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References - K

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter K. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - K

[Kacanek 2008] Hal Kacanek. The Sound of the Native American Flute: A Self Instruction Manual, Fourth Edition, published by Sounds We Make, Waukesha, Wisconsin, 2008, 24 pages. The Sound of the Native American Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kacanek 2011] Hal Kacanek. “Idea Bank: The Native American Flute - A Possibility for Your Classroom”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 97, Number 4, published by Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, June 2011, pages 18–21, doi:10.1177/0027432111409833. ISSN: 0027-4321. See the Hal Kacanek web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sound of the Native American flute seems to convey care, sadness, loneliness, longing, heartfelt emotion, a sense of the natural world, wisdom, the human spirit, and a sense of culture. It is a sound that competes for attention, dramatically punctuating messages about First Nation peoples on television and in movies. A relatively small group of music educators in the United States and Canada has seen and embraced the potential of the Native American Indian flute and has introduced and used the instrument in their classrooms. This article lists the advantages and disadvantages to consider in making decisions about how to incorporate Native American flutes into the classroom.

[Kaemlein 1955] Wilma Kaemlein. “Yuma Dolls and Yuma Flutes in the Arizona State Museum”, The Kiva, Volume 20, Numbers 2 and 3, December 1954 – February 1955, pages 1–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: The Yuma Indians are a group of Yuman-speaking people living at the confluence of the Gila and Colorado Rivers, on the California side. Their Reservation now includes about the same territory as that occupied by the Yuma when they were descrived by the Spanish explorrers of the 18th century. Spier states that their subsistence was obtained mostly by gathering and by flood farming. Game was scarce, and they did little hunting. As late as the beginning of the 19th century they had not been much affected by Spanish and Mexican contact. Their culture continued almost unchanged until the middle of the century, when the gold rush and settling of California caused numerous caravans to pass through Yuman country. This contact destroyed their freedom and self-sufficiency, and led to reservation life. By the 1800's many were working as laborers, and the old culture was beginning to break down. By the 1920's, when ethnological work was done amonth them by Forde, Kroeber and Densmore, the picture had changed considerably.

[Kahn 1983] Hazrat Inayat Kahn. The Music of Life, published by Omega Publications, 1983, 353 pages, ISBN 0-930872-38-X, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kalakutsky 2010] L. Kalakutsky and A. Fedotov. “Estimation of Arterial Stiffness Based on Analysis of Heart Rate”. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A hemodynamic model of human cardiovascular system has been proposed. This model allowed us to establish the relationship between index of arterial stiffness and pulse rate variability.

A new approach to estimation of arterial stiffness by assessing the relative spectral power of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability (beat-to-beat R-R intervals) was suggested.

A group of volunteers, consisting of 20 healthy people aged from 20 to 65 years was examined. The difference in magnitude of total spectral power of pulse rate variability and total spectral power of heart rate variability decreases with increasing age of subjects, which corresponds to the model evaluation and can be explained by age-related changes in arterial stiffness.

Comparative estimation between the proposed diagnostic index and arterial stiffness index, which defined by contour analysis of digital volume pulse, was presented. Correlation coefficient was 0.92; p <0.02.

[Kalani 2011] Kalani Das. The Way of Music — Creating Sound Connections in Music Therapy, First edition, Sarsen Publishing, Denton, Texas, 2011, ISBN-13 978-1-60725-278-8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kalda 2001] Jaan Kalda, M. Säkki, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “Zipf's Law in Human Heartbeat Dynamics”, October 26, 2001, 4 pages, arXiv:physics/0110075 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It is shown that the distribution of low variability periods in the activity of human heart rate typically follows a multi-scaling Zipf's law. The presence or failure of a power law, as well as the values of the scaling exponents, are personal characteristics depending on the daily habits of the subjects. Meanwhile, the distribution function of the low-variability periods as a whole discriminates efficiently between various heart pathologies. This new technique is also applicable to other non-linear time-series and reflects these aspects of the underlying intermittent dynamics, which are not covered by other methods of linear- and nonlinear analysis.

[Kalda 2003] Jaan Kalda, M. Säkki, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “Non-linear and Scale-invariant Analysis of the Heart Rate Variability”, March 10, 2003, 23 pages, arXiv:physics/0303041v1. Publication arxiv-physics0303041 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Human heart rate fluctuates in a complex and non-stationary manner. Elaborating efficient and adequate tools for the analysis of such signals has been a great challenge for the researchers during last decades. Here, an overview of the main research results in this field is given. The following question are addressed: (a) what are the intrinsic features of the heart rate variability signal; (b) what are the most promising non-linear measures, bearing in mind clinical diagnostic and prognostic applications.

[Kaltsas 2012] Nikolaos Kaltsas, Elena Vlachogianni, and Polyxeni Bouyia (editors). The Antikythera Shipwreck — The Ship, the Treasures, the Mechanism, published by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece, 2012, ISBN-13 978-960-386-031-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kaminski 1993] June Louise Kaminski. The Effect of Soothing Music on Neonatal Behavioural States in the Hospital Newborn Nursery, M.Sc.N. dissertation – University of British Columbia, published by the University of British Columbia, September 1993, ix + 100 pages. The Effect of Soothing Music on Neonatal Behavioural States in the Hospital Newborn Nursery Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study was designed to test the effect of soothing music on the number of high arousal neonatal behavioural states and the frequency of behavioural state change within the hospital newborn nursery. The theoretical framework for this study was drawn from theories related to newborn behavioural states, environmental influences on newborns, psychophysiologic effects of music and music as a health intervention. This study used a quasi-experimental, one sample, pretest, posttest design in which the subjects served as their own controls. The results were then analyzed using a one-tailed, McNemar's test (alpha < .05) specific for related small samples when nominal scale data are gathered. The sample consisted of twenty subjects observed in a large tertiary care hospital in Western Canada. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 57 hours old, were 36 to 42 weeks gestational age, weighed 2860 to 4160 grams at birth, and had Apgar scores ranging from 9 to 10 at five minutes postbirth. There were 8 females and 12 males. All were Caucasian and all were born vaginally without complications. All but two were breastfed. The subjects were observed for a total of four hours each, two hours in the normal nursery environment and another two hours with the addition of selected soothing music. All observations took place between 2400 and 0600hours. There was a significant difference at the alpha < .05level in the number of high arousal states (Nonalert Waking and Crying) between the control and experimental observations. The control group exhibited significantly more high arousal states than the experimental group did. The score obtained from comparing the proportion of high arousal states between the two observations was 2.36, p < .01, significantly higher than the score of 1.65 needed to be significant at alpha < .05. There was also a statistically significant difference in the number of state changes and in the z score of 2.93, p < .001 for state lability. The control group demonstrated significantly more state changes than the experimental group did. With a sample size of twenty, conclusions are tentative. The findings suggest that music may be useful to newborns adapting to extra uterine existence within a nursery setting. Interventions intended to reduce the frequency of high arousal states in newborns while in the nursery are the responsibility of nurses. Nursing and patient education should also address the possible use of music with babies exhibiting high arousal behavioural states. The results of this study suggest areas for replication and further study.

[Kanter 2006] Jason Kanter. Temperaments Visualized, September 29, 2006, retrieved December 6, 2011. See the Jason Kanter's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kaoru 2003] Kakizakai Kaoru (born 1959). Koten Shakuhachi, Victor, VZCG-304, 2003, Audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Kappraff 2005] Jay Kappraff and Ernest G. McClain. “The System of Proportions of the Parthenon: A Work of Musically Inspired Architecture”, Music in Art, Volume 30, Number 1/2, Spring–Fall 2005, pages 5–16. Publication 41818772 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The architecture historian Anne Bulckens has studied the proportions of the Parthenon based on the measurements of Francis Cranmer Penrose (the measurements referred to by most scholars). In her work she discovered the length of a module and measure of a Parthenon foot used throughout the structure conforming well to the architectural principals described by Vitruvius. The principal result of her studies is that all of the significant measurements can be reckoned as integers within the preset tolerance of 0.2% although the load bearing elements have deviations of far less. We have discovered that the integers can be correlated with the musical scale of Pythagoras. Most notably the length, width, and heights of the outer temple and the length and width of the celia form a pentatonic scale. Our contribution to Bulckens' work lies in trying to review it carefully within philosophical principles prevalent in the fifth century B.C. when it was under construction, for which we rely on Philolaus, the earliest Pythagorean author, writing in Tarentum while the Parthenon was under construction. This analysis may prove significant both for the study of other Greek temples and for a better understanding of Pythagorean influence on Greek ideals.

[Karampatzakis 2011] Panagiotis Karampatzakis, Vasilios Zafranas, Spyros Polychronopoulos, Georgios Karadedos. “A Study on Aristoxenus Acoustic Urns”, The Acoustics of Ancient Theatres Conference, Patras, Greece, September 18–21, 2011, 2011, 9 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In chapters 4 and 5 of Vitruvius’s 5th book titled “De Architectura”, he analytically describes the practice of enhancing and enlivening the acoustics of Greek and Roman stone theaters using bronze resonating urns. These urns were based on the theories of the ancient Greek musician and philosopher Aristoxenus, whose theories are summarized and expanded upon in the same two chapters.

In spite of the above mentioned reliable archaeological source, and the fact that in at least several ancient Roman and Greek theaters special niches have been found that seem to match exactly with the niches described by Vitruvius for the placement of the bronze urns, no such urns have ever been found or excavated up to date.

On the same note, many scientists (acousticians) of our age, having examined Aristoxenus theory as described by Vitruvius and experimented with various urns and the Helmholtz effect that these produce, have come to the conclusion that the effect described, while being measurable, is barely audible at a small distance and definitely inadequate to produce the results described by Vitruvius.

All the above, has led many scientists to believe that the above mentioned chapters may not be exactly true in their descriptions, have many omissions and maybe mistakes or are just describing something that was only in Vitruvius mind.

In this paper the whole matter known in the circles of archaeoacoustics as “the Vitruvian secret” is reexamined, from both a theoretical and a practical (experimental) perspective, using modern tools offered us by acoustic science, and by highlighting certain details about the matter we are led to the conclusion that not only was Vitruvius absolutely correct in his assertions, but once the correct understanding of the phenomenon exists, it is “easily” repeatable in an experimental setting in both diffuse and open spaces.

[Karavidas 2007] Maria Katsamanis Karavidas, Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Humberto Marin, Steven Buyske, Igor Malinovsky, Diane Radvanski, and Afton Hassett. “Preliminary Results of an Open Label Study of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for the Treatment of Major Depression”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 32, 2007, pages 19–30, doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9029-z. Publication 17333315 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder that can result in significant discomfort as well as interpersonal and functional disability. A growing body of research indicates that autonomic function is altered in depression, as evidenced by impaired baroreflex sensitivity, changes in heart rate, and reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic arousal have been proposed as major contributors to the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in participants with MDD, and baroreflex gain is decreased.
Study Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using HRV biofeedback to treat major depression.
Design: This was an open-label study in which all eleven participants received the treatment condition. Participants attended 10 weekly sessions. Questionnaires and physiological data were collected in an orientation (baseline) session and Treatment Sessions 1, 4, 7 and 10.
Measurements and Results: Significant improvements were noted in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) by Session 4, with concurrent increases in SDNN, standard deviation of normal cardiac interbeat intervals) an electrocardiographic estimate of overall measure of adaptability. SDNN decreased to baseline levels at the end of treatment and at follow-up, but clinically and statistically significant improvement in depression persisted. Main effects for task and session occurred for low frequency range (LF) and SDNN. Increases in these variables also occurred during breathing at one's resonant frequency, which targets baroreflex function and vagus nerve activity, showing that subjects performed the task correctly.
Conclusions: HRV biofeedback appears to be a useful adjunctive treatment for the treatment of MDD, associated with large acute increases in HRV and some chronic increases, suggesting increased cardiovagal activity. It is possible that regular exercise of homeostatic reflexes helps depression even when changes in baseline HRV are smaller. A randomized controlled trial is warranted.

[Karavidas 2008] Maria Karavidas. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Major Depression”, Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 1, Spring 2008, pages 18–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability for the treatment of major depression is a novel, alternative approach that can offer symptom reduction with minimal-to-no noxious side effects. The following material will illustrate some of the work being conducted at our laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of heart rate variability. Namely, results will be presented regarding our published work on an initial open-label study and subsequent results of a small, unfinished randomized controlled trial.

[Karrick 1998] Brant Karrick. “An Examination of the Intonation Tendencies of Wind Instrumentalists Based on Their Performance of Selected Harmonic Musical Intervals”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 46, Number 1, Spring 1998, pages 112–127, doi:10.2307/3345764. Publication 3345764 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study is an examination of intonation trends of experienced wind instrumentalists with regard to harmonic intervals. Factors of interest were tuning system, location, interval type, direction of deviation from equal temperament, and group. Subjects (N = 16) were experienced wind instrumentalists (8 professionals, 8 advanced students). Subjects recorded a duet, first playing the melody with a synthesized harmony line, and then vice versa. Target intervals were analyzed, converted to cent distance, and compared. Results indicated that deviation was greatest when compared to just tuning and least when compared to equal tempered tuning. For cent deviation from equal temperament, thirds and sixths were performed slightly less in-tune than fourths, fifths, unisons, and octaves. Location affected direction of deviation as subjects played sharp and less in tune when performing below the stimulus. The student group performed less sharp than the professional group when performing below the stimulus and less in tune when performing above.

[Karuna 2013] Nagarajan Karuna, Thaiyar M Srinivasan, and Nagendra HR. “Review of Rāgās and its Rasās in Indian Music and its Possible Applications in Therapy”, International Journal of Yoga - Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology, Volume 1, January–June 2013, pages 21–28. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The imbalances between our outlook toward life and insight cause stress. This could most of the times result in psychosomatic ailments. By modification of our innermost attitude, we can bring peace, satisfaction and comfort irrespective of the external environment. There are many systems of healing for countering perceived stress, which helps to manage stress as well as its impact on the systems of the body. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the Indian Rāgās and the interwoven agreeable rasās (aesthetic mood) in them. The willful submission to the notes of the music and the willingness to release the negative thought patterns may be helpful in healing physically. Based on many research made on the metaphysical causation of disease, we have attempted to list particular melody or rāgās depicting a particular aesthetic mood, which could help to heal a particular disease.

[Kassel 2006] Richard Kassel. The Organ: An Encyclopedia, Volume 3 of The Encyclopedia of Keyboard Instruments, published by Psychology Press, 2006, 679 pages, ISBN 0-415-94174-1 (978-0-415-94174-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Organ Pipes and the Native American Flute

Publisher's description: The Organ: An Encyclopedia includes articles on the organ family of instruments, including famous players, composers, instrument builders, the construction of the instruments, and related terminology. It is the first complete reference on this important family of keyboard instruments. The contributors include major scholars of music and musical instrument history from around the world. It completes the three-volume Encyclopedia of Keyboard Instruments, which also includes the Piano Encyclopedia and the Harpsichord & Clavichord Encyclopedia.

[Katz 1970] Israel J. Katz. “Marius Barbeau 1883–1969”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 14, Number 1, January 1970, pages 129–142. See the Routledge web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kaupp 1990] Ann Kaupp. “Toward Gender and Ethnic Equity in Museums”, Four Star, Newsletter for the Smithsonian Institution Women’s Council, Volume 10, Number 2, Summer 1990. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Cultural Considerations for Facilitators

[Kaywood 1951] C. Kaywood. A Bibliography of North American Folklore and Folksong, published by Greenburg, New York, 1951, xxx + 1292 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keeling 1989] Richard Keeling (editor). Women in North American Indian Music: Six Essays, Special Monograph 6, published by the Society for Ethnomusicology, Bloomington, Indiana, 1989. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keeling 1989a] Richard Keeling. “Musical Evidence of Female Spiritual Life Among the Yurok”, contained in [Keeling 1989], 1989, pages 67–78. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keeling 1991] Richard Keeling. A Guide to Early Field Recordings (1900–1949) at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California Publications: Catalogs and Bibliographies, Volume 6, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1991, 487 pages, ISBN 0-520-09720-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Sixteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (7), Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings, A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (7)

Introduction: Sound recordings at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, include songs and spoken texts collected among Indian tribal groups all over California, and the core of the collection consists of 2,510 items that were originally recorded on 2,713 wax cylinders between 1900 and 1938 as part of a systematic program to document aboriginal cultures of the region. Only the Library of Congress and the Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University (Bloomington) have larger collections of cylinder originals, but in both cases the recordings were brought together from different sources and represent a broad sampling of Indian cultures from all over North America, as well as recordings from abroad. The collection described here is the largest that focuses on a single culture area, and it is illuminated by an extensive body of published writings and manuscripts.

[Keeling 1992] Richard Keeling. “Music and Culture Areas of Native California”, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 14, Number 2, July 1, 1992, pages 146–158, retrieved March 13, 2010. See the web page on Escholarship.org Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keeling 1992a] Richard Keeling. “Music and Culture History among the Yurok and Neighboring Tribes of Northwestern California”, Journal of Anthropological Research, Volume 48, Number 1, Spring 1992, pages 25–48. Publication 3630607 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: As George Herzog (1935) once observed, repertories of Indian music are not typically homogeneous, but rather they usually contain "foreign elements" and "survivals" as well as songs in the predominant style. This presents serious difficulties for the generalist who seeks to define the music of a give tribe or culture are in unambiguous terms, but it also suggests interesting possibilities for the scholar who takes a historical approach. This study isolates the various "strains" or substyles in a large corpus of recordings collected among the Yurok, Hupa, and Karok Indians between 1900 and 1980 and speculates on what each seems to represent in terms of local culture history and in the broader sphere of North American Indian music. Besides what it accomplishes from an interpretive perspective, this paper demonstrates the shortcomings in our standard (synchronic) approach to Indian music and proposes a diachronic model for future comparative studies.

[Keeling 1993] Richard Keeling. Cry for Luck: Sacred Song and Speech Among the Yurok, Hupa, and Karok Indians of Northwestern California, published by the University of California Press, 1993, 325 pages, ISBN 0-520-07560-9 (978-0-520-07560-3), ASIN 0520075609, hardcover. See the Ful book on UC Press E-Books Collection. Cry for Luck Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keeling 1997] Richard Keeling. North American Indian Music: A Guide to Published Sources and Selected Recordings, Garland Library of Music Ethnology, 5; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, 1440, published by Garland Publishing, New York, 1997, xlix + 420 pages, ISBN 0-8153-0232-0 (978-0-8153-0232-2). Library of Congress call number 96-41847. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Keenan 2003] David C. Keenan. Harmonic Errors in Equal Tempered Musical Scales, February 24, 2003. Originally published February 19, 1998. Harmonic Errors in Equal Tempered Musical Scales Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kees 2009] Jan Waterman Kees, Jaap Jacobs, and Charles T. Gehring. Indianen Verhalen — De vroegste beschrijvingen van Indianen langs de Hudsonriver (1609-1680) «Native Stories - The Earliest Descriptions of Native Americans Along the Hudson River (1609-1680)», published by Walberg Pers, in Dutch, 2009, 206 pages. See the Walberg Pers web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keillor 1987] Elaine Keillor. “Hymn Singing Among the Dogrib Indians”, contained in [Beckwith 1987], 1987, pages 33–43. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keillor 1995] Elaine Keillor. “Indigenous Music as a Compositional Source: Parallels and Contrasts in Canadian and American Music”, contained in [McGee 1995], 1995, pages 185–218. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Keillor 2013] Elaine Keillor, Tim Archambault, and John M. H. Kelly. Encyclopedia of Native American Music of North America, published by ABC-CLIO, 2013, 449 pages, ISBN 0-313-05506-8 (978-0-313-05506-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Encyclopedia of Native American Music of North America documents the surprisingly varied musical practices among North America's First Peoples, both historically and in the modern context. It supplies a detailed yet accessible and approachable overview of the substantial contributions and influence of First Peoples that can be appreciated by both native and nonnative audiences, regardless of their familiarity with musical theory.

The entries address how ethnomusicologists with Native American heritage are revolutionizing approaches to the discipline, and showcase how musicians with First Peoples' heritage are influencing modern musical forms including native flute, orchestral string playing, gospel, and hip hop. The work represents a much-needed academic study of First Peoples' musical cultures—a subject that is of growing interest to Native Americans as well as nonnative students and readers.

[Keislar 1991] Douglas Keislar, Easley Blackwood, John Eaton, Lou Harrison, Ben Johnston, Joel Mandelbaum and William Schottstaedt. “Six American Composers on Nonstandard Tunings”, Perspectives of New Music, Volume 29, Number 1, Winter 1991, pages 176–211. Publication 833076 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Guided NAFlutomat - Step 4. Temperament, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Kelischek 2011] George Kelischek. Companions Five — Instructions for Playing Four Related Vertical Flutes, published by Susato Press, 2011, 74 pages, comb binding. Catalog number MSF25. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kelischek A] George Kelischek. Native American Flute Primer (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, comb binding. Catalog number FOS22. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kelischek B] George Kelischek. Plans for Building Native American Flutes. Designs are available for three sizes of instruments in diatonic & modal scales: Soprano (Key of D) CP-1, Tenor (Key of D) CP-2, and Alto (Key of G) CP-3. See the Shakuhachi.com web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Here are full-scale (1:1) plans for construction of the two-chambered Native American Flute. They are precision-drawn diagrams complete with detailed specifications for the flute body, bore, mouthpiece and block. These plans take the guess-work out of constructing your Native American flute.

[Keller 2014] Dameon Michael Keller. Sound's Good! — The Spiritual Science of Sound and Vibration, July 5, 2014, 80 pages, ISBN 1-4974-7771-9 (978-1-4974-7771-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kellner 1979] Herbert Anton Kellner. “A Mathematical Approach Reconstituting J. S. Bach's Keyboard-Temperament”, Bach, Volume 10, Number 4, October 1979, pages 2–8. Publication 41640089 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kellner 1999] Herbert Anton Kellner. “A Mathematical Approach Reconstituting J. S. Bach's Keyboard-Temperament”, Bach, Volume 30, Number 1, Spring–Summer 1999, pages 1–9. Publication 41640471 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kemp 1991] Barry J. Kemp. “Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization”, published by Routledge, New York and London, 1991, 356 pages, ISBN 0-415-01281-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Utilizing new excavation evidence, Barry Kemp provides a comprehensive reassessment of Egyptian society from an archeological perspective. He explores the shaping forces of ancient Egyptian civilization: political myth and ideology, the bureaucratic utopia of universal provision of work and food, and the presentational devices of charismatic rule. The popular image of ancient Egypt as a place of extreme cultural conservatism and subservience to exotic religion in fact masks a society which not only changed considerably over the centuries, but also represents one intelligible early solution to a universal human question: how can groups of people understand their place in the world and interact to form stable communities? Barry Kemp presents ancient Egypt as a window on mankind and transforms our understanding of this remarkable civilization

[Kenmotsu 2002] Nancy A. Kenmotsu and Mariah F. Wade. Amistad National Recreational Area - American Indian Tribal Affiliation Study — Phase I: Ethnohistoric Literature Review, The Texas Department of Transportation Environmental Affairs Division Archeological Studies Program, Report No. 34, published by The National Park Service, Amistad National Recreation Area, Del Rio, Texas, 2002. Amistad National Recreational Area - American Indian Tribal Affiliation Study Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kennedy 1997] Mary C. Kennedy and Patty Jo Watson. “The Chronology of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky”, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Volume 59, Number 1, published by the National Speleological Society, April 1997, pages 5–9. ISSN 1090-6924. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Flute Catalog - P

Abstract: During the past 30 years, 57 radiocarbon determinations have been obtained from Salts and Mammoth Caves in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. These range from 4120 ±70 BP to 1920 ±160 BP, thus falling within the Late Archaic and Woodland periods of North American prehistory. We discuss the patterning of the dates, which cluster in two groups (Late Archaic, ca. 4200 BP to 3000 BP) and Early Woodland (ca. 2800 BP to 2200 BP). We also address the implications of those patterns for the history of aboriginal cave exploration and cave mineral mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave portions of the world’s longest cave system, and for the development of early agriculture in Eastern North America.

[Kenyon 1964] Frederic G. Kenyon and F. F. Bruce. “The Story of the Bible: A Popular Account of How it Came to Us, Second Edition”, published by J. Murray, London, 1964. The Story of the Bible Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Keppel 1982] G. Keppel. Design and Analysis: A Researchers Handbook, Second Edition, published by Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kern 1996] Martin Kern. “In Praise of Political Legitimacy — The Miao and Jiao Hymns of the Western Han”, Oriens Extremus, Volume 39, Number 1, 1996, pages 29–67, retrieved September 23, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kesting 1993] Piney Kesting. “A Doorway in Time”, Saudi Aramco World, September/October 1993, pages 32–39. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Khan-HI 1993] Hazrat Inayat Khan; Inayat Khan (editor); Coleman Barks (translations). The Hand of Poetry: Five Mystic Poets of Persia: Translations from the Poems of Sanai, Attar, Rumi, Saadi and Hafiz, Lectures on Persian Poetry, published by Omega Publications, 1993, 181 pages, ISBN 0-930872-47-9 (978-0-930872-47-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Poetry by Rumi (2)

[Khantoke 2003] Na Khantoke. Khlui - Bamboo in a Skyscraper, DAPP Record Co. Ltd., Chiang Mai, Thailand, 11 tracks, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: World Flutes

[Khatib 2013] Mohammad Khatib, Saeid Najafi Sarem, and Hadi Hamidi. “Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications”, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, January 2013, pages 45–51, doi:10.4304/jltr.4.1.45-51 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007) humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development. Due to this new shift of focus, language education and pedagogy moved away from the previous behavioristic and mentalistic approaches, and as a result, a new kind of education known as humanistic education emerged. Consequently, significant changes occurred in all aspects of language education, that is, the traditional roles of teachers and learners were redefined and the previously authoritarian teaching practices were replaced by learner-centered classrooms. This paper is of two-fold. First, it is going to take a detailed look at the main principles and features of humanistic education, and second, it is aimed at discussing the implications and applications of humanistic education. Finally, it tries to clarify the new roles and responsibilities considered for language teachers to be able to fully engage the students in the learning process.

[Khattab 2007] Kerstin Khattab, Ahmed A. Khattab, Jasmin Ortak, Gert Richardt, and Hendrik Bonnemeier. “Iyengar Yoga Increases Cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous Modulation Among Healthy Yoga Practitioners”, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 4, Number 4, 2007, pages 511–517, doi:10.1093/ecam/nem087 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Relaxation techniques are established in managing of cardiac patients during rehabilitation aiming to reduce future adverse cardiac events. It has been hypothesized that relaxation-training programs may significantly improve cardiac autonomic nervous tone. However, this has not been proven for all available relaxation techniques. We tested this assumption by investigating cardiac vagal modulation during yoga.We examined 11 healthy yoga practitioners (7 women and 4 men, mean age: 43 ± 11; range: 26–58 years). Each individual was subjected to training units of 90 min once a week over five successive weeks. During two sessions, they practiced a yoga program developed for cardiac patients by B.K.S. Iyengar. On three sessions, they practiced a placebo program of relaxation. On each training day they underwent ambulatory 24 h Holter monitoring. The group of yoga practitioners was compared to a matched group of healthy individuals not practicing any relaxation techniques. Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined hourly by a blinded observer. Mean RR interval (interval between two R-waves of the ECG) was significantly higher during the time of yoga intervention compared to placebo and to control (P < 0.001 for both). The increase in HRV parameters was significantly higher during yoga exercise than during placebo and control especially for the parameters associated with vagal tone, i.e. mean standard deviation of NN (Normal Beat to Normal Beat of the ECG) intervals for all 5-min intervals (SDNNi, P < 0.001 for both) and root mean square successive difference (rMSSD, P < 0.01 for both). In conclusion, relaxation by yoga training is associated with a significant increase of cardiac vagal modulation. Since this method is easy to apply with no side effects, it could be a suitable intervention in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

[Kidder 1919] Alfred Vincent Kidder (1885–1963) and Samuel J. Guernsey (1868–1936). Archeological Explorations in Northeastern Arizona, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 65, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1919. Publication bulletin651919smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Kin-Boko Reed Flute #34, The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2), The Development of Flutes in North America (3)

[Kidder 1932] Alfred V. Kidder. The Artifacts of Pecos, Papers of the Phillips Academy Southwestern Expedition, Number 6, published by Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1932, xvi + 314 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kidder 1957] A. V. Kidder. “Earl Halstead Morris. 1889-1956”, American Antiquity, Volume 22, Number 4, April 1957, pages 390–397. Publication 276139 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Kidder-N 1995] Norm Kidder. “Musical Instruments of Central California”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Musical Instruments of Central California Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Killian 2008] Janice N. Killian and Jeremy J. Buckner. “Comparison of Starting Pitch Preferences among Fourth Graders, Undergraduate Music Majors and Elementary Education Majors”, Music Education Research International, Volume 4, 2010, pages 19–30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The study compared the operant starting pitch of three known songs among 4th graders (n=30), undergraduate music majors (n=30), and non-music majors (n=30) to corroborate that singers distinguished among songs when choosing a starting pitch, and to investigate possible relationships between pitch choice and pitch accuracy. Subjects individually sang “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star,” “Jingle Bells,” and “Happy Birthday.” Songs were selected based on familiarity and the fact that each started on a different scale degree. Results indicated that all subjects started relatively low in their singing range with chosen pitches clustering about B flat to middle C. Non-music majors selected significantly lower pitches than music majors or children on particular songs, significantly affecting results. Both children and adults appeared to discriminate among songs when choosing a starting pitch. Accurate singers selected significantly higher starting pitches than did less accurate singers. Results are discussed in terms of implications for both practitioners and researchers.

[Killion 1992] Thomas W. Killion. Gardens of Prehistory: The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica, published by the University of Alabama Press, 1992, 334 pages, ISBN 0-8173-0565-3 (978-0-8173-0565-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The prehistoric agricultural systems of the New World provided the foundations for a diverse set of complex social developments ranging from the puebloan societies of the American Southwest to the archaic state polities of Mesoamerica and the Andean region. From the tropical forests of Central America to the arid environments or northern New Mexico, Native American farmers made use of a distinctive set of cultigens and cropping systems that supported-with varying degrees of success-growing populations and expanding economies. Lacking most domesticated animals, so important to the mixed agricultural systems of the Old World, Precolumbian farmers developed intensive and resilient systems of agricultural production. These systems supported large societies of people who altered the landscapes they inhabited and generated a unique archaeological record of the evolution of farming in the New World.

[Kilmer 1960] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “Two New Lists of Key Numbers for Mathematical Operations”, Orientalia, Volume 29, Number 3, published by, Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, Rome, Italy, 1960, pages 273–308. Publication 43073543 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1965] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Strings of Musical Instruments: Their Names, Numbers, and Significance”, Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger, Assyriological Studies, Volume 16, 1965, pages 261–268. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kilmer 1971] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 115, Number 2, published by the American Philosophical Society, April 22, 1971, pages 131–149. Publication 985853 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

[Kilmer 1974] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. The Cult Song with Music from Ancient Ugarit: Another Interpretation, Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale, Volume 68, Number 1, 1974, pages 69–82. Publication 23282429 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1976] Anne D. Kilmer, Richard L. Crocker, and Robert R. Brown. Sounds from Silence: Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music, Bit Enki Publications, Berkeley, California, BTNK 101, 1976, 23 pages, ASIN B0006WYP4Y, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc and 23-page booklet. Library of Congress call number 76-16729. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

Description from the Johns Hopkins University Libraries Catalyst service: Lecture-demonstrations on ancient Near Eastern music; music transcribed and arr. by Anne Draffkorn Kilmer; performed and narrated by Kilmer and Richard L. Crocker, using replicas of ancient lyres constructed by Robert R. Brown.
Demonstration of old Babylonian tuning procedure for a lyre (ca. 1800 B.C.)
A Hurrian cult song from ancient Ugarit (ca. 1400 B.C.)
Notes on the research, musical theory, song text, and instruments, with bibliography (23 p. ill.) laid in container.

[Kilmer 1984] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “A Music Tablet from Sippar(?): BM 65217 + 66616”, Iraq, Volume 46, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1984, pages 69–80. Publication 4200216 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1985] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “A New Music Theory Fragment from Nippur”, American Oriental Society Proceedings, Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 15, 1985. conference presentation of the material in [Kilmer 1986]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1986] A. D. {Anne Draffkorn} Kilmer and M. {Miguel} Civil. “Old Babylonian Musical Instructions Relating to Hymnody”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 38, Number 1, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, Spring 1986, pages 94–98, doi:10.2307/1359953. material from the conference proceedings in [Kilmer 1985]. Publication 1359953 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1996] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer and Steve Tinney. “Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 48, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1996, pages 49–56. Publication 1359769 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1998] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Musical Instruments from Ur and Ancient Mesopotamian Music”, Expedition, Volume 40, Number 2, 1998, pages 12–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1998a] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer and Steve Tinney. “Correction to Kilmer/Tinney 'Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts' JCS 48 (1996)”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 50, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1998, page 118. Publication 1359896 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 2000] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “Continuity and Change in the Ancient Mesopotamian Terminology for Music and Musical Instruments”, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 7, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kilmer 2002] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “Die musikalische Ausformung von Tonalität und Genre in Mesopotamien «Modal Music, Tonality and Genre in Mesopotamian Musical Performance»”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in German and English, 2002, pages 481–486. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Kilmer 2009] Anne D. Kilmer and Jeremie Peterson. “More Old Babylonian Music-Instruction Fragments from Nippur”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 61, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, January 2009, pages 93–96. ISSN 0022-0256 (print). Publication 25608634 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kim 1997] Patricia Costa Kim. “Transmission of Music in the Hebrew Tradition: Learning from the Songs of the Synagogue”, The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education, Volume 19, Number 1, published by Ithaca College, September 1997, pages 40–51. Publication 40214945 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kimberling 2006] Clark Kimberling (arranger). Solos for Treble Instrument, Especially Soprano Recorder, Collection 9: American Indian Melodies, published online by the IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library, 2006, 66 pages. See the IMSLP web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[King 2002] Adam King. “Mississippian Period: Overview”, The New Georgia Encyclopedia, October 3, 2002, retrieved October 7, 2010. Mississippian Period Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Kinkade 1995] Randal Kinkade. “The Chippewa Courting Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kinner 1968] Kenneth H. Kinner. “Lucius Pond Ordway — Devil's Den Preserve Archaeological Investigations 1967–8”, 1968. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: During 1967-68, investigations were made to determine something about the extent and kinds of use which human beings have made of the Lucius Pon Ordway-Devil's Den Preserve, located in southwestern Connecticut. Brief consideration has been give to stone construction remains, metallic debris, tree defacement, and probable campsites; but the prime concern of this research was the occupation of the area by ancestors of the American Indian. Seventeen sites have been investigated and labeled by a modification of the Smithsonian method of site classification. Four of the seventeen sites show good evidence of pre-historic Amerindian use. Indian artifacts recovered include quart projectile points and tools, quartzite fragments, flint projectile points, pottery shards, and a few shell remains. It is concluded that Indians used the area for as long as 5000 years prior to the advent of Europeans, mostly for the purpose of hunting game. Europeans farmed the perimeter, harnessed the water power, and harvested the trees.

[Kinscella 1948] Hazel Gertrude Kinscella (1893–1960). History Sings, published by the University Publishing Company, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1948, 584 pages. Publication historysings002672mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kipiani 2006] David Kipiani. ქართული საციონალური ინსტრუმენტული მუსიკა «Georgian National Instrumental Music», Sano Studio / Art Land, 15 tracks, September 22, 2006, ASIN B004PGNKLQ Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia

[Kirby 1932] Percival R. Kirby (1877–1970). “The Recognition and Practical Use of the Harmonics of Stretched Strings by the Bantu of South Africa”, Bantu Studies, Volume 6, Issue 1, published by the University of the Witwatersrand Press, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1932, pages 31–46, doi:10.1080/02561751.1932.9676271 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kirby 1933] Percival R. Kirby. “The Reed-Flute Ensembles of South Africa: A Study in South African Native Music”, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 63, published by the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, July–December 1933, pages 313–388. Publication 2843797 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by the Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society. December 1934: ... an important paper by Professor Percival Kirby of Witwatersrand University, Johannesburg, on a form of music-making at once primitive and elaborate which still survives among the native peoples of South Africa. The reed-flute ensembles which he describes are accompanied by a round dance, of which pictures are given, and the players themselves circulate round one or two drummers. Each player plays one note only but a set of flutes may contain twenty or thirty players and the resulting sounds form both melody and harmony, of which examples, noted from phonograph records, are here given in score. This kind of folk-music and its connections with songs, dance and ceremonial, was noted as long ago as I497, when Vasco de Gama referred to it in his journal. This monograph, which is the precursor of a larger book on native South African music, throws much light on the evolution of wind instruments, of folk-music and indeed of music as such, for among other influences observed are those of the modern concertina.

[Kirby 1933a] Percival R. Kirby. “Musical Origins in the Light of the Musical Practices of Bushman, Hottentot and Bantu”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, Session 59, 1933, pages 23–33. Publication 765710 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kirby 1961] Percival R. Kirby. “Physical Phenomena which Appear to Have Determined the Bases and Development of an Harmonic Sense among Bushmen, Hottentot and Bantu”, African Music, Volume 2, Number 4, 1961, pages 6–9. Publication 30249525 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kirby 1966] Percival R. Kirby. The Indonesian Origin of Certain African Musical Instruments, published by Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1966, 19 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kirkham 1975] E. Bruce Kirkham and John W. Fink. Indices to American Literary Annuals and Gift Books 1825–1865, published by Research Publications, New Haven, Connecticut, 1975, 338 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (3)

[Kirlew 1997] Jan Kirlew. “Doc Tate: Flute Legend”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1997, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1997, pages 5–6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kirsch 1999] C. M. Kirsch, J. Shinn, R. Porzio, E. Trefelner, F. T. Kagawa, J. H. Wehner, W. A. Jensen. “Pneumoparotid Due to Spirometry”, Chest, Volume 116, Number 5, November 1999, pages 1475–1478, doi:10.1378/chest.116.5.1475. Publication 10559118 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Pneumoparotid has been described in patients who generate increased intraoral pressures when playing wind instruments, while coughing, and when undergoing dental work. Some patients have intentionally created pneumoparotid to avoid duties at school or in the military, or to gain attention. We describe a patient who developed pneumoparotid during pulmonary function testing. The diagnosis of pneumoparotid depends on a suggestive clinical situation and glandular swelling with or without crepitus. Observation of aerated saliva per Stensen's duct or air in the parotid duct and/or gland by any imaging study is diagnostic if infection with a gas-forming organism can be reasonably excluded. No specific treatment is required, other than the avoidance of predisposing activities.

[Kirschner 2006] Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller, and Richard E. Clark. “Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experimental, and Inquiry-Based Teaching”, Educational Psychologist, Volume 41, Number 2, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006, pages 75–86. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

Abstract: Evidence for the superiority of guided instruction is explained in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert–novice differences, and cognitive load. Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half-century that consistently indicate that minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process. The advantage of guidance begins to recede only when learners have sufficiently high prior knowledge to provide “internal” guidance. Recent developments in instructional research and instructional designmodels that support guidance during instruction are briefly described.

[Kissam 2003] Carol Kissam. “The Launch: The NAF in Space”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 11–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kitchell 2010] Jennifer A. Kitchell. “Basketmaker and Archaic Rock Art of the Colorado Plateau: A Reinterpretation of Paleoimagery”, American Antiquity, Volume 75, Number 4, October 2010, pages 819–840. Publication 25766233 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A new cognitive model is proposed and applied to the analysis of the anthropomorphic-dominated paleoimagery or rock art of both the Archaic Barrier Canyon Style and the Basketmaker San Juan Style of the Colorado Plateau, including the attrib utes of headdresses and messengers. Under the cognitive model, the decision to execute rock art is culturally and histori cally conditioned; the interaction of narrative language and visual imagery takes precedence over hallucinatory and trance mechanisms. The cognitive model examines the interplay between perceptual imagery and stored mental imagery, both of which occur within the human cognitive system. Such an interplay arguably has been as important in the shaping of human cultures as the role of language. These Archaic and Basketmaker ecologies and cultures also may have developed group rit ual, an early adoption not requisitely tied to the transition from a mobile hunter-gatherer ecology to an agricultural ecol ogy. Such interpretations redefine the predominant images of the region's Archaic and Basketmaker anthropomorphic figures, bird-headed imagery, messenger spirits, supplication panels, and processional panels. The model reinstates the praejudico role that visual imagery plays in the construction of culture.
Translation: Se propone y utiliza un nuevo modelo cognoscitivo para el andlisis de paleoimdgenes o arte rupestre dominado por elemen tos antropomorficos en los estilos del grupo Arcaico de Barrier Canyon y de Basketmaker en la Meseta de Colorado. Estas imdgenes incluyen los atributos de los tocados y de los espiritus mensajeros. De acuerdo con el modelo cognoscitivo, la decision de llevar a cabo arte rupestre es condicionado por aspectos histdricos y culturales; la interaccion del lenguaje narrativo y las imdgenes visuales son mas importantes que mecanismos guiados por alucinaciones o estados de trance. El modelo cognosc itivo investiga la interaccion entre las imdgenes perceptibles y aquellas confinadas a las imdgenes mentales, ambas compo nentes del sistema cognoscitivo humano. Esta interaccion puede haber sido tan importante en la formacion de culturas humanas como el lenguaje. Las ecologias y culturas Arcaica y Basketmaker pueden haber desarrollado un ritual de grupo; una adopcion temprana no necesariamente asociada a la transicion de una ecologia de recolectores-cazadores a una ecologia agrwola. Estas interpretaciones redefinen las imdgenes predominantes de Arcaica y de Basketmaker figuras antropomdrficas, humanos con cabezas de pdjaros, espiritus mensajeros, paneles de suplica, y paneles de procesidn. El modelo reinstala en papel praejudico que las imdgenes visuales tienen en la construccion de una cultura.

[Kitts-Turner 1996] John S. Kitts-Turner. Eight Animal Dance Songs — Based on Music of the Alabama Tribe, Arranged for Three Native American Flutes, SAT Recorders, or in Some Cases, Gemshorns (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1996, 12 pages, comb binding. Catalog number FOS25. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description from Folkharp.com: Music of the Alabama tribe arranged for three native American flutes, SAT recorders or ocarinas. The upper voices in these trios are themes derived from Frances Densmore's field work with the Alabama Indian tribe in 1933. The arranger has paraphrased the notated melody, in some places, to make it more playable and rhythmically regular. Buffalo Dance Song, Chicken Dance Song, Duck Dance Song, Frog Dance Song, Horse Dance Song, Rabbit Dance Song, Quail Dance Song, Terrapin (Turtle) Dance Song. 12 pages.

[Kitts-Turner 1997] John S. Kitts-Turner. Eight Ceremonial Songs — Based on Music of the Omaha Indians, in Three-Part Settings for Native American Flutes or Soprano, Alto and Tenor Recorders (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1997. Catalog number FOS28. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Klah 1942] Hasteen Klah. Navajo Creation Myth: The Story of the Emergence, published by Forgotten Books, ISBN 1-60506-902-7 (978-1-60506-902-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kleiger 1987] R. E. Kleiger, J. P. Miller, J. T. Bigger, Jr., A. J. Moss. “Decreased Heart Rate Variability and its Association with Increased Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 59, Number 4, February 1, 1987, pages 256–262. Publication 3812275 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A high degree of heart rate (HR) variability is found in compensated hearts with good function, whereas HR variability can be decreased with severe coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, aging and diabetic neuropathy. To test the hypothesis that HR variability is a predictor of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Holter tapes of 808 patients who survived AMI were analyzed. Heart rate variability was defined as the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in a 24-hour continuous electrocardiogram recording made 11 +/- 3 days after AMI. In all patients demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were measured at baseline. Mean follow-up time was 31 months. Of all Holter variables measured, HR variability had the strongest univariate correlation with mortality. The relative risk of mortality was 5.3 times higher in the group with HR variability of less than 50 ms than the group with HR variability of more than 100 ms. HR variability remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for clinical, demographic, other Holter features and ejection fraction. A hypothesis to explain this finding is that decreased HR variability correlates with increased sympathetic or decreased vagal tone, which may predispose to ventricular fibrillation.

[Klein 1995] Barry T. Klein. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian, Seventh Edition, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Klein 2005] Barry T. Klein. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian, Eleventh edition, published by Todd Publishers, 2005, 777 pages, ISBN 0-915344-77-7 (978-0-915344-77-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Klimek 1935] S. Klimek. Culture Element Distributions: I - The Structure of California Indian Culture, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 37, Number 1, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1935, pages 1–70. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Klotsche 2012] Charles Klotsche. Color Medicine, published by Light Technology Publishing, May 21, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Color of Sound - Pitch-to-Color Calculator

[Klusek 2006] Jessica Klusek. Comparison of Speech and Practiced Nonspeech Intraoral Pressure Waveform Characteristics, Masters dissertation – University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2006, 86 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Knight 1979] Roderic Knight. Review of African Flutes, Ethnomusicology, Volume 23, Number 1, January 1979, pages 161–162. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Knighton 1992] Tess Knighton and David Fallows (editors). Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, published by Macmillan Publishing, 1992. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Knysh 2013] Mary Knysh. Innovative Drum Circles: Beyond Beat into Harmony, published by Rhythmic Connections Publications, Millville, Pennsylvania, 2013, 132 pages. See the Rhythmic Connections web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Koch 2004] Lars-Christian Koch, Albrecht Wiedmann and Susanne Ziegler. “The Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv: A Treasury of Sound Recordings”, Acoustical Science and Technology, Volume 25, Number 4, published by the Acoustical Society of Japan, 2004, pages 227–231, doi:10.1250/ast.25.227. ISSN online: 1347-5177, print: 1346-3969. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings, A Brief History of the Native American Flute

Preface: Throughout its history of more than one hundred years the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv devoted its activities to the collection of and research on traditional music from all over the world. While the sound carriers and recording techniques have changed, the purpose of the sound archive has remained the same: the collection, preservation, research and publication of the world’s musical traditions.

As part of the ethnomusicology department of the Museum of Ethnology in Berlin (formerly the Museum fu¨r Vo¨lkerkunde), the Phonogramm-Archiv today comprises one of the finest and most comprehensive collections of traditional music worldwide. The Archive’s early wax cylinder collections, which were collected with a phonograph on wax cylinders between 1893 and 1954, received the honour of being entered into the UNESCO register ‘‘Memory of the World’’ in 1999.

In this tutorial paper, we will introduce the history of Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, its collections, current research and recording activities.

[Koch-Grunberg 1910] Theodor Koch-Grünberg. Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern — Reisxen in Nordwest Brasilien, 1903-1905 «Two Years Among the Indians - Reisxen in Northwestern Brasil, 1903-1905», Two Volumes, Berlin, in German, 1910. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Koenig 2014] Julian Koenig, M. N. Jarczok, Robert J. Ellis, T. K. Hillecke, and Julian F. Thayer. “Heart Rate Variability and Experimentally Induced Pain in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review”, European Journal of Pain, Volume 18, Issue 3, March 2014, pages 301–314, doi:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00379.x. Publication 23922336 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Reactivity of the autonomic nervous system to experimental pain stimuli has been extensively studied using measures of heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate variability (HRV) attempts to tease out the relative contributions of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the autonomic control of the heart and may therefore be more appropriate to investigate autonomic response to short-term nociceptive stimulation in detail. The current evidence on HRV and experimentally induced pain has not yet been synthesized within a systematic review.
Method: English articles indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, Psyndex, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were reviewed for eligibility under pre-specified inclusion criteria. Studies were included when they reported empirical work on autonomic response (specifically, HRV) to experimentally induced pain in healthy adults. The method of pain induction, the methodological features of HRV analysis (time domain and frequency domain measures), as well as pain and HRV-related findings were derived from the studies.
Results: The search revealed a total of 20 publications eligible for inclusion. Key results demonstrate an increase in sympathetic-baroreflex activity and a decrease in vagal-parasympathetic activity as reflected by changes in frequency domain measures of HRV.
Conclusion: HRV has several advantages compared to other measures of autonomic reactivity in studies investigating physiological response to nociceptive stimulation. Future studies should focus on comparisons between different methods of pain induction, interindividual variability in pain sensitivity by baseline autonomic activity, and the implications of both on the use of HRV within routine clinical evaluations.

[Koivunen 2003] Niina Koivunen. Leadership in Symphony Orchestras — Discursive and Aesthetic Practices, Ph.D. dissertation – University of Tampere, Finland, in English and Finnish, 2003, 238 pages, ISBN 951-44-5448-0. Leadership in Symphony Orchestras Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kojs 2006] Juraj Kojs and Stefania Serafin. “The Fujara: A Physical Model of the Bass Pipe Instrument in an Interactive Composition”, International Computer Music Conference Proceedings, Volume 2006, 2006, pages 540–543. The Fujara: A Physical Model of the Bass Pipe Instrument in an Interactive Composition Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a physical model of the fujara, a native Slovak folk instrument. The main motivation for building such a model is to establish and explore musical environment in which physical and virtual fujaras can interact. Firstly, we describe the acoustic properties of the instrument. Then we explain how the digital waveguide technique excels in modeling the instrument. The discussion of the composition Air for the real-time physical and virtual fujaras concludes the paper.

[Kojs 2007] Juraj Kojs, Stefania Serafin, and Chris Chafe. “Cyberinstruments via Physical Modeling Synthesis: Compositional Applications”, Leonardo Music Journal, Volume 17, 2007, pages 61–66. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper details compositional approaches in music for cyberinstruments by means of physical modeling synthesis. Although the focus is on compositions written with the models simulated by the digital waveguides, modal synthesis and mass-spring-damper algorithms, music written with other modeling techniques is also reviewed.

[Kolinski 1957] Mieczyslaw Kolinski. “The Determinants of Tonal Construction in Tribal Music”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 1, January 1957, pages 50–56. Publication 740382 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kolinski 1959] Mieczyslaw Kolinski. “The Evaluation of Tempo”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 3, Number 2, May 1959, pages 45–57. Publication 924285 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kolinski 1960] Mieczyslaw Kolinski. “Notes on Inner Tempo and Melodic Tempo”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 4, 1960, pages 14–15. Publication 924230 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Kolinski 1972] Mieczyslaw Kolinski. “An Apache Rabbit Song Dance Cycle as Sung by the Iroquois”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 16, Number 3, 1972, pages 416–454. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kolinski 1972a] Mieczyslaw Kolinski. “An Iroquois Ward Dance Song Cycle”, Canadian Association of University Schools of Music Journal, Volume 2, Number 2, Fall 1972, pages 51–64. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kolstee 1982] Anton Frederick Kolstee. Bella Coola Indian Music: A Study of the Interaction between Northwest Coast Indian Musical Structures and their Functional Context, National Museum of Man Mercury Series, published by the National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, 1982, x + 274 pages. ISSN 0316-1854, Canadian Ethnology Service, Paper number 83. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kolstee 1988] Anton Frederick Kolstee. “The Historical and Musical Significance of Northwest Coast Indian Hámáca Songs”, The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, Volume 8, Number 2, 1988, pages 173–182. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Koltko-Rivera 2006] Mark E. Koltko-Rivera. “Rediscovering the Later Version of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Self-Transcendence and Opportunities for Theory, Research, and Unification”, Review of General Psychology, Volume 10, Number 4, 2006, pages 302–317, doi:10.1037/1089-2680.10.4.302 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The conventional description of Abraham Maslow’s (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs is inaccurate as a description of Maslow’s later thought. Maslow (1969a) amended his model, placing self-transcendence as a motivational step beyond self-actualization. Objections to this reinterpretation are considered. Possible reasons for the persistence of the conventional account are described. Recognizing self-transcendence as part of Maslow’s hierarchy has important consequences for theory and research: (a) a more comprehensive understanding of worldviews regarding the meaning of life; (b) broader understanding of the motivational roots of altruism, social progress, and wisdom; (c) a deeper understanding of religious violence; (d) integration of the psychology of religion and spirituality into the mainstream of psychology; and (e) a more multiculturally integrated approach to psychological theory.

[Komarkova 2012] Zdislava Komárková. Rehabilitace chronických respiračních poruch formou hry na dechové nástroje «Rehabilitation of chronic respiratory problems by playing a wind instruments», Bachelor's dissertation – Univerzita Palackého in Olomouci, Czech Republic, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2012. Rehabilitace chronických respiračních poruch formou hry na dechové nástroje Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na využití hry na hudební dechové nástroje jakožto specifického druhu respirační fyzioterapie při léčbě chronických respiračních poruch. Cílem bylo vytvořit rešerši z dostupných poznatků. V práci je uvedena fyziologie a kineziologie dýchání, specifika obstrukčních a restrikčních plicních poruch s důrazem na astma bronchiale a chronickou obstrukční plicní nemoc, jež jsou dvě nejčastější chronická respirační onemocnění. Hlavní část je věnována hudebním nástrojům, jejich specifikům a především samotné léčbě pomocí dechových nástrojů. Nastíněna jsou i kritéria volby dechového nástroje.

The purpose of this Bachelor Thesis is to present a use of wind instruments as a specific sort of respiratory physiotherapy; as a treatment of chronic respiratory problems. It is a review which summarizes available materials on this theme. In this thesis is described physiology and kinesiology of breathing, specifics of obstructive and restrictive lung diseases with attention to bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are the two most common chronic respiratory diseases. The main part focuses on musical instruments, their specifics and especially on treatments by using wind instruments. There are also briefly described criteria for choice of wind instruments.

[Koon 1920] John Koon (Red Cloud). “Indian Musicians in the Modern World”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, pages 665–666. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kopiez 2003] Reinhard Kopiez. “Intonation of Harmonic Intervals: Adaptability of Expert Musicians to Equal Temperament and Just Intonation”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 20, Number 4, Summer 2003, pages 383–410, doi:10.1525/mp.2003.20.4.383. Publication 10.1525/mp.2003.20.4.383 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study examines the deviation in the intonation of simultaneously sounding tones under the condition of an embedded melody task. Two professional musicians (trumpet players) were chosen as subjects to play the missing upper voice of a four-part audio example, while listening via headphones to the remaining three parts in adaptive five-limit just intonation and equal temperament. The experimental paradigm was that of a controlled varied condition with a 2 (tuning systems) × 5 (interval categories) × 5 (renditions) × 2 (players) factorial design. An analysis of variance showed a nonsignificant difference between the average deviation of harmonic intonation in the two systems used. Mean deviations of 4.9 cents (SD = 6.5 cents) in the equal-temperament condition and of 6.7 cents (SD = 8.1 cents) in the just-intonation condition were found. Thus, we assume that the musicians employed the same intonation for equaltemperament and just-intonation versions (an unconscious "always the same" strategy) and could not successfully adapt their performances to the just-intonation tuning system. Fewer deviations could be observed in the equal-temperament condition. This overall tendency can be interpreted as a "burn in" effect and is probably the consequence of longterm intonation practice with equal-temperament. Finally, a theoretical model of intonation is developed by use of factor analysis. Four factors that determine intonation patterns were revealed: the "major third factor," the "minor third and partials factor," the "instrumental tuning factor," and the "octave-minor seventh factor." To summarize, even in expert musicians, intonation is not determined by abstract tuning systems but is the result of an interaction among compositional features, the acoustics of the particular musical instrument, and deviation patterns in specific intervals.

[Korson 1969] Rae Korson and Joseph C. Hickerson. “The Willard Rhodes Collection of American Indian Music in the Archive of Folk Song”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 13, Number 2, published by the University of Illinois Press, May 1969, pages 296–304. Publication 850151 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fourteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (7), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (7)

[Kotay 2005] Ralph Kotay; Luke Eric Lassiter and Chris Wendt (producers). Kiowa Hymns, 2005, 44 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-8032-2766-8, set of audio CDs (two) and booklet. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This remarkable two-disc collection features sixty-six Native Christian hymns sung by the Kiowa elder and singer Ralph Kotay. Particularly well-known for their song traditions, which range from peyote and powwow songs to hand-game and church songs, the Kiowas are a Southern Plains Indian tribe that today resides in southwestern Oklahoma. The Kiowa Christian hymn tradition first emerged around the turn of the twentieth century and combined the sound, structure, and style of European-American Christian hymns with pre-Christian Kiowa songs. In the early twentieth century, Christian churches enjoyed a dominant position in the Kiowa community, as did Kiowa hymns.

By the mid-twentieth century, however, Kiowa traditions—which now included Kiowa church traditions—were on the wane; of special concern was the declining use of the Kiowa language. Kiowa elders began to recognize that preserving and maintaining Kiowa hymns was of particular importance in preserving and maintaining the Kiowa language. In 1962 a committee of Kiowa Indians collected several dozen Kiowa Christian hymns in a manuscript, written phonetically in Kiowa with English translations. Passed from hand to hand for the last four decades, the hymnbook has long been out of print and survives today only because individuals have copied it over and over again.

To preserve the knowledge of these songs for future generations, Kotay sat down on a sultry July afternoon at his home in Apache, Oklahoma, and recorded them. The resulting collection will help ensure that these hymns remain a rich and enduring part of the cultural heritage of the Kiowa people.

[Kracht 1992] Benjamin R. Kracht. “The Kiowa Ghost Dance, 1894–1916: An Unheralded Revitalization Movement”, Ethnohistory, Volume 39, Number 4, published by the Duke University Press, Autumn 1992, pages 452–477. Publication 481963 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Kiowa Ghost Dance movement of 1894-1916 is relatively unknown. Kiowa involvement in the 1894 Ghost Dance movement involved different motives than the theories of deprivation and acculturation used to describe participation in the Ghost Dance of 1889-91. An ethnohistorical analysis of the ritual symbols in the Kiowa Ghost Dance illustrates how the Kiowa-and others-perceived themselves as participants in the movement.

[Kraemer 2005] David J. M. Kraemer, C. Neil Macrae, Adam E. Green, and William M. Kelley. “Musical Imagery: Sound of Silence Activates Auditory Cortex”, Nature, Volume 434, March 10, 2005, page 158, doi:10.1038/434158a Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Auditory imagery occurs when one mentally rehearses telephone numbers or has a song 'on the brain' — it is the subjective experience of hearing in the absence of auditory stimulation, and is useful for investigating aspects of human cognition1. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and characterize the neural substrates that support unprompted auditory imagery and find that auditory and visual imagery seem to obey similar basic neural principles.

[Kramer 1961] Samuel Noah Kramer (born 1897). Sumerian Mythology — A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C., Revised Edition, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1961. Originally published in 1944. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kramer 1963] Samuel Noah Kramer. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1963, 372 pages, ISBN 0-226-45238-7 (978-0-226-45238-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kramer 1988] Samuel Noah Kramer. History Begins at Sumer: Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, Third Edition, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, 416 pages, ISBN 0-8122-1276-2 (978-0-8122-1276-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Publisher's description: Which civilization had the first system of law? The first formal educational system? The first tax cut? The first love song? The answers were found in excavations of ancient Sumer, a society so developed, resourceful, and enterprising that it, in a sense, created history. The book presents a cross section of the Sumerian "firsts" in all the major fields of human endeavor, including government and politics, education and literature, philosophy and ethics, law and justice, agriculture and medicine, even love and family.

History Begins at Sumer is the classic account of the achievements of the Sumerians, who lived in what is now southern Iraq during the third millennium B.C. They were the developers of the cuneiform system of writing, perhaps their greatest contribution to civilization, which allowed laws and literature to be recorded for the first time.

[Kremers 2004] Nancy Kremers. “Speaking with a Forked Tongue in the Global Debate on Traditional Knowledge and Genetic Resources: Is U.S. Intellectual Property Law and Policy Really Aimed at Meaningful Protection for Native American Cultures?”, Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal, Volume 15, Issue 1, October 2004, 146 pages. See the Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal web site. Speaking with a Forked Tongue in the Global Debate on Traditional Knowledge and Genetic Resources: Is U.S. Intellectual Property Law and Policy Really Aimed at Meaningful Protection for Native American Cultures? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Honoring the Tradition

Introduction: In recent years, effective protection for the traditional knowledge, genetic resources, and folklore (“TKGRF”) of indigenous societies has emerged as a major controversy in intellectual property law. One approach is to view TKGRF as mere variants of the commonly accepted forms of intellectual property (“IP”), necessitating the same manner of protection as other qualifying material. Alternatively, some IP scholars argue that TKGRF are inherently different and require new types of legal protection. A third approach, held by a small minority working in the TKGRF area, advises that with so many indigenous societies producing infinite variations of TKGRF, one category of laws will not suffice.

To use an image originating from Native American cultures, are U.S. officials “speaking with a forked tongue” in international forums when they profess the United States’ special concern for protecting indigenous TKGRF? Do current U.S. laws, poorly implemented and often spawned for reasons unrelated to TKGRF protection, merely pay lip service to indigenous TKGRF preservation, while actually protecting corporate commercial interests? Or are these inconsistencies between stated policy and actual implementation—even if factually indisputable—merely benign examples of the normal bureaucratic shortcomings that commonly riddle the U.S.’s cumbersome and complex democracy?

[Kreuter 2008] M. Kreuter, C. Kreuter, F. Herth. “Pneumologische Aspekte des Musizierens auf einem Blasinstrument — physiologische, pathophysiologische und therapeutische Gesichtspunkte «Pneumological Aspects of Wind Instrument Performance - Physiological, Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Considerations»”, Pneumologie, Volume 52, Number 2, 2008, pages 83–87, doi:10.1055/s-2007-996164 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

Abstract: Wind instrument performance is a notable feature in pneumology under aspects of ventilatory physiology and respiratory diseases. It requires an adequate ventilatory function combined with precise control of air flow and the ability to generate sufficient mouth pressures. Depending on the type of wind instrument, the required rates of airway pressure and air flow differ significantly. The cause of respiratory disease in wind instrument players may be related to these increased airway pressures in terms of a barotrauma. Wind instrumentalists may suffer from hemoptysis, laryngoceles, velopharyngeal insufficiency and pneumoparotitis due to their musical performance. Even the development of lung cancer has been assumed to be related to wind instrument playing. Controversy exists about implicating wind instrument use as the cause of pulmonary emphysema or in changes of pulmonary function, which is, however, unlikely under physiological aspects. Furthermore, professional wind instrumentalists may be impaired in their work by the side effects of anti-obstructive medication and respiratory infection. On the other hand, the potential therapeutic effects of wind instrument performance have to be considered. For asthmatic teenagers a significant improvement of pulmonary function and of physical and emotional activities could be related to wind instrument playing. Last but not least, didgeridoo playing was shown to be a promising alternative treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

[Kreutz 2004] Gunter Kreutz, Stephan Bongard, Sonja Rohrmann, Volker Hodapp, and Dorothee Grebe. “Effects of Choir Singing or Listening on Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Cortisol, and Emotional State”, Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Volume 27, Number 6, December 2004, pages 623–635, doi:10.1007/s10865-004-0006-9. Publication 15669447 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigates the effects of choir music on secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), cortisol, and emotional states in members of a mixed amateur choir. Subjects participated in two conditions during two rehearsals 1 week apart, namely singing versus listening to choral music. Saliva samples and subjective measures of affect were taken both before each session and 60 min later. Repeated measure analyses of variance were conducted for positive and negative affect scores, S-IgA, and cortisol. Results indicate several significant effects. In particular, singing leads to increases in positive affect and S-IgA, while negative affect is reduced. Listening to choral music leads to an increase in negative affect, and decreases in levels of cortisol. These results suggest that choir singing positively influences both emotional affect and immune competence. The observation that subjective and physiological responses differed between listening and singing conditions invites further investigation of task factors.

[Krishna 2010] Koduri Gopala Krishna. Musicological and Technological Exploration of Truths and Myths in Carnatic Music, the Raagam in Particular, Masters in Computer Science thesis – International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India, December 2010, 68 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The classical music traditions of the Indian subcontinent, Hindustani and Carnatic, offer an excellent ground on which to test the limitations of the current music information research approaches. At the same time, their study can shed light on how to solve new and complex music modeling problems. Both traditions have very distinct characteristics, specially compared with western ones: they have developed their own instruments, musical forms, performance practices, social uses and context. In this thesis, we focus on the Carnatic music tradition of south India, especially on its melodic characteristics.

Raaga is the spine of Indian classical music. It is the single most crucial element of the melodic framework on which the music of the subcontinent thrives. Naturally, automatic raaga recognition is an important step in computational musicology as far as Indian music is considered. It has several applications like indexing Indian music, automatic note transcription, comparing, classifying and recommending tunes, and teaching to mention a few. Simply put, it is the first logical step in the process of creating computational methods for Indian classical music. In this thesis, we investigate the properties of a raaga and the natural process by which people identify the raaga. We survey the past raaga recognition techniques correlating them with human techniques, in both Hindustani and Carnatic music systems. We identify the main drawbacks and propose minor, but multiple improvements to the state-of-the-art raaga recognition technique.

Music is said to evoke emotions. After the advent of advanced signal processing techniques and easily accessible computational resources, the scientists and engineers have been trying to understand the nature of music in this very context. In this context, one of the several aspects of Indian music which interests us is the traditional association of emotions with raagas. Besides the ancient scriptures like Natyasastra, the recent articles of several scholars also associate the raagas with emotions. A part of our work is dedicated to the investigation of the origin of this association. We discuss the term rasa, often mistaken as emotion. We also report the results of a survey conducted to study the aforementioned raaga-emotion association.

We also overview the other theoretical aspects that are relevant for music information research and discuss the scarce computational approaches developed so far. We put emphasis on the limitations of the current methodologies and we present some open issues that have not yet been addressed and that we believe are important to be worked on.

[Krispijn 1990] T{heo} J. H. Krispijn. “Beitrage zur altorientalischen Musikforschung. 1. Sulgi und die Musik «Contributions to Ancient Oriental Music Research. 1. Shulgi and the Music»”, Akkadica, Volume 70, in German, November–December 1990, pages 1–27. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2003] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Musik in Keilschrift «Music in Cuneiform»”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], Volume 2, in German, 2003, pages 465–479. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2008] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Music in School and Temple in the Ancient Near East”, What Was Old Is New Again - A Meeting of Art and Scholarship, ZKM Center for Art and Technology, November 21–23, 2008, 14 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Excavated Fragments of the Silver Double-Flute of Ur, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2), Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (8), Flutopedia Image Detail: Reconstruction of the Silver Double-Flute of Ur

Abstract: Many Sumerian texts written in cuneiform script from Mesopotamia belong to the genre of cultic songs. The oldest examples are from ± 2500 B.C. These texts often refer to singing, musical practice and musical instruments.
In my paper I shall give a survey of different sorts of cultic songs and their spread over the different periods of Sumerian literature. I shall pay special attention to the musicians, musical instruments, and musical terminology mentioned in these texts. As an illustration of musical practice, I will show pictures of the excavated instruments used in the cult, along with examples of Mesopotamian art that feature instrumentalists and singers.

[Krispijn 2008a] Theo J. H. Krispijn. Hymn of Ugarit, Tigershade Recordings, TISH002, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2008b] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Music and Healing for Someone Far Away from Home HS 1556, A Remarkable Ur III Incantation, Revisited”, Contained in Spek, R.J., van der (Ed.) Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society presented to Marten Stol on the occasion of his 65th birthday, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, 2008, pages 173–194. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2008c] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Musical Ensembles in Ancient Mesopotamia”, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4–6, 2008, editors: ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 125–150. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Introduction: In Mesopotamian literature, especially in the context of religious festivals, ensembles of musical instruments are regularly mentioned. Furthermore, the playing of official as well as popular music is depicted fairly often in Mesopotamian visual art. It therefore seems plausible to compare the groups of names recorded in texts with the groups of instruments represented iconographically from similar periods. Archaeological excavations have found actual instruments, sometimes in groups, and these will also be taken into consideration. Not surprisingly there has been much learned discussion about the correct translation of Sumerian and Akkadian words for musical instruments and how best to relate them to the instruments depicted or excavated. In this paper I hope to contribute to the discussion by identifying names that are grouped together with some particular depictions of instruments in ensembles.

[Krispijn 2010] Theo Krispijn. “Music in the Syrian City of Elba in the Late Third Millennium B.C.”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 55–61, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: The texts from Tell Mardikh, ancient Ebla, a rich source of information for our subject, are dated to ± 2350 BC. Lexical lists and administrative texts mention musical instruments, musicians and singers. From the large collection of letters and administrative texts from Mari (± 1700 BC) we gain an almost complete image of the musical activities of women in the royal court. Many played musical instruments and participated in orchestras and choirs. The iconography of the late third and the beginning of the second millennium BC also fills out the picture of music in Syria. Occasional references to texts and iconography from Ugarit and Emar from late second millennium make apt comparisons.

[Kroeber 1900] A. L. Kroeber (1876–1960), Franz Boas, and Robert E. Peary. “The Eskimo of Smith Sound”, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 12, Article 21, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1900, pages 265–327. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1902] A. L. Kroeber. “The Arapaho — 1: General Description and 2: Decorative Art”, The Mrs. Morris K. Jesup Expedition, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 18, Article 1, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, September 3, 1902, pages 1–150. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1904] A. L. Kroeber. “The Arapaho — 3: Ceremonial Organization”, The Mrs. Morris K. Jesup Expedition, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 18, Article 2, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, May 7, 1904, pages 151–230. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1906] A. L. Kroeber. “Two Myths of the Mission Indians of California”, Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Volume 19, Number 75, 1906, pages 309–321. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1907] A. L. Kroeber. “The Arapaho — 4: Religion”, The Mrs. Morris K. Jesup Expedition, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 18, Article 3, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, May 1, 1907, pages 279–454. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1908] A. L. Kroeber. “Gros Ventre Myths and Tales”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 1, Part 3, New York, May 1907, pages 55–140. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Narratives of the Native American Flute

[Kroeber 1911] Alfred L. Kroeber. “The Languages of the Coast of California North of San Francisco”, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 9, Number 3, published by the University of California, Berkeley, California, 1911, pages 273–435. Publication languagesofcoast00kroerich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Kroeber 1922] Alfred L. Kroeber. “Elements of Culture in Native California”, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 13, Number 8, November 21, 1922, pages 259–328. Publication elementsculture00kroerich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Kroeber 1925] A. L. Kroeber. Handbook of the Indians of California — With 419 Illustrations and 20 Maps, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 78, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1925, 995 pages. Reissued in [Kroeber 1976]. Publication bulletin781925smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Kroeber 1936] Alfred L. Kroeber. Culture Element Distributions: III - Area and Climax, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 37, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1936, pages 101–115. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1939] Alfred L. Kroeber. Culture Element Distributions: XI - Tribes Surveyed, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 7, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1939, pages 435–440. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1941] Alfred L. Kroeber. Culture Element Distributions: XV - Salt, Dogs, Tobacco, Anthropological Records, Volume 6, Number 1, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1941, pages 1–40. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber 1965] Alfred L. Kroeber. “Elements of Culture in Native California”, contained in [Heizer 1965], 1965, pages 3–67. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Kroeber 1976] A. L. Kroeber. Handbook of the Indians of California — With 419 Illustrations and 20 Maps, Dover Edition, published by Dover Publications, New York, 1976, 938 pages, ISBN 0-486-23368-5. Reissue of [Kroeber 1925]. Library of Congress call number 76-19514. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber-T 1961] Theodora Kroeber. Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1961, 255 pages, ISBN 0-520-00675-5 (978-0-520-00675-1), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeber-T 2004] Theodora Kroeber. Ishi in Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America, Deluxe Illustrated Edition, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2004, 264 pages, ISBN 0-520-24037-5 (978-0-520-24037-7), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroeger 1902] Ernest Richard Kroeger (1862–1934). An Indian Lament, American Character Sketches, published by the Thiebes-Stierlin Music Company, St. Louis, Missouri, 1902, 6 pages. Opus 53, Number 7. Publication b1000046x on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kroger 1997] Bernd J. Kröger. “On the Quantitative Relationship Between Subglottal Pressure, Vocal Cord Tension, and Glottal Adduction in Singing”, Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, Volume 19, Number 5, 1997, pages 479–484. See the Bernd J. Kröger web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krstic 2008] Sonja V. Krstić, Dragan Drinčić, and Mirko Milošević. “Uporedna analiza frekvencijskog spektra jednodelne C frule «Comparative Frequency Spectrum Analysis of One-Piece Serbian C-Flute»”, Telekomunikacioni forum TELFOR 2008, in Serbian, November 25–27, 2008, pages 669–672. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: U radu je prezentovana uporedna analiza rezultata subjektivnog i objektivnog merenja jednodelne C frule. Frule su za potrebe eksperimenta podeljene u grupe prema vrsti drveta od koje je frula napravljena (frule sa istim unutrašnjim prečnikom) i prema unutrašnjem prečniku frule (frule izrađene od iste vrste drveta). Za potrebe merenja na svakoj od frula su pomoću aparature za dobijanje zvuka odsvirani tonovi osnovne i jedne preduvane oktave, velikim nivoom dinamike i pojedinačnim trajanjem tonova oko 2 sekunde. Svaki ton je posebno analiziran. Rezultati su pokazali da frekvencijski spektar frule zavisii i od vrste drveta od kojeg je napravljena i od veličine unutrašnjeg prečnika cevi frule. Rezultati su pokazali i da je ta zavisnost drugačija nego kod subjektivnog merenja. Iz rezultata eksperimenta zaključujemo da postoje karakteristične anomalije u spektru koje su zajedničke za sve ispitane frule, a i one koje su specifičnosti pojedinih frula.
Translation: The study presents comparative frequency spectrum analysis between subjective and objective measurements of one piece Serbian C major flute. The research has been done to achieve the simple goal of finding the type of wood of which we can make the Serbian flute that has sound spectrum similar to ideal. The same is with the inner radius of the pipe. Flutes are divided into three groups: flutes made of different types of wood but have the same inner radius of the pipe, flutes made of the same type of wood but have different inner radius of the pipe. The whole range of two octaves has been played by the device. Duration of each tone is about two seconds and each tone has been analyzed separately. The analysis showed that sound spectrum of Serbian flute really depends on the type of wood of which it is made and depends also on dimension of the inner radius of the pipe. The analysis also showed different results for the subjective and objective measurements. We can conclude out of the results that there are some characteristic facts that are connecting different flutes and some that are separating them.

[Kubik 2010a] Gerhard Kubik (born 1934). Theory of African Music, Volume 1, published by the University of Chicago Press, 2010, 464 pages, ISBN 0-226-45691-9 (978-0-226-45691-1), softcover with audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

Publisher's description: Taken together, these comprehensive volumes offer an authoritative account of the music of Africa. One of the most prominent experts on the subject, Gerhard Kubik draws on his extensive travels and three decades of study in many parts of the continent to compare and contrast a wealth of musical traditions from a range of cultures.

In the first volume, Kubik describes and examines xylophone playing in southern Uganda and harp music from the Central African Republic; compares multi-part singing from across the continent; and explores movement and sound in eastern Angola. And in the second volume, he turns to the cognitive study of African rhythm, Yoruba chantefables, the musical Kachamba family of Malaŵi, and African conceptions of space and time.

Each volume features an extensive number of photographs and is accompanied by a compact disc of Kubik’s own recordings. Erudite and exhaustive, Theory of African Music will be an invaluable reference for years to come.

[Kubik 2010b] Gerhard Kubik. Theory of African Music, Volume 2, published by the University of Chicago Press, 2010, vii + 359 pages, ISBN 0-226-45694-3 (978-0-226-45694-2), softcover with audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (5), Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Kuhl 1998] Sherrie Kuhl. “Bridging the Gap Between Two Cultures: Samuel C. Kurz — "Tayazo"”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1998, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1998, pages 8–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Kuhn 2010] Magdalena Kuhn. “Hand Positions of Musicians Before and After the Hyksos Kings”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 11–19, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kuhn-TS 1979] Terry Lee Kuhn, Gustav Wachhaus, Randall S. Moore, and James E. Pantle. “Undergraduate Nonmusic Major Vocal Ranges”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 27, Number 2, Summer 1979, pages 68–75. Publication 3344893 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A survey of 597 students from the University of Maryland at College Park, the University of Oregon, and Shepherd College determined the comfortable vocal range limits for undergraduate nonmusic majors. Both the low singable pitch and the high singable pitch of students' vocal range were identified and compared with the low and high printed notes of songs found in college music fundamentals textbooks. Comparisons with elementary music basal series and elementary school students' vocal ranges as described in the literature were also noted. Needs for lower pitched melodies in published materials, for developing skills in transposing published materials to ranges more suitable for specific groups of singers, and for systematic development of vocal range are noted.

[Kummel 1970] Hans Martin Kümmel. “Zur Stimmung der babylonischen Harfe «The Mood of the Babylonian Harp»”, Orientalia, Volume 39, published by Biblical Institute Press, in German, 1970, pages 252–263. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1936] Jaap Kunst (1891–1960). “A Musicological Argument for Cultural Relationship between Indonesia: Probably the Isle of Java, and Central Africa”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, 62nd Session, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 1936, pages 57–76. Publication 765551 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1942] Jaap Kunst; Émile Van Loo (translation). Music in Flores: A Study of the Vocal and Instrumental Music among the Tribes Living in Flores, Volume 42 of Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, published by E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1942, 164 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1948] Jaap Kunst. Around von Hornbostel's Theory of the Cycle of Blown Fifths, Mededeling - Koninklijke Vereeniging Indisch Instituut, Afd. Volkenkunde, published by the Koninklijke Vereeniging Indisch Instituut, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1948, 35 pages, ASIN B0007J3KH4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1955] Jaap Kunst. Ethno-Musicology — A Study of its Nature, its Problems, Methods and Representative Personalities to which is added a bibliography, published by Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands, 1955, 158 pages. Publication ethnomusicology002670mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1959] Jaap Kunst. “Fragment of an Essay on 'Music and Sociology'”, contained in [Rajeczky 1959], 1959, pages 141–143, retrieved April 11, 2011. Publication stdiamemoriaebel000107mbp on Archive.org (open access). Fragment of an Essay on 'Music and Sociology' Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Kunst 1969] Jaap Kunst. Ethnomusicology — A Study of its Nature, its Problems, Methods and Representative Personalities to which is added a Bibliography, published by Springer Netherlands, 1969, ISBN-13 978-94-011-8379-6, doi:10.1007/978-94-011-9068-8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kunst 1973] Jaap Kunst; Ernst Heins (editor). Music in Java — Its History, Its Theory and its Technique, In Two Volumes, Third, Enlarged Edition, 1973. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 1951] Gertrude P. Kurath (1903–1992). “Local Diversity in Iroquois Music and Dance”, Symposium on Local Diversity in Iroquois Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 149, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1951, pages 109–137. Paper Number 6. Publication bulletin1491951smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 26 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Kurath 1951a] Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. “Iroquois Midwinter Medicine Rites — with costumed illustrations of dance and song”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 3, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1951, pages 96–100. Publication 835788 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 1953] Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. “An Analysis of the Iroquois Eagle Dance and Songs”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 156, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, pages 223–324. Publication bulletin1561953smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 70 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Kurath 1954] Gertrude P. Kurath. “The Tutelo Fourth Night Spirit Release Singing”, Midwest Folklore, Volume 4, Number 2, published by the Indiana University Press, Summer 1954, pages 87–105. Publication 4317450 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 1956] Gertrude Prokosch Kurath (recording); Wilson Roberts (Meskwaki, performance) (died 1952). Songs and Dances of the Great Lakes Indians, Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04003, 15 tracks, 1956, audio CD. Originally issued as Folkways Ethnic FE-4003. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Abstract: Gertrude Prokosch Kurath recorded and comments on music performed by the Great Lakes tribes of Algonquin, Meskwaki, Ojibwa, Iroquois and others. On this collection you’ll find a fish dance, peace pipe dance and powwow dance; a bear dance, eagle dance and deer song; a medicine song, drinking song and canoe song.

[Kurath 1964] Gertrude P. Kurath. Iroquois Music and Dance: Ceremonial Arts of Two Seneca Longhouses, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 187, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1964, xvi + 268 pages. Reissued in [Kurath 2000]. Publication bulletin1871964smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 86 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 1968] Gertrude Prokosch Kurath. Dance and Song Rituals of Six Nations Reserve, Ontario, Folklore Series number 4, National Museum of Canada, Bulletin 220, published by Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa, 1968, xiv + 205 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 1969] Gertrude P. Kurath. “A Comparison of Plains and Pueblo Songs”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 13, Number 3, published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology, September 1969, pages 512–517. Publication 850004 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Introduction: This brief note compares musical examples from the American Plains and Pueblos, termed "Plains-Pueblo area" in eminent scholarly works (Nettl 1954:24-33; 1965:28-36). These selections from many recordings may offer food for thought. The first two songs typify derivatives from an old war ceremony of the northern Plains, now the immensely popular "Grass Dance." The other songs represent a religious dance and a playful dance from the vast repertoire of the Tewa Pueblos on the Rio Grande River, north of Santa Fe, New Mexico. They are a Basket Dance song for springtime fertility and two songs of the Comanche Dance.

[Kurath 1981] Gertrude P. Kurath. “Tutelo Rituals on Six Nations Reserve, Ontario”, Society for Ethnomusicology, Special Series Number 5, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1981, ix + 119 pages. ISSN 0270-1766. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurath 2000] Gertrude P. Kurath. Iroquois Music and Dance, published by Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, 2000, 268 pages, softcover. Reissue of [Kurath 1964]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kurosawa 1952] Takatomo Kurosawa (born 1895). “The Musical Bow of the Bununs Tribe in Formosa and Suggestions as to the Origin of the Pentatonic Scale”, Toyo Ongaku Kenkyu (Journal of the Society for Research in Asiatic Music), Volume 10–11, Tokyo, 1952, pages 18–32. title sometimes shown as 'The musical bow of the Vunun tribe in Formosa and suggestion as to the origin of the pentatonic scale'. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kuss 2004] M. Kuss (editor). Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Encyclopedic History, Volume 1, published by the University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kuttner 1965] Fritz A. Kuttner. “A Musicological Interpretation of the Twelve Lüs in China's Traditional Tone System”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 9, Number 1, published by the University of Illinois Press, January 1965, pages 22–38. Publication 850415 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Very early in their recorded history the Chinese developed a tone system which divides the interval of the octave into twelve semitones by twelve consecutive steps of perfect fifths. The same system, with minor deviations, is known in Western music theory where it is called "Pythagorean" because tradition ascribes its mathematical construction to the Greek philosopher. In one of his earlier studies the author was able to prove by physical evidence that this achievement was known in China several centuries before Pythagoras, probably in the ninth century B.C. or even earlier.

[Kwiatkowska 1981] Barbara Jolanta Kwiatkowska. The Present State of Musical Culture Among the Diegueño Indians from San Diego County Reservations, Ph.D. dissertation – University of California, Los Angeles, 1981, 666 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary from [White-PM 1998], page 159: This Ph.D. dissertation is said to be the first musicological study of the Diegueño Indians. Research was done at the Smithsonian Institution and at the Lowie Museum at the University of California, Berkeley, as well as on the Diegueño reservations. The author recorded Diegueño songs, interviewed the people, and photographed the singers and their instruments. Several of the songs were transcribed and analyzed, representing the four musical genres distinguished as Bird, Funeral, Jumping, and Peon. The music is analyzed in detail in the 345 pages of the dissertation. The conclusion is that the Diegueño still foster their culture, yet in a different manner from a century ago.

[Kwiatkowska 1990] Barbara Jolanta Kwiatkowska. “Introduction to the Musical Culture of the Diegueño Indians from San Diego County Reservations in California”, Canadian Folk Music Bulletin, Volume 24, Number 3, September 1990, pages 14–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary from [White-PM 1998], page 159: It is interesting that the author states at the beginning of this Canadian journal article that "For most San Diegans the neighboring Diegueño Indian reservations are at best a novelty or an unknown factor" (p. 14). The author briefly covers the historical background of the Diegueños, their language, musical heritage, and song genres. Included are the music for the Peon Game Song, the Jumping Song, and the Bird Song.

 
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