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References - N

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter N. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - N

[Nachmanovitch 1991] Stephen Nachmanovitch (born 1950). Free Play, published by G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1991, 224 pages, ISBN 0-87477-631-7 (978-0-87477-631-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nagel 2010] Horst Nagel. Mantras für die Neue Zeit: 333 spirituelle Lieder «Mantras for the New Age: 333 Spiritual Songs» (song book), published by Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany, in German, 2010, 248 pages, ISBN 3-8391-1502-7 (978-3-8391-1502-2). Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nakahara 2009] Hidehiro Nakahara, Shinichi Furuya, Satoshi Obata, Tsutomu Masuko, and Hiroshi Kinoshita. “Emotion-related Changes in Heart Rate and its Variability During Performance and Perception of Music”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1169, Number 1, 2009, pages 359–362, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04788.x. Publication 19673808 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigated the differential effects of emotions evoked by music on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) during the playing of music on the piano compared to those in persons listening to the same music. Thirteen elite pianists underwent experiments under expressive piano playing, nonexpressive piano playing, expressive listening, and nonexpressive listening conditions. The expressive conditions produced significantly higher levels of HR and low-frequency component of HRV, as well as a lower level of its high-frequency component. A greater modulation of these was also revealed for performance than perception. The findings suggested that musical performance would lead to a greater effect of emotion-related modulation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity than musical perception.

[Nakai 1982] R. Carlos Nakai (born 1946). Native American Flute Music, Phoenix, Arizona, Synchestry Studios, NAMF1, 1982, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

[Nakai 1983] R. Carlos Nakai. Changes, Canyon Records, CR-615, 15 tracks, 1983, ASIN B000001377 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), A Brief History of the Native American Flute

Review by J. Poet: Nakai's first recording of Native flute music, originally released in a limited edition of 250 cassettes, taps into something deeply spiritual in the human psyche. There are traditional Native songs from the Zuni, Lakota, and Blood tribes, but most of the material is original, inspired by Nakai's travels throughout the Southwest. The tone of Nakai's flute is always full and warm; it caresses your ears like the memory of a summer breeze. Yet despite the measured tempos and the pastoral mood, there is an energetic quality to the improvisations that makes the heart want to spread its wings and take flight. Nakai's success shows once again how powerful simple, folk-based melodies can be when they're played by a master musician.

[Nakai 1987] R. Carlos Nakai. Earth Spirit, Canyon Records, CR-612 (Volume 4), 15 tracks, 1987, ASIN B000001377 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3)

[Nakai 1996] R. Carlos Nakai and James DeMars; David Park McAllister and Ken Light (additional material). The Art of the Native American Flute, published by Canyon Records Productions, Phoenix, Arizona, 1996, 122 pages, ISBN 0-9647886-0-8 (978-0-9647886-0-2), softcover. Contains 18 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

36 citations: Nakai Tablature for the Native American Flute (2), Anatomy of the Native American Flute (5), Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (10), A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Meter for Native American Flutes (2), Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments, FAQ for the Native American Flute, Ornaments on the Native American Flute (14)

[Nakai 2007] R. Carlos Nakai and Udi Bar-David. Voyagers, Canyon Records, CR-7078, 14 tracks, 2007, ASIN B000001377 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

[Nash 1999] Stephen E. Nash. “Tularosa Cave”, published by The Field Museum, March 22, 1999. See the Article on The Field Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nashoni 2004] Eitan Nahshoni, Dan Aravot, Dov Aizenberg, Mayanit Sigler, Gil Zalsman, Boris Strasberg, Shula Imbar, Edgar Adler, and Abraham Weizman. “Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Major Depression”, Psychosomatics, Volume 45, Number 2, March–April 2004, pages 129–134. Publication 15016926 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Major Depression Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study compared cardiac autonomic modulation in physically healthy patients with major depressive disorder to that in mentally healthy heart transplant recipients and physically and mentally healthy comparison subjects by using a nonlinear measure and a conventional measure of heart rate variability. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic modulation were noted between the depressive group and the transplant recipients, but both of those groups had significantly lower mean values for heart rate variability measures relative to the healthy comparison subjects. The results support the hypothesis that cardiac autonomic imbalance (reduced vagal modulation) to the extent of cardiac neuropathy is present in depression.

[Natay 1951] Edward Lee Natay (died 1967); Raymond A. Boley (producer); Mary Boley and David McAllester (liner notes). Natay - Navajo Singer, Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona Recording Productions, C-6160, 8 tracks, 1951, set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs (four); also issued as four 45 rpm 7" vinyl audio discs. Reissued in [Natay 1968], [Natay 1972], and [Natay 1996]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Review by Howard LaFay, High Fidelity Magazine, April 1955, page 68: This disk is a real sleeper. Apparently Canyon's first LP release, it is a brilliant success by any criterion. It also fills - in what may well prove definitive fashion - a gaping hole in the catalog.

According to the note on the jacket, "Canyon Records has sought out the foremost Indian singers and arranged with them and through tribal councils to collaborate in this memorable collection." Dances, ceremonies and songs have been taped on the spot. All are thoroughly authentic - or as authentic as any Indian music can be in this era of tribal break-up.

The gem of the collection is "Acoma - Song of the Sky City," sung by a Navajo named Natay. Indian music is supposed to be unmelodic, but not this song, which possesses an indescribable, haunting loveliness; its melody conveys a heartbreaking nostalgia for the endless plains and the ancient glory. Natay's voice is as surprisingly beautiful as the song. He has the vocal equipment to sing any material in any league.

The sound is spacious, full and crystal-clear.

[Natay 1968] Edward Lee Natay; Raymond A. Boley (producer); Mary Boley and David McAllester (liner notes). Natay - Navajo Singer, Phoenix, Arizona, Canyon Records, C-6160, 8 tracks, 1968, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissue of [Natay 1951]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Natay 1972] Edward Lee Natay; Raymond A. Boley (producer); Mary Boley and David McAllester (liner notes). Natay - Navajo Singer, Phoenix, Arizona, Canyon Records, C-6160-C, 8 tracks, 1972, audio cassette. Reissue of [Natay 1951]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Natay 1996] Edward Lee Natay; Raymond A. Boley (producer); Mary Boley and David McAllester (liner notes); Jack Miller (digital re0mastering). Natay, Navajo Singer — The Music of Ed Lee Natay, Phoenix, Arizona, Canyon Records, CR-6160, 19 tracks, 1996, UPC 7-29337-61602-8, audio CD. Reissue of [Natay 1951]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Liner notes: In 1951, Navajo singer Ed Lee Natay was Canyon Records' first artist. His beautiful voices lives on in this collection of Navajo, Hopi, Kiowa, Tewa, Zuni and Pueblo songs.

[Nattiez 1983] Jean-Jacques Nattiez. “The Rekkukara of the Ainu (Japan) and the Katajjaq of the Inuit (Canada) — A Comparison”, Le monde de la musique, Volume 25, Number 2, 1983, pages 33–44. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Nattiez 1989] Jean-Jacques Nattiez. “Reflections on the Development of Semiology in Music”, Music Analysis, Volume 8, Numbers 1 and 2, published by Blackwell Publishing, March–June 1989, pages 21–75. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nattiez 1993] Jean-Jacques Nattiez. Chants des Inuit Iglulik «Songs of the Iglulik Inuit», Museum Collection Berlin series, CD 19, published by the Ethnologisches Museum Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, in French and English, 1993, audio CD. Series Editor: Artur Simon. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nederveen 1998] C. J. Nederveen. Acoustical Aspects of Woodwind Instruments, published by the Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, Illinois, 1998, 147 pages, ISBN 0-87580-577-9, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Neilan 2002] RuthiE Neilan. “The Native American Flute and Hospice: Healing Music for the End of Life”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2002, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2002, pages 21–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[NekaneOnakwa 2009] Harry Knickerbocker NekaneOnakwa. Recording Studio for Native American Flute Music, published by Powder River Flutes, 2009, 35 pages, comb-bound book with CD-ROM. Author's Tuscarora name is NekaneOnakwa, pronounced [nek-ah-nah-eh-koh-ah], means “hawk”. See the Powder River Flutes web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nelson 1997] D. E. Nelson and T. L. Ku. “Radiocarbon Dating of Bone and Charcoal from Divje Babe I Cave”, contained in [Turk 1997], 1997, pages 51–64. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Nelson-E 2009] Elaine M. Nelson. “Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way — Eunice Woodhull Stabler's Legacy of Preservation on the Twentieth Century Plains”, Great Plains Quarterly, Volume 29, Summer 2009, pages 219–236. Also published by the University of Nebraska Digital Commons, paper 1231. Cultural Survival and the Omaha Way Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3)

[Neskahi 1995] Arlie Neskahi. Flute and Whistle Traditions, 1995, retrieved June 5, 2015. Flute and Whistle Traditions Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1953] Bruno Nettl (born 1930). “Observations on Meaningless Peyote Song Texts”, Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 66, Number 260, April–June 1953, pages 161–164. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1953a] Bruno Nettl. “The Shawnee Musical Style: Historical Perspective in Primitive Music”, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, Volume 9, Number 3, published by the University of New Mexico, Autumn 1953, page 277–285. Publication 3628699 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1953b] Bruno Nettl. “Stylistic Variety in North American Indian Music”, Journal of the American Musicological Society, Volume 6, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Summer 1953, pages 160–168. Publication 829796 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1954] Bruno Nettl. North American Indian Musical Styles, Memoirs Series, Volume 54, published by The American Folklore Soceity, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1954, 399 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

28 citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (28)

[Nettl 1954a] Bruno Nettl. “North American Indian Musical Styles, Sections 1-2”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 67, Number 263, published by the American Folklore Society, January–March 1954, pages 44–56. This article and the two that follow constitute the bulk of the writer's doctoral dissertation, accepted by the faculty of Indiana University in June 1953. Publication 536807 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1954b] Bruno Nettl. “North American Indian Musical Styles, Sections 3-5”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 67, Number 265, published by the American Folklore Society, July–September 1954, pages 297–307. Publication 536785 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1954c] Bruno Nettl. “North American Indian Musical Styles, Sections 6-8”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 67, Number 266, published by the American Folklore Society, October–December 1954, pages 351–368. Publication 536412 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1955] Bruno Nettl. “Musical Culture of the Arapaho”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 41, Issue 3, published by Oxford University Press, July 1955, pages 325–331, doi:10.1093/mq/XLI.3.325. Publication 739795 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1956] Bruno Nettl. Music in Primitive Culture, Second Edition, published by Harvard University Press, December 1956, 200 pages, ISBN 0-674-59000-7 (978-0-674-59000-7). Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Comprehensive Scale Catalog: Three-Tone Scales in Equal Temperament

Introduction: In many parts of the world today there are people who are conventionally called primitive. They have simple cultures with no system of reading and writing of their own, although they usually possess some kind of tribal organization. It is their music which we shall examine here. This book is devoted to a description of the place of music in their lives, to their musical styles, instruments, and history, and to the relationship of primitive music to the music of Western culture.

[Nettl 1958] Bruno Nettl. “Historical Aspects of Ethnomusicology”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 60, Number 3, published by Blackwell Publishing, on behalf of the American Anthropological Association, June 1958, pages 518–532, doi:10.1525/aa.1958.60.3.02a00100 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1958a] Bruno Nettl. “Transposition as a Composition Technique in Folk and Primitive Music”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 2, Number 2, published by the University of Illinois Press, May 1958, pages 56–65. Publication 924384 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Among the various composition devices found in folk and primitive music, transposing a section to various pitch levels is one of the most widespread. Used in many different ways and accomplishing a number of different effects, its degree of intensity in the cultures of the world varies considerably. The purpose of this paper is not to give the geographic distribution of the types of transposition, but to present the most important types encountered in folk and primitive music and to illustrate them with examples from a variety of cultures.

[Nettl 1960] Bruno Nettl. Cheremis Musical Styles, Indiana University Folklore series, volume 14, published by the Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1960, xv + 108 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Comprehensive Scale Catalog: Two-Tone Scales in Equal Temperament

[Nettl 1961] Bruno Nettl. “Polyphony in North American Indian Music”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 47, Number 3, published by the Oxford University Press, July 1961, pages 354–362, doi:10.1093/mq/XLVII.3.354. Publication 740167 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1965] Bruno Nettl. “The Songs of Ishi: Musical Style of the Yahi Indians”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 51, Number 3, published by the Oxford University Press, July 1965, pages 460–477, retrieved March 13, 2010, doi:10.1093/mq/LI.3.460. Publication 740835 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Nettl 1967] Bruno Nettl. “Studies in Blackfoot Indian Musical Culture — Part I: Traditional Uses and Functions”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 11, Number 2, published by the University of Illinois Press, May 1967, pages 141–160. Publication 849814 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1967a] Bruno Nettl. “Studies in Blackfoot Indian Musical Culture — Part II: Musical Life of the Montana Blackfoot”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 11, Number 3, published by the University of Illinois Press, September 1967, pages 293–309. Publication 850267 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1968] Bruno Nettl. “Studies in Blackfoot Indian Musical Culture — Part IV: Notes on Composition, Text Settings, and Performance”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 12, Number 2, published by the University of Illinois Press, May 1968, pages 192–207. Publication 849929 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1974] Bruno Nettl. “Thoughts on Improvisation: A Comparative Approach”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 60, Number 1, published by the Oxford University Press, January 1974, pages 1–19. Publication 741663 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Nettl 1979] Bruno Nettl (editor). An Historical Album of Blackfoot Indian Music, Ethnic Folkways Records, FE 34001, 1979. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1995] Bruno Nettl. “The Seminal Eighties: A North American Perspective of the Beginnings of Musicology and Ethnomusicology”, Revista Transcultural de Música / Transcultural Music Review, Number 1, in Spanish and English, June 1995, retrieved December 19, 2010. ISSN:1697-0101. The Seminal Eighties Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nettl 1996] Bruno Nettl. “Relating the Present to the Past: Thoughts on the study of musical change and culture change in ethnomusicology”, Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean, Number 1, 1996, retrieved April 26, 2010. available in English and Italian. See the Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Neuenfeldt 2002] Karl Neuenfeldt (editor). “Indigenous Popular Music in North America: Continuations and Innovations”, The World of Music, Volume 44, Number 1, 2002. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Traces the history of the Native American flute with external block, looking at its traditional function, construction, distribution, decline and rejuvenation, culminating with the multi-tiered use of the Native American flute at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Recent developments in the evolution of the Native American flute from a private courtship ritual to a more public expression of Native identity allow for an interaction of musical styles. Ute/Navajo flutist R. Carlos Nakai describes his music as contemporary traditional, stating that he builds on the memories of his heritage, utilizing the experiences that surround him to revitalize the ancient stories. The efforts of Nakai as an emissary connecting the Native American flute to a myriad of other cultures will be examined.

[Neuman-GS 1999] Gayle Stuwe Neuman (strings, voice, percussion); Philip Neuman (winds, strings, percussion, voice). Music of the Ancient Sumerians, Egyptians & Greeks, Pandourion, PRCD 1005, 24 tracks, 1999, total time 46:45, ASIN B000044U1S Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: De Organographia: Philip Neuman, Gayle Stuwe Neuman combine astute musicology, performance practice and instrument crafting in the realization of this amazing collection of music from 1950 BC to 300 AD. From the world's oldest notated music, vocal renderings are accompanied with performed lyres, kithara, pandoura, double reed pipes, flutes and other ancient instruments. the collection is frequently presented at conferences of The American Musicological Society. The collection is frequently presented at conferences of The American Musicological Society.

[Nevaquaya 1976] Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932–1996); K. D. Edwards (recording). Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land, Midwest City, Oklahoma, Native American Music, 1976, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Nevaquaya 1979] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Verna Gillis (recording). Doc Tate Nevaquaya: Comanche Flute Music, Smithsonian / Folkways, F-4328, 25 tracks, 1979, audio cassette. Originally issued as Folkways Ethnic FE-4328. Reissued in [Nevaquaya 2004]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site. Contains 12 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

51 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (25), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (25), A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[Nevaquaya 1992] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Greg Ford (producer, recording, mixing). The Master, Norman, Oklahoma, Semihoye-Shawnee, 9 tracks, 1992. alternate title: "Legends Are Forever". Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eighteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (9), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (9)

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: When the world lost Doc Tate, we lost one of the last Native American flutists who knew and played the traditional songs from hundreds of years ago. When one listens to these songs we hear music that was once lost, but due to the efforts of Doc Tate we can hear forever the muisc that was once such a unique part of life for the Native American. Doc Tate passed on March 5, 1996, but he left with us a legacy of how to make and play the flute for generations to come. Nine songs including Doc Tate’s Lament, Zuni Sunrise and Comanche Moon.

[Nevaquaya 2004] Doc Tate Nevaquaya; Verna Gillis (recording). Comanche Flute Music — Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya, Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, SFW CD 50403, 25 tracks, 2004, total time 43 minutes, ASIN B000GJJGI2, audio CD. Reissue of [Nevaquaya 1979]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

54 citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Doc Tate Nevaquaya, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (26), A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (26)

Abstract: Doc Tate Nevaquaya (1932-1996) expressed his Comanche heritage musically through the Native American flute. His compositions and arrangements of a variety of Native American vocal genres have inspired a new generation of Native American and nonnative flute players. Although the older flute tradition declined during the first half of the 20th century, when many of the old melodies are no longer played, Nevaquaya inspired the creation of new and innovative flute compositions, creating an extensive repertoire for the instrument. With the flute’s revival during the 1970s, the flute’s context, function, and music changed. Nevaquaya played an important role in this movement, retaining tradition on one level, but manifesting ideas for change. 43 minutes. Originally issued as in 1979 as Folkways Records 04328.

[Nevin 1920] Arthur Nevin. “Impressions of Indian Music as Heard in the Woods, Prairies, Mountains and Wigwams”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, pages 663–664. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Newcomb 1940] Franc J. Newcomb. “Origin Legend of the Navajo Eagle Chant”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 53, Number 207, January–March 1940, pages 50–77. Publication 535373 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Narratives of the Native American Flute

Introduction: Each Navajo chant, which may be a long ceremony lasting as many as nine days, is based upon a legend which explains its origin and many parts of the ritual. There are perhaps as many as fifty of the chants, each with its story. Many of the chants are believed to have magic power for curing diseases. Others, however, are thought to bring supernatural help in carrying out difficult pursuits. Of such is the Eagle Chant, now rarely sung, since eagles are scarce in the Navajo country, and because hunting is not carried on ceremonially as it previously was. For this reason the legend is important, since it explains in detail various practices of eagle-catching and the rites which make it successful.

[Newhauser 2009] Daniel Newhauser. “Taking Rhythm to Heart”, Wavelength, published by Friends of Public Radio Arizona (FPRAZ), Tempe, Arizona, Fall 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Newman 1999] Louise Michele Newman. White Women's Rights, published by Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, 271 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Newton 1704] Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Opticks, 1704. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Newton-J 1779] John Newton (1725–1807) and William Cowper (1731–1800). Olney Hymns, 1779. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: First Publication of Amazing Grace

[Nicholas 2006] Nick Nicholas. “Unicode Technical Note: Byzantine Musical Notation, Version 1.1”, published by The Unicode Consortium, February 2006, 74 pages. See the Unicode Consortium web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This note documents the practice of Byzantine Musical Notation in its various forms, as an aid for implementors using its Unicode encoding. The note contains a good deal of background information on Byzantine musical theory, some of which is not readily available in English; this helps to make sense of why the notation is the way it is.

[Nicholls 1998] David Nicholls (editor). The Cambridge History of American Music, published by The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1998, 645 pages, ISBN 0-521-45429-8. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nichols 2005] Elizabeth Nichols. “The Art of Improvising”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 24–25. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nicholson 1930] Reynold A. Nicholson. The Mathnawí of Jalálu’ddín Rúmí — Edited from the Oldest Manuscripts Available: with Critical Notes, Translation & Commentary, April 1930, 297 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry by Rumi

[Nickens 1991] Paul R. Nickens (editor). Perspectivss on Archeological Site Protection and Preservation, Technical Report EL-91-6, published by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 1991, 150 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nickolaenko 2002] A. P. Nickolaenko and M. Hayakawa. Resonances in the Earth-Ionosphere Cavity, Modern approaches in geophysics, Volume 19, published by Springer, 2002, 380 pages, ISBN 1-4020-0754-X (978-1-4020-0754-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Pitch-to-Frequency Calculator

Publisher's description: This book on electromagnetic resonance phenomena describes a general approach to physical problems, ways to solve them, and properties of the solutions obtained. Attention is given to the discussion and interpretation of formal and experimental data and their links to global atmospheric conditions such as the dynamics of global thunderstorm activity, variations of the effective height of the lower ionosphere, etc. Schumann resonance is related to worldwide thunderstorm activity, and simultaneously, to global properties of the lower ionosphere. Transverse resonance is predominantly a local phenomenon containing information on the local height and conductivity of the lower ionosphere and on nearby thunderstorm activity. Transient events in ELF-VLF radio propagation are also treated. These are natural pulsed radio signals and/or abrupt changes of manmade VLF radio signals. The transients associated with cloud-to-ionosphere discharges (red sprites, blue jets, trolls) are discussed, and clarification of the underlying physical ideas and their practical applications to pioneer results achieved in the field recently are emphasised.

[Nicol 1993] Jennifer James Nicol. The Relationship Between Creativity and Stress Levels in Female Musicians, M.A. dissertation – University of British Columbia, published by the University of British Columbia, September 1993, x + 121 pages. The Relationship Between Creativity and Stress Levels in Female Musicians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Anectodal and theoretical accounts suggest that creativity is a positive attribute that enhances coping abilities. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this contention. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the relationship between characteristics of creativity and perceived stress levels in female musicians. It was anticipated that higher levels of creativity would be associated with lower levels of stress. Ninety-five musicians (49 music therapists, and 46 music hobbyists) volunteered for the study. Participants met with the investigator to complete paper and pencil measures. Creativity was conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct thereby necessitating the use of multiple measures. Five measures were used to assess creativity. These measures captured the constructs of creative thinking, creative personality, creative behavior, complexity, and musical activity. Stress level was measured with a 14-itemscale that measured perceived stress. Preliminary analyses indicated that only 3 of the predictor variables correlated with stress level. Consequently, creative thinking, creative personality, and creative behavior were used to test the hypothesis in an hierarchical regression analysis. The regression equation reached significance, F(7,85) = 2.86, p <.01, and accounted for 19% of the variance in stress level. Creative behavior was a main effect that demonstrated a positive relationship with stress level. However, this main effect disappeared when interactions were studied. Group differences emerged whereby the interaction effect of group by creative thinking was the only significant predictor of stress level. Plotting the interaction effect revealed that there was a negative relationship between creative thinking and stress level for music hobbyists; that is, lower stress levels were associated with higher levels of creative thinking. This was not true of the music therapists. Music therapists manifested a weak positive relationship between creative thinking and stress level. Creative thinking clearly buffered stress levels for music hobbyists. For music therapists, there was little or no relationship between the variables. The findings implicate creative thinking as a possible personal resource in the stress-coping process for adult female music hobbyists. Recommendations are made for future research that will help to clarify this relationship.

[Nicolescu 2007] Alexandra Nicolescu. “Walter Maioli's Sonorous Journey: The Nature of Music”, ICOM News, Number 2, 2007, page 3. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nikolsky 2015] Aleksey Nikolsky. “Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Mirrors Symbolic Representation of Perceptual Reality — Part 1: Prehistoric”, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6, Number 1405, October 16, 2015, 36 pages, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01405. significant supplemental material accompanies this paper. Publication 26528193 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. The evidence from music theory, ethnography, archeology, organology, anthropology, psychoacoustics, and evolutionary biology is plotted against experimental evidence. Much of the methodology for this investigation comes from studies conducted within the territory of the former USSR. To date, this methodology has remained solely confined to Russian speaking scholars. A brief overview of pitch-set theory demonstrates the need to distinguish between vertical and horizontal harmony, laying out the framework for virtual music space that operates according to the perceptual laws of tonal gravity. Brought to life by bifurcation of music and speech, tonal gravity passed through eleven discrete stages of development until the onset of tonality in the seventeenth century. Each stage presents its own method of integration of separate musical tones into an auditory-cognitive unity. The theory of "melodic intonation" is set forth as a counterpart to harmonic theory of chords. Notions of tonality, modality, key, diatonicity, chromaticism, alteration, and modulation are defined in terms of their perception, and categorized according to the way in which they have developed historically. Tonal organization in music, and perspective organization in fine arts are explained as products of the same underlying mental process. Music seems to act as a unique medium of symbolic representation of reality through the concept of pitch. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of thinking, adopted as a standard within a community of music users. Tonal organization might be a naturally formed system of optimizing individual perception of reality within a social group and its immediate environment, setting conventional standards of intellectual and emotional intelligence.

[Nikolsky 2016] Aleksey Nikolsky. “Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Mirrors Symbolic Representation of Perceptual Reality — Part 2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century”, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 7, Number 211, March 30, 2016, 32 pages, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00211. significant supplemental material accompanies this paper. Publication 27065893 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The "mega-pitch-set" (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. "Non-octave hypermode" is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes." The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of thinking, adopted as a standard to optimize individual perception of reality within a social group in a way optimal for one's success, thereby setting the conventions of intellectual and emotional intelligence.

[Nlarchaeology 2014] Nlarchaeology. Archaeology in the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador: The L’Anse Amour Burial Mound, October 20, 2014. See the Inside Newfoundland and Labrador Archaeology web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The L'Anse Amour Flute

Abstract: This report presents the results of archaeological survey and test excavation undertaken on the southern coast of Labrador during the summers of 1973 and 1974. Preliminary reports summarize our work at 14 sites, all but one of which relate to Archaic occupations. These components are placed in chronological sequence using evidence from seriation, comparison of collections, relative site elevations, and radiocarbon dating. The resulting sequence is used as the basis for postulating the development of a local variant of the Maritime Archaic tradition from a late Palaeo-Indian immigration to the area at approximately 8000-9000 years ago. We postulate continuity in the local occupation and adaptation from that time to approximately 3000-2000 years ago, when we suggest that the local tradition was interrupted by a possible environmental change and the immigration of Dorset Eskimos. The prehistory of the last 2000 years is unclear, and we suspect that occupation of this region was sparse and perhaps sporadic during the late prehistoric period. (McGhee & Tuck 1975)

[NMAH 1992] Department of Public Programs, National Museum of American History (producer); Edward Wapp Wahpeconiah (liner notes) (died 2016). Music of New Mexico: Native American Traditions, Smithsonian / Folkways, CD SF 40408, 19 tracks, 1992, total time 67:36. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[NMM-USD 2011] National Music Museum at The University of South Dakota. Chamber Organ by David Dutton, Mont Vernon, New Hampshire, about 1850, 2011, retrieved April 7, 2011. See the National Music Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Organ Pipes and the Native American Flute

[Noble 1938] Ray Noble (1903–1978). Cherokee (“Indian Love Song”), published by Shapiro, Bernstein & Co., New York, 1938. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Noble-DG 2006] David Grant Noble (editor). The Mesa Verde World: Explorations in Ancestral Pueblo Archaeology, published by SAR Press. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Noble-J 2008] John Noble. Mexico, 2008, 1,056 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Norborg 1987] Åke Norborg. A Handbook of Musical and Other Sound-producing Instruments from Namibia and Botswana, Stockholm, 1987, xxii + 454 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nordenskiold 1893] Gustaf Nordenskiöld (1868–1895); D. L. Morgan (translation). The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde «Ruiner af klippboningar i Mesa Verde's cañons», published by P. A. Norstedt & Söner, Stockholm, Sweden and Chicago, Illinois, in Swedish and English, 1893. Reissued in [Nordenskiold 1990]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flute Catalog - P, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Nordenskiold 1990] Gustaf Nordenskiöld. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Antiquities of the New World, Volume 12, published by the Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1990, 174 pages, ISBN 0-937062-14-6 (978-0-937062-14-2). Reissue of [Nordenskiold 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Norman 2007] Geoff Norman. “The Beltrami Flutes”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2007, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2007, pages 13–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Norris 1993] Richard N. Norris. The Musician's Survival Manual — A Guide to Preventing and Treating Injuries In Instrumentalists, First edition, published by the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians (ICSOM), 1993, 134 pages, ISBN 0-918812-74-7 (978-0-918812-74-2). See the Musician Survival web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Norris 2011] Richard N. Norris. The Musician's Survival Manual — A Guide to Preventing and Treating Injuries In Instrumentalists, Fifth Edition, published by the author, Northampton, Massachussets, May 2011, 101 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4657-0938-7. See the Musician Survival web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nott 1886] John Fortuné Nott (born 1847). Wild Animals Photographed and Described, published by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London, 1886, 568 pages. Publication cu31924024782561 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nougayrol 1955] Jean Nougayrol, Georges Boyer, Emmanuel Laroche, and Claude-Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer. Textes accadiens et hourrites des archives Est, Ouest et centrales «Akkadian Texts and Hurrian Archives East, West and Central», Two Volumes, published by C. Klincksieck, Paris, France, in French, 1955. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[NPL 2010] National Physical Laboratory. Pressure Units, March 25, 2010. See the National Physical Laboratory Web site. Pressure Units Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[NPS 2006] U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. “The Archeology of Horseshoe Canyon”, 2006, 74 pages. The Archeology of Horseshoe Canyon Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[NPSMMP 2007] National Park System Museum Management Program. Nez Perce Flutes, Teaching with Museum Collections Management Program, published by the National Park Service, 2007, 9 pages. See the Museum Management Program web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

Overview:
Park Name: Nez Perce National Historical Park
Description: The goal of this lesson is to inform students how flute music plays an important role in the lives of the Nez Perce by constructing and decorating a flute.
Essential questions: What role does the flute play in historic Nez Perce culture?

[Nunns 2004] Richard Nunns. “Te Ara Puoro: The Pathway of Sound — An Introduction to Traditional Instruments of the Maori”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2004, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2004, pages 5–7. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[NYStateMuseum 1908] New York State Museum. New York State Museum 60th Annual Report, 1906, Volume 1, published by the New York State Education Department, Albany, 1908, 182 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

 
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