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs (hardcover [Hofmann 1952]), page 23, 3rd transcription.

Recording date based on [Densmore 1929], page v of the Forward: "Their songs were recorded at San Xavier, Sells, and Vomari, on the Papago Reservation in Arizona, during the spring of 1920 and the following winter."
Note that the pitches provided in the Densmore analysis do not seem to match the fingerings that she indicated. The fingerings were possibly reversed.
Bliven ID: Papago 1

1Densmore Analysis: This melody was recorded on two cylinders and the records are identical. The melody is played twice through and the latter portion is then played once, this procedure being the same as in the singing of the old songs. Garcia played this slowly, apart from the phonographic recording, and the melody was noted by ear, with the position of the fingers when each tone was produced. The first finger of the left hand was held steadily above the upper sound hole and the various tones were produced by changes in the positions of the first three fingers of the right hand. The melody contains the tone B - C sharp - D sharp, and G sharp below B. These tones were produced in the following manner:
B ... All fingers raised.
C sharp ... First finger closing the upper sound hole.
D sharp ... First and second fingers closing the two upper sound holes.
G sharp ... First, second, and third fingers closing all the sound holes.
G sharp was less clearly given than the other tones.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Garcia 1929-02] Silvariano Garcia (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody 2. Solo flute, Papago culture. Recorded 1920.
» Transcription and analysis in Papago Music1 ([Densmore 1929]), pages 78 and 218.

Recording date based on [Densmore 1929], page v of the Forward: "Their songs were recorded at San Xavier, Sells, and Vomari, on the Papago Reservation in Arizona, during the spring of 1920 and the following winter."
Bliven ID: Papago 2

1Densmore Analysis: This melody contains one tone less than the preceding and is less definite in form. The tones are the simpler tones of the instrument and the rhythm is simple, diversified by rests. The tempo was steadily maintained. The effect produced by this record is that of a performance rather than the plajnng of a definite melody. It is as though the performer had at his command certain melodic and rhythmic material and produced it according to his fancy. The first three measures form a pleasing phrase which is once repeated. This is followed by a repetition of the original phrase. The measures not transcribed did not differ from the earlier portion of the song and the tones are indistinct. These are followed by a new phrase, after which the player returned to the opening phrase of the song. The record is about one and a half minutes in length and the phrase which follows the untranscribed measures is of frequent occurrence on the remainder of the cylinder.

Transcription by Frances Densmore

Transcription by Frances Densmore Larger image


[Payne 1999-29] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Papago Song (Papago Flute) «REF». Solo flute, Papago culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 29.


[Payne 1999-33] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Cowboy Ant (Papago) «REF». Solo flute, Papago culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 33.


[Payne 2004-14] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Butch Hall, Peter Phippen, and Ash Dargan (producers, recording engineers, mixing, and mastering). Papago Story «REF». Story and Solo Flute, Papago culture. Recorded before 2004, Length: 1:22.
» Recording published in The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne (audio CD [Payne 2004]), Track 14.


Passamaquoddy

[Perkins 2000-03] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Passamaquoddy Dance Song 1. Solo flute, Passamaquoddy culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:54.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 3.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 10 and 24.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 11.


[Perkins 2000-04] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Passamaquoddy Dance Song 2. Solo flute, Passamaquoddy culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 3:12.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 4.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), page 25.


[Perkins 2000-05] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Passamaquoddy Dance Song 3. Solo flute, Passamaquoddy culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 3:50.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 5.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), page 26.


[Perkins 2000-13] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Passamaquoddy Medicine Song. Solo flute, Passamaquoddy culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 5:43.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 13.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race1 (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 9 and 21.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 7.

Note that this melody is titled "Penobscot Medicine Song" in both [Curtis 1907] and [Tate 2004].

1Liner notes: Blamswe-Zozep Tene used to hear his grandfather sing this song, and in those old days the song had words. But it has not been sung by the people for forty or fifty years, and now Blamswe knows only the vocables used in the refrain. The song is thought to be an old medicine-song of the Penobscots, but some of the Wabanakis say it is a social song.


[Perkins 2000-15] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Passamaquoddy Song of Greeting. Solo flute, Passamaquoddy culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:52.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 15.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 7 and 16.


Pawnee

[Box 1930-01] Henry Box (performer); Alexander Lesser and Gene Weltfish (collectors). Flute Love Song. Vocal, Pawnee culture. Recorded about 1930, Length: 2:50.
» Cataloged in Early Field Recordings: A Catalogue of Cylinder Collections at the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music1 (hardcover [Seeger 1987a]), page 29.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music2, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8880, tr. 2, .7.
Bliven ID: Pawnee 1

1Catalog listing: 54-051-F. Alexander Lesser and Gene Weltfish, ca. 1930.
United States; Pawnee Indians; Unknown locations
Flute music; Love songs; Musical intervals and scales; Sacrificial offerings; Speeches, addresses. etc.: Unknown subjects

²From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 10: 54-051-F; EC10" 487 item 7. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Box 1930-02] Henry Box (performer); Alexander Lesser and Gene Weltfish (collectors). Testing stops on flute. Solo flute, Pawnee culture. Recorded about 1930, Length: 2:07.
» Cataloged in Early Field Recordings: A Catalogue of Cylinder Collections at the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music1 (hardcover [Seeger 1987a]), page 29.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music2, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8880, tr. 2, .8.
Bliven ID: Pawnee 2

1Catalog listing: 54-051-F. Alexander Lesser and Gene Weltfish, ca. 1930.
United States; Pawnee Indians; Unknown locations
Flute music; Love songs; Musical intervals and scales; Sacrificial offerings; Speeches, addresses. etc.: Unknown subjects

²From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 11: 54-051-F; EC10" 487 item 8. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Hensley 1989-08] Betty Austin Hensley. Pawnee Melody. flute, Pawnee culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:38.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 8.


Penobscot

[Penebscot 1910] Unknown; Frank G. Speck (collector) (1881–1950). Dance Song. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 1910, Maine, Length: 1:31.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 5, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 14.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 14.


[Perkins 2000-06] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Barter Dance Song. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:20.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 6.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 7-8 and 17.


[Perkins 2000-14] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Dance Song. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 5:07.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 14.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 19-20.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 1.


[Perkins 2000-16] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Song of Greeting 1. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 3:53.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 16.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 7 and 14.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), pages 3-4.


[Perkins 2000-17] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Song of Greeting 2. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 2:50.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 17.
» Song described and transcribed in The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race (hardcover [Curtis 1907]), pages 7 and 15.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book) (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 5.


[Perkins 2000-18] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Song of Greeting 3. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:26.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 18.

No transcribed source for this melody could be located.


[Perkins 2000-19] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. Penobscot Round Dance. Solo flute, Penobscot culture. Recorded 2000, Length: 1:22.
» Recording published in First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot (audio CD, WO 8201 [Perkins 2000]), Track 19.

No transcribed source for this melody could be located.


Picuris

[Vargas 1920] Rosendo Vargas; J. P. Harrington (collector). The Elf's Song. Solo flute, Picuris culture. Recorded 1920, Length: 0:42.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 1, #3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 3.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 17.


Pima

[Pima 1903-01] Unknown Pima performer; John William Lloyd (collector). Flute songs. Pima culture. Recorded 1903, Arizona.
» Cataloged in Early Field Recordings: A Catalogue of Cylinder Collections at the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music1 (hardcover [Seeger 1987a]), page 112.

1Catalog listing: 83-906-F. John William Lloyd, 1903.
United States; Pima Indians; [Arizona]
Corn songs; Flute songs; Tobacco songs; Unknown


[Pima 1927] Unknown Pima performer; George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Flute Song. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded Summer 1927, Sacaton, Arizona, Length: 1:13.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians1 (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), track 27 of the CD release; side B, band 4, #4 of the 1979 LP edition.
» Described in A Comparison of Pueblo and Pima Musical Styles2 ([Herzog 1936]), pages 284, 331, and 394.
» Recording also archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. 54-126F, ATL-2385.13 (wax cylinder transferred to tape).

1Liner notes from the 1979 LP edition of A Cry from the Earth: Here a man is imitating the sound of the Pima flute, or flageolet, in a song from the myth called "Flute Lure".

I am playing here
I am shaking the woman's heart
I am playing here
I am shaking the woman's heart
when the sun goes down
I am making (flowers) bloom
I am shaking her heart

The song does not have to be sung as part of the myth. It can be used separately as a love-charm song. In the recording there is a pronounced surface noise, like the beating of horses' hooves, caused by cracks in the wax cylinder.

Singer: anonymous. Collected by George Herzog, 1927. Source: Archives of Traditional Music, 54-126F, ATL-2385.13 (wax cylinder transferred to tape). Reference: George Herzog, "A Comparison of Pueblo and Pima Musical Styles," in Journal of American Folklore, 1936, pp. 331, 394.

2Analysis by George Herzog: The material underlying the present study was gathere3d by the author during the summer of 1927, in the course of a field investigation devoted to a survey of music of Indian tribes in New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California. Approximately 180 Pueblo songs were recorded on the phonograph, partly in the Pueblos themselves (San Juan, Taos, Laguna, and Acomita), partly in Santa Fe and Gallup with singers from San Ildefonso, Cochiti, and Zuni. About 200 songs were recorded from non-Pueblo tribes, including the Pima at Sacaton, Arizona.
[Footnote 2: The records are deposited with the Department of Ethnology of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.]

38. (P. R. I 21a.) Flute-song in the myth of na'vicu ("Flute-lure"), used also as a love-charm song. Sung a minor second higher. The timbre of this song imitates the flageolet. In 1929 the c phrase was sung twice, so that the song had five phrases. Given three times on the record.
I am playing [the flute] here, am shaking the woman's heart
I am playing here, am shaking the woman's heart
When the sun goes down
I am making to bloom, am shaking her heart.

Transcription by George Herzog

Transcription by George Herzog Larger image


[James-A 1929-01] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song of Older boy, singing in the house about the women. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:07.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. 4 EC 338.4.
Bliven ID: Pima 1-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 18: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 4. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-02] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song of Older boy, singing in the house about the women. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:01.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. 5 EC 338.5.

Vocal version of [James-A 1929-01]. See also [James-A-Maricopa 1929-12]
Bliven ID: Pima 1-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 19: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 5. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-03] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). No title. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:14.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. 6 EC 338.6.
Bliven ID: Pima 2-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 20: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 6. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-04] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). No title. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:59.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2. 7 EC 338.7.
Bliven ID: Pima 2-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 21: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 7. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-05] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). No title. Flute followed by Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:09.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2.12 EC 338.12.
Bliven ID: Pima 3-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 26: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 12. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-06] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song about Water Moss Stretched. Flute followed by Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:17.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2.13 EC 338.13.
Bliven ID: Pima 4-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 27: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 13. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[James-A 1929-07] Albert James (performer); George Herzog (collector) (1901–1983). Song about Red Snake. Flute followed by Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1929, Length: 1:29.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 8753, tr.2.14 EC 338.13 [sic].
Bliven ID: Pima 5-F/V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM4 CD-R: Track 28: 54-288-F, EC 10" 338, Item 14. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.04] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.04. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:15.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #41.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.4.
Bliven ID: Pima 7-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 2: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 4. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.05] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.05. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:22.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.5.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.04]
Bliven ID: Pima 7-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 3: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 5. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.06] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.06. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:14.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #39.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.6.
Bliven ID: Pima 8-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 4: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 6. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.07] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.07. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:30.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.7.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.06]
Bliven ID: Pima 8-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 5: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 7. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.08] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.08. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:33.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.8.
Bliven ID: Pima 9-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 6: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 8. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.09] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.09. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.9.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.08]
Bliven ID: Pima 9-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 7: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 9. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.10] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.10. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:10.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #43.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.10.
Bliven ID: Pima 10-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 8: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 10. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.11] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.11. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.11.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.10]
Bliven ID: Pima 10-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 9: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 11. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.12] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.12. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:33.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.12.
Bliven ID: Pima 11-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 10: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 12. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.13] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.13. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:06.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.13.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.12]
Bliven ID: Pima 11-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 11: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 13. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.14] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.14. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:40.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.14.
Bliven ID: Pima 12-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 12: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 14. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.15] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.15. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:43.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #44.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.15.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.14]
Bliven ID: Pima 12-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 13: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 15. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.16] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.16. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:58.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.16.
Bliven ID: Pima 13-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 14: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 16. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.17] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.17. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:03.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.17.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.16]
Bliven ID: Pima 13-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 15: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 17. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.18] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.18. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:14.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.18.
Bliven ID: Pima 14-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 16: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 18. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.19] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.19. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:15.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.19.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.18]
Bliven ID: Pima 14-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 17: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 19. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.20] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.20. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:19.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.20.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.18]
Bliven ID: Pima 14-V (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 18: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 20. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.21] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1010.21. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:22.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.21.
Bliven ID: Pima 15-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 19: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 21. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1010.22] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1010.22. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:12.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1010.22.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1010.21]
Bliven ID: Pima 15-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 20: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1010 item 22. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.01] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.01. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:00.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #33.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.1.
Bliven ID: Pima 16-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 21: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 1. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.02] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.02. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:59.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #34.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.2.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.01]
Bliven ID: Pima 16-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 22: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 2. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.03] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.03. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:11.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #35.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.3.
Bliven ID: Pima 17-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 23: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 3. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.04] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.04. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:45.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #36.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.4.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.03]
Bliven ID: Pima 17-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 24: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 4. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.05] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.05. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:06.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #37.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.5.
Bliven ID: Pima 18-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 25: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 5. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.06] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.06. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:24.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.6.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.05]
Bliven ID: Pima 18-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 26: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 6. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.07] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.07. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:11.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #40.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.7.
Bliven ID: Pima 19-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 27: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 7. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.08] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.08. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:30.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.8.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.07]
Bliven ID: Pima 19-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 28: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 8. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.09] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.09. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:23.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.9.
Bliven ID: Pima 20-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 29: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 9. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.10] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.10. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.10.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.09]
Bliven ID: Pima 20-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 30: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 10. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.11] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.11. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.11.
Bliven ID: Pima 21-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 31: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 11. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.12] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.12. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:52.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.12.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.11]
Bliven ID: Pima 21-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 32: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 12. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.13] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.13. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:13.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.13.
Bliven ID: Pima 22-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 33: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 13. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.14] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.14. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:15.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.14.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.13]
Bliven ID: Pima 22-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 34: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 14. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.15] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.15. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:50.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.15.
Bliven ID: Pima 23-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 35: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 15. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.16] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.16. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:52.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.16.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.15]
Bliven ID: Pima 23-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 36: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 16. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.17] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.17. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:11.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.17.
Bliven ID: Pima 24-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 37: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 17. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.18] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.18. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:14.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.18.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.17]
Bliven ID: Pima 24-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 38: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 18. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.19] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.19. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:21.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.19.
Bliven ID: Pima 25-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 39: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 19. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.20] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.20. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:34.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.20.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.19] Largely inaudible
Bliven ID: Pima 26-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 40: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 20. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.21] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.21. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:19.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.21.

Largely inaudible
Bliven ID: Pima 27-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 41: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 21. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.22] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1011.22. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:30.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.22.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.21]
Bliven ID: Pima 27-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 42: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 22. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1011.23] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1011.23. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1011.23.
Bliven ID: Pima 28-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM1 CD-R: Track 43: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1011 item 23. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.01] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.01. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 2:18.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.1.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1011.23]
Bliven ID: Pima 28-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 1: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 1. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.02] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.02. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.2.
Bliven ID: Pima 29-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 2: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 2. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.03] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.03. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 0:54.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.3.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.02]
Bliven ID: Pima 29-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 3: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 3. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.04] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.04. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:16.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.4.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.02]
Bliven ID: Pima 29-V (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 4: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 4. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.05] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.05. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:27.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.5.
Bliven ID: Pima 30-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 5: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 5. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.06] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.06. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:36.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.6.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.05]
Bliven ID: Pima 30-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 6: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 6. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.07] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.07. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:22.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.7.
Bliven ID: Pima 31-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 7: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 7. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.08] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.08. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:25.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.8.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.07]
Bliven ID: Pima 31-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 8: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 8. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.09] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.09. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:53.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.9.
Bliven ID: Pima 32-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 9: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 9. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.10] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.10. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 2:01.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.10.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.09]
Bliven ID: Pima 32-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 10: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 10. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.11] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.11. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:43.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.11.
Bliven ID: Pima 33-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 11: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 11. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.12] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.12. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.12.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.11]
Bliven ID: Pima 33-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 12: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 12. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.13] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.13. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:20.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.13.
Bliven ID: Pima 34-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 13: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 13. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.14] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.14. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:10.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.14.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.13]
Bliven ID: Pima 34-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 14: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 14. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.15] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.15. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:04.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.15.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.13]
Bliven ID: Pima 34-V (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 15: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 15. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.16] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.16. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:15.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.16.
Bliven ID: Pima 35-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 16: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 16. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.17] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.17. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 2:31.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.17.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.16]
Bliven ID: Pima 35-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 17: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 17. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.18] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Solo flute 1012.18. Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:27.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.18.
Bliven ID: Pima 36-F

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 18: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 18. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Moffat 1938 1012.19] Joseph Moffat (performer); Doriane Woolley McCullough (collector) (born 1916). Moffat/Pima Vocal 1012.19. Vocal, Pima culture. Recorded 1938, Length: 1:43.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. McCullough 1012.19.

Vocal version of [Moffat 1938 1012.18]
Bliven ID: Pima 36-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM2 CD-R: Track 19: 54-046-F. Arizona, Pima. Dorianne McCullough. ATL 1012 item 19. This CD contains flat transfer of the source recordings.


[Payne 1999-28] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Pima Song (Pima Flute) «REF». Solo flute, Pima culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 28.


Pomo

[Parrish 1953 01] Essie Parrish (1903–1979) (performer); William Heick and Gordon Mueller (writers and directors). Pomo Shaman. Vocal and Flute, Pomo culture. Recorded 1953, Length: 14:00.
» Recording published in Pomo Shaman ([Heick 1953]).
» Film archived at 1.

¹On-line description: Director: William Heick and Gordon Mueller
Writer: William Heick and Gordon Mueller
Production Date: 1953
Run Time: 0:22:26
Sponsor: University of California
Named locations: Stewarts Point Indian Reservation
Major themes covered: follows a female Pomo shaman conducting a ritual healing ceremony over a man with body pains
Individuals Named: Essie Parrish is named in general, as "a Pomo Shaman"
Native language spoken: Pomoan (Kashia/Kashaya), Hokan (broader language group)


Potawatomi

[Wapp 1982-01] Edward Wapp (died 2016). First Love Song for Flute. Solo Flute, Potawatomi culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#4). Transcription on page 136.


[Wapp 1982-02] Edward Wapp (died 2016). Second Love Song for Flute. Solo Flute, Potawatomi culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#5). Transcription on page 136.


Pueblo

[SwiftEagle 1955-01] Swift Eagle. Flute Song. flute, Pueblo culture. Recorded before 1955, Length: 2:10.
» Recording published in The Pueblo Indians In Story, Song and Dance (FW07200 [SwiftEagle 1955]), Track 7.


Rwandan

[Bludts 1999-08] Carl Bludts. The Winner «REF». flute, Rwandan culture. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 2:26.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 8.

1Description in the songbook: A nice easy melody from Rwanda.


Saami

[Zundel 1994-03] Terje Tretnes, Claus Zundel, Ralf Hamm, and Markus Staab. The Counterclockwise Circle Dance (Ly-O-Lay Ale Loya). chanting, Saami culture. Recorded 1994, Karasjok, Norway, Length: 5:10.
» Recording published in Chants and Dances of the Native Americans (audio CD, CDV 2753 [Zundel 1994]), track 3.


Sauk/Fox

[Wapp 1982-03] Edward Wapp (died 2016). Love Song. Solo Flute, Sauk/Fox culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#4). Transcription on page 137.


Seneca

[Bowen 1975-02] Leslie Bowen (leader), Herbert Dowdy, Sr., Avery Jimerson, Johnson Jimerson, Marty Jimerson, and Richard Johnny-John. Alligator Dance. Vocal, Seneca culture. Recorded October 1975, Salamanca, New York, Length: 3:08.
» Recording published in Songs of Earth, Water, Fire and Sky1 (audio CD, 80246 [Heth 1976]), Side A, band 2.

1Liner notes: Alligator Dance-Seneca
Recorded in Salamanca, New York, October 1975
Singers: LESLIE BOWEN (leader), HERBERT DOWDY, SR., AVERY JIMERSON, JOHNSON JIMERSON, MARTY JIMERSON, RICHARD JOHNNY-JOHN.
Dancers: ALVINA C. COOPER, A. EILEEN JACOBS, FIDELIA JIMERSON, VERA JIMERSON, CECIL JOHNNY-JOHN, KEVIN JOHNNY-JOHN, LYFORD JOHNNY-JOHN, MICHAEL JOHNNY- JOHN, BRIAN MOHR,THERESA R. SELTRON
The Seneca are one of the Six Nations of the Iroquois. located in New York State and on the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario. The social dances of the Iroquois are performed after large ceremonies in the longhouse or purely for entertainment. Many social dances are concerned with mammals such as the rabbit and raccoon or birds such as the duck, robin, and pigeon. The Alligator Dance may have come to the Seneca from the Southeast through intertribal contact. Of' the dances and songs on this record, the Alligator Dance is the only one consistently done indoors.
The male and female partners link elbows in a double-file semicircle moving counterclockwise around the singers, who sit on two benches facing each other.The men dance nearer the center of the circle, the women on the outside.At the refrain (“yo yo, hi ha,” etc.) the men swing their partners around in place, each couple making a small circle.
The instruments used are the water drum, hand rattles made from steer horns, and bells on the legs of the male dancers. The drum is a wood cylinder partly filled with water and covered with a split-cowhide head fastened by a hoop wrapped with brightly colored cloth. The drumstick is a carved piece of hardwood. The leader of the song plays the drum, while each of the other singers plays a hand rattle.
The vocal style is partly unison and partly responsorial. The leader begins, the chorus echoes the first phrase, and then they sing in unison, with a nasal, sometimes pulsating quality, until the refrain.Then the sustained notes on “yo he” and the halved drumbeat signal the change in the dance 2 step. The leader sings “yo yo” in a pulsating voice, and the chorus answers “hi ha” on a slightly higher pitch (less than a semitone higher). After this refrain has been sung eight or nine times, the “yo he” signal is sung again, and the song and dance resume as in the beginning. This form repeats five times, with some variations in pitch (in Nos. 1 and 3) and incomplete
repetitions of the song (in Nos. 2 and 5). Another notable vocal technique is the diminishing descending glide at the ends of the refrains.This is particularly noticeable at the end of the dance, when the whole song just seems to fade away.
The scales employed are tetratonic, but Nos. 1 and 3 use one pitch different from the others. The addition of the lower semitone in the leader's part of the refrain brings the number of pitches up to five. The meter is clearly duple, with the drum, voices, and rattles constantly emphasizing the beat.


[Seeger-P 1976-01] Pete Seeger and Ed Reneham. Seneca Canoe Song. vocal duet, Seneca culture. Recorded Summer 1976, Woodstock, New York, Length: 1:16.
» Recording published in Fifty Sail on Newburgh Bay1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FH 5257 [Seeger-P 1976]), Side A, band 1.
» Excerpt of recording published in Where Have All the Flowers Gone — A Singalong Memoir (softcover [Seeger-P 2009]), track A79.

Often known by the Seneca title, spelled in various places as "Kayowajineh", "Kayowjajineh", and "Kayowgena". Pete Seeger was intereviewed on August 9, 2013 by Democracy Now. There is a transcript: "I was fortunate to meet a man named Ray Fadden, who was a teacher on the Mohawk reservation near the Saint Lawrence River way back in 1950. And he taught me things. I was trying to run a little festival in the Adirondacks, and he came there with some of the students from his reservation. I remember asking him if he would teach me one of his songs. He said, "Pete, our songs are sacred to us, and you should not even try and sing them, except here's a Seneca canoe song. I'd be glad if you learned that." So, for 65 years, I guess, I've been singing the Seneca canoe song if I'm ever asked about Native American culture."

1Back flap of cover and Liner notes: Kyowagena - An American Indian canoe song, from the Mohawk River, which meets the Hudson and was a turn-off for those Hudson travelers wishing to head to the western direction rather than further north. Traditional.

The rery first songs of the Hudson were those sung or chanted by the Iroquoian tribes that lived along its banks or came to travel throughout its valley in search of food. We have no written record of these songs, but one of them, the Seneca Canoe Song, has survived. It was taught to Pete Seeger by Ray Fadden of Onchiota, N.Y. Perhaps you can learn the words of the "Sencca Canoe Song" as Pete Seeger did - by listening to it.


[Burton-B 1993-18] Bryan Burton (born 1948). Rabbit Dance. flute, Seneca culture. Recorded 1993?.
» Described in Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools1 ([Damm 2000]), page 55.

1Description by Robert Damm: Burton (1993) includes a chapter on American Indian flute music, which tonatind three flute legends, description fo the flute, an explanation of playing style and technique, five transcribed songs with background information, and resources for recommended listening.


Serrano

[Siva 2004 05] Ernest H. Siva. Little Bear Song - Flute. Solo Flute, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:18.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 5.


[Siva 2004 06] Ernest H. Siva. Little Bear Song - Vocal. Vocal, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:56.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 6.


[Siva 2004 31] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 1 - Flute. Solo Flute, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 0:39.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 31.


[Siva 2004 32] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 1 - Vocal. Vocal, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:20.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 32.


[Siva 2004 33] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 2 - Flute. Solo Flute, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:39.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 33.


[Siva 2004 34] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 2 - Vocal. Vocal, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:02.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 34.


[Siva 2004 35] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 3 - Flute. Solo Flute, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:07.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 35.


[Siva 2004 36] Ernest H. Siva. Bighorn Sheep Song No. 3 - Vocal. Vocal, Serrano culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 2:03.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 36.


Serrano/Cahuilla

[Siva 2004 01] Ernest H. Siva. The Dragonfly Song - Flute. Solo Flute, Serrano/Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:11.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 1.


[Siva 2004 02] Ernest H. Siva. The Dragonfly Song - Vocal. Vocal, Serrano/Cahuilla culture. Recorded 2004, Length: 1:29.
» Recording published in Voices of the Flute — Songs of Three Southern California Indian Nations (audio CD and sofcover book [Siva 2004]), Track 2.


Shawnee

[LittleAxe 1955-06] Little Axe Singers. Shawnee Stomp Dance. vocal, Shawnee culture.
» Recording published in The Great Plains, Indian Singers and Songs1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, CR-6052 [CR 1966]), Side A, Band 11.
» Recording published in Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music2 (audio CD, CR-7053 [CR 1998]), Track 15.
» Recording published anonymously in Authentic Native American Music (12-551 [LaserLight 1995]), Track 18.

1Liner notes: Title: Stomp Dance - Morning
The Stomp Dance is a dance of diffusion, a spread of culture traits. According to Edward Curtis, in his monumental study of the North American Indian, it "originated among the Seminoles: yet, a study of the music of the dance would seem to indicate an African origin, as the rhythm and the minor wail seem quite foreign to Indian musical concept. Nevertheless, the words or vocables are Indian."

Although the Stomp Dance prevails chiefly among the Indians of Northeastern Oklahoma, it has spread rapidly throughout much of the Southern Plains country, and can be witnessed at almost all Pow-Wows after the ceremonial or entertainment dances have concluded. White friends of the Indian, if present, are invited to join in.

The Stomp Dance, being a fun or social dance is performed by men and women who form a single line, facing forward around a central fire. Two leaders are needed: the dancers follow the leader at the head of the line round and round the fire, while a leader in the middle of the line leads the chant which the dancers repeat in unison The dance is characterized by a rhythmical stomping of feet and a swaying posture.

When the song changes the dancers face the fire, clasp hands, while the leader guides them so that many concentric circles are formed, growing smaller and smaller. The, the leader works his way out again, until the dancers end up in a single line as they began.

Two songs are almost standard for the Stomp Dance. Here presented two other, less common, selections. The Shawnees, originally from Tennessee and Georgia, were gradually pushed westward, and for more than a century have been settled in Oklahoma.

2Liner notes: Originally released as ARP-639a.


[LittleAxe 1955-07] Little Axe Singers. Four Corners. vocal, Shawnee culture.
» Recording published in The Great Plains, Indian Singers and Songs (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, CR-6052 [CR 1966]), Side A, Band 12.
» Recording published in Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music1 (audio CD, CR-7053 [CR 1998]), Track 16.

1Liner notes: Originally released as CR-6052.


Sioux

[Sioux 1908-01] Unknown Sioux performer; Edward S. Curtis (collector) (1868–1952). Sioux Vocal Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded before 1908.
» Transcribed in The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 3. The Teton Sioux. The Yanktonai. The Assiniboin (hardcover [Curtis-E 1908b] The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 3. The Teton Sioux. The Yanktonai. The Assiniboin), volume 3, page 150.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #C2.


[Graham-Z 1939-01] Zenos Graham (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Song Made by Grandfather Who Died in 1851 (Flute). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 3:11.
» Recording transcribed in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), pages 5 and 29; track 16.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music2, Bloomington, IN. ATL 18222.8.
Bliven ID: Sioux 5-F (a)

1Description: "Grandfather, Look at Me" Learned from the playing of Kevin Locke. You'll find the original recording on the Keepers of the Dream CD. The main difficulty here is to keep the rhythm going. You can do some improvising once you've got the rhythmic part in your fingers.

²From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 13: 54-022-F (handwritten addition) ATL 18222 item 8. This CD contains signal processed version of the source recordings.


[Graham-Z 1939-02] Zenos Graham (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Song Made by Grandfather Who Died in 1851 (Flute repetition). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 18222.10.

Repetition of [Graham-Z 1939-01]
Bliven ID: Sioux 5-F (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 15: 54-022-F (handwritten addition) ATL 18222 item 10. This CD contains signal processed version of the source recordings.


[Graham-Z 1939-03] Zenos Graham (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Song Made by Grandfather Who Died in 1851 (Vocal). Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:17.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 18222.9.

Vocal version of [Graham-Z 1939-02]
Bliven ID: Sioux 5-V

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 14: 54-022-F (handwritten addition) ATL 18222 item 9. This CD contains signal processed version of the source recordings.


[Graham-Z 1939-04] Zenos Graham (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Flute Scale. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 0:42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 18222.11.
Bliven ID: Sioux 6

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 16: 54-022-F (handwritten addition) ATL 18222 item 11. This CD contains signal processed version of the source recordings.


[Graham-Z 1939-05] Zenos Graham (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Christian Hymn (Doxology). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 0:53.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 18222.12a.
Bliven ID: Sioux 7

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 17: 54-022-F (handwritten addition) ATL 18222 item 12. This CD contains signal processed version of the source recordings.


[Coloff 1942-01] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Love Song 1 (Flute). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1942, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 1:37.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Sioux1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L40 [Rhodes 1954b]), Side A, Band 7a of the 1954 edition.
» Described in Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1987] Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 13.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song3 ([Korson 1969]), page 302.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #19 (listed on page 104); transcription on pages 150-151.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #09.

Flute version of [Coloff 1942-02]
Bliven ID: Sioux 2-F

1Liner notes: A7 and A8 -Love Songs With Flute
Love songs provided a medium through which the suitor could convey his feelings to the girl he was courting, feelings that could be more easily expressed in song than in speech. These songs were played on the end-blown flute and carried their message to the listener to whom they were addressed.
The two love songs (A7 and A8) were played and sung by John Coloff, who at the time of recording was in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps, a government agency that provided work for unemployed youth during the depression years of the 1930s. A free translation of the two songs follows:
First Song: All over the country I travel, All over the country I have traveled, Looking for a large home. A cow with a bell I always come back to, A cow with a bell I always come back to.
Second Song:
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
Long time you will not see me,
But every day, Brother-in-law,
You will see me in this picture.
Keep it, Brother-in-law, and remember
me.
The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drumplaying as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

2Liner notes, published in 1987: The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drum playing as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

3Listing in [Korson 1969]: Love Song. Sung with flute by John R. Colhoff. Recorded at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1942.


[Coloff 1942-02] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Love Song 1 (Vocal). Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1942, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 0:51.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Sioux1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L40 [Rhodes 1954b]), Side A, Band 7b of the 1954 edition.
» Described in Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1987] Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 13.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song3 ([Korson 1969]), page 302.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music4 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #20 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 152.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #30.

Vocal version of [Coloff 1942-01]
Bliven ID: Sioux 2-V

1Liner notes: A7 and A8 -Love Songs With Flute
Love songs provided a medium through which the suitor could convey his feelings to the girl he was courting, feelings that could be more easily expressed in song than in speech. These songs were played on the end-blown flute and carried their message to the listener to whom they were addressed.
The two love songs (A7 and A8) were played and sung by John Coloff, who at the time of recording was in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps, a government agency that provided work for unemployed youth during the depression years of the 1930s. A free translation of the two songs follows:
First Song: All over the country I travel, All over the country I have traveled, Looking for a large home. A cow with a bell I always come back to, A cow with a bell I always come back to.
Second Song:
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
Long time you will not see me,
But every day, Brother-in-law,
You will see me in this picture.
Keep it, Brother-in-law, and remember
me.
The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drumplaying as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

2Liner notes, published in 1987: Love songs provided a medium through which the suitor could convey his feelings to the girl he was courting, feelings that could be more easily expressed in song than in speech. These songs were played on the end-blown flute and carried their message to the listener to whom they were addressed.
The two love songs (A7 and A8) were played and sung by John Coloff, who at the time of recording was in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps, a government agency that provided work for unemployed youth during the depression years of the 1930s. A free translation of the two songs follows:
First Song:
All over the country I travel,
All over the country I have traveled,
Looking for a large home.
A cow with a bell I always come back to,
A cow with a bell I always come back to.

3Listing in [Korson 1969]: Love Song. Sung with flute by John R. Colhoff. Recorded at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1942.

4Translation by Kevin Locke, 1983: In a round about way
I come
In a round about way
I come
In a round about way
I come
Family, big,
is being sought on my behalf
Marry, but, although, woman, only
woman, only,
perhaps, to be, thus
I arrive back.


[Coloff 1942-03] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Love Song 2 (Flute). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1942, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Sioux1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L40 [Rhodes 1954b]), Side A, Band 8a of the 1954 edition.
» Described in Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1987] Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 13.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song3 ([Korson 1969]), page 302.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#3), Flute Melody #1, page 187 and 190-191.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #21 (listed on page 104); transcription on pages 153-154.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #48.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #08.

Flute version of [Coloff 1942-04].
[Coloff 1942-03] and [Coloff 1945] are different transfers of the same performance … these entries need to be merged!
Bliven ID: Sioux 3-F

1Liner notes: A7 and A8 -Love Songs With Flute
Love songs provided a medium through which the suitor could convey his feelings to the girl he was courting, feelings that could be more easily expressed in song than in speech. These songs were played on the end-blown flute and carried their message to the listener to whom they were addressed.
The two love songs (A7 and A8) were played and sung by John Coloff, who at the time of recording was in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps, a government agency that provided work for unemployed youth during the depression years of the 1930s. A free translation of the two songs follows:
First Song: All over the country I travel, All over the country I have traveled, Looking for a large home. A cow with a bell I always come back to, A cow with a bell I always come back to.
Second Song:
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
Long time you will not see me,
But every day, Brother-in-law,
You will see me in this picture.
Keep it, Brother-in-law, and remember
me.
The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drumplaying as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

2Liner notes, published in 1987: The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drum playing as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

3Listing in [Korson 1969]: Love Song. Sung with flute by John R. Colhoff. Recorded at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1942.


[Coloff 1942-04] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Love Song 2 (Vocal). Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1942, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 0:52.
» Recording published in Music of the American Indians: Sioux1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, AFS L40 [Rhodes 1954b]), Side A, Band 8b of the 1954 edition.
» Described in Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture2 ([Rhodes 1987] Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture), page 13.
» Listed in The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song3 ([Korson 1969]), page 302.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music4 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #22 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 155.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #29.

Vocal version of [Coloff 1942-03]
Bliven ID: Sioux 3-V

1Liner notes: A7 and A8 -Love Songs With Flute
Love songs provided a medium through which the suitor could convey his feelings to the girl he was courting, feelings that could be more easily expressed in song than in speech. These songs were played on the end-blown flute and carried their message to the listener to whom they were addressed.
The two love songs (A7 and A8) were played and sung by John Coloff, who at the time of recording was in charge of the Civilian Conservation Corps, a government agency that provided work for unemployed youth during the depression years of the 1930s. A free translation of the two songs follows:
First Song: All over the country I travel, All over the country I have traveled, Looking for a large home. A cow with a bell I always come back to, A cow with a bell I always come back to.
Second Song:
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
Long time you will not see me,
But every day, Brother-in-law,
You will see me in this picture.
Keep it, Brother-in-law, and remember
me.
The American Indian flute has become a museum relic, and its rarity today suggests that it may never have been as common in Indian musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute-making and flute-playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum-making and drumplaying as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. We are especially fortunate in preserving in this album two flute melodies played by John Coloff.

2Liner notes, published in 1987: Second Song:
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
This picture is me,
Keep it to remember me.
Long time you will not see me,
But every day, Brother-in-law,
You will see me in this picture.
Keep it, Brother-in-law, and remember me.

3Listing in [Korson 1969]: Love Song. Sung with flute by John R. Colhoff. Recorded at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 1942.

4Translation by Kevin Locke, 1983: Picture of a face
this, possession, and,
remembering me,
your speech, me,
duration,
Perhaps you will not see me,
Then, crow, his day, there,
You will see me.


[Coloff 1942-05] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1940s.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#2).


Label of the back of disc 2
from the 1949 10",
78 RPM 4-disc box set

Label of the back of disc 2
from the 1949 10",
78 RPM 4-disc box set Larger image

[Coloff 1945] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector and recording engineer) (1901–1992). Flute Call. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded about 1945, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 0:57.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians1 (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), track 24 of the CD release; side B, band 4, #1 of the 1979 LP edition.
» Recording also published in Music of the Sioux and the Navajo2 (audio CD, FW04401 [Rhodes 2004]), Side B, Band 1 of disc 2 of the 1949 78RPM release (EFL 1421-B); Side A, track 7 of the 1966 LP release; Side B, Band 4, #1 of the original Cassette.
» Recording also published in An Anthology of North American Indian & Eskimo Music (FE 4541 [Asch 1973]), side 1, band 2.
» Melody transcribed in Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book)3 (spiral binding [Tate 2004]), page 12.

[Coloff 1942-03] and [Coloff 1945] are different transfers of the same performance … these entries need to be merged!
Bliven ID: Sioux 1

1Liner notes from A Cry from the Earth 1979 LP: Song title: “Flute Call”.
Using flute melodies of this type, young men in the old days serenaded their sweethearts or signalled to them from afar. Nowadays flute playing has become a rarity and no longer has the meaning it once had. This flute call was played for Willar dRhodes merely to demonstrate what the instrument could do. Like most Indian flutes, it is acutally a flageolet, a flute with a whistle mouthpiece.
Played by John Coloff. Collected by Willard Rhodes, about 1945. Source: Folkways disc FE 4401.
Reference: Willard Rhodes, “Music of the Sioux and the Navajo” (booklet accompanying FE4401), 1949, p. 4.

2Liner notes from the 1966 LP edition of Music of the Sioux and the Navajo: Song title: “Love Song”
Side 1, Band 4(a): LOVE SONG (Solo flute). The flute was used for love charming and serenading. This instrument has become a museum relic of the poast [sic] and its rarity amongh North American Indians today suggests that it may never have been as common in their musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute making and flute playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum making and drum playing as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. The great flute makers and flute players are gone, and we are especially fortunate in preserving in this album one of the flute melodies played by John Coloff. The melody here presented has also been recorded as a love song with words. The upward interval of a sixth, the regular phrases, and the words, reflecting the influence of white culture, leads one to date the song in the last half of the nineteenth century.

3Liner notes: This is a duple meter, compound beat. Source: adapted from the playing of John Coloff - Smithsonian.


[Coloff 1945a] John Coloff (1880–1954) (performer); Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Sioux Courting Melody. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded about 1945, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 0:57.
» Recording published in Music of the World's Peoples, Volume 21 (audio CD, FW04505 [Cowell 1952]), Volume 2, track 5 (track 21 of the series).
» Recording also published in Music of the Sioux and the Navajo2 (four 10", 78 RPM vinylite discs (two black and two brown) in leatherette album folder box set, with notes, EFL-1420 to EFL-1423 [Rhodes 1949]), track 6.

This is another digital transfer of the same material as [Coloff 1945]. However, this copy of the cylinder has much less surface noise and at a slightly higher pitch (cylinder speed).

1PDF of liner notes for Vol 1-5 from Folkways Records FE 4504-4508: Volume 2 - FE 4505 - 21. Sioux: American Indians sing and drum a great deal, but melodic instruments are rare. Almost universal among most tribes, however, is the practice of young lovers wooing their lady-loves by playing the flute. The young man must learn the flute especially for this purpose. Such a love song is the one here recorded on a low flute. The four-note scale consists of Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the major scale, with "graces".

2Liner notes by Willard Rhodes: SIDE I, Band 4(a): LOVE SONG (Solo flute). The flute was used for love charming and serenading. This instrument has become a museum relic of the poast and its rarity among North American Indians today suggests that it may never have been as common in their musical culture as is generally believed. The technique of flute making and flute playing, more involved and intricate than that of drum making and drum playing as practiced by the Indians, would tend to limit the instrument to a small group of specialized musicians. The great flute makers and flute players are gone. and we are especially fortunate in preserving in this album one of the flute melodies played by John Coloff. The melody here presented has also been recorded as a love song with words. The upward interval of a sixth, the regular phrases, and the words, reflecting the influence of white culture, leads one to date the song in the last half of the nineteenth century.

3PDF of liner notes for Vol 1-5 from Folkways Records FE 4504-4508: Steve Bliven Notes: Song listed as "Courting Melody Flute Solo"
Originally issued as Folkways Ethnic P-505. Reissued on CD or Cassette through The Smithsonian.


[Horncloud 1945-01] William Horncloud (performer) (1905–1988). Sioux Vocal Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Authentic Songs and Chants of American Indians (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, ARP 623 [ARP 1945a]), Side A.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #32.


[Horncloud 1945-02] William Horncloud (performer) (1905–1988). Sioux Vocal Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Authentic Songs and Chants of American Indians (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, ARP 624 [ARP 1945b]), Side B.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #34.


[Sioux 1949-01] Unknown Sioux performer. Sioux Vocal Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Music of the Sioux and the Navajo (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, EFL-1401 [Rhodes 1949a]), Track 5.
» Recording published in Music of the Sioux and the Navajo (four 10", 78 RPM vinylite discs (two black and two brown) in leatherette album folder box set, with notes, EFL-1420 to EFL-1423 [Rhodes 1949]), Record 1421a (second disc, Side A), band 2.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #31.


[Lomawaima 1951-06] Harvey Lomawaima. Hopi Butterfly Dance. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded November 1951, Moencopi, Arizona, Length: 2:42.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers1 (33⅓ rpm 10" audio disc, C-6050 [CR 1955]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers (audio cassette, CR-6050 [CR 1968]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published in Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music2 (audio CD, CR-7053 [CR 1998]), Track 6.

1Liner notes: The Butterfly Dance - one of the most famous and spectacular of the Hopi Dances - is a social dance, held after the Harvest, and after the big Snake Dance in August. It is a thanksgiving dance for the harvest, chiefly for the corn crop.
The name, Butterfly Dance, comes in a round-about way: ... TBD ...

2Liner notes: Title: Hopi Butterfly Dance - Harvey Lomawaima and his Hopi Dancers (2:45) - The Buttery Dance, a traditional social dance of the Hopi, is held after the harvest and Snake Dance in August. It is a thanksgiving dance for the harvest, chiefly for the corn crop. The dance takes its name from the ancient Hopi custom of young females wearing their hair in whorls on either side of the head, which is throught to resemble the butterfly. In this dance, men participate but the maidens are the chief figures. Only young single girls who have the traditional outfits and can learn the intricte dance patterns may take part. THe dance movements are planned long in advance and the dancers are drilled over and over until perfection is achieved. The girls choose an uncle or male first cousing to provide the outfit. THis is usually a black wool manta dress and an elaborately colored headdress made of cardboard or light wood. In these each designer follows his own ideas and no particular design is traditional. Each season new headdresses are made for the occasion. The dance lasts all day with the same partiicpants with rest periods interspersed amont the various figures. The girls dance with great decorum and scarcely moving feet and with eyes cast down modestly. Boys and young men accompany the girls, for this is essentially a dance of youth. The men however, need not be unmarried. In velved shirts with fringed multi-colored ribbons hanging down the back, the boys shake rattles and dance by lifting their knees high in a springing step. Recorded November 1951. Originally released as ARP-134a.


[Natay 1952-01] Edward Lee Natay (died 1967). Acoma Song of the Sky City. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded June 1952, Length: 3:18.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers1 (33⅓ rpm 10" audio disc, C-6050 [CR 1955]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers2 (audio cassette, CR-6050 [CR 1968]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published in Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music3 (audio CD, CR-7053 [CR 1998]), Track 1.

The performer's name, Ed Lee Natay, is listed in full on the liner notes of [CR 1998].

1Liner notes: Acoma, Indian Pueblo in New Mexico, is known as the Sky City because it is perched atop a 350 foot high rock which rises sheer from the middle of the plain. Acoma is reached only by climbing up rocky paths and ledges. The Indians who lived there were industrious farmers, almost without exception tall, hansome men, who came down to the plains below each day to farm, and who hauled the fruits of their labors up those rocky paths after the harvest. Nowadays they live closer to their famrs, and preserve their Sky City as it was in ages past for ceremonials and for special events.
Out of Acoma has come one of the most melodious of all Indian songs, and Canyon Records is privileged to have one of the great Indian voices, Natay, Navajo Singer, present this beautiful song.
The music has the breadth and sweep that one expects to come forth from a Sky City, and one can actually feel it pour forth from that high rock and float out over space and over the plains below!
Listen to the famous Natay sing the Song of the Sky City . . .

2Liner notes: Performer's name is listed as "Natay (Navajo Singer)"

3Liner notes: The Acoma are a Keresan-speaking people whose ancestors migrated to their present location more than seven thousand years ago. Located in northeastern New Mexico, Acoma Pueblo is known as the Sky City because it is perched atop a 350-foot-high rock which rises sheer from the plain. Acoma is reached only by climbing up rocky paths and ledges. Those who lived there were industrious farmers, coming down to the plains below each day to farm and then carrying the fruits of their labors up those rocky paths after the harvest. Recently they have moved closer to the farms, preserving their Sky City as it was in the past for ceremonials and for special events. The song is performed here by the immortal Navajo singer and Canyon's first recording artist, Ed Lee Natay. Recorded June 1952. Originally release as ARP-143b.


[Horncloud 1954-04] William Horncloud (1905–1988), Ben Sitting Up, and Frank Afraid of Horses. Sioux Vocal Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded August 1954, Pine Ridge, South Dakota, Length: 2:09.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers1 (33⅓ rpm 10" audio disc, C-6050 [CR 1955]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published in The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers (audio cassette, CR-6050 [CR 1968]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published in Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music2 (audio CD, CR-7053 [CR 1998]), Track 30.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #33.

1Liner notes: Here is a Sioux love song, interesting both for its fine Sioux melody and for the way in which it is presented.
This is a folk song, and the singer is represented as a man who has just come from the home of his sister-in-law. She has just told him of her love for him, and hinted that he should have married her instead of her sister.
On his way home, the man's thoughts are filled with this strange conversation, and he sings over again to himslef the love words which his sister-in-law has spoken to him.
It is night, and his path home takes him through the wood. The owls hoot at him, and the coyotes howl. His walk home is made realistic on the record as the other singers enact the roles of the owls and the coyotes.

2Liner notes: Title: Lakota Love Song. Oglala Sioux Singers: William Horncloud (leader), Ben Sitting Up and Frank Afraid Of Horses (2:06) - Here is a Lakota love song, noted for its stirring melody and the way in which it is presented. The song tells the story of a man who has just come home from his sister-in-lw. She has told him of her love for him and hinted that he should have married her instead of her sister. On his way home the man's thoughts are filled with the strange conversation and he sings over again to himself the worlds of love which his sister-in-law has spoken to him. It is night and his path home takes him through the woods. His walk home is made realistic on record as the other singers mimic the sounds of owls and wolves. This song is sung by some of the finest singers in Lakota history. William Horncloud, respected widely for his dedication to traditional Lakota values, passed away in 1988. Recorded in August 1954. Originally released as ARP-170b.


Richard Fool Bull
photo by Bob DeMersseman
during recording sessions

Richard Fool Bull
photo by Bob DeMersseman
during recording sessions Larger image

[FoolBull 1960-01] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Song 1. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 1:02.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Song 1


[FoolBull 1960-02] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Song 2. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 2:25.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Song 2


[FoolBull 1960-03] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Song 3. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 2:48.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Song 3


[FoolBull 1960-04] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Teenage Love Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 3:18.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Teenage Love Song


[FoolBull 1960-05] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Jealous Woman. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 3:50.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Jealous Woman


[FoolBull 1960-06] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Broken-Hearted Woman. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 3:18.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Broken-Hearted Woman


[FoolBull 1960-07] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Going to War. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 2:51.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Going to War


[FoolBull 1960-08] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Teenage Girl. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 3:08.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Teenage Girl


[FoolBull 1960-09] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Going Overseas. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 1:43.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Going Overseas


[FoolBull 1960-10] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Running Around. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 4:15.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.
Note that this track suffers from a form of tape stretch that could not be removed in the mixed version.

Running Around


[FoolBull 1960-11] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Bob DeMersseman (collector); Clint Goss (restoration and mastering). Cowboy Friend. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded early 1960s, The Rapid City Museum, South Dakota, Length: 2:23.

Recorded by Bob DeMersseman at the Rapid City Museum, South Dakota in the early 1960s, when Richard was in his 80s. Thanks to Bob DeMersseman for permission to publish this material.

Cowboy Friend


[FoolBull 1963-01] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Girl Worrying About her Sweetheart Overseas. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 3:04.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 12

1Recording info from Steve Bliven associated with the DRB recordings: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-02] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Jealous Woman. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 3:37.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 13

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-03] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Girl Mourning over Lost Sweetheart. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 2:40.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 14

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-04] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Girl Weeping over her Lost Loved One. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 1:32.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 15

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-05] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Old Sioux Love Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 3:05.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 16

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-06] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Teenager Loving a Grown Man. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 2:14.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 17

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-07] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Woman Worrying About her man Going off to War. Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, South Dakota, Length: 2:35.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 100.
Bliven ID: Sioux 19

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.

²OHC Abstract: Informant: Richard Fool Bull Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 4-27-63 Transcript 4 pages Informant plays seven flute solos: girl worrying about her sweetheart overseas, jealous woman, girl mourning over lost sweetheart, girl weeping over her lost loved one, old Sioux love song, teenager loving a grown man, woman worrying about her man going off to war.


[FoolBull 1963-08] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Inkpa Taya. Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded possibly 1963, Length: 1:02.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).

Jurrens translation of the lyrics on the recording: "On the top of the hill I stand, waving a shawl. Come back here to me, come back here to me."
Bliven ID: Sioux 18-V

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 11 recorded by James Jurrens but with no introduction or field notes. Possibly Richard Fool Bull because of vocal version of song on Jurrens recording. Recording generously provided by the Jurrens family.


[FoolBull 1963-09] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (likely performer); James Jurrens (collector). Inkpa Taya. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded April 27, 1963, Length: 0:34.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).

Unsure about the performer - audio material has no introduction
Bliven ID: Sioux 18-F

1Liner notes: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Richard Fool Bull Tracks 5-10, 12 & 13 recorded by James Jurrens on 27 April 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Material generously provided by the Jurrens family.


[RedBuffalo 1963-01] Dan Red Buffalo (1882–1966) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded December 30, 1963.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 110A, Transcription #1 excerpted from interview.
Bliven ID: Sioux 8

1Recording info from Steve Bliven associated with the DRB recordings: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Dan Red Buffalo Tracks recorded by James Jurrens on 30 December 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Songs excerpted from the University of South Dakota American Indian Oral History Project. Univ. of South Dakota, Institute of American Indian Studies, Collection: AIRP Tape: 115.

²OHC Abstract: Informants: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud), Noah Kills-In-Sight (Rosebud), and Walt Perner (Non-Indian) Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 12-30-63 Transcript 2 pages 110A: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud) Subject: Culture--Various Songs and Explanations.


[RedBuffalo 1963-02] Dan Red Buffalo (1882–1966) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded December 30, 1963, Length: 0:43.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 110A, Transcription #2 excerpted from interview.
Bliven ID: Sioux 9

1Recording info from Steve Bliven associated with the DRB recordings: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Dan Red Buffalo Tracks recorded by James Jurrens on 30 December 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Songs excerpted from the University of South Dakota American Indian Oral History Project. Univ. of South Dakota, Institute of American Indian Studies, Collection: AIRP Tape: 115.

²OHC Abstract: Informants: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud), Noah Kills-In-Sight (Rosebud), and Walt Perner (Non-Indian) Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 12-30-63 Transcript 2 pages 110A: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud) Subject: Culture--Various Songs and Explanations.


[RedBuffalo 1963-03] Dan Red Buffalo (1882–1966) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded December 30, 1963, Length: 0:46.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 110A, Transcription #3 excerpted from interview.
Bliven ID: Sioux 10

1Recording info from Steve Bliven associated with the DRB recordings: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Dan Red Buffalo Tracks recorded by James Jurrens on 30 December 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Songs excerpted from the University of South Dakota American Indian Oral History Project. Univ. of South Dakota, Institute of American Indian Studies, Collection: AIRP Tape: 115.

²OHC Abstract: Informants: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud), Noah Kills-In-Sight (Rosebud), and Walt Perner (Non-Indian) Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 12-30-63 Transcript 2 pages 110A: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud) Subject: Culture--Various Songs and Explanations.


[RedBuffalo 1963-04] Dan Red Buffalo (1882–1966) (performer); James Jurrens (collector). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded December 30, 1963, Length: 0:39.
» Recording transcribed in The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and Its Use in the Elementary School1 ([Jurrens 1965]).
» Recording archived at The Oral History Center, University of South Dakota, College of Arts & Sciences2, Vermillion, SD. James Jurrens interviews, Institute of American Indian Studies, Tape AIRP 110A, Transcription #4 excerpted from interview.
Bliven ID: Sioux 11

1Recording info from Steve Bliven associated with the DRB recordings: Song transcribed in James Jurrens "The Music of the Sioux Indians of the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and its Use in the Elementary School", 1965. Submitted to the Graduate Division, Colorado State College [Now University of Northern Colorado).

Dan Red Buffalo Tracks recorded by James Jurrens on 30 December 1963 as part of James Jurrens Ed. D. dissertation research. Songs excerpted from the University of South Dakota American Indian Oral History Project. Univ. of South Dakota, Institute of American Indian Studies, Collection: AIRP Tape: 115.

²OHC Abstract: Informants: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud), Noah Kills-In-Sight (Rosebud), and Walt Perner (Non-Indian) Interviewer: James Jurrens Date: 12-30-63 Transcript 2 pages 110A: Dan Red Buffalo (Rosebud) Subject: Culture--Various Songs and Explanations.


[Foolbull 1969-01] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Lynn Heunemann (collector). Love Song for Flute. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1969.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of Native America: A Resource text for Teachers and Students (softcover [Huenemann 1978]), Band 21.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#5), Flute Melody #2, page 188 and 192.
Bliven ID: Sioux 4


[Foolbull 1969-02] Richard Fool Bull (1887–1976) (performer); Lynn Heunemann (collector). Love Song (Vocal). Vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1969.
» Recording published in Songs and Dances of Native America: A Resource text for Teachers and Students (softcover [Huenemann 1978]), Band 20.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#4), Love Song #7, page 179 and 192.

Vocal version of [Foolbull 1969-01]


[Sioux 1975] Unknown performer; James B. Wright (collector). Flute Music (Ancient Sioux Melody). Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded June 20, 1975, Southwest Poets Conference, Voices Singing 75, Native American Contemporary Singers and Composers, Downtown Civic Mall, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
» Recording part of James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs ([CSWR 2010] James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs), CD 21, 1 of 3, Item 469.
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM. Box 1, CD 21, 1 of 3, item #469.


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[Locke 1982-01] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). The Original Flute Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:00.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 1.

1Liner Notes: Words are free translations of the Lakota words "spoken" by the woman referred to in each song. Although the songs are not sung in this recording, the background of each is presented here to give a better understanding of the spirit of each composition and its flute rendition.

I'm coming in a round about way,
An impoirtant family I seek for myself.
I have arrived, I have arrived.

I learned this song from John Coloff at Pine Ridge. He told me that this was the first flute song.


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[Locke 1982-02] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Brother-In-Law. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:35.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 2.

1Liner Notes: Brother-in-law, listen to my words.
I love you, so I want to be with you in the future.
I know all about the deeds of that [other] girl you were with.
So in the future you're going to be with a girl of spotless repute, (and that's me).

I learned this song from William Horn Cloud at Pine Ridge.


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[Locke 1982-03] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). The Gossiper Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 1:50.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 3.

1Liner Notes: When you come it causes much talk,
The gossipers watch us and gossip about us.

I learned this from Ben Black Bear Sr. at Rosebud.


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[Locke 1982-04] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Sioux Falls Maiden Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 1:58.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 4.

1Liner Notes: I remember your words, and they cause me to long to see you.
Long ago I thought I was not with you,
and I remember you,
and I am crying for you.

This song wasl also learned from Ben Black Bear Sr.


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[Locke 1982-05] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Stand and Wait for Me. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:31.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 5.

1Liner Notes: Stand and wait for me.
When the mothers go to sleep, I will come out.
I am telling you the exact truth.
Stand and wait for me.

I learned this from Ben Black Bear Sr.


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[Locke 1982-06] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). You Came After Me. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:37.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 6.

1Liner Notes: You came after me,
but it appears you might be trying to fool me.

Learned from William Horn Cloud at Pine Ridge.


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[Locke 1982-07] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Morning Star Love Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:39.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 7.

1Liner Notes: We were here together at this place, but now I'm without you.
But all you have to do is behold the Morning Star in order to remember me.
When you do that, it will be as if we are looking at each other.

I learned this song from Ben Black Bear Sr.


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[Locke 1982-08] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Why Did You Hurt Me So?. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 3:21.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 8.

1Liner Notes: Why did you say those things, it hurt me so.
If I can't be here with you on earth,
then I will be with you in Heaven.
Pity me, I'm having a hard time.

I learned this from William Horn Cloud.


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[Locke 1982-09] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). I'm Crying Looking For You. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:47.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 9.

1Liner Notes: I'm crying looking for you.
He said "Go ahead and marry him,
then I will come and work both of you over."
I'm crying looking for you.

This song is about a girl who was in love with a young man, but her parents arranged a marriage for her with an older man. For several days after her arrival at the lodge of the older fellow, she pouted. So being of a not altogether cheerful disposition himself, he told her off, and sent her out. I learned this song from Ben Black Bear Sr.


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[Locke 1982-10] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Badlands Boy. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 1:22.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 10.

1Liner Notes: They spoke of the Badlands Boy.
In my dreams, and even in waking, I saw you
so surely you will be home.

I learned this song from Madonna Beard, who learned it from her grandmother, who used to sing it. This is a very old song.


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[Locke 1982-11] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Ink Pa Ta. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 0:58.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 11.

1Liner Notes: I'm standing at the top of the hill
beckoning with my shawl
for you to come over here.

This is a very old song which was composed by a young man who was jilted by the young woman who said these words to him.


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[Locke 1982-12] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). The Photograph. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded September 1-2, 1982, Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, Length: 2:39.
» Recording published in Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke1 (audio cassette, IH 4315 [Locke 1983a]), Track 12.

1Liner Notes: I'm giving you this photograph to remember me by.
It will be a long time before you see me again,
So until that day, you will have this photograph to remember me by.

This song was composed by a young man whose girlfriend said these words to him just prior to his going into the armed forces. I learned this song from John Coloff's recording.


[Locke 1982-21] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Love Song. vocal, Sioux culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#6).


[Locke 1982-22] Kevin Locke (born 1954) (performer); Tony Isaacs (collector). Love Song. Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1982.
» Transcribed in The Sioux Courting Flute: Its Tradition, Construction, and Music ([Wapp 1984]), Track Wapp (#7), Flute Melody #3, page 188 and 193-194.


[Locke 1982-31] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Lakota National Anthem. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side A, Band 1.


[Locke 1982-32] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Chief's Honoring Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side A, Band 2.


[Locke 1982-33] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Kunsintku Tehinda. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side A, Band 3.


[Locke 1982-34] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). I'm Crying Looking For You. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side A, Band 4.


[Locke 1982-35] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Stand And Wait For Me. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side A, Band 5.


[Locke 1982-36] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Morning Star Love Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side B, Band 1.


[Locke 1982-37] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). You Hurt Me So. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side B, Band 2.


[Locke 1982-38] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Mayahiyoyaye. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side B, Band 3.


[Locke 1982-39] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Hear My Words. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side B, Band 4.


[Locke 1982-40] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Picture Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music (audio cassette, FS-4001-C [Locke 1983]), Side B, Band 5.


[Locke 1986-01] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). First Flute Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-02] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). The Flash of the Mirror. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-03] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Gossiper's Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-04] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). My Heart is Sad. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-05] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Badlands Boy. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-06] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Inkpata. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-07] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Kunsintku Tehinda. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-08] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). The Last Squeeze. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-09] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Meadowloak Song. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Locke 1986-10] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Listen to My Words. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


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[Locke 1986-11] Kevin Locke (performer) (born 1954). Married 16 Times. Solo Flute, Sioux culture.
» Recording published in Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2 (audio cassette, FS-4004-C [Locke 1986]).


[Rainer 1986-07] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Sioux Traditional Song. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 4:14.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 1.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 7.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 1.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 7.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 7.

1Liner notes: An older Northern Plains song, which was a favorite of Ranier's grandfather, Helario Reyna, who died in 1968. Vocal rendition by the artist, his brother Howard, and father John Sr. Mr Ranier Jr. is a blend of two tribes - Taos Pueblo from his father and Creek from his mother, Wynema.

2Track listing: Sioux Traditional Song

3Track listing: Sioux Traditional Song

4Track listing: Sioux Traditional Song

5Track listing: Sioux traditional song; with Sioux Indian


[Cellicion 1988-05] Fernando Cellicion. Sioux Love Song. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1988, Length: 2:55.
» Recording published in The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion1 (audio cassette, IS-5060 [Cellicion 1988]), Side B, Band 1.

1Liner Notes: Thanks to … Mrs Mary Louise Wilson for the Sioux songs.


[Cellicion 1988-06] Fernando Cellicion. Sioux Love Song #2. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1988, Length: 2:23.
» Recording published in The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion1 (audio cassette, IS-5060 [Cellicion 1988]), Side B, Band 2.

1Liner Notes: Thanks to … Mrs Mary Louise Wilson for the Sioux songs.


[Hensley 1989-06] Betty Austin Hensley. Sioux Melody. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:49.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 6.


[Hensley 1989-10] Betty Austin Hensley. Sioux Love Song. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 1:18.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 10.


[Hensley 1989-12] Betty Austin Hensley. Sioux Flute Song. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:37.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 12.


[Hensley 1989-16] Betty Austin Hensley. Sioux Flute Call. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded October 1989, Length: 0:20.
» Recording published in Thurlow Lieurance Indian Flutes, Second Edition (softcover [Hensley 2002]), Track 16.


[Rainer 1990-07] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Traditional Sioux Song. flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 7.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 7.

1Liner notes: Taught to the artist by Gary Rush, a Sioux-Mandan.


[Bludts 1999-03] Carl Bludts. Sioux Love Song «REF». flute, Sioux culture. Recorded 1999, Antwerp, Belgium, Length: 1:45.
» Recording published in The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book)1 (comb binding [Bludts 1999]), track 3.

1Description in the songbook: I learned this song from the playing of Betty Hensley. She has a collection of over 400 ethnic flutes and wrote an interesting book about the Native American flute collection once owned by Thurlow Lieurance - the composer of By the Watrers of the Minnetonka. Lieurance used several Native American melodies interwoven in his compositions.


[Payne 1999-05] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Sioux Courting Song «REF». Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 5.


[Payne 1999-18] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004) (performer); Greg Patton (collector). Sioux Love Song (Eddie Wapp) «REF». Solo flute, Sioux culture. Recorded before 1999, Length: 1:43.
» Recording published in The Native American Plains Flute & Friends (audio CD [Payne 1999a]), Track 18.


Taos Pueblo

[Lieurance 1929-05] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963). Pueblo Lullaby (Wium). Solo flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey, Length: 0:21.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side B, Track 3.
» Published in Music of American Indians1 (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, E-89 [RCA-Victor 1947]), Catalog number 45-5072-B, Master E1EB-2947, Disk 1, Side B, Track 3.
» Published in Music of American Indians (set of 45 rpm 7" audio discs, Album WE-89, RCA Victor 41-6158 [RCA-Victor 1956]), Side B, Track 3.
» Recording described in Thurlow Lieurance2 ([Crawford 2002]).

Liner notes for the 1947 version courtesy of Discogs.com. Recording date and location from Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), by the University of California at Santa Barbara Library (Victor matrix BVE-51814)

1Liner notes: When Indian mothers were near their babies, they hummed or crooned lullabies. Usually there were no real words, but, instead, some meaningless, sweet sounding Indian syllables were sung over and over again to the tune. Like lullabies the world over, these melodies were quiet and often had a gentle, swaying rhythm.
Stangely enough, this lullaby gives the inpression of being in major mode. In simplified form, it begins thus: [snippet of music notation].
Thurlow Lieurance, who first heard the melody sung softly on the housestep of a pueblo in Taos, New Mexico, later used it as the theme for his song "Wi-um", which is an Indian word meaning "go to sleep" or "bye-bye".
The poem "Lullaby" translated from Hopi by Natalie Curtis, will be interesting to children. It is found in "Sung Under the Silver Umbrella", Macmillan Co. New York.

2Liner notes: Thurlow also apparently did present indigenous music of the Native American Flute without apparent alteration as opposed to his lengthy compositions. I have a 1947 RCA Victor, 78 RPM, record, upon which Thurlow plays four songs with the Native American Flute in 3 minutes and five seconds. The length is pretty much in keeping with available transcriptions of indigenous music recorded by early ethnomusicologists, i.e. Frances Densmore and Alice C. Fletcher. This one record was part of an album collection of four records titled: “Music of American Indians” and was presented as part of the RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools.
The four songs presented on the RCA Victor Record, played by Thurlow, were: “Winnebago Love Song;” “Love with Tears” (Cheyenne); “Pueblo Lullaby” (Taos) and “Omaha Ceremonial.” The album jacket says that “Pueblo Lullaby” was originally heard by Thurlow as a Vocal song while the other three are flute songs.


[TaosPueblo 1958-01] Unknown Taos Pueblo performer; David P. McAllester and Donald Nelson Brown (collectors). Sun Dance Song. Solo flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1958, Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, Length: 0:44.
» Recording published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, KCMS-1204 [McAllester 1962]), Side A, band 4(a).
» Recording also published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (audio CD [McAllester 2009]), Track 4(a).
» Liner notes re-published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho ([McAllester 2011]).

Performer is a "Taos man, ca. 65" based on liner notes of the 2009 CD.
Bliven ID: Taos Pueblo 1


[TaosPueblo 1958-02] Unknown Taos Pueblo performer; David P. McAllester and Donald Nelson Brown (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1958, Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, Length: 0:56.
» Recording published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, KCMS-1204 [McAllester 1962]), Side A, band 4(b).
» Recording also published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho (audio CD [McAllester 2009]), Track 4(b).
» Liner notes re-published in Music of the Pueblos Apache and Navaho ([McAllester 2011]).

Performer is a "Taos man, ca. 65" based on liner notes of the 2009 CD.
Bliven ID: Taos Pueblo 1


[Rainer 1986-01] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Taos Round Dance. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 2:19.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 1.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 1.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 1.

1Liner notes: Sung at social gatherings at Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, where men and women dance in a graceful motion in a circle around the drum.

2Track listing: Taos Round Dance

3Track listing: Taos Round Dance

4Track listing: Taos Round Dance

5Track listing: Taos round dance; with Taos Indian


[Rainer 1986-03] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Taos Traditional Song. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 1:39.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side A, Band 3.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 3.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side A, Band 3.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 3.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 3.

1Liner notes: Taos Pueblo is known throughout the Indian World for Round Dance Songs.

2Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

3Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

4Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

5Track listing: Taos Traditional Song 1; with Taos Indian


[Rainer 1986-12] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Taos Traditional Song. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded before 1986, Length: 2:06.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 11 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1986]), Side B, Band 6.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 12 (Audio CD, JR-01 [Rainer 1996]), Track 12.
» Recording published anonymously in The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian3 (audio cassette, 7002 [RedRock 1992]), Side B, Band 6.
» Recording published anonymously in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian4 (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 2, Track 12.
» Recording published anonymously in Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute5 (audio digital download, 10264345 [Coope 2016b]), Track 12.

1Liner notes: At day's end, the people of the Red Willows (name the Taos Indians call themselves) heard songs of the flute played under the cottonwood trees by the little stream above the pueblo. With the songs came good feelings.

2Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

3Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

4Track listing: Taos Traditional Song

5Track listing: Taos Traditional Song 2; with Taos Indian


[Rainer 1990-04] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Taos Pueblo Courting Song. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 4.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 4.

1Liner notes: Sung in the past by a young man calling to a young lady to come out of her adobe home to wait and watch for him.


[Rainer 1990-08] John Rainer, Jr. (died 2011). Taos Round Dance Variation. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side A, Band 8.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 8.

1Liner notes: An interpretation of an old Taos Round Dance song.


[Rainer 1990-10] John Rainer, Jr., Lillian Verenda, Howard Rainer, John Rainer, Sr., and P. J. McAffee (died 2011). Taos Round Dance. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side B, Band 2.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 10.

1Liner notes: Composed by Mr. Ranier's uncle Red Shirt, this song expresses feelings for the mountains at Taos, the people, and the pueblo which is home. Sung by: Lillian, Verenda, Howard, John Fr., John Ranier, Sr. and P. J. McAffee.


[Rainer 1990-12] John Rainer, Jr. and John Rainer, Sr. (died 2011). Taos Pueblo Courting Song. flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded 1990.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 21 (Audio cassette [Rainer 1990]), Side B, Band 4.
» Recording published in Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2 (Audio CD, JR-02 [Rainer 1996a]), Track 12.

1Liner notes: Though no longer sung at Taos Pueblo, this song, taught to the artist by his father, evokes feelings of bygone days: of sounds of flutes played under the cottonwood trees by the little stream which provides water to the people of Red Willows; of a lone singer remembering the days of good feelings. (Vocal solo by John Ranier, Sr.)


[Ranier 1990-17] John Ranier, Jr. (performer); Peggy McAffee (engineer); Guy Randall (mixing). Taos Pueblo Courting Song. Solo flute, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded February 1990, Provo, Utah, Length: 1:49.
» Recording published in Music of New Mexico: Native American Traditions1 (CD SF 40408 [NMAH 1992]), track 17.

Excerpt from Taos Pueblo Courting Song (excerpt)

1Edward Wapp Wahpeconiah liner notes: Flute melodies were traditionally derived from vocal love songs. Recent innovations in flute music have expanded the repertoire by using other vocal genres. The "Taos Pueblo Courting Song" resembles formal features of the round dance song. The opening phrase is repeated, followed by several contrasting phrases and the characteristic ending formula. The latter is stylized by repeating the same pitch, but using the formula's rhythmic pattern. The artist's rendition is an older style of playing, which does not incorporate elaborate ornamental figures. This song and the Taos Round Dance that follows employ a synthesizer to enhance the flute sound.


[Ranier 1990-18] John Ranier, Jr., Lillian Ranier, Verenda, Howard, John Ranier, Sr., and P. J. McAffee (performers); Peggy McAffee (engineer); Guy Randall (mixing). Taos Pueblo Round Dance Song. Flute, chorus, synthesizer, tambourine, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded February 1990, Provo, Utah, Length: 3:12.
» Recording published in Music of New Mexico: Native American Traditions1 (CD SF 40408 [NMAH 1992]), track 18.

1Edward Wapp Wahpeconiah liner notes: The round dance song used for this arrangement was composed by Red Shirt, John Rainer's uncle. The song is given three different treatments. First the song is sung by a chorus, accompanied by a tambourine and chordal drones played on a synthesizer. The second rendition features the flute as a solo instrument, with a drum added to the existing accompaniment. The flute plays the song's opening phrase in the third renditon, which is repeated by the female vocalists. They continue, singing the first half of the song, and then are joined by the male vocalists for the repeated section of the song form.


[Retro 1997-07] Unknown performer. Taos Moonlight Song. vocal, Taos Pueblo culture. Recorded before 1997, Length: 3:17.
» Recording published in Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian (audio CD, R2CD 40-31 [Retro 1997]), CD 1, Track 7.


Teton Sioux

[Eagle 1912] Bear Eagle; Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Clear the Way. Solo flute, Teton Sioux culture. Recorded 1912, South Dakota, Length: 1:56.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 3, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 7.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 21.


Thompson River

[ThompsonRiver 1897] Unknown Thompson River Indian performers; Franz Boas (collector) (1858–1942). Dance Song. Vocal, Thompson River culture. Recorded 1897, Length: 1:26.
» Recording published in CD-Konvolut: Music! 100 Recordings «100 Years of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv 1990-2000» (set of audio CDs [Simon 2000]).


Tlingit

[McIlwraith 1924] Thomas Forsyth McIlwraith (1899–1964) and Edward Sapir (collectors); J. D. Sapir (transcriptions). Nootka, Bella Coola, Tlingit music. various, Tlingit culture. Recorded 1910, 1915, and 1924.
» Recording archived at The Canadian Museum of Civilization1, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. MCH/CMH ARCHIVES : Sound Recordings 1:128, CD AU-CD2009-0534, CD AU-CD2012-0212.

¹On-line listing: Title Nootka, Bella Coola, Tlingit music [sound recordings]
Author McIlwraith, T. F. (Thomas Forsyth), 1899-1964.
Edition Work copy.
Publisher / Date 1910, 1915, 1924.
Description 1 audio reel.
1 compact disc : 12 cm.
Summary CCFCS Bobine No. 56, VII-D-51 to VII-D-59; VII-A-1 to VII-A-3; VII-F-1 to VII-F-5. Trancription and ms. by J.D. Sapir No.19. Songs, some used ceremoniously. Side 1. Transferts de cylindres de cire sur bandes magnétiques. Collected by Thomas Forsyth (T.F.) McIlwraith, 1924. Bella Coola songs. Dance song sung by Tallio Charlie, Reuben Schooner, Steamboat Annie and Jim Pollard. Mourning song of a chief (same singers) - weak recording. Shaman's song. Dance song. Mourning song. Dance song sung by Hump-backed Tommy. Dance song sung by Louie Hall. Side 2: Tlingit songs. Collected by J.A. Teit, in 1915, at Porter's Landing, Dease Lake, British Columbia. Dance song called the Porcupine song (Tagish song, sung by John Thibet (Thaltan). Dance song sung by Dandy Jim (Thaltan). Tagish song sung by Thaltans who got it from the Taku; Thaltans put in any words.) Love song (no words) sung by John Thibet and Nelly Nahass (Tahltan Indians). Nootka songs. Collected by E. Sapir, in 1910. transcribed by J.D. Sapir (ms. 19) singer: Tom, of Ts'ica'atha Tribe. Ts'iqa' song used in potlatches and at end of wolf ritual. Ts'iqa' song used in potlatch with bull-roarer. Ts'iqa' song originally sung by man in whale, according to legend obtained by Tom. Ts'iqa' song sung while marching to beach. Ts'ayeq' song. T'ama' song with drum accompaniment.

Notes Title based on content.
Other formats Also available: compact disc (AU-CD2012-0212).
Rights and access For use and reproduction terms, please consult Archives staff. Access terms: Open - no restriction (1). Undocumented restriction.
Year of research 1910, 1915, 1924.
Subjects Music.
Musique.
Cultural group Bella Coola (Nuxalk)
Bella-Coola (Nuxalk)
Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth)
Tlingit
Place of research Porter's Landing, British Columbia
Porter's Landing, Colombie-Britannique
Dease Lake, British Columbia
Dease Lake, Colombie-Britannique
Discipline Ethnology
Ethnologie
Other authors Teit, James Alexander, 1864-1922.
Charlie, Tallie.
Schooner, Reuben.
Steamboat Annie.
Pollard, Jim.
Hall, Louie.
Thibet, John.
Dandy Jim.
Tom, Helly Nehass.
Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939.
Control no. VII-X-2T
Accession no. 72/2
Previous no. 72-1033
CD File no. AU-CD2009-0534, AU-CD2012-0212


[Edgecumbe 1938] Mt. Edgecumbe Boys Chorus; Willard Rhodes (collector) (1901–1992). Paddling Song. Solo flute, Tlingit culture. Recorded 1938, Mt. Edgecumbe, Alaska, Length: 2:10.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side A, band 1, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side A, Band 1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 1.


[Harry 1954] Maggie Harry and Jenny Jack; Frederica de Laguna (collector). Mourning Song for a Brother. Solo flute, Tlingit culture. Recorded May 25, 1954, Yakutat, Alaska, Length: 2:19.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 1979a]), Side B, band 5, #1.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio cassette, 37777 [Bierhorst 1992a]), Side B, Band 14.
» Recording published in A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians (audio CD, FA 37777 [Bierhorst 2006]), Track 28.


Unknown

[Wright-JB 1975] Unknown performer; James B. Wright (collector). Flute Solo (Tom). Solo flute, Unknown culture. Recorded June 23, 1975, Southwest Poets Conference, Voices Singing 75, Native American Poets, Navajo Community College, Tsaile, Arizona.
» Recording part of James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs ([CSWR 2010] James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs), CD 25, Item 603.
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM. Box 1, CD 25, item #603.


Ute

[Nakai 1982-03] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Solstice. Solo Flute, Ute culture. Recorded 1982.
» Published in Native American Flute Music (audio cassette, NAMF1 [Nakai 1982]), Side A, Band 6.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Track Conlon (#24). Transcription on pages 158-159.


Winnebago (Thunder Clan)

Studio portrait of
Jasper Blowsnake
by Charles Van Schaick,
Black River Falls,
Wisconsin

Studio portrait of
Jasper Blowsnake
by Charles Van Schaick,
Black River Falls,
Wisconsin Larger image

[Blowsnake 1937-01] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:17.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4995; Recording #01, Program #01; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1203.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4995; Recording #01, Program #01; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1203.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan. Some sound distortion at beginning of program due to degradation of digital tape copy.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:17

²APS Notes: APS Notes 2011: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan. Some sound distortion at beginning of program due to degradation of digital tape copy.
APS Record 6/22/2016:
Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1203, local: 01, local: 01
Title: Flute Solo
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-02] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song - Paint Song. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 1:19.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4996; Recording #01, Program #02; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1204.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4996; Recording #01, Program #02; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1204.

1Liner Notes: "No words for song but symbol is man puts on paint on face for good luck when he goes to make love, to play contest game, to visit in hope of getting a gift, to engage in war expedition." Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:01:19

²APS Notes: APS Notes 2011: "No words for song but symbol is man puts on paint on face for good luck when he goes to make love, to play contest game, to visit in hope of getting a gift, to engage in war expedition."
APS Record 6/22/2016:
Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1204, local: 01, local: 02
Title: Flute Song: Paint Song
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-03] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:39.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:5008; Recording #01, Program #03; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1205.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:5008; Recording #01, Program #03; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1205.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:39

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1205, local: 01, local: 03
Title: Flute Solo
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, language_description
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-04] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Words and Voice of Flute Solo. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:13.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4998; Recording #01, Program #04; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1206.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4998; Recording #01, Program #04; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1206.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:13

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1206, local: 01, local: 04
Title: Words and Voice of Flute Solo
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago language, Winnebago Indians--Music
Type: Sound, singing, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-05] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 13, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:25.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49,3; audio:5016; Recording #03, Program #13; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1245.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49,3; audio:5016; Recording #03, Program #13; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1245.

Steve Bliven notes the possibility of innacurate information in the records of the American Philosophical Society.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 10

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:25

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1245, local: 03, local: 13
Title: Flute song
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, language_description
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937f-06] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Love Song - Two Chiefs. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 13, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:50.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:5006; Recording #03, Program #15; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1246.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:5006; Recording #03, Program #15; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1246.

1Liner Notes: "Girl's song. A girl, a daughter of the chief sings this song. She says 'I'm looking for a man (Chief's son) who wears a big stamped brooch on a cord around his neck.'"
Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:50

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1246, local: 03, local: 15
Title: Flute love song: two chiefs
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (singer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance, Love songs
Type: Sound, singing, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-07] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song for Drinking. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 17, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:46.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4991; Recording #04, Program #01; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1247.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4991; Recording #04, Program #01; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1247.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:46

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1247, local: 04, local: 01
Title: Flute song for drinking
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance, Drinking songs
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, language_description
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-08] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Words and Voice for Flute Song for Drinking. Vocal, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 17, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:43.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4997; Recording #04, Program #02; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1248.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4997; Recording #04, Program #02; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1248.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:43

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1248, local: 04, local: 02
Title: Words & Voice for flute song for drinking
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (singer)
Subject: Winnebago language, Winnebago Indians--Music, Drinking songs
Type: Sound, singing, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-09] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song - I Want to See My Dear Uncle. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 9, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:07.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:5011; Recording #04, Program #03; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1249.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:5011; Recording #04, Program #03; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1249.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:07

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1249, local: 04, local: 03
Title: Flute Song - "I Want To See My Dear Uncle"
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-10] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Words and Voice for Flute Song - I Want to See My Dear Uncle. Vocal, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 9, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 1:46.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:5022; Recording #04, Program #04; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1250.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:5022; Recording #04, Program #04; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1250.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:01:46

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1250, local: 04, local: 04
Title: Words and Voice for Flute Song - "I Want To See My Dear Uncle"
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (singer)
Subject: Winnebago language, Winnebago Indians--Music
Type: Sound, singing, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-11] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song for Sleeping Baby. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 17, 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:20.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:5003; Recording #04, Program #05; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1251.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:5003; Recording #04, Program #05; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1251.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:20

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1251, local: 04, local: 05
Title: Flute Song for Sleeping Baby
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance, Lullabies, Winnebago
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, primary_text
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


[Blowsnake 1937-12] Jasper Blowsnake (born about 1865) (performer); Frank G. Speck (collector); Frank Margeson (digitization and re-mastering). Flute Song. Solo flute, Winnebago (Thunder Clan) culture. Recorded May 1937, Wisconsin, Length: 2:30.
» Part of the collection Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago1 (set of audio reel-to-reel tapes [Speck 1964] Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago), Mss. Recording 49; audio:4988; Recording #04, Program #06; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1252.
» Recording archived at The American Philosophical Society Library2, Philadelphia, PA. Mss. Recording 49; audio:4988; Recording #04, Program #06; Legacy Identifier APSdigrec_1252.

1Liner Notes: Performed by Jasper Blowsnake, Thunder Clan.
Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Phonograph record) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.
General physical description: 00:02:30

²APS Record 6/22/2016: Identifier(s): local: APSdigrec_1252, local: 04, local: 06
Title: Flute Song
Contributor: Speck, Frank Gouldsmith, 1881-1950 (researcher), Blowsnake, Jasper (performer)
Subject: Winnebago Indians--Music, Flute--Performance
Type: Sound, unintelligible_speech, language_description
Access Notes: Copyright American Philosophical Society.


Winnebago

[Free 1897] James Free (performer); Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Flute Melody - Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1897-1900, probably Nebraska, Length: 0:51.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS20325: #3.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 24

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Alice Fletcher; Winnebago; probably Nebraska, 1897 and 1900
AFS 20325:3 (first minute of cylinder) -- 2 flute melodies by Henry Rice Hill and James Free

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 14: Winnebago Flute Melody (Love Song). AFS 20235:#3 (??). Alice C. Fletcher Collection.


[RiceHill 1897-01] Henry Rice Hill (performer); Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Looking Around For Him (Flute Melody, Love Song). Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded September 2, 1897, probably Nebraska, Length: 1:38.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS20323: #13.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 21

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Alice Fletcher; Winnebago; probably Nebraska, 1897 and 1900
AFS 20323:14 (latter part) -- 2 flute melodies, the second called a "Sac and Fox song"; by Henry Rice Hill and John Four Cloud

²Library of Congress information: WISCONSIN COLLECTIONS IN THE ARCHIVE OF FOLK CULTURE

Compiled by: David Mindel and David Spener
Series Editor: Ann Hoog
Revised: December 2010
AFS 20,199-23,204: Federal Cylinder Project Collection
Consists of multiple cylinder collections.
AFS 20,323: Five cylinders containing Winnebago Indian Music. Recorded in 1895 by Alice Cunningham Fletcher, location unknown. From the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Smithsonian Institution collection.
--------------------------
From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 11: Winnebago Flute Melody (Love Song). AFS 20323:#13. Alice C. Fletcher Collection, Played by Henry Rice Hill. "Looking Around For Him".


[RiceHill 1897-02] Henry Rice Hill (performer); Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Flute Melody - Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1897-1900, probably Nebraska, Length: 1:27.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS20325: #3.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 23

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Alice Fletcher; Winnebago; probably Nebraska, 1897 and 1900
AFS 20325:3 (first minute of cylinder) -- 2 flute melodies by Henry Rice Hill and James Free

²Library of Congress information: NEBRASKA COLLECTIONS IN THE ARCHIVE OF FOLK CULTURE

Compiled by: Kirsi Haenninen
Series Editor: Ann Hoog
Revised: December 2010
AFC 1948/074: Alice C. Fletcher Collection of Winnebago [Ho-Chunk] Cylinder Recordings
Six four-inch cylinders, recorded by Alice C. Fletcher and Francis LaFlesche in September 1897 and March 1900, probably on the Winnebago reservation in Nebraska. The cylinders, part of the Bureau of American Ethnology collection, were transferred to the Library from the National Archives in 1948. Genres represented include Medicine Lodge songs, war songs, love songs, lonesome songs, and flute melodies, by Henry Rice Hill, James Free, John Four Cloud, and Robert Lincoln. (includes AFS 20,323-20,325) (RWA 3335-3337)
--------------------------
From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 13: Winnebago Flute Melody (Love Song). AFS 20325:#3. Alice C. Fletcher Collection.


[Winnebago 1897-03] Unknown Winnebago performer; Francis La Flesche (collector) (1857–1932). Flute solo, possibly an experiment. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1897-1900, probably Nebraska, Length: 2:30.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS20325: #14.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 25

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Alice Fletcher; Winnebago; probably Nebraska, 1897 and 1900
AFS 20325:14 -- flute melody, labeled "Flute solo, possibly an experiment. Recorded by Francis La Flesche. Possibly Winnebago."

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 15: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 20235:#14. Alice C. Fletcher Collection.


[FourCloud 1900] John Four-Cloud (performer); Alice C. Fletcher (collector) (1838–1923). Flute Melody: Sac & Fox Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded March 2, 1900, probably Nebraska, Length: 0:49.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS20323: #14.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 22

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Alice Fletcher; Winnebago; probably Nebraska, 1897 and 1900
AFS 20323:14 (latter part) -- 2 flute melodies, the second called a "Sac and Fox song"; by Henry Rice Hill and John Four Cloud

²Library of Congress information: WISCONSIN COLLECTIONS IN THE ARCHIVE OF FOLK CULTURE

Compiled by: David Mindel and David Spener
Series Editor: Ann Hoog
Revised: December 2010
AFS 20,199-23,204: Federal Cylinder Project Collection
Consists of multiple cylinder collections.
AFS 20,323: Five cylinders containing Winnebago Indian Music. Recorded in 1895 by Alice Cunningham Fletcher, location unknown. From the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Smithsonian Institution collection.
--------------------------
From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 12: Winnebago Flute Melody (Sac & Fox Song). AFS 20323:#14. Alice C. Fletcher Collection, Played by John Four-Cloud, March 2, 1900.


[Houghton 1908-01] Charles Houghton (performer); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1908, Winnebago Reservation, Nebraska, Length: 3:24.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8844, tr. 1, .10.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 11

¹Description on OCLC WorldCat: All Authors / Contributors: George Ricehill; Joe Pelkie; Frank Beaver; Charles Houghton; Felix Wilson; Jim Fisher; Paul Radin; Charlie Green Rainbow; Indiana University, Bloomington. Archives of Traditional Music.; American Museum of Natural History.

Notes: Winnebago songs and stories and Anglo-American songs. Indexed in Dorothy Sara Lee, Native North American Music and Oral Data (I.U. Press, 1979) and Indiana University, Bloomington, Archives of Traditional Music, Early Field Recordings (I.U. Press, 1987). Deposited at the Archives of Traditional Music by the American Museum of Natural History under Option 2.

Performer(s): Charlie Green Rainbow, George Ricehill, Joe Pelkie, Frank Beaver, Charles Houghton, Felix Wilson, Jim Fisher and possibly others, vocals.

Production notes: Recorded by Radin in the summer of 1908 at the Winnebago reservation in Nebraska; sound quality good.

Description: 56 cylinders : 145 rpm, coarse groove, mono. ; 2 1/8 x 4 1/4 in.

Responsibility: collected by Paul Radin.
--------------
From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 5: 54-140-F; EC10" 442 item 10. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Houghton 1908-02] Charles Houghton (performer); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1908, Winnebago Reservation, Nebraska, Length: 2:54.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8844, tr. 1, .11.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 12

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 6: 54-140-F; EC10" 442 item 11. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Houghton 1908-03] Charles Houghton (performer); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1908, Winnebago Reservation, Nebraska, Length: 2:49.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8844, tr. 1, .12.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 13

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 7: 54-140-F; EC10" 442 item 12. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Houghton 1908-04] Charles Houghton (performer); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1908, Winnebago Reservation, Nebraska, Length: 2:41.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8844, tr. 1, .13.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 14

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 8: 54-140-F; EC10" 442 item 13. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Houghton 1908-05] Charles Houghton (performer); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1908, Winnebago Reservation, Nebraska, Length: 2:42.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. ATL 8844, tr. 1, .14.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 15

¹From Crawford cover on ATM3 CD-R: Track 9: 54-140-F; EC10" 442 item 14. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Winnebago 1909] Unknown Winnebago performer (possibly Sam Blowsnake); Paul Radin (collector) (1883–1959). Flute Melody. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1909-1912, Nebraska, Length: 6:34.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog1 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS 21358: #3.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 16

1Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Paul Radin; Winnebago; Nebraska, between 1909-1912; AFS 21358:3 -- flute melody, possibly by Sam Carley

²From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 24: Winnebago Flute Melody (Vocal). AFS 21358:#3. Paul Radin Collection.


[Lieurance 1929-03] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963) and Clement Barone. Winnebago Love Song. Flute Duet, Winnebago culture. Recorded April 23, 1929, Camden, New Jersey, Length: 0:47.
» Published in By the Waters of Minnetonka (78 rpm 10" audio disc, Victor 21972 [Lieurance 1929]), Side B, Track 1.
» Published in Music of American Indians1 (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, E-89 [RCA-Victor 1947]), Catalog number 45-5072-B, Master E1EB-2947, Disk 1, Side B, Track 1.
» Published in Music of American Indians (set of 45 rpm 7" audio discs, Album WE-89, RCA Victor 41-6158 [RCA-Victor 1956]), Side B, Track 1.
» Recording described in Thurlow Lieurance2 ([Crawford 2002]).

Liner notes for the 1947 version courtesy of Discogs.com. Recording date and location from Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), by the University of California at Santa Barbara Library (Victor matrix BVE-51814)

1Liner notes: Music played a vital part in the courtship of Indian braves. In some tribes it was customary for the young braves to stand near the tepee of the maiden of his choice at dark and to serenade her with his plaintive flute song. If, after listening for a time she remained inside and pulled down the tent flap, it was a sign that she did not care for the attention of her suitor. If the maiden looked upon the brave with favor, however, she came out of her lodge and stood listening quietly with downcast eyes to the sweet, melancholy melody.
Thurlow Lieurance, who lived among the Indians for years and collected many of their songs, says that more often the real love serenade was played in the early morning as the Indian maid went to the spring for fresh water. Morning after morning the maiden would seemingly ignore the song which the brave, hidden in a thicket or behind a rock, played on his flute. But usually he patiently repeated it until she have him her answer.
In this "Love Song, Mr. Lieurance plays the Indian flute, or flageoplet. WHen the tune is repeated, Clement Barone, playing on a modern flute, adds a second "melody" which is higher than the original tune and, as a result, we hear a duet for a time. This brief episode of "harmony" is an arrangement of the white man, for the original Indian melodies were sung or played in unison.
"Winnebago Love Song" resembles the Cheyenne melody, "Love With Tears" in its trilling imitation of bird songs played on the flageolet.
An interesting poem to use with this song is "Neither Spirit Nor Bird," translated from Shoshone by Mary Austin, and found in Junior Anthology of World Poetry, Albert and Charles Boni, New York.

2Liner notes: Thurlow also apparently did present indigenous music of the Native American Flute without apparent alteration as opposed to his lengthy compositions. I have a 1947 RCA Victor, 78 RPM, record, upon which Thurlow plays four songs with the Native American Flute in 3 minutes and five seconds. The length is pretty much in keeping with available transcriptions of indigenous music recorded by early ethnomusicologists, i.e. Frances Densmore and Alice C. Fletcher. This one record was part of an album collection of four records titled: “Music of American Indians” and was presented as part of the RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools.
The four songs presented on the RCA Victor Record, played by Thurlow, were: “Winnebago Love Song;” “Love with Tears” (Cheyenne); “Pueblo Lullaby” (Taos) and “Omaha Ceremonial.” The album jacket says that “Pueblo Lullaby” was originally heard by Thurlow as a Vocal song while the other three are flute songs.
The album jacket notes for the “Winnebago Love Song” comment that:
“Thurlow Lieurance, who lived among the Indians for years and collected many of their songs, says that the love serenade was played in early morning as the Indian maid went to the spring for fresh water. Morning after morning the maiden would seemingly ignore the song which the brave, hidden in a thicket or behind a rock, played on his flute. But usually he patiently repeated it until she gave him her answer.” (RCA)


[FriskCloud 1930-01] Frisk Cloud (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). No title. Winnebago culture. Recorded June 1930, near Tomah, Wisconsin, Length: 1:01.
» Discussed (according to Judith Gray, personal communication, January 13, 2011) in Winnebago Music ([Densmore 1940]), pages 38-39.
» Expedition described in Frances Densmore and American Indian Music: A Memorial Volume1 ([Hofmann 1968]), page 52.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10711:A2 (Song 5).
Bliven ID: Winnebago 17

1Liner notes: In June, 1930, another trip was made to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, this being the fourth visit to that tribe. Songs were recorded in the vicinity of Tomah and also near Wisconsin Rapids. ...
A Winnebago flute player known as Frisk Cloud recorded three melodies on a flute made of metal pipe, and said "the love songs are words put to flute melodies." He is also a maker of flutes and described the
measurements of an instrument in terms of hand and finger widths and hand spreads. Miss Densmore purchased the instrument on which the melodies had been played.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Winnebago; near Tomah, Wisconsin, June 1930; AFS 10711:A2-A3 -- 2 flute melodies by Frisk Cloud; [BAE Catalog numbers 1865-1866; Densmore manuscript, pp. 38-39]

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 5: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10687:A2. Frances Densmore Collection.


[FriskCloud 1930-02] Frisk Cloud (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Fragments of flute song. Winnebago culture. Recorded June 1930, near Tomah, Wisconsin, Length: 0:21.
» Expedition described in Frances Densmore and American Indian Music: A Memorial Volume1 ([Hofmann 1968]), page 52.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10711:A3 (Song 7).
Bliven ID: Winnebago 18

1Liner notes: In June, 1930, another trip was made to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, this being the fourth visit to that tribe. Songs were recorded in the vicinity of Tomah and also near Wisconsin Rapids. ...
A Winnebago flute player known as Frisk Cloud recorded three melodies on a flute made of metal pipe, and said "the love songs are words put to flute melodies." He is also a maker of flutes and described the
measurements of an instrument in terms of hand and finger widths and hand spreads. Miss Densmore purchased the instrument on which the melodies had been played.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Winnebago; near Tomah, Wisconsin, June 1930; AFS 10711:A2-A3 -- 2 flute melodies by Frisk Cloud; [BAE Catalog numbers 1865-1866; Densmore manuscript, pp. 38-39]

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 6: Winnebago Fragments of Flute Melody. AFS 10711 (Song 6). Frances Densmore Collection.


[FriskCloud 1930-03] Frisk Cloud (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded June 1930, near Tomah, Wisconsin, Length: 0:31.
» Expedition described in Frances Densmore and American Indian Music: A Memorial Volume1 ([Hofmann 1968]), page 52.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10711:A3 (Song 8).
Bliven ID: Winnebago 19 (a)

1Liner notes: In June, 1930, another trip was made to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, this being the fourth visit to that tribe. Songs were recorded in the vicinity of Tomah and also near Wisconsin Rapids. ...
A Winnebago flute player known as Frisk Cloud recorded three melodies on a flute made of metal pipe, and said "the love songs are words put to flute melodies." He is also a maker of flutes and described the
measurements of an instrument in terms of hand and finger widths and hand spreads. Miss Densmore purchased the instrument on which the melodies had been played.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Winnebago; near Tomah, Wisconsin, June 1930; AFS 10711:A2-A3 -- 2 flute melodies by Frisk Cloud; [BAE Catalog numbers 1865-1866; Densmore manuscript, pp. 38-39]

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 8: Winnebago Flute Melody. AFS 10711:A3 (Song 8). Frances Densmore Collection.


[FriskCloud 1930-04] Frisk Cloud (performer); Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Flute Melody. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded June 1930, near Tomah, Wisconsin, Length: 1:17.
» Expedition described in Frances Densmore and American Indian Music: A Memorial Volume1 ([Hofmann 1968]), page 52.
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10711:A3 (Song 7).

repeat of Flute Melody [Winnebago 1927]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 19 (b)

1Liner notes: In June, 1930, another trip was made to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, this being the fourth visit to that tribe. Songs were recorded in the vicinity of Tomah and also near Wisconsin Rapids. ...
A Winnebago flute player known as Frisk Cloud recorded three melodies on a flute made of metal pipe, and said "the love songs are words put to flute melodies." He is also a maker of flutes and described the
measurements of an instrument in terms of hand and finger widths and hand spreads. Miss Densmore purchased the instrument on which the melodies had been played.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 14, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Winnebago; near Tomah, Wisconsin, June 1930; AFS 10711:A2-A3 -- 2 flute melodies by Frisk Cloud; [BAE Catalog numbers 1865-1866; Densmore manuscript, pp. 38-39]

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 7: Winnebago: Repeat of Flute Melody on Track 5. AFS 10711:A3 (Song 7). Frances Densmore Collection.


[Monegar 1930-05] George Monegar; Frances Densmore (collector) (1867–1957). Love Song on Flute. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded June 1930, near Pittsville, Wisconsin, Length: 2:23.
» Expedition described in Frances Densmore and American Indian Music: A Memorial Volume1 ([Hofmann 1968]), page 52.
» Cataloged in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 2: Northeastern Indian Catalog and Southeastern Indian Catalog2 ([Gray 1985]), page 285.
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress3, Washington, DC. AFS10710:B3.

Listed by Steve Bliven as anonymous and recorded "about 1927-1932". However, based on information from [Hofmann 1968] and [Gray 1985], the likely perfomer is George Monegar in June 1930.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 20

1Liner notes: In June, 1930, another trip was made to the Winnebago in Wisconsin, this being the fourth visit to that tribe. Songs were recorded in the vicinity of Tomah and also near Wisconsin Rapids. ...
Winnebago songs and another flute performance were recorded by George Monegar, a blind man living near Wisconsin Rapids, who is considered one of the best authorities on old customs. He also related the legend of the origin of the flute.

2Federal Cylinder project: CYLINDER NO. 3,299
TIME 4:53
AFS NO. 10,710: B3
QUALITY good
BAE CAT. NO. 1862; 1863
DESCRIPTION
1) [Speech].
2) [:13] Green Corn Dance song (k)--1862.
3) [2:08] Love song (b)--l863 (flute version).
4) [3:33--Speech].
5) [3:38--Love song (b)--1863 (sung version)].
6) [4:51--Speech fragment].
PERFORMER George Monegar (4), (5), (6)
LOCATION Near Pittsville, Wisconsin
DATE June 1930
NOTES
2) ends at 1:27. 3) ends abruptly. [LABEL]: "6" and "flute" are marked "Disc." [discard]. [MS:281, 36, 301]: Densmore noted that Monegar's flute was made of brass pipe. [NOL]: The sung version of the love song is not in the Winnebago language; probably Omaha. [See also the Cadman Omaha collection in the Plains catalog; an Omaha, Noah La Flesche, recorded a Winnebago flute melody for Charles Wakefield Cadman in 1909.1

³From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 9: Winnebago Love Song on Flute. AFS 10710:B3. Frances Densmore Collection.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-01] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Even if I am to Die. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #2.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.11.

Love song “Even if I am to die” an old song to be sung by man or woman.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-F (a)

¹Description on OCLC WorldCat: All Authors / Contributors: Sam Blowsnake; Amelia Susman; George Herzog; Indiana University, Bloomington. Archives of Traditional Music.

Notes: Winnebago songs. Original aluminum discs. Accompanied by brief biographical and musical notes and song texts in Winnebago with English translations. See also 87-041-F for same songs performed by Charles Blowsnake in 1933. Deposited at the Archives of Traditional Music by Herzog and Susman under options 1 and 3.

Performer(s): Chief Sam Blowsnake, vocals, drum, rattles, flute.

Production notes: Recorded 1939 by Susman and Herzog in New York City, possibly at Columbia University.

Description: 19 sound discs : analog, 78 rpm, mono. ; 12 in. + documentation.

Responsibility: collected by Amelia Susman Schultz and George Herzog.
--------------------
From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 2: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 11. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-02] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 2:40.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #1.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.10.

Vocal version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-01]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 1: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 10. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-03] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:28.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.18.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-F (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 3: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 18. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-04] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 4:38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 415.4.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-F (c)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 10: 54-236-F, 12-1549, Side B. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-05] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:26.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.20.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-F (d)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 12: 54-236-F, ATL 419, item 20. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-06] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:19.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.8.

Vocal version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-05]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-V (e)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 21: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 8. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-07] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:16.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.9.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 4-F (e)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 22: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 9. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-08] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Woman’s Love Song. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:03.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #3.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.11.

Woman’s Love song, from myth of origin of flute songs. Girl’s words, played by man on flute at that time.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 4: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 19. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-09] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:10.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #4.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.20.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-08]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 5: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 20. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-10] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:52.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #5.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.22.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 6: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 22. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-11] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:21.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #6.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.23.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-10]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 7: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 23. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-12] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 4:38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 415.5.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (c)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 10: 54-236-F, 12-1549, Side B. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-13] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 4:38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 415.6.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-12]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (c)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 10: 54-236-F, 12-1549, Side B. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-14] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 4:38.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 415.7.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (d)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 10: 54-236-F, 12-1549, Side B. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-15] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:06.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.21.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (e)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 13: 54-236-F, ATL 419, item 21. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-16] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:22.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.22.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-15]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (e)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 14: 54-236-F, ATL 419, item 22. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-17] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:44.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.1.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (f)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 15: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 1. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-18] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:05.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.4.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-V (g)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 18: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 4. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-19] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:21.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.5.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-18]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 5-F (g)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 19: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 5. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-20] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). I Didn't Die. Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:14.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #7.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.24.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 6-V (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 8: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 24. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-21] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:16.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #8.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 414.25.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-20]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 6-F (a)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 9: 54-236-F, ATL 414, Item 25. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-22] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Flute. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:10.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 415.21.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 6-F (b)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 11: 54-236-F, 12-1551, Side A, Band 3. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-23] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Vocal. Vocal, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:19.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.2.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 6-V (c)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 16: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 2. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-24] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Flute. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:18.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.3.

Flute version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-23]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 6-F (c)

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 17: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 3. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-25] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939, Length: 1:26.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #14.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music1, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 420.7.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 7

¹From Crawford cover on ATM5 CD-R: Track 20: 54-236-F, ATL 420, item 7. This CD contains flat transfers of the source recordings.


[Blowsnake-S 1939-26] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #12.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.16.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 8


[Blowsnake-S 1939-27] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #9.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.1.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 9-F


[Blowsnake-S 1939-28] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); George Herzog and Amelia Susman Schultz (collectors). No title. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1939.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #10.
» Recording archived at The Indiana University, Archives of Traditional Music, Bloomington, IN. Herzog 419.2.

Vocal version of [Blowsnake-S 1939-27]
Bliven ID: Winnebago 9-V


[Blowsnake-S 1946] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Flute Melodies. Solo Flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded 1946.
» Published in Songs of the Winnebago People (78 rpm audio disc [Hofmann 1946]).


[Blowsnake-S 1946-01] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Length: 0:53.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side A, Band 10 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 10 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Dances (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, No. 161 [Hofmann 1947a]), Set of six 10" 78rpm discs.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #7 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 138.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #15.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #04.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 1

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Love songs have probably been the most popular phase or Indian music, but we must realize that the Indian did not sing about love as we do, because for him love was not romance. In the old days, the courting £lute was believed by many to serve as a magic love charm and the young men of the village played it in the summer evenings to attract the young girls, However, marriage was a different matter, and was arranged by the parents of the young people.
The examples on Side I, Band 10. and on Band 12, were played on a flute made from a metal gun-barrel.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.


[Blowsnake-S 1946-02] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Song of the Unfaithful Woman. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Length: 1:02.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side A, Band 11 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 11 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Recording also published in An Anthology of North American Indian & Eskimo Music (FE 4541 [Asch 1973]), Side 4, band 6.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Dances (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, No. 161 [Hofmann 1947a]), Set of six 10" 78rpm discs.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music3 ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #8 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 138.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #16.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #06.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 3

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Another flute melody explained as "the story of an unfaithful woman whose husband had died. She wept, but it was not heartfelt, for while she was weeping her new lover was playmg this flute melody to her from a nearby cliff.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.

3Description from page 70: The Winnebago "Song of the Unfaithful Woman" (No. 8) is in progressive form, that is with evolution of material, with refrain. This melody is similar to the type of vocal love songs used for derision. The male singer takes a phrase or word that his deceitful lover said and weaves a song around it to remind her of her former love for him. These songs are typically of a less soothing character than love songs used to woo a girlfriend. (Wapp, 1983a: personal communication).


[Blowsnake-S 1946-03] Sam Blowsnake (born about 1877) (performer); Charles Hofmann (collector). Second Love Song. Solo flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Length: 1:00.
» Recording published in War Whoops and Medicine Songs — The Music of the American Indians Including Songs of the Winnebago, Chippewa, Sioux, Zuni & Acoma1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4381 [Hofmann 1964]), Side A, Band 12 of the 1964 LP edition; Track 12 of the 2001 CD edition.
» Background information provided in American Indian Music in Wisconsin, Summer 19462 ([Hofmann 1947]), page 289, ¶2.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Dances (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, No. 161 [Hofmann 1947a]), Set of six 10" 78rpm discs.
» Transcribed in The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music ([Conlon 1983]), Accompanying tape, Side B, #9 (listed on page 104); transcription on page 139.
» Described in The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians ([Buss 1977] The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians), item #17.
» Analyzed in Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (thesis [Riemer 1978] Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians), item #05.
Bliven ID: Winnebago 2

1Liner notes from the 1964 LP edition of War Whoops and Medicine Songs: Once a young maiden heard the love call of a flute and recognized the young man who was playing it. She asked her parents for permission to visit her uncle, as an exceuse to meet her lover, but the older people were not often deceived when the flute music sounded.

2American Indian Music in Wisconsin: The writer worked with these five groups for eight weeks, and after five weeks of preparation and of collecting background material, set up a recording apparatus, and collected ninety songs from fourteen singers within three days.
Two recording machines were used. Most of the recordings were made on a Presto portable apparatus shared with the University of Wisconsin. A portable Wilcox-Gay was used for additional songs after Helen Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder collaborated in the use of the equipment. However, the writer furnished his own materials and has retained the original discs.


[Hofmann 1946-01] Unknown performer; Charles Hofmann (collector). Old Winnebago Flute Melody. flute, Winnebago culture. Recorded Summer 1946, Wisconsin.
» Recording published in American Indian Songs and Dances (set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs, No. 161 [Hofmann 1947a]), Set of six 10" 78rpm discs.
» Melody transcribed in War Whoops and Medicine Songs (hardcover [Hofmann 1952]), page 23.

The listing for this song was provided by IUCAT (http://iucat.iu.edu/catalog/14701711) and an Ebay listing for the [Hofmann 1947a] recording box-set of 78rpm 10" discs. However, it is not listed on the 78discography.com roster, so this track may refer to one of the Sam Blowsnake tracks that we have.


Yahi

Ishi in 1914

Ishi in 1914 Larger image

[Ishi 1914-01] Ishi (about 1860–1916) (performer); Alfred Lewis Kroeber (collector); Bernie Krause (audio restoration). Gambling Song 1. Vocal, Yahi culture. Recorded April 14, 1914, California, Length: 1:59.
» Recording published in Ishi: The Last Yahi — Recorded 1911-14 on wax cylinder1 (audio CD [Ishi 2008]), track 1.
» Background on Ishi Ishi, the Last Yahi Indian ([Waterman 1917]).
» Analysis of the recordings The Songs of Ishi: Musical Style of the Yahi Indians ([Nettl 1965]).
» Original recording indexed at The California Language Archive2. item 24-2148.
» Earlier recording of the same song archived at The California Language Archive3. item 24-2067.

1Audio identification: "April 14, 1914. Ishi. Gambling Song. Pautina, pautina, ainanutceya. Same as 1698b"

²CLA detail information: Gambling Song (1914 April)
Item number: 24-2148
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 2 minutes, 1 second
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: ainanutceya pautinapautina." Keeling catalog note: "This is a repeat performance of the song on 24-2067 (14-1698b). Nettl provides a separate musical transcription (1965)." Original cylinder 14-1825. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

³CLA detail information: Gambling Song (1912 January)
Item number: 24-2067
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 1 minute, 19 seconds
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: aina nutieya pantunapantina." Keeling catalog note: "Musical transcriptions in Nettl (1965:474) and among Kroeber Papers (Carton 11)." Original cylinder 14-1698b. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

Transcription by Bruno Nettl

Transcription by Bruno Nettl Larger image


[Ishi 1914-02] Ishi (about 1860–1916) (performer); Alfred Lewis Kroeber (collector); Bernie Krause (audio restoration). Woman Doctor's Song. Vocal, Yahi culture. Recorded April 14, 1914, California, Length: 2:23.
» Recording published in Ishi: The Last Yahi — Recorded 1911-14 on wax cylinder1 (audio CD [Ishi 2008]), track 2.
» Background on Ishi Ishi, the Last Yahi Indian ([Waterman 1917]).
» Analysis of the recordings The Songs of Ishi: Musical Style of the Yahi Indians2 ([Nettl 1965]), page 462.
» Original recording indexed at The California Language Archive3. item 24-2149, 24-2154, or 24-2155.
» Earlier recording of the same song archived at The California Language Archive. item 24-2069, 24-2080, or 24-2082.

1Audio identification: "April 14, 1914. Ishi. Woman doctor's song. Repetition of 1701b"

2Excerpts of relevant text by Nettl: … a group of "woman doctor's songs" (1701b, 1712, 1714, 1826, 1831, and 1832).

³CLA detail information: Woman doctor's song (1914 April)
Item number: 24-2149
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 2 minutes, 27 seconds
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: hayinowe, owinowe owinowe." Keeling catalog note: "For musical transcriptions see Kroeber Papers (Carton 11) and Nettl (1965)." Original cylinder 14-1826. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

Woman doctor's song (1914 April)
Item number: 24-2154
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 2 minutes, 19 seconds
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: ye aineye ye aineye." Keeling catalog note: "This is a repeat performance of the song on 24-2082 (14-1714). Nettl provides a separate musical transcription (1965)." Original cylinder 14-1831. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

Woman doctor's song (1914 April)
Item number: 24-2155
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 2 minutes, 9 seconds
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: hayinowe ehainowe, etc." Keeling catalog note: "This is another performance of the song on 24-2082 (14-1714). Nettl provides a separate musical transcription (1965)." Original cylinder 14-1832. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

Transcription by Bruno Nettl

Transcription by Bruno Nettl Larger image


[Ishi 1914-08] Ishi (about 1860–1916) (performer); Alfred Lewis Kroeber (collector); Bernie Krause (audio restoration). Thunder Song. Vocal, Yahi culture. Recorded April 14, 1914, California, Length: 2:05.
» Recording published in Ishi: The Last Yahi — Recorded 1911-14 on wax cylinder1 (audio CD [Ishi 2008]), track 8.
» Background on Ishi Ishi, the Last Yahi Indian ([Waterman 1917]).
» Analysis of the recordings The Songs of Ishi: Musical Style of the Yahi Indians ([Nettl 1965]).
» Original recording indexed at The California Language Archive2. item 24-2151.
» Earlier recording of the same song archived at The California Language Archive3. item 24-2075.

1Audio identification: "April 14, 1914. Thunder Song. Repetition of number 1707"

²CLA detail information: Thunder Song (1914 April)
Item number: 24-2151
Contributors: Ishi (consultant), A.L. Kroeber (researcher)
Language: Yahi
Duration: 2 minutes, 4 seconds
Description: Museum catalog note: "Words: wapayi tepeya watipai tepeya." Keeling catalog note: "This is a repeat performance of the item on 24-2075 (14-1707). Nettl provides a separate musical transcription (1965)." Original cylinder 14-1828. 150 speed.
Collection: The Alfred L. Kroeber collection of American Indian sound recordings
Repository: Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology

³CLA detail information: Thunder Song (1912 January)
Item number: 24-2075
Contributors: Ishi (consultant),