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References - Y

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter Y. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - Y

[Yamauchi 1980] Edwin M. Yamauchi. “The Archaeological Background of Daniel”, Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 137, January–March 1980, pages 3–16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Yamauchi 1993] Genhichi Yamauchi. “Mouthpiece of Flute”, United States Patent 5,261,308, Granted November 16, 1993, 6 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Mouthpiece of Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Yamauchi 1995] Genhichi Yamauchi. “Flute Mouthpiece”, United States Patent 5,435,221, Granted July 25, 1995, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Mouthpiece Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Yamazaki 2005] Masae Yamazaki and Noriko Sugimura. “A Motion Analysis of a Female Japanese Drum Playing Exercise”, ISBS 2005, Beijing, China, 2005, pages 342–345. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yampolsky 2013] Philip Bradford Yampolsky. Music and Media in the Dutch East Indies: Gramophone Records and Radio in the Late Colonial Era, 1903-1942, Ph.D. dissertation – University of Washington, 2013, xix + 407 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yang 2008] Zhi-xian Yang, Xiang Cai, Xiao-yan Liu, and Jiong Qin. “Relationship Among Eye Condition Sensitivities, Photosensitivity and Epileptic Syndromes”, Chinese Medical Journal, Volume 121, Number 17, September 5, 2008, pages 1633–1637. Publication 19024089 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in normal subjects and epileptic patients is often closely related to the eye's status such as eye opened (EO), eye closure (ECL) and eyes closed (EC). ECL is the period immediately after closing of the eyes and only lasts for less than 3 seconds if the eyes remain closed. EC is the period as long as the eyes are closed. Epileptiform changes on EEG induced by ECL or EC are called the changes of ECL sensitivity (ECLS) or EC sensitivity (ECS). ECLS occurs mainly but not exclusively in photosensitive patients and ECS has been seen rarely in photosensitive patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among ECLS, ECS, photosensitivity and epilepsy syndromes in children.
Methods: EEG records from child patients in the EEG Department of Peking University First Hospital during the period of May 2005 to May 2007 were examined for the presence of ECLS or ECS. Open-close eye tests and intermittent photic stimulations were carried out during video-EEG monitoring for examining ECLS, ECS and photosensitivity.
Results: Based on ECLS and ECS on their EEGs, 30 patients were divided into ECLS group (16 cases) and ECS group (14 cases). There were more boys than girls in the two groups. The mean age of initial detection of ECLS and ECS was 10 years, and the average onset age of seizures was 9 years. The epilepsy syndromes in the ECLS group included idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, eyelid myoclonia with absences, epilepsy with grand mal on awakening and pure photosensitive epilepsy with mainly generalized tonic clonic seizures. Those in the ECS group were juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome and Gastaut type-idiopathic children occipital epilepsy. Photosensitivity was detected in 88% of patients with ECLS and 29% of patients with ECS.
Conclusions: ECLS and ECS are relatively common in females. Comparing with ECS, ECLS is found in more epilepsy syndromes. However, ECS and ECLS could exist in the same epilepsy syndrome. ECLS and ECS can be associated or dissociated with photosensitivity. The rate of ECLS with photosensitivity is higher than that of ECS with photosensitivity, suggesting that mechanisms for ECLS, ECS and photosensitivity may be different but correlated.

[Yang-WJ 2005] Wen-Jei Yang and Shinzaburo Umeda. “Self-Sustained Flow Oscillations Due to Flow-Surface Interaction”, Sixteenth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-16), Prague, 2005, 2005, 10 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sound produced by wind as it whistles through long grass or roars through the trees in the forest is one of the most familiar sounds. It is observed that vortices are formed and carried off by the stream as the streaming of water past an obstacle. These flow oscillation phenomena are induced by follow-surface interaction and may become self-sustained under certain conditions. This paper presents flow-surface interaction which results in self-sustained flow oscillation (spatial instability) including edge tone in diamond-shaped cylinder bundles, cavity tone in wavy-finned tube bundles, perforation tone in perforated plate bundles, and vortexwake tone in circular cylinder bundles. Emphasis is placed on mechanisms, conditions for induction and frequency of oscillations.

[Yeagley 2004] David Yeagley (1951–2014). Awakenings: New Music for Native American Flute, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yeagley 2006] David Yeagley. Wessi vah-peh: For Native American Flute and Orchestra, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yeagley 2007] David Yeagley. Suite Tragique: For Native American Flute, 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yeagley 2007a] David Yeagley. Romance and Rondo: For Native American Flute and Guitar, 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yeagley 2012] David Yeagley. Daughter of Dawn, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From [Keillor 2013]: Movie score for Daughter of Dawn, the 1920 silent movie that featured all indigenous actors, Comanche and Kiowa, and was filmed in the Wichita Mountains of southwestern Oklahoma. In the 80-minute score, the Native American flute personifies the main character, Daughter of Dawn. The full orchestral score with piano solos to represent Red Wing, hapr, and Timothy Archambault on flute has been recorded by the Oklahoma City University Symphony Orchestra for DVD release in late 2012.

[Yeo 2002] D. K. L. Yeo, T. P. Pham, J. Baker, and S. A. T. Porter. “Specific Orofacial Problems Experienced by Musicians”, Australian Dental Journal, Volume 47, Number 1, 2002, pages 2–11. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[YMCA 1886] Young Men's Christian Association. YMCA Year Book and Official Rosters, 1886. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yokoyama 2014] Hiroshi Yokoyama, Masaki Kobayashi, Hirofumi Onitsuka, Akira Miki, and Akiyoshi Iida. “Direct Numerical Simulation of Flow and Acoustic Fields Around an Air-Reed Instrument with Tone Holes”, 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering (inter.noise 2014), Melbourne, Australia, November 16–19, 2014, 2014, 10 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In order to clarify flow and acoustic fields around a recorder with opened and closed tone holes, direct aeroacoustics simulation was performed with compressible Navier-Stokes equations. For validation of the computational accuracy, the velocity distribution and sound pressure level were experimentally measured. The predicted velocity profile of jet ejecting from the windway is in good agreement with that of experiment. The numerical results show that the fundamental frequency and sound pressure level of predicted sound are almost the same as that of experiments. The path of the standing wave of the recorder was estimated with the pressure distribution. The open-end corrections found to be longer than those for a conventional simple pipe due to the effects of the impinging jet on the edge and the uniform flow in the resonator. When the vortices of the jet from the windway are getting near to the edge, strong deformation of the vortices occurs and expansion wave radiates in the resonator. The amplitude and phase of the acoustic particle velocity are almost the same as those of the jet itself. It indicates that the acoustic field amplifies the fluctuations of the jet and maintains the acoustic and fluid relations.

[Yokoyama 2015] Hiroshi Yokoyama. World First Prediction of the Sound Radiating from a Recorder — Super-computer simulations explore how an air-reed instrument generates air flow and sound, July 2015. See the TUT Research web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Hiroshi Yokoyama and his colleagues have achieved a world first, in accurately predicting the sound radiating from a recorder. The calculations for this study took two weeks using about 100 nodes of supercomputers. The findings will contribute to the proposal for new designs of musical instruments which are easy-to-play or totally new musical instruments.

[Yoshikawa 1998] Shigeru Yoshikawa. “Jet-wave Amplification in Organ Pipes”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 103, Number 5, Part 1, May 1998, pages 2706–2717. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: An envelope-based method to estimate both the jet-wave amplification factor and the mouth-field strength in organ pipes is developed by using flow visualization of a smoked jet with a high-speed digital video camera. A theoretical envelope of wave growth, which is approximated using a negative displacement model of the jet drive, is compared with an experimental envelope derived from superposing many instantaneous shapes of jet deflection in the steady-state oscillation. The estimation results are presented in dimensional terms with respect to two particular models, where the flue-to-edge distances are, respectively, 15.8 and 10.2 mm, with a common flue thickness of 2.2 mm. In our experiment the jet velocity ranges from 7 to 33 m/s, the Reynolds number from 1000 to 5000, and the sounding frequency from 130 to 580 Hz. The amplification factor of organ pipe jets, estimated to lie in the 0.18– 0.26-mm21 range, tends to decrease and saturate with increasing blowing velocity in each oscillation mode; the mouth-field strength defined as the acoustic displacement amplitude, roughly estimated to be 0.5–1.5 mm, tends to increase and saturate with increasing blowing velocity. A hot-wire anemometer is then used to measure the mouth-field strength, whose value shows a good agreement with the estimated one. This result confirms the validity of our envelope-based method. A dimensionless representation of the experimental data is used to compare wave characteristics between an organ pipe jet and an acoustically perturbed free jet. The applicability of the spatial and temporal theories of jet instability is discussed to analyze them. If we can assume a Poiseuille flow at the flue exit and a subsequent Bickley jet, the spatial theory seems to be relevant to our organ pipe jets. However, for lack of a reliable experimental measurement of the jet half-thickness we cannot draw a definite conclusion about the wave characteristics of organ pipe jets.

[Young 1970] Gloria A. Young. “Reconstruction of an Arkansas Hopewellian Panpipe”, Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science, Volume 24, 1970, pages 28–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawings of a reconstruction of the Helena Crossing Hopewell Panpipe, The Development of Flutes in North America (4)

Abstract: Panpipes have been found in North America only on Hopewell sites. A particularly well preserved specimen from the Helena Crossing Site was described by James A. Ford. From this description a reconstruction which produced a true octave was made from native cane. Since the panpipe is a more primitive instrument than the flutes in use during Hopewell florescence, it is postulated that this instrument was used by shamans in the cult of ancestor worship.

[Young 1971] Gloria A. Young. “Reconstruction of An Arkansas Hopewellian Panpipe”, The Arkansas Archeologist, Bulletin of the Arkensas Archeological Society, Volume 12, Number 3, 1971, pages 48–49. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Young 1976] Gloria A. Young. “A Structural Analysis of Panpipe Burials.”, Tennessee Archaeologist, Volume 31, 1976, pages 1–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Young-RW 1939] R. W. Young. “Terminology for Logarithmic Frequency Units”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 11, Number 1, July 1939, pages 134–139, doi:10.1121/1.1916017. ISSN: 0001-4966. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Octave Notation

Abstract: Fletcher has proposed the use of a logarithmic frequency scale such that the frequency level equals the number of octaves, tones, or semitones that a given frequency lies above a reference frequency of 16.35 cycles/sec., a frequency which is in the neighborhood of that producing the lowest pitch audible to the average ear. The merits of such a scale are here briefly discussed, and arguments are presented in favor of this choice of reference frequency. Using frequency level as a count of octaves or semitones from the reference C0, a rational system of subscript notation follows logically for the designation of musical tones without the aid of staff notation. In addition to certain conveniences such as uniformity of characters and simplicity of subscripts (the eight C's of the piano, for example, are represented by C1 to C8) this method shows by a glance at the subscript the frequency level of a given tone counted in octaves from the reference C0 = 16.352 cycles/sec. From middle C4, frequency 261.63 cycles/sec., the interval is four octaves to the reference frequency, so that below C4 there are roughly four octaves of audible sound. Various subdivisions of the octave are considered in the light of their ease of calculation and significance, and the semitone, including its hundredth part, the cent, is shown to be particularly suitable. Consequently, for general use in which a unit smaller than the octave is necessary it is recommended that frequency level counted in semitones from the reference frequency be employed.

[Young-RW 1939a] Robert W. Young. Comparative English-Athabaskan Dictionary, 1939. Comparative English-Athabaskan Dictionary Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

University of Alaska, Fairbanks description: Typescript, 2 pp. ms at end, a few ms. additions. throughout. Alphabetical by English gloss, 702 numbered entries, mostly nouns, plus cardinal and ordinal numbers; Forms from Sarsi, Beaver, Sekani, Chipewyan, Carrier, Navajo, Apache (all from Young's own fieldwork, 1938-1939), not all entries filled out for all languages. No Alaskan data. ca.144

[Youngblood 2003] Mary Youngblood; Clint Goss (transcriptions). The Offering (song book), published by The Oregon Flute Store, 2003, 136 pages, ISBN 0-9719606-3-1 (978-0-9719606-3-3), spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, five-hole and six-hole finger diagrams. Contains 17 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute Finger Diagram Fonts and Images

[Youngblood 2003a] Mary Youngblood; Clint Goss (transcriptions). Heart of the World (song book), published by The Oregon Flute Store, 2003, 56 pages, ISBN 0-9719606-1-5 (978-0-9719606-1-9), spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams. Contains 10 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute Finger Diagram Fonts and Images

[Youngblood 2004] Mary Youngblood; Clint Goss (transcriptions). Beneath the Raven Moon (song book), published by The Oregon Flute Store, 2004, 121 pages, ISBN 0-9719606-4-X (978-0-9719606-4-0), spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute Finger Diagram Fonts and Images

[Youngblood 2011] Mary Youngblood. Inspiring Voice: Achieving Powerful Student Results through Arts Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, published by the California Arts Learning Colloquium, May 2011, run time 48:11. Inspiring Voice: Achieving Powerful Student Results through Arts Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Younger 2007] John G. Younger. “The Mycenean Bard: The Evidence for Sound and Song”, contained in [Morris-SP 2007], 2007, pages 71–78. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yousef 2012] Q. Yousef, M. B. I. Reaz, and M. A. M. Ali. “The Analysis of PPG Morphology: Investigating the Effects of Aging on Arterial Compliance”, Measurement Science Review, Volume 12, Number 6, 2012, pages 266–271, doi:10.2478/v10048-012-0036-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study presents the variations of photoplethysmogram (PPG) morphology with age. PPG measurement is done noninvasively at the index finger on both right and left hands for a sample of erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects. Some parameters are derived from the analysis of PPG contour showed in association with age. The age is found to be an important factor that affects the contour of PPG signals which accelerates the disappearance of PPG’s dicrotic notch and PPG’s inflection point as well. Arterial compliance is found to be degraded with age due to the fall of arterial elasticity. This study approaches the establishment of usefulness of PPG’s contour analysis as an investigator to the changes in the elastic properties of the vascular system, and as a detector of early sub-clinical atherosclerosis.

[Youtz 1997] Gregory Youtz. Silk and Bamboo — An Introduction to Chinese Musical Culture, 1997, 261 pages, retrieved September 23, 2010, ASIN B000I8SS4O. Silk and Bamboo Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yurchenco 1947] Henrietta Yurchenco. “Folk Music of Mexico”, Album 19 of Folk Music of the Americas, 1947, 9 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yurchenco 1963] Henrietta Yurchenco. “Survivals of Pre-Hispanic Music in New Mexico”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 15, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1963, pages 15–18. Publication 836229 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

 
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