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References - R

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter R. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - R

[Rabearivelo 1954] Jean Joseph Rabéarivelo; Langston Hughes (translator). “Flute Players”, Phylon (1940-1956), Volume 15, Number 4, published by Clark Atlanta University, 1954, pages 363–364. Publication 272845 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rachuta 2011] Robert Rachuta. Muzyka w Biblii «Music in the Bible», Ph.D. dissertation – Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Poland, in Polish, October 24, 2011, 248 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract (translated from Polish): The paper aims to describe and explain musical phenomena in the Bible. By comparing source text and based on previous papers on this subject I made an attempt to arrive at correct understanding of the terms applying to the musical culture of Israelites, both in terms of instruments and other issues pertaining to this topic. The first chapter of my doctoral thesis signals the most important musical phenomena in the process of creation and operation of the Israelite state. The part presents the extraordinary relation between the music and the sacred in Israel's culture, fundamental to the process of creation of the utilized instruments and musical forms among the Israelites. The analysis of source text presented in the second chapter aims to compile a detailed and non-controversial map of instruments, where particular instruments are assigned to particular areas of life, their use in ensembles and for accompaniment, and the analysis of their presence in individual Books. Musical principles and phenomena present in the Bible have been described in order. The subjects found there have been analyzed from the point of view of biblical authors, including source texts from other cultures. The sensibility of the author or the audience cannot be strictly specified and classified. Undoubtedly, biblical sensitivity differs significantly from what prevails today. Hence, the musical principles and phenomena shaped and created by the ancient artists were made with different esthetic criteria. The biggest problem when deciphering the Israelites' musical activity was actually to find these criteria.

[Radau 1913] Hugo Radau (born 1873). Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to God Dumu-Zi — Babylonian Lenten Songs from the Temple Library of Nippur, published by Rudolf Merkel, Munich, 1913, 109 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Radin 1909] Paul Radin (1883–1959). “Winnebago Tales”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 22, Number 85, published by the American Folklore Society, July–September 1909, pages 288–313. Publication 534744 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The first and the second of the following stories were told to me by Mr. Joseph Lamere, of the Winnebago tribe, in the summer of 1908. They were supposed to explain the origin and significance of a sacred bundle, formerly the property of one of the clans, now in the possession of Mr. Lamere.

The bundle consisted of the remains of a bird, the dried skin of a long rattlesnake, a number of cane flutes, and two old Winnebago warclubs. The bird is known among the Winnebagoes as a large crow, but it is presumably identical with the northern raven of Minnesota and Wisconsin.

[Radin 1923] Paul Radin. “The Winnebago Tribe”, Thirty-Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1915-1916, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1923, pages 35–550 + plates 1–58 + figures 1–38, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu37smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2), The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians, Names of the Native American Flute

[Rae 2008] Jason Rae. Progenitive Music: A Study of the Ancestry of Western Society, In Regards to Music, Religion and Culture, 2008, 54 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Was there a common concept and role of music in ancient near-Eastern religions and, if so, did this change with the creation of the Roman Catholic Church?

[Rahn 2011] Jay Rahn. “The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE, Part One - Notation and Analysis”, Analatical Approaches to World Music, Volume 1, Number 1, published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011, pages 93–151. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The least conjectural components of the earliest known system of musical notation (ca. 1850-500 BCE) are 14 names for pairs of strings. Each of these names designates a pair of numbered strings on a Mesopotamian harp or lyre. These numbered string-pairs provide a basis for analyzing the earliest musical scores that survive, 35 musical notations of Hurrian provenance ca. 1350 BCE. Of these 35 scores, only one, identified as ‘h.6’ by Assyriologists, appears to be intact from beginning to end, the remaining 34 being fragmentary because of damage during the past three and a half millennia. As well, like two of the other 34 scores, h.6 refers in its colophon to a numbered string-pair, namely, nitkibli, that plausibly designates a particular tuning of the 7 numbered strings. With a view to characterizing the repertoire as a whole and determining whether the three nitkibli pieces differ significantly from the other 32, the pieces’ numbered strings, string-pairs, and immediately successive string-pairs are analyzed in terms of relationships of sameness, adjacency and analogy. These relationships are defined within a framework of first-order logic. Analyzed statistically, the 35 pieces reveal considerable uniformity of idiom. Because it survives in a continuously notated form, h.6 can be analyzed in even greater detail and reveals a structure of great coherence that is quite consistent with tendencies among all 35 pieces.

[Rahn 2011a] Jay Rahn. “The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE, Part Two - From Numbered Strings to Tuned Strings”, Analatical Approaches to World Music, Volume 1, Number 2, published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011, pages 93–151. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The first part of this study concluded that on the basis of numbered strings and their pairwise ordering (from left to right and top to bottom) on cuneiform tablets, one can identify within h.6, the earliest known piece of music that is notated from beginning to end, structural relationships of similarity, adjacency, and analogy as well as statistical tendencies. Further, most of these tendencies appear throughout the other 34 earliest pieces, which are highly fragmentary, and these tendencies can be understood in terms of the structural relationships identified in h.6. Moreover, structural and statistical anomalies in h.6 are cognate with the features that tend to be shared by all 35 Hurrian pieces.

This, the second part of the study, shows how the numbered strings were tuned and how relationships of similarity, adjacency and analogy can be understood in terms of Gestalt Grouping Principles, i.e., as relationships perceived among the sounds produced by the tuned strings. Decisive in narrowing the possibilities of Mesopotmian tuning to 12 general cases is its well-formed (WF), specifically '2-Gap,' structure. Consequences of 2 of the 12 kinds of 2-Gap structure include parallels with later music of ancient Greece and Europe as well as eastern and southeastern Asia. In both of these kinds of 2-Gap structure, the number of steps in the generating interval is (dm±1)/2, where dm is the number of steps in the modular interval.

These 2-Gap structures comprise a distinction between generic and specific intervals that amplifies relationships of sameness, analogy, and adjacency considered in the first part of the study. These relationships are further interpreted in terms of the Gestalt Grouping Principles of Similarity, Proximity, and Common Fate. In particular, Common Fate accounts for 'motion' among the string-pairs of h.6.

[Raiber 2014] Michael Raiber and David Teachout. The Journey from Music Student to Teacher: A Professional Approach, 2014, 368 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rainer 1986] John Rainer, Jr., Howard Rainer, John Rainer, Sr., Lillian Rainer, Sherrie Everett, and Tim Chow (died 2011). Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 1, Red Willow Songs, 12 tracks, 1986, ASIN B003VSI2EO, Audio cassette. Reissued in [Rainer 1996]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12)

[Rainer 1990] John Rainer, Jr., and Lillian Rainer, Verenda Rainer, Howard Rainer, John Rainer, Sr., P. J. McAffee, and Tiem Chou. Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2, 12 tracks, 1990, ASIN B007CO1A6A, Audio cassette. Reissued in [Rainer 1996a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12)

[Rainer 1996] John Rainer, Jr. Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 1, JR-01, 12 tracks, 1996, ASIN B0030MTC36, Audio CD. Reissue of [Rainer 1986]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12)

[Rainer 1996a] John Rainer, Jr. Songs of the Indian Flute, Volume 2, JR-02, 12 tracks, 1996, ASIN B000NOU9SQ, Audio CD. Reissue of [Rainer 1990]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12)

[Raistrick 1952] A. Raistrick, Eric Todd, E. A. Spaul. “The Malham Iron-Age Pipe”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 5, published by the Galpin Society, March 1952, pages 28–38, doi:10.2307/841408. Publication 841408 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: During September of 1950 and 1951 the excavation of a barrow on Seaty Hill, Malham Moor, W. Yorkshire, was carried through as part of a course in Field Archaeology arranged by the Council for the Promotion of Field Studies. The course was directed by the writer and was held at the Tarn House, Malham. Among many discoveries the outstanding one for general interest was that of a bone pipe or primitive recorder, clearly associated with an Iron Age burial, and that pipe is the subject of these notes.

[Rajeczky 1959] Benjamin Rajeczky and Lajos Vargyas (editors). Studia Memoriae Belae Bartók Sacra, Third Edition, published by Boosey and Hawkes, London and New York, 1959, 535 pages, retrieved April 11, 2011. © Akademiai Kiado, 1958. Publication stdiamemoriaebel000107mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rajneesh 1978] Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho). The Hidden Harmony — Talks on Heraclitus, published by the Rajneesh Foundation, Pune, India, 1978. The Hidden Harmony Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Readings and Quotations on Silence

[Rajneesh 1981] Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho). Beloved of My Heart — Darshan Diary, First Edition, published by the Rajneesh Foundation, Pune, India, April 1981, 344 pages, ISBN 0-88050-009-3 (978-0-88050-009-8). Beloved of My Heart Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Readings and Quotations on Music, Readings and Quotations on Silence

[Rajneesh 1990] Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho). The Dhammapada: The Way of the Buddha, Volume 12, First Edition, published by the Rebel Publishing House, Pune, India, 1990, ISBN 3-89338-096-5 (978-3-89338-096-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rakowski 1985] Andrzej Rakowski. “The Perception of Musical Intervals by Music Students”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 85, Late Fall 1985, pages 175–186. Publication 40317954 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ramshur 2010] John T. Ramshur. Design, Evaluation, and Application of Heart Rate Variability Analysis Software (HRVAS), Masters dissertation – University of Memphis, Tennessee, July 2010, 119 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular and important tool for studying many disease pathologies in the past twenty years. HRV analyses are methods used to non-invasively quantify variability within heart rate. Purposes of this study were to design, evaluate, and apply an easy to use and open-source HRV analysis software package (HRVAS). HRVAS implements four major categories of HRV techniques: statistical and time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, nonlinear analysis, and time-frequency analysis. Software evaluations were accomplished by performing HRV analysis on simulated and public congestive heart failure (CHF) data. Application of HRVAS included studying the effects of hyperaldosteronism on HRV in rats. Simulation and CHF results demonstrated that HRVAS was a dependable HRV analysis tool. Results from the rat hyperaldosteronism model showed that mean IBI, mean HR, RMSSD, SDNN, and SD were statistically significant (p<0.05). HRVAS provides a useful tool for HRV analysis to researchers.

[Rasmussen 2011] Morten Rasmussen, Xiaosen Guo, Yong Wang, Kirk E. Lohmueller, Simon Rasmussen, Anders Albrechtsen, Line Skotte, Stinus Lindgreen, Mait Metspalu, Thibaut Jombart, Toomas Kivisild, Weiwei Zhai, Anders Eriksson, Andrea Manica, Ludovic Orlando, Francisco M. De La Vega, Silvana Tridico, Ene Metspalu, Kasper Nielsen, María C. Ávila-Arcos, J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Craig Muller, Joe Dortch, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Ole Lund, Agata Wesolowska, Monika Karmin, Lucy A. Weinert, Bo Wang, Jun Li, Shuaishuai Tai, Fei Xiao, Tsunehiko Hanihara, George van Driem, Aashish R. Jha, François-Xavier Ricaut, Peter de Knijff, Andrea B Migliano, Irene Gallego Romero, Karsten Kristiansen, David M. Lambert, Søren Brunak, Peter Forster, Bernd Brinkmann, Olaf Nehlich, Michael Bunce, Michael Richards, Ramneek Gupta, Carlos D. Bustamante, Anders Krogh, Robert A. Foley, Marta M. Lahr, Francois Balloux, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Richard Villems, Rasmus Nielsen, Jun Wang, and Eske Willerslev. “An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia”, Science, Volume 334, October 7, 2011, pages 94–98, doi:10.1126/science.1211177 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.

[Rawcliffe 1992] Susan Rawcliffe. “Complex Acoustics in Pre-Columbian Flute Systems”, Experimental Musical Instruments, Volume 8, Number 2, December 1992, +18 line drawings and diagrams + 11 pages. See the Windworld web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The author describes the advanced techniques of construction that were used in manipulating sound in Pre-Columbian clay flutes. She addresses the designs of flute apertures and hoods, body shapes, vessel flutes, tubular flutes and hybrid forms, such as ball and tube flutes, whistles and ocarinas. Timbre and tuning is also touched upon and the article also includes an extensive appendix, notes and bibliography.

[Rawcliffe 1992a] Susan Rawcliffe. “Complex Acoustics in Pre-Columbian Flute Systems”, contained in [Robertson 1992], 1992, pages 35–63. cassette number 8. Also published in the Journal of the National Council on Education in the Ceramic Arts, Volume 14, 1993-4. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Over a span of 30 centuries, Mesoamerican Pre-Hispanic societies developed a unique flute organology. They made flutes, pipes, ocarinas and whistles in a great diversity of form, timbre, and tunings. As an artist-musician for about 25 years, I have been making ceramic flutes and sound sculptures, many of which were inspired by my explorations into these ancient and wonderful wind instruments. Because I wanted to build a better flute, I studied the patterns to be found in both the ancient and my own flutes. The laws of acoustics dictate the range of possibilities for instrument construction within which design decisions are made according to cultural and individual preferences. Some instruments are dissected to illustrate choices made by their creators in order to produce particular sounds. Many of the most complex and time consuming innovations of the Pre-Hispanic artisans resulted in instruments of restricted pitch but rich timbre.

[Rawcliffe 2002] Susan Rawcliffe. “Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in English and German, 2002, pages 255–267. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fifteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America (12)

Abstract: These ancient flutes of Meso-America are evidence of a unique musical sensibility. Instrumental concepts were widely shared: versions of the chamberduct flute are found among the Olmecs, the Maya, and the Bahia culture of Ecuador; and versions of pitch jump whistles & flutes in Veracruz, among the Maya, the Manteño culture of Ecuador and the Moche in Peru. Although we see categories of instrumental types, some of great complexity, as well as shared symbolic content, each instrument seems to be unique. Perhaps their sight and sound echo their ceremonial usage, not an external sonic design. Many instruments are acoustically irregular, which allows for rich timbres and unique melodies, but restricts the capacity to be tuned to specific scales. Ceramics was a major technology in Pre-Hispanic cultures, readily available for instrument construction. The use of clay for so many musical instruments may have both reflected and influenced the apparent lack of standardization. Some acoustically complex instruments emerge naturally from the ceramic process, which engendered the amazingly diverse world of the ceramic Pre-Hispanic flutes.

[Rawcliffe 2007] Susan Rawcliffe. “Eight West Mexican Flutes in the Fowler Museum”, World of Music, Volume 49, Number 2, Journal of the Department of Ethnomusicology, Otto-Friedrich University, Bamberg, Germany, 2007, pages 45–65. also in Music Archaeology: Mesoamerica; Arnd Adje Both and Julia L. J. Sanchez, Editors. Publication 41699764 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rawcliffe 2008] Susan Rawcliffe. “Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes”, contained in [Both 2008], in English and German, 2008, pages 333–348. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America (9)

Abstract: This article consists of photos, recorded samples, discussions, and sonograms of six double prehispanic flutes, plus a Rawcliffe double flute inspired by prehispanic concepts. Air pressure variations allow for increased performance possibilities through manipulation of intervals and difference tones on double flutes with fingerholes, and on double whistles, are the only performance variable. The manipulation of air pressure to adjust timbre, intervals and difference tones on some prehispanic flutes was surely more important than tonal range or potential melodies. Many high pitched double flutes are found in the organology of prehispanic flutes across many cultures. They frequently produce strong heterodyne/difference tones; these tones can be disorienting, deafening and entrancing. Both beats and heterodyne tones arise through an interaction between two source tones. Beats are a result of two tones of slightly different frequencies and similar amplitude levels being played together. The sonograms of these double flutes show lines that seem to represent combination tones; these tones probably have a physical presence in the air, not just in our ears. These tones can be produced either within the head, through a non linear response of the basilar membrane of the ear or auditory cortex, or externally through an interaction between two proximal sound sources such as presumably, the adjacent mouthpieces of these double flutes. Perhaps, when listening to difference tones, we are hearing what was once, in the prehispanic world, the voice of a deity.

[Rawcliffe 2011] Susan Rawcliffe. “The Evolution and Effect of Hoods on Pipes”, 160th Meeting Acoustical Society of America, Cancun, Mexico, November 15–19, 2010, Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, Volume 11, published by the Acoustical Society of America, 2011, 10 pages, doi:10.1121/1.3559150. See the Acoustical Society of America web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Hooded flutes or pipes were found primarily among the prehispanic cultures of West Mexico, and consist of an awning shape around three sides of the pipe's air ducted aperture, and angling over its top. During construction, a hooded pipe's sound can be manipulated through variations of the size and shape of the aperture, the design of the over-arching hood and to some extent, the flute's body shape. Minute differences in construction can make a large difference in the timbre. A hood can limit the ability to play the partials of the tube, but it contributes a characteristically marvelous rough, reedy timbre that can be manipulated through air pressure variations. Sonograms, recordings, photos and measurements of a few prehispanic hooded pipes located in Fowler Museum, UCLA, are compared to each other and to those of a Rawcliffe hooded pipe. For contrast, the sounds and sonograms of an ancient pipe without a hood will be included. Hopefully, the results of this analysis will illustrate some sound preferences found within the prehispanic instrumentarium as well as explore possibilities for recreating ancient sounds in contemporary flutes. Time permitting, the presentation will conclude with a brief performance on the Rawcliffe pipe.

[Ray 1942] Verne F. Ray. Culture Element Distributions: XXII - Plateau, Anthropological Records, Volume 8, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, December 19, 1942, pages 99–262. Culture Element Distributions Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (5)

[Raymond 2003] J. Scott Raymond and Richard L. Burger (editors). Archaeology of Formative Ecuador, published by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C., 2003, 567 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[RCA-Victor 1947] Radio Corporation Of America / RCA Victor Division. Music of American Indians, RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools “Music of American Indians”, E-89, 13 tracks, 1947, set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs (four). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[RCA-Victor 1956] Radio Corporation Of America / RCA Victor Division. Music of American Indians, RCA Victor Record Library for Elementary Schools “Music of American Indians”, Album WE-89, RCA Victor 41-6158, 1956, set of 45 rpm 7" audio discs (four). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

Editorial Review on Amazon.com: Set of 4 records X 7" 45rpm in album folder with tipped-in notes. This is one of the very first 45 rpm format albums issued ... Notes for Teachers prepared by Miss Lilla Belle Pitts and Miss Gladys Tipton.

[Redden 1976] James E. Redden (editor). Proceedings of the First Yuman Languages Workshop Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Redhouse 2007] Tony Redhouse. Tony Redhouse (Navajo) — Flutist and Dancer, broadcast by Native Voice TV, December 9, 2007, run time 29:02. NVT-1-104. Tony Redhouse (Navajo) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Redmond 2003] Brian G. Redmond and James R. Jones III (editors). Facing the Final Millennium: Studies in the Late Prehistory of Indiana, A.D. 700 to 1700, published by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2003, 297 pages. Facing the Final Millennium Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[RedRock 1992] Red Rock Records. The Indian Flute — Spiritual Songs of the American Indian, Red Rock Records, 7002, 12 tracks, 1992, UPC 0-16726-70024-7, audio cassette. Anonymous reissue of [Rainer 1996]. Reissued in CD #2 of [Retro 1997]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12)

[Reed 1993] Daniel Reed. “The Innovator and the Primitives: George Herzog in Historical Perspective”, Folklore Forum 26: 112 (1993), Volume 26, Issue 112, 1993, pages 69–92. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reeder 1903] Frank Reeder (1845–1912). Record of the Family and Descendants of Colonel Christian Jacob Hutter of Easton, Penn'a, 1771–1902, 1903, 25 pages. Publication recordoffamilyde00reed on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reeners 2006] Roberta Reeners (editor). Archaeology 2020. Repositioning Irish Archaeology in the Knowledge Society, published by the University College, Dublin, 2006, 66 pages, ISBN 1-905254-10-5. Available at the Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland web site at http://www.instituteofarchaeologistsofireland.ie. See the UCD School of Archaeology web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Wicklow Pipes

[Rees 2011] James A. Rees, Jr. “Musical Instruments of the Prehistoric Ozarks”, Field Notes Newsletter of the Arkansas Archeological Society, Number 361, July/August 2011, pages 3–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: The Breckenridge Flute (7)

[Rees 2013] James A. Rees, Jr. “The Breckenridge Flute Dated with ARF Grant”, Field Notes Newsletter of the Arkansas Archeological Society, Number 373, July/August 2013, pages 11–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, A Brief History of the Native American Flute, The Breckenridge Flute

[Rees-A 2004] Amanda Rees (editor); William Ferris (consulting editor); Paul S. Piper (librarian advisor). The Great Plains Region, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures, published by Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 2004, 486 pages, ISBN 0-313-32733-5 (978-0-313-32733-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rehding 2005] Alexander Rehding. “Wax Cylinder Revolutions”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 88, Number 1, Spring 2005, pages 123–160, doi:10.1093/musqtl/gdi004 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reibach A] Jan Michael Looking Wolf Reibach. Tribute to the Native Flute, total time 66:56, video DVD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reid 2010] John G. Reid. “Marc Lescarbot”, The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2010, retrieved October 8, 2010. See the Canadian Encyclopedia web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Reinhard 1958] Kurt Reinhard. “On the Problem of Pre-Pentatonic Scales: Particularly the Third-Second Nucleus”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 10, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1958, pages 15–17. Publication 835966 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reinhard 1962] Kurt Reinhard. “The Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv”, The Folklore and Folk Music Archivist, Volume 5, Number 2, Summer 1962. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Reinhart 2005] Melinda Reinhart. Lady Falkland's Travel Album: Negotiating Colonial and Feminine Discourses, masters thesis – Concordia University, Portland, Oregon, 2005, 163 pages. Lady Falkland's Travel Album Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Nancy Lewis (Mi’kmaw) Holding a Flute (3), The Development of Flutes in North America (3)

Abstract: During the nineteenth century travelers to British colonies recorded their impressions in journals and often produced pictorial representations of colonized peoples and landscapes. Their personal representations have been added to the numerous official documents that defined colonial relationships between white colonizers and First Nations peoples. More recently women's visual and textual representations of the colonies have been brought into scholarly discussions. Many amateur women artists assembled travel albums or scrapbooks including drawings, watercolours and paintings of their travels. This thesis provides an analysis of one such album that was constructed by Lady Amelia Falkland (1807–1858). The album contains images of colonial Nova Scotia, India and the Middle East as well as those of her homeland Great Britain. Among the Nova Scotia images painted by Lady Falkland herself and two local amateur women artists are a significant number of representations of Mi'kmaq individuals. This thesis investigates these representations in order to assess how women negotiated the often contradictory discursive frameworks of colonialism and femininity, both of which entered into their representations.

[Remnant 1989] Mary Remnant. Musical Instruments: An Illustrated History from Antiquity to the Present, Batsford, 1989, ISBN 0-7134-5169-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Renaud 1926] Etienne B. Renaud. “Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest»”, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France, Volume 23, Issue 7–8, in French, 1926, pages 168–178, doi:10.3406/bspf.1926.5910. Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: Le Musée de l'Université de l'Etat du Colorado, à Boulder, contient des collections importantes d'archéologie indienne préhistorique. Parmi les trésors de ce petit Musée se trouvent les objets nombreux et très intéressants rapportés par Mr. Earl Morris de son expédition de 1924 dans la région du Canon del Muerto, au nordest de l'Arizona. Alors que j'enseignais l'anthropologie à l'Université du Colorado pendant l'été de 1925, j'ai eu l'avantage, grâce à l'aimable permission du curateur, Prof. J. Henderson, d'étudier une partie de cette collection et d'en mesurer et dessiner un certain nombre d'objets. J'ai décrit et discuté ailleurs les « atlatls » ou pro pulseurs et les flèches préhistoriques de même provenance. Dans la présente note je désire parler de quatre flûtes indiennes précolumbiennes et discuter quelques points se rapportant à leur usage.
Translation: The Museum of the State University of Colorado at Boulder contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are the many interesting objects brought by Mr. Earl Morris of his expedition of 1924 in the region of Canon del Muerto, to the northeast of Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado during the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, thanks to the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and prehistoric arrows from the same source. In this note I want to mention four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Renaud 1948] Etienne B. Renaud. “Kokopelli: A Study in Pueblo Mythology”, Southwestern Lore, Volume 14, Number 2, 1948, pages 25–40. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Renaud 2012] Etienne B. Renaud; Clint Goss (translation). Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest, in French and English, 2012, 16 pages. English translation of [Renaud 1926] Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest». Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: The Museum of the University of Colorado, Boulder, contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are objects and many very interesting reported by Mr. Earl Morris in his 1924 expedition in the region of the Canon del Muerto in northeast Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado in the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, with the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I have described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and even from prehistoric arrows. In this note I wish to speak of four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Rendon 2010] Teresa A. Rendon. “Indian Identity”, The Oklahoma Bar Journal, Volume 81, Number 5, February 13, 2010, pages 359–363. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

Abstract: Answering the question, “Who is an Indian?” is not easy. Indeed, the response could be yet another question, “Who wants to know?” Is it a casual observer trying to determine if an individual is Indian solely by his physical characteristics? Is it the admitting clerk at the Indian hospital figuring out whether the patient is eligible for services? Is it a tribal employee checking to see if an applicant is eligible for enrollment? Or is it a judge wondering whether the ICWA (Indian Child W elfare Act) applies to a custody case? The answers are as varied as the questions and arise as much from political needs as from a maze of legal, sociological and historical sources.

[Renold 2004] Maria Renold; Bevis Stevens (translation); Anna R. Meuss (editor). Intervals, Scales, Tones and the Concert Pitch C = 128 HZ, published by Temple Lodge Publishing, East Sussex, England, 2004, 198 pages, ISBN 1-902636-46-5 (978-1-902636-46-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Why is it that certain intervals, scales and tones sound genuine and others false? Is the modern person able to experience a qualitative difference in a tone's pitch? If so, what are the implications for modern concert pitch and how instruments of fixed tuning are tuned? Maria Renold tackles these and many other questions, providing a wealth of scientific data. Her pioneering work is the result of a lifetime's research into Western music's Classical Greek origins, as well as a search for new developments in modern times. She strives to deepen musical understanding through Rudolf Steiner's spiritual-scientific research, and she also elucidates many of Steiner's often puzzling statements about music. The results of her work include the following discoveries: that the octave has two sizes (a 'genuine' sounding octave is bigger than the 'perfect' octave); that there are three sizes of 'perfect' fifths; that an underlying 'form principle' for all scales can be found; and, most importantly, the discovery of a method of tuning the piano which is more satisfactory than equal temperament. She also gives foundation to some of Rudolf Steiner's statements such as: 'c is always prime' and 'c = 128 Hz = Sun'.

[Retro 1997] Retro Music; Various Artists. Spiritual Songs, Chants & Flute Music of the Native American Indian, Retro Music, R2CD 40-31, 2 CD set, 27 tracks, 1997, UPC 0-76119-40312-4, ASIN B000005RIM, audio CD. Alternate titles: "Spiritual Songs, Traditional Chants & Flute Music of the American Indian" (alternate packaging released by Retro Music), "Songs Chants & Flute Music of the American Indian" (title on Amazon.com), and "Spiritual Songs, Traditional Chants & Flute Music of the American Indian" (title on Discogs.com). AMG Album ID R472827. Copyright listed as "Proper BIEM MCPS 1997". CD #2 is an anonymous reissue of [Rainer 1986] reissue of [RedRock 1992]. See the Proper Music web site. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

28 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (14), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (14)

[Revesz 1953] G. Révész. Einführung in die Musikpsychologie «Introduction to Music Psychology», published by A. Frank Ag. Verlag, Bern, Switzerland, 1953. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reyhner 2009] Jon Reyhner and Louise Lockard (editors). Indigenous Language Revitalization — Encouragement, Guidance & Lessons Learned, published by the Northern Arizona University, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Reynolds 2009] Dwight Reynolds. “The Re-creation of Medieval Arabo-Andalusian Music in Modern Performance”, Al-Masāq, Volume 21, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, 2009, pages 175–189, doi:10.1080/09503110902875442 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In recent decades more and more musical ensembles have begun performing “historicised” versions of medieval Arabo-Andalusian music. The impulse to produce such re-creations of medieval musical practices has come almost entirely from Western musicians and scholars influenced by the aesthetics of the European Early Music movement, rather than from Arab musicians. The historical resources available as the basis of such performances, however, are very different from those used in the re-creation of European Early Music. This article surveys the extant historical resources, offers a brief history of this new “medieval” style of performance of Arabo-Andalusian music, and provides descriptions and critiques of selected recordings.

[Rhodes 1949] Willard Rhodes (recording and liner notes) (1901–1992). Music of the Sioux and the Navajo, Ethnic Folkways Library, Folkways Records, EFL-1420 to EFL-1423, 15 tracks, 1949, ASIN B006P2RU50, four 10", 78 RPM vinylite discs (two black and two brown) in leatherette album folder box set, with notes. Reissued in [Rhodes 1949a], [Rhodes 1966], and [Rhodes 2004]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

[Rhodes 1949a] Willard Rhodes (recording and liner notes). Music of the Sioux and the Navajo, Ethnic Folkways Library, Folkways Records, EFL-1401, 15 tracks, 1949, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc with 6-page booklet. Reissue of [Rhodes 1949]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Rhodes 1951] Willard Rhodes (recording engineer, producer). Music of the American Indians of the Southwest, Smithsonian Folkways, FW04420, 13 tracks, 1951. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Publisher's description: The Music of the American Indians of the Southwest is one of the most versatile art forms in America. Music plays a crucial role in the ceremonies and dances that embody the culture of the Pueblos, the Southern Athabascans, the Ranchería tribes, and the Plateau Yumans heard in this collection which achieves its goal “..that the American Indians of the Southwest will be justly represented through the art medium which expresses so vitally and strikingly the richness and color of their daily social and religious life.”

[Rhodes 1952] Willard Rhodes. “North American Indian Music: A Bibliographical Survey of Anthropological Theory”, Music Library Association Notes, Second Series, Volume 10, Number 1, December 1952, pages 33–45. Publication 889923 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1954] Willard Rhodes (recording and editing). Music of the American Indian, Library of Congress, Music Division, Recording Laboratory, AAFS L43-43, 1954, audio phonodisc set. 10 slipcases (20 sides). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1954a] Willard Rhodes; Erna Gunther (introduction). Music of the American Indian, Northwest, Puget Sound, published by the Library of Congress, Music Division, Recording Laboratory, Archives of American Folksong, in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 1954, 36 pages. intended for use with [Rhodes 1954]. Publication musicoftheameric005584mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1954b] Willard Rhodes (recording). Music of the American Indians: Sioux, Folk Music of the United States from the Archive of Folk-song, Volume 40, Library of Congress Music Division, AFS L40, 1954, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. See the American Folk Life Center, Folk Recordings web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Rhodes 1954c] Willard Rhodes (recording). Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee, Folk Music of the United States from the Archive of Folk-song, Volume 39, Library of Congress Music Division, AFS L39, 1954, ASIN B004P0K7RW, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. See the American Folk Life Center, Folk Recordings web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

[Rhodes 1954d] Willard Rhodes (recording, editor). Music of the American Indian: Apache — From the Archive of Folk Culture, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Division of Music, Recording Laboratory, AFS L42. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Rhodes 1956] Willard Rhodes. “Toward a Definition of Ethnomusicology”, American Anthropologist, Volume 58, Number 3, June 1956, pages 457–463, doi:10.1525/aa.1956.58.3.02a00050. Publication 665277 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1958] Willard Rhodes. “A Study of Musical Diffusion Based on the Wandering of the Opening Peyote Song”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 10, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1958, pages 42–49. Publication 835972 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The widespread diffusion of the peyote cult among Indian tribes of the Great Plains between the mid-nineteenth century and the present provides a wealth of musical material that awaits further analysis and interpretation. McAllester has made a significant contribution in the field of ethnomusicology with his scholarly study, Peyote Music. Although he has given a clear description of the over-all style of peyote songs with detailed references to the differences as found among the Comanche, Washo, Dakota, Fox, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Kiowa, Shoshone, Ute, Tonkawa, Kickapoo, Arapaho, Huichol and Tarahumare, he calls attention to the complexity of the picture and the need for further investigation. It is the object of this paper to examine several versions of the opening song of the peyote ceremony and to draw whatever conclusions seem justified by the evidence. The validity of such conclusions is necessarily affected by the limited amount of material on which they are based. They are offered, however, with the hope that they will call attention to a significant area of culture that has been imperfectly reported and too little studied, and that other students may be stimulated to investigate further this field.

[Rhodes 1963] Willard Rhodes. “North American Indian Music in Transition — A Study of Songs with English Words as an Index of Acculturation”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 15, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1963, pages 9–14. Publication 836228 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1966] Willard Rhodes (recording and liner notes). Music of the Sioux and the Navajo, Ethnic Folkways Library, Folkways Records, FE 4401, 15 tracks, 1966, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissue of [Rhodes 1949]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rhodes 1982] Willard Rhodes (recording). Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee: From the Archive of Folk Culture, published by the Library of Congress, Motion picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division., Washington, D.C., 1982. Liner notes for [Rhodes 1954c] published in 1982. LCCN call number 82-743369. See the American Folk Life Center, Folk Recordings web page. Music of the American Indians: Plains: Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3)

[Rhodes 1987] Willard Rhodes (recording). Music of the American Indians: Sioux: From the Archive of Folk Culture, published by the Library of Congress, Motion picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division., Washington, D.C., 1987, 20 pages. Liner notes for [Rhodes 1954b] published in 1987. LCCN call number 82-743370. See the American Folk Life Center, Folk Recordings web page. Music of the American Indians: Sioux Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4)

[Rhodes 2004] Willard Rhodes (recording and liner notes). Music of the Sioux and the Navajo, Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04401, 15 tracks, 2004, ASIN B000S98PRS, audio CD. Reissue of [Rhodes 1949]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Ribas 1645] Andrés Péez de Ribas. History of the Triumphs of Our Holy Faith amongst the Most Barbarous and Fierce Peoples of the New World, in Spanish, 1645. Translated and reissued in [Ribas 1999]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ribas 1999] Andrés Péez de Ribas; Daniel T. Reff, Maureen Ahern, and Richard K. Danford (translation). History of the Triumphs of Our Holy Faith amongst the Most Barbarous and Fierce Peoples of the New World, published by the University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, Arizona, 1999. Translation and reissue of [Ribas 1645]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ribble 2003] Daniel B. Ribble. “The Shakuhachi and the Ney: A Comparison of Two Flutes from the Far Reaches of Asia”, Research Reports of Kochi Medical School, Number 19, 2003, 13 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper compares and contrasts two bamboo flutes found at the opposite ends of the continent of Asia. There are a number of similarities between the ney, or West Asian reed flute and the shakuhachi or Japanese bamboo flute, and certain parallels in their historical development. even though the two flutes originated in completely different socio-cultural contexts. One flute developed at the edge of West Asia, and can be traced back to an origin in ancient Egypt, and the other arrived in Japan from China in the 8th century and subsequently underwent various changes over the next millenium. Despite the differences in the flutes today, there may be some common origin for both flutes centuries ago.

[Rich 2009] Jennifer Rich. A Comparative Study of Human Mortuary Practices and Cultural Change in the Upper Midwest, B.S. thesis – University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rich-MW 1988] Michael W. Rich, Jasbir S. Saini, Robert E. Kleiger, Robert M. Carney, Adrienne teVelde, and Kenneth E. Freedland. “Correlation of Heart Rate Variability with Clinical and Angiographic Variables and Late Mortality After Coronary Angiography”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 62, Number 10, Part 1, October 1, 1988, pages 714–717, doi:10.1016/0002-9149(88)91208-8. Publication 3421170 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased heart rate (HR) variability is associated with increased mortality after myocardial infarction, but the prognostic value of HR variability in patients without recent myocardial infarction and its correlation with other clinical and angiographic data have not previously been reported. In the present study, detailed clinical assessments and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were performed prospectively on 100 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. HR variability was inversely correlated with HR (r = −0.38, p = 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (r = −0.22, p = 0.025) and digoxin use (r = −0.29, p = 0.004), but not with left ventricular ejection fraction, extent of coronary artery disease or other clinical, electrocardiographic or angiographic variables. All patients were followed for 1 year. Major clinical events after initial discharge occurred in 10 patients and included 6 deaths and 4 coronary bypass operations. Left ventricular ejection fraction was the only variable that correlated with the occurrence of a clinical event (p = 0.002). Decreased HR variability and ejection fraction were the best predictors of mortality (both p < 0.01), and the contribution of HR variability to mortality was independent of ejection fraction, extent of coronary artery disease and other variables. Furthermore, 11 patients with HR variability <50 ms had an 18-fold increase in mortality compared with patients with HR variability >50 ms (36 vs 2%, p = 0.001). Thus, decreased HR variability is a potent independent predictor of mortality in the 12 months following elective coronary angiography in patients without recent myocardial infarction.

[Rich-R 2010] Robert Rich. Tuning Presets in the MOTM 650, 2010, 3 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Richards 2001] Debruoniva Richards. “Sounds that Heal”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2001, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2001, pages 26–27. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Richardson 1940] E. G. Richardson. “The International Standard of Musical Pitch”, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume 88, Number 4570, Septemver 20, 1940, pages 851–864. Publication 41359645 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ricklis 1994] Robert A. Ricklis. Aboriginal Life and Culture on the Upper Texas Coast: Archaeology at the Mitchell Ridge Site, 41GV66, Galveston Island, published by Coastal Archaeological Research, Inc., Corpus Christi, Texas, 1994, 559 pages. Aboriginal Life and Culture on the Upper Texas Coast Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Riemer 1978] Mary Frances Riemer. Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Masters dissertation – Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 1978, v + 162 pages, thesis with accompanying cassette tape. Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

101 citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (50), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (50)

Introduction: This study of instrumental and vocal love songs has evolved from and will attempt to continue the research begun in two articles, "Special Song Types in North American Indian Music" by George Herzog and "Musical Areas in Aboriginal North America" by Helen Roberts, both written more than forty years ago.

[Riemer 1986] Mary F. Riemer-Weller. “Courting Flute (Music)”, The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, Volume 1 (A–D), edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, published by Macmillan, London, 1986. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Riffe 1993] Jed Riffe and Pamela Roberts (directors); Anne Makepeace (writer); John Harrison Quinn (producer); Linda Hunt (actress). Ishi: The Last Yahi, Berkeley Media LLC, Catalog #: 0091, 1993, total time 57 minutes, ASIN 6303402461, video VHS. Black and White. Reissued in [Riffe 2002]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Riffe 2002] Jed Riffe and Pamela Roberts (directors); Anne Makepeace (writer); John Harrison Quinn (producer); Linda Hunt (actress). Ishi: The Last Yahi, Shanachie, 2002, total time 57 minutes, ASIN B00006G8IC, video DVD. Black and White. Reissue of [Riffe 1993]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rifkin 2009] Riaan F. Rifkin. “Engraved Art and Acoustic Resonance: Exploring Ritual and Sound in North-western South Africa”, Antiquity, Volume 83, 2009, pages 585–601. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: At a hill-top site in the Korrannaberg, where there is a water source and a sandy arena embraced
by a rocky ridge, the author persuasively evokes a lively prehistoric ritual centre, with rock gongs,
reverberating echoes, dancing and trance.

[Riggs 1869] Stephen R. Riggs (1812–1883). Tah-koo Wah-kan or, The Gospel Among the Dakotas, published by the Cong. Sabbath-School and Publishing Society, Boston, 1869, 491 pages, hardcover. Contains 2 songs. Tah-koo Wah-kan or, The Gospel Among the Dakotas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Native American Flute - Song Book, Names of the Native American Flute, The Warble

[Riggs 1893] Stephen Return Riggs. Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography, Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume 9, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1893, 239 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Rigotti 2007] A. Rigotti. “Absorption, Transport, and Tissue Delivery of Vitamin E”, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 28, Number 5–6, 2007, pages 423–436, doi:10.1016/j.mam.2007.01.002. Publication 17320165 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Care and Maintenance of the Native American Flute

[Riley 2006] Peter Riley; Charles Parker (editor). Notes on Making a Large Overtone Flute (the Fujara) from Readily Available Materials, November 5, 2006, 10 pages. Notes on Making a Large Overtone Flute (the Fujara) from Readily Available Materials Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Crafting a PVC Fujara

[Riley 2009] Peter Riley. Additional Notes on Making a Large Overtone Flute, January 8, 2009, 3 pages. Additional Notes on Making a Large Overtone Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Crafting a PVC Fujara

[Rimmer 1969] Joan Rimmer. Ancient Musical Instruments of Western Asia in the British Museum, published by the Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1969, 51 pages, ISBN 0-7141-1045-0 (978-0-7141-1045-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Rink 1889] H. Rink (1819–1893) and F. Boas (1858–1942). “Eskimo Tales and Songs”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 2, Number 5, April–June 1889, pages 123–131. Contains 3 songs. Eskimo Tales and Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

[Rios 2008] Fernando Rios. “La Flûte Indienne: The Early History of Andean Folkloric-Popular Music in France and Its Impact on Nueva Canción”, Latin American Music Review / Revista de Música Latinoamericana, Volume 29, Number 2, published by the University of Texas Press, Fall–Winter 2008, pages 145–189. Publication 29739157 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article chronicles the early history of Andean folkloric-popular music in France and discusses its impact on the Nuevo Canción movement's emergence in 1960s Chile and reception in post-1973 Europe. I explain that Argentine artists from Buenos Aires introduced highland Andean instruments and genres into Paris's artistic milieu, where Andean music became associated with leftism well before the arrival of exiled Nueva Canci?n artists.This article not only documents yet another instance of nonindigenous (mis)representations of Amerindian musical traditions, but also reveals an early moment in the politicization of non-Western music for European mass markets that has been overlooked iWn orld Beat scholarship. Ia rgue that this case study lends credence to Thomas Turino's general observation (2003) that transnational musical processes usually viewed by scholars as cross-cultural interactions between the local and the global can be often conceptualized more accurately as phenomena occurring within the same cosmopolitan cultural formation. Rounding out this essay are some closing thoughts and a brief postlude.

[Ritchie 1965] William Augustus Ritchie. The Archaeology of New York State, Revised Edition, pubished for the American Museum of Natural History by the Natural History Press, 1965, 357 pages. Reissued in [Ritchie 1994]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The most complete account of ancient man in the New York area ever published in one volume, this book traces a rich, 8000-year story of human prehistory. Beginning with the first known inhabitants, Paleo-Indian hunters who lived approximately 7000 B.C., the author gives a detailed chronological account of the complex of cultural units that have existed in the area, culminating in the Iroquois tribes encountered by the European colonists at the dawn of the seventeenth century.

All of the major archaeological sites in the region are described in detail and representative artifacts from all the major cultural units are illustrated in over 100 plates and drawings. The entire account is informed by the most recently obtained radio-carbon dates. In addition to giving much new, previously unpublished information, the author has synthesized all earlier published material and from this he has drawn as many inferences as the material affords regarding the nature of these early inhabitants, where they came from, and how they lived.

Each cultural unit is systematically described: its discovery and naming; its ecological and chronological setting; the physical characteristics of the related people; economy; housing and settlement pattern; dress and ornament; technology; transportation; trade relationships; warfare; esthetic and recreational activities; social and political organization; mortuary customs; and religio-magical and ceremonial customs.

[Ritchie 1994] William Augustus Ritchie. The Archaeology of New York State, Second Edition, published by Purple Mountain Press, 1994, 357 pages, ISBN 0-935796-52-5 (978-0-935796-52-0). Reissue of [Ritchie 1965]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ritson 1794] Joseph Ritson (1752–1803). Scottish Songs, Volume 2, published by J. Johnson and J. Egerton, Whitehall, London, 1794, 266 pages, hardcover. Reissued in [Ritson 2009] Scottish Songs, Volume 2. Contains 1 song. Scottish Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Death Song of the Cherokee Indians (1794), The Development of Flutes in North America, Death Song of the Cherokee Indians - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Ritson 2009] Joseph Ritson. Scottish Songs, Volume 2, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2009, 272 pages, ISBN 1-104-90336-9 (978-1-104-90336-7), ASIN 1104903369, softcover. Reissue of [Ritson 1794] Scottish Songs, Volume 2. Scottish Songs (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Death Song of the Cherokee Indians - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Riviere 1996] Hervé Riviére (recording, liner notes). Musique Instrumentale des Wayana du Litani «Instrumental Music of the Wayana of the Litani river (Surinam, French Guiana)», Musique du Monde / Music from the World, Demon Records / Sacem, 19 tracks, 1996, total time 44:07. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America

[RMC 1998] Research Management Consultants, Inc. San Andres National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Golden, Colorado, 1998. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Roach 2004] Daniel Roach, Wendy Wilson, Debbie Ritchie, and Robert Sheldon. “Dissection of Long-range Heart Rate Variability”, Journal of the Americn College of Cardiology, Volume 43, Number 12, June 2004, pages 2271–2277, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.01.050 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objectives: We sought to determine whether the long-range measures of heart rate variability (HRV)—the standard deviation of sequential 5-min heart period mean values (SDANN) and the heart period spectral amplitude in the ultra-low frequency band <0.0033 Hz (ULF)—had their origins partly in physical activity.
Background: The SDANN and ULF are prognostic HRV factors whose physiologic origins are obscure. Their discontinuous presence throughout the day suggested that they arise from changes in heart period due to activity.
Methods: Heart period sequences were recorded from 14 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and 14 control subjects during an unrestricted 24-h day, 4-h supine rest, and 4-h epoch with scripted activities.
Results: The SDANN was higher during activity than during rest (74 ± 23 ms vs. 43 ± 17 ms, p < 0.0001), as were ULF magnitudes (p < 0.0001). The increase in SDANN was due to specific activities that contributed heavily (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance); for example, a 10-min walk and 90-min rest each contributed 22% of total SDANN. Patients with heart disease had a lower SDANN and ULF and a higher mean heart rate than control subjects during all recordings. The proportional ranges in heart period were the same in the two groups during controlled, scripted activities but were wider in control subjects than in patients during ambulatory recordings, suggesting decreased activity by patients.
Conclusions: Activity increases SDANN by increasing the range of heart periods. Patients with diminished ventricular function have a reduced SDANN on ambulatory electrocardiograms, possibly and partly because of a higher mean heart rate and reduced variations in physical activity.

[Robb 1979a] John Donald Robb (1892–1989). The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes, 1979. Reproduced from manuscript. English and Spanish words. Transcribed by the compiler from his collection of recordings. Copies archived at the University of New Mexico, Center for Southwest Research and also the Fine Arts and Design Library call number ML156.4.F6 R6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America (9)

[Robb 1979b] John Donald Robb. The J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music Recordings: Song Texts, in three volumes, 1979. Reproduced from typescript. Text in Spanish and English. Copies archived at the University of New Mexico, Center for Southwest Research and also the Fine Arts and Design Library call number ML156.4.F6 R61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-E 1991] Elizabeth Roberts and Elias Amidon. Earth Prayers from Around the World: 365 Prayers, Poems, and Invocations for Honoring the Earth, published by HarperOne, 1991, 480 pages, ISBN 0-06-250746-X (978-0-06-250746-4), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Poetry for the Native American Flute, Poetry and Readings for Memorial Services

[Roberts-HH 1918] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts (1888–1985) and Diamond Jenness (1886–1969). “Songs of the Copper Eskimos”, Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, Ottawa, 1918. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Roberts-HH 1919] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts. Primitive Music, 1919. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-HH 1926] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts. Ancient Hawaiian Music, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 29, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1926. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-HH 1927] Helen Heffron Roberts. “Indian Music from the Southwest”, Natural History, May–June 1927, pages 257–265. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-HH 1928] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts. “Analysis of Picuris Songs”, Forty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1925-1926, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1928, pages 399–447, retrieved March 15, 2010. Analysis of songs in [Harrington-JP 1928]. Publication annualreportofbu43smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-HH 1932] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts. “Musical Composition and Scale Foundations in Primitive Music”, American Anthropologist, Volume 34, 1932, pages 79–107. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From [Keeling 1997]: Takes issue with those who analyze the tonal "systems" of Indian music and argues that this represents a projection of our (western) compositional bias. Roberts states that in the absence of formulated music theory, these derived tonal materials are not really scales at all (in our sense of the word) and tend to be numerous and varied in any group. Any objective understanding of melodic development and intervallic relationships is difficult, according to Roberts, and broad classifications such as "pentatonic" have little value.

[Roberts-HH 1933] Helen Heffron Roberts. Form in Primitive Music: An Analytical and Comparative Study of the Melodic Form of Some Ancient Southern California Indian Songs, published by W. W. Norton for the American Library of Musicology, New York, 1933, 180 pages. MetMuseum Robert Goldwater Library call number R9D R64. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-HH 1933a] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts. “The Pattern Phenomenon in Primitive Music”, Zietschrift für vergleichende Musikwiessenschaft, Volume 1, published by Mas Hesses Verlag, 1933, pages 49–52. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From [Keeling 1997]: Discusses the tendency for songs of a given ceremonial complex to develop characteristic structural patterns that are basically independent of melodic content. Includes musical examples from the Pawnee (4 songs), Iroquois (2)m and Nootka (1).

[Roberts-HH 1936] Helen Heffron Roberts. Musical Areas in Aboriginal North America, Yale University Publications in Anthropology, Number 12, published by Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1936, 41 pages, ASIN B0006ANOHA Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (7)

From [Keeling 1997]: A synthesis of available information about Indian music at the time it was published, this short monograph remains important because of Roberts's broad research experience and the paucity of other general studies to have appeared since. After discussing some "popular traditions" about Indian music and correcting them with some generalizations of her own, Roberts gives a survey of instrumental and vocal music in various culture areas.

[Roberts-HH 1955] Helen H. {Heffron} Roberts and Morris Swadesh. Songs of the Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver Island — Based on Phonographic Records, Linguistic and other Field Notes Made by Edward Sapir, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Volume 45, Number 3, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 1955, pages 199–327. Publication 1005745 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roberts-R 1995] Rick Roberts. Gift to the People — The Native American Flute, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robertson 1992] Carol E. Robertson (editor). Musical Repercussions of 1492: Encounters in Text and Performance, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1992, 486 pages, ISBN 1-56098-183-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robine 2009] Matthias Robine, Pierre Hanna, and Mathieu Lagrange. “Meter Class Profiles for Music Similarity and Retrieval”, Proceeding of the 10th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2009), published by the International Society for Music Information Retrieval, 2009, pages 639–644. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Rhythm is one of the main properties of Western tonal music. Existing content-based retrieval systems generally deal with melody or style. A few existing ones based on meter or rhythm characteristics have been recently proposed but they require a precise analysis, or they rely on a low-level descriptor. In this paper, we propose a midlevel descriptor: the Meter Class Profile (MCP). The MCP is centered on the tempo and represents the strength of beat multiples, including the measure rate, and the beat subdivisions. TheMCP coefficients are estimated by means of the autocorrelation and the Fourier transform of the onset detection curve. Experiments on synthetic and real databases are presented, and the results demonstrate the efficacy of the MCP descriptor in clustering and retrieval of songs according to their metric properties.

[Robins 1956] R. H. Robins and Norma McLeod. “Five Yurok Songs: A Musical and Textual Analysis”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Volume 18, published by the Cambridge University Press, 1956, pages 592–609, doi:10.1017/S0041977X00088078. Publication 610121 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Certain parallels between musical structure and linguistic structure have been insisted on by Professor J. R. Firth in several publications. This is an attempt to illustrate a parallel musical and linguistic analysis within a strictly limited field, and in a ‘restricted language’, and thereby to exhibit in this field a congruence of musical and linguistic structuring. It is hoped that the material employed will be of interest as being the first published, examples of songs from the Yurok community.

[Robinson 1981] Trevor Robinson. The Amateur Wind Instrument Maker, Revised edition, published by the University of Massachusetts Press, March 1981, 116 pages, ISBN 0-87023-312-2 (978-0-87023-312-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This classic how-to-do-it manual is written for the serious craftsman as well as the musician interested in learning more about his or her instrument. It includes detailed descriptions of the materials and methods for making a number of traditional early European woodwinds. Information is provided on equipping the workshop, sources of design, pitch and tuning, taking measurements, choosing wood, boring and reaming, making joints, ferrules, bushings and decorations, reeds, finger-hole placement and techniques for finishing the instrument. Wooden instruments discussed include the flute and fife, recorders, clarinets, the shawm and oboe, krumhorns, racketts, cornetti. Brass instruments include the trumpet and horns.

Appendices cover museum collection of instruments, sources of materials and making specialized boring tools. An extensive bibliography is provided as are detailed tables and charts showing instrument dimensions.

[Robinson 1996] Brian S. Robinson. “A Regional Analysis of the Moorehead Burial Tradition: 8500-3700 B.P.”, Archaeology of Eastern North America, Volume 24, published by the Eastern States Archeological Federation, 1996, pages 95–147. Publication 40914407 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Moorehead burial tradition is a long-lived Archaic period burial pattern concentrated within the central Gulf of Maine region. The tradition is characterized by a large number of formal cemetery sites with graves generally lacking bone preservation, but containing a variety of artifacts including gouges, adzes, celts, whetstones, plummets, ground slate points, firekits and flaked stone bifaces, often of elaborated mortuary form. Copious amounts of red ocher in most graves provided the basis for the early twentieth century name, "The Red Paint People," at a time when most of the known sites were excavated and largely destroyed. The present research involves reanalysis of most of the known mortuary assemblages, increasing the number of published site assemblages from 25 to 37. Dating has been resolved to some degree, yielding five distinct burial periods spanning 5000 years. Regional analysis of the newly recognized patterns reveals systematic changes in cemetery site location through time, providing insight into mortuary symbolism, settlement structure, the social groups represented by the cemeteries, and culture contact in the Archaic period. The focus on regional analysis in mortuary studies is comparatively recent (e.g., Beck 1995) and in this case was made possible by the relatively high number of site assemblages preserved in the public and private domain.

[Robinson-KW 2012] Kaye Whitefeather Robinson. The Magic Flute — A Journey in Time and Music, 2012, 7 pages. The Magic Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks, The Magic Flute - A Journey in Time and Music

[Robinson-S 2007] Steve Robinson. “Ancient Artifact Discovered In Range Creek”, Vestiges, Volume 27, Number 2, February 2007, pages 5–6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Robinson-WJ 1976] William J. Robinson. “Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology in the American Southwest”, Tree-Ring Bulletin, Volume 36, 1976, pages 9–20. See the Tree Ring Society web site. Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology in the American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The relationship between archaeology and tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is reviewed. Until the past decade, the applications of tree-ring dating to archaeological problems had not been thoroughly exploited. Now, in addition to providing the most precise dating control in the world, dendrochronology is making contributions to behavioral archaeology and to the reconstruction of past environments.

[Robinson-WJ 1991] William J. Robinson and Catherine M. Cameron. A Directory of Tree-Ring Dated Prehistoric Sites in the American Southwest, published by the Laboratory of Tree-Rink Research, The University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, November 1, 1991, 62 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Robock 2009] Alan Robock, Caspar M. Ammann, Luke Oman, Drew Shindell, Samuel Levis, and Georgiy Stenchikov. “Did the Toba Volcanic eruption of ∼74 ka B.P. Produce Widespread Glaciation?”, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Volume 114, Issue D10, May 2009, doi:10.1029/2008JD011652 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It has been suggested that the Toba volcanic eruption, approximately 74 ka B.P., was responsible for the extended cooling period and ice sheet advance immediately following it, but previous climate model simulations, using 100 times the amount of aerosols produced by the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, have been unable to produce such a prolonged climate response. Here we conduct six additional climate model simulations with two different climate models, the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3.0) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, in two different versions, to investigate additional mechanisms that may have enhanced and extended the forcing and response from such a large supervolcanic eruption. With CCSM3.0 we include a dynamic vegetation model to explicitly calculate the feedback of vegetation death on surface fluxes in response to the large initial reduction in transmitted light, precipitation, and temperature. With ModelE we explicitly calculate the effects of an eruption on stratospheric water vapor and model stratospheric chemistry feedbacks that might delay the conversion of SO2 into sulfate aerosols and prolong the lifetime and radiative forcing of the stratospheric aerosol cloud. To span the uncertainty in the amount of stratospheric injection of SO2, with CCSM3.0 we used 100 times the Pinatubo injection, and with ModelE we used 33, 100, 300, and 900 times the Pinatubo injection without interactive chemistry, and 300 times Pinatubo with interactive chemistry. Starting from a roughly present-day seasonal cycle of insolation, CO2 concentration, and vegetation, or with 6 ka B.P. conditions for CCSM3.0, none of the runs initiates glaciation. The CCSM3.0 run produced a maximum global cooling of 10 K and ModelE runs produced 8–17 K of cooling within the first years of the simulation, depending on the injection, but in all cases, the climate recovers over a few decades. Nevertheless, the “volcanic winter” following a supervolcano eruption of the size of Toba today would have devastating consequences for humanity and global ecosystems. These simulations support the theory that the Toba eruption indeed may have contributed to a genetic bottleneck.

[Robson 1999] Eleanor Robson. Mesopotamian Mathematics, 2100–1600 BC: Technical Constants in Bureaucracy and Education, Volume 14 of Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts, published by Oxford University Press, 1999, 334 pages, ISBN 0-19-815246-9 (978-0-19-815246-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

Publisher's description: Mathematics was integral to Mesopotamian scribal culture: indeed, writing was invented towards the end of the fourth millennium B.C. for the express purpose of recording numericalatical information. The main body of this book is a mathematical and philological discussion of the two hundred technical constants, or "coefficients", found in early second millennium mathematics. Their names and mathematical functions are established, leading to improved interpretations of several large mathematical topics. The origins of many coefficients—and much of the more practical mathematics—are traced to late third millennium accounting and quantity surveying practices. Finally, the coefficients are used to examine some aspects of mathematics education in early Mesopotamia.

[Robson 2000] Eleanor Robson. “Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in Philadelphia — Part 1: Problems and Calculations”, Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS), Volume 1, 2000, pages 11–48. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets (3)

[Robson 2002] Eleanor Robson. “Words and Pictures: New Light on Plimpton 322”, American Mathematical Monthly, Volume 109, Number 2, published by the Mathematical Association of America, February 2002, pages 105–120, doi:10.2307/2695324. Publication 2695324 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robson 2004] Eleanor Robson. “Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford”, Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS), Volume 5, 2004, pages 3–65. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rochefort 1665] C. de Rochefort and L. de Poincy. Histoire naturelle et morale des iles Antilles de I'Amérique «Natural and Moral History of the Caribbean Islands of America», Rotterdam, 1665. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rodgers 2010] Blake Rodgers and Susanne Fuchs. “How Intraoral Pressure Shapes the Voicing Contrast in American English and German”, ZAS Papers in Linguistics, Volume 52, 2010, pages 63–82. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study examines intraoral pressure for English and German stops in bilabial and alveolar place of articulation. Our subjects are two speakers of American English and three speakers of German. VOICING is the main phonological contrast under evaluation in both word initial and word final position. For initial stops, a few of the pressure characteristics showed differences between English and German, but on the whole the results point to similar production strategies at both places of articulation in the two different languages. Analysis of the pressure trajectory differences between VOICING categories in initial position raises questions about articulatory differences. In the initial closing gesture, time from start of gesture to closure is roughly equivalent for both categories, but the pressure change is significantly smaller on average for VOICED stops. Final stops, however, present a more complicated picture. German final stops are neutralized to a presumed VOICELESS phonological state. English final /p/ is broadly similar to German /p/, but English /t/ often shows no pressure increase at all which is at odds with the conventional account of phonation termination viapressure increase and loss of pressure differential. The results raise the question of whether the German final stops should be considered VOICELESS or some intermediate form, at least as compared to English final stops.

[Roeder 2011] John Roeder. “Fluctuant Grouping in a Silk-and-Bamboo Melody”, Analatical Approaches to World Music, Volume 1, Number 2, published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Liuban is one of a constellation of old tunes (qupai) that are foundational to music of China, and in particular to the rich "Silk-and-Bamboo" music (jiangnan sizhu) of the lower Yangzi region. This essay highlights some of the extraordinary qualities of Liuban by treating its grouping structure not as fixed, but as constructed dynamically by the listener. A processive analysis shows how Liuban deploys its materials elegantly to suggest but then to subvert grouping function, creating fluctuant, protean sensations of beginning, ending, and continuation that are analogous to its gentle varying contour and pitch focus. It manifests not a fixed form but an almost self-antithetical process—a Dao, or path of natural action—through which a moment of maximal conformity simultaneously appears as a moment of maximal possibility. During the preparation for that moment, sensations of symmetry are infused with remembered asymmetrical qualities and vice versa. The analysis thus provides a dynamically oriented supplement to standard fixed-state accounts of the grouping structure of this melody. It also provides a productive basis for comparing Liuban with other qupai like Baban, and for understanding the "flowered" melodies that are derived from them, thus providing a new approach to this fundamental but as yet little-studied procedure in Chinese music.

[Roederer 2004] Juan G. Roederer. “Biological Conditions for the Emergence of Musical Arts in a Civilization of Intelligent Beings”, unpublished manuscript, 2004, 16 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roederer 2008] Juan G. Roederer. The Physics and Psychophysics of Music: An Introduction, Fourth edition, 2008, 242 pages, ISBN 0-387-09470-9 (978-0-387-09470-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Roest 1999] Bert Roest and Herman L. J. Vanstiphout (editors). Aspects of Genre and Type in Pre-Modern Literary Cultures, published by Styx Publications, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2006] David Claude Rogers. Song Book for the Native American Flute (song book), 2006, 64 pages, comb binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2008] David Claude Rogers. Song Book of Favorite Hymn Melodies (song book), 2008, 24 pages, spiral binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2008a] David Claude Rogers. Guide to Reading Nakai Tablature for Native American Flutes, 2008, 4 pages, report cover binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2008b] David Claude Rogers. Guide to Reading Music: Duration, Rhythm and Counting for Native American Flutes, 2008, 6 pages, report cover binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2008c] David Claude Rogers. Nakai Tablature, Fingering Charts, and Useful Scales for Native American Flutes, 2008, 4 pages, report cover binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rogers 2009] David Claude Rogers. Articulations, Embellishments, and Special Effects for Native American Flutes, 2009, 4 pages, report cover binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rohde 2000] Joy Elizabeth Rohde. “Register to the Papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, in two parts”, April 2000. See the National Anthropological Archives web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rosellini 1840] Ippolito Rosellini (1800–1843); Carlo Lasinio (engraver); Giuseppe Angelell, Salvador Cherubini, and Gaetano Rosellini (artists). I Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia — disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto; distribuiti in ordine di materie interpretati ed illustrati dal dottore Ippolito Rosellini. «The Monuments of Egypt and Nubia - Drawn from Scientific Literature Tuscan Expedition to Egypt; Distributed in Order of Subjects Interpreted and Explained to the Doctor Ippolito Rosellini», 10 Volumes, published by Presso N. Capurro ec., in Italian, 1832–1840, 3300 pages. Publication cu31924024782561 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Roshi 2000] Watazumi Doso Roshi (1911–1992). Hotchiku, Universal Music K.K., UDC-499, 2000, Audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (2)

[Rosner 1999] B. S. Rosner. “Stretching and Compression in the Perception of Musical Intervals”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, Fall 1999, pages 101–113, doi:10.2307/40285813. Publication 40285813 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Perceived octaves are stretched, requiring frequency-dependent ratios that generally exceed 2:1. Small intervals seem to be compressed perceptually. Whether this compression also depends on frequency is unclear. To examine this question, six experienced string instrumentalists each made perceptual judgments of sinusoidally formed major seconds, perfect fourths, and octaves above each of four lower frequencies. The frequency ratio for each perceived interval type varied with lower frequency. The pattern of this variation differed between the octave and the other two interval types and across subjects. A consequence is that nonlinear loci in a two-dimensional space are mathematically necessary for a complete representation of an individual listener's subjectively equal musical intervals. The listener apparently quickly assimilates the intervals produced by performers to these personal interval loci.

[Ross 2002] John F. Ross. “First City in the New World?”, Smithsonian Magazine, published by the Smithsonian Institution, August 2002, retrieved September 5, 2010. First City in the New World? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

Abstract: Peru's Caral suggests civilization emerged in the Americas 1,000 years earlier than experts believed.

[Ross-D 2007] Deborah Ross, Jonathan Choi, and Dale Purves. “Musical Intervals in Speech”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 104, Number 23, Jun 5, 2007, pages 9852–9857, doi:10.1073/pnas.0703140104. Publication 25427949 on JSTOR (subscription access). Musical Intervals in Speech Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

[Ross-WG 1984] W. Gillies Ross. “The Earliest Sound Recordings among North American Inuit”, Arctic, Volume 37, Number 3, Spetember 1984, pages 291–292, doi:10.14430/arctic2205 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: On 7 November 1903, Captain George Comer of the American whaling schooner Era recorded on a phonograph a few songs of the Aivilingmiut and Qaernermiut in northwestern Hudson Bay (Ross, 1984:73). These appear to have been the earliest sound recordings ever made among the Inuit of Canada and Alaska. The recordings made by Diamond Jenness among the Copper Eskimos (1914-1916) and those made by Christian Leden among the Padlimiut (1914-1916) have hitherto been considered as the earliest, but Comer's first recording preceded these by more than a decade and his pioneering work should be recognized.

[Rossiter 1998] Thomas R. Rossiter. “Patient-directed Neurofeedback for AD/HD”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 2, Number 4, Spring 1998, pages 54–63, doi:10.1300/J184v02n04_04 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The study reports on Patient-Directed neurofeedback for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Therapist involvement was limited to 10 treatment sessions used to train the patient or parents of younger children to use the equipment, to monitor treatment, and to make changes in the treatment protocol as necessary. The remaining 50 sessions were conducted at home using inexpensive, easy to operate, 1 or 2 channel Lexicor PODs. Results from the initial 6 patients, ages 7 to 45, are reported. Thirteen of 24 Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) measures (attention, impulsivity, reaction time and variability) were below average (SS < 90) at baseline. After 30 neurofeedback sessions, only 5 TOVA variables remained below average. It is concluded that Patient-Directed neurofeedback may be an effective alternative to Therapist-Directed treatment for many AD/HD patients and can be delivered at substantially less cost.

[Rossiter 2004a] Thomas R. Rossiter. “The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of Methodological Issues”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 2, June 2004, pages 95–112. Publication 15208973 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The paper examines major criticisms of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) neurofeedback research using T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) as an exemplar and discusses relevant aspects of research methodology. J. Lohr, S. Meunier, L. Parker, and J. P. Kline (2001), D. A. Waschbusch and G. P. Hill (2001), and J. P. Kline, C. N. Brann, and B. R. Loney (2002) criticized Rossiter and La Vaque for (1) using an active treatment control; (2) nonrandom assignment of patients; (3) provision of collateral treatments; (4) using nonstandardized and invalid assessment instruments; (5) providing artifact contaminated EEG feedback; and (6) conducting multiple non-alpha protected t tests. The criticisms, except those related to statistical analysis, are invalid or are not supported as presented by the authors. They are based on the critics' unsubstantiated opinions; require redefining Rossiter and La Vaque as an efficacy rather than an effectiveness study; or reflect a lack of familiarity with the research literature. However, there are broader issues to be considered. Specifically, what research methodology is appropriate for studies evaluating the effectiveness of neurofeedback and who should make that determination? The uncritical acceptance and implementation of models developed for psychotherapy, pharmacology, or medical research is premature and ill-advised. Neurofeedback researchers should develop models that are appropriate to the technology, treatment paradigms, and goals of neurofeedback outcome studies. They need to explain the rationale for their research methodology and defend their choices.

[Rossiter 2004b] Thomas R. Rossiter. “The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part II. Replication”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 4, December 2004, pages 233–243, doi:10.1007/s10484-004-0383-4. Publication 15707253 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study replicated T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) with a larger sample, expanded age range, and improved statistical analysis. Thirty-one ADIHD patients who chose stimulant drug (MED) treatment were matched with 31 patients who chose a neurofeedback (EEG) treatment program. EEG patients received either office (n = 14) or home (n = 17) neurofeedback. Stimulants for MED patients were titrated using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). EEG (effect size [ES] = 1.01-1.71) and MED (ES = 0.80-1.80) groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvement on TOVA measures of attention, impulse control, processing speed, and variability in attention. The EEG group demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement on behavioral measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children, ES = 1.16-1.78, and Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scales, ES = 1.59). TOVA gain scores for the EEG and MED groups were not significantly different. More importantly, confidence interval and nonequivalence null hypothesis testing confirmed that the neurofeedback program produced patient outcomes equivalent to those obtained with stimulant drugs. An effectiveness research design places some limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn.

[Roth 1915] Walter E. Roth. “An Inquiry into the Animism and Folk-lore of the Guiana Indians”, Thirtieth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1908-1909, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1915, pages 103–386, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu30smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Roth 1924] Walter Edmund Roth. “An Introductory Study of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guiana Indians”, Thirty-Eighth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1916-1917, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1924, pages 25–745, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu38smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Names of the Native American Flute (4)

[Roth 1929] Walter E. Roth. Additional Studies of the Arts, Crafts, and Customs of the Guina Indians — With Special Reference to Those of Southern British Guiana, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 91, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1929, 110 pages. Publication bulletin911929smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roth-AM 1995] Ann Macy Roth. A Cemetery of Palace Attendants, Giza Mastabas, Volume 6, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rothenberg 1987] Martin Rothenberg, Donald Miller, Richard Molitor, and Dolores Leffingwell. “The Control of Air Flow During Loud Soprano Singing”, Journal of Voice, Volume 1, Number 3, 1987, pages 262–268, doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(87)80010-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Previous research on the special characteristics of the professional singing voice has at least partially explained how singers can commonly use much higher lung pressures than nonsingers without vocal damage or excessive air flow during the voiced sounds. In this study, the control of air flow during the unvoiced consonants is examined for an operatic-style soprano. It was found that this singer could maintain a low average air flow during the consonants even though the lung pressure reached values over five times those used during normal conversational speech. The air flow was kept low primarily by the use of a number of mechanisms involving rapid, accurate, coordinated valving of the air flow at the point of articulation and at the glottis.

[Rough 1999] Rough Guides, Phil Stanton (compilation); Various artists. The Rough Guide to Native American Music, published by Rough Guides, 18 tracks, 1999, ISBN 1-85828-372-8 (978-1-85828-372-2), UPC 6-05633-10292-5, audio CD. Contains 5 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rowan 2005] John Rowan. A Guide to Humanistic Psychology, Third Edition, published by the UK Association for Humanistic Psychology Practitioners, November 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[Rowell 2000] Lewis Rowell. “Scale and Mode in the Music of the Early Tamils of South India”, Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 22, Number 2, published by the University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory, Autumn 2000, pages 135–156. Publication 745957 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this article I revisit some of the basic questions, hypotheses, and arguments about scale-building in world musics, drawing upon recent interpretations of the modal system of the early Tamil people of South India, as set forth in their national epic, the Cilappatikāram (fifth century C. E.?). The body of the paper consists of an exposition of the Tamil modes, their generation, tuning, rotation, and their pentatonic derivatives. Among the distinctive features of the Tamil system is the circular projection of the modes along the twelve houses of the Zodiac, which allows us to examine the unique nesting of 22, 12, 7, and 5 divisions of the octave and infer their tuning. Further local color is provided by the cultural connotations of the five principal modes, which are mapped across a grid of five landscapes, times of day, seasons of the year, phases of love, sources of water, flowers, beasts, and the like. Mode in music thus encapsulates all the flavors and colors of Tamil civilization. The article concludes with twelve observations on what the Tamil system can teach us about the early history of scales and modes.

[Rozier 2009] Claude Rozier. “End Blown Flute Having an Acoustic Air Space”, United States Patent Application 2009/0293701 A1, Published December 3, 2009, 10 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. End Blown Flute Having an Acoustic Air Space Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[RSRCE 1977] The Racism & Sexism Resource Center for Educators. Unlearning “Indian” Stereotypes: A Teaching Unit for Elementary Teachers & Children’s Librarians, published by the Council on Interracial Books for Children, Inc., 1841 Broadway, New York, New York 10023, 1977. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Includes a discussion of stereotyping in picture books, guidelines for teachers, writers, illustrators, and publishers, and a Native American perspective on Thanksgiving, Columbus Day, and Washington’s Birthday.

[Ruggles 2005] Clive L. N. Ruggles. Ancient Astronomy, published by ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-477-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Rushing 1986] W. Jackson Rushing. “Ritual and Myth: Native American Culture and Abstract Expressionism”, Contained in [Tuchman 1986], 1986, pages 273–295. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Russell 1908] Frank Russell. “The Pima Indians”, Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1904-1905, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1908, pages 3–391, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu26smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Indigenous North American Flutes (2), The Breckenridge Flute, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: Yuma Flutes

[Russell-DJ 1989] Dann J. Russell. “Bone Whistles of Northern Utah”, Utah Archaeology, Volume 2, Number 1, 1989, pages 48–55. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The Great Salt Lake Fremont peoples made extensive use of the bone refuse from the various wild game they hunted as is evident from the numerous bone awls and other tools that have been recovered. Knives and saws made from deer and mountain sheep scapulae are also fairly common, although they are rare in other parts of the state. In addition, Great Salt Lake Fremont sites are somewhat unusual in that they contain large numbers of bison and waterfowl bones. From the latter the Fremont made bone whistles, an artifact considered to be characteristic of this variant (Marwitt 1970: 145).

[Russell-J 2013] Jim Russell. Towards a Difference Limen of Pitch Perception, published by 21harmony.com, August 13, 2013, 4 pages. Towards a Difference Limen of Pitch Perception Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Every twelve-tone musical tuning has a quantifiable deviation in its step sizes from those of Equal Temperament. While larger differences are easily detectable to the human ear, a smaller difference may be unnoticeable.

Previous research into the Just Noticeable Differences (JND) or Difference Limen between concurrent tones of different frequencies provides a good estimate of the thresholds of human pitch perception under strict (laboratory) conditions and using simple signals. In a practical context such as music listening, these data are made less useful by the introduction of many simultaneous signals presented together.

A pilot study is conducted in which listeners are presented with a musical piece, the tuning of which drifts over the course of 90 seconds to one of three extents – 4.76 cents RMS (Equal Temperament drifting to Meantone Temperament), 10.15 cents RMS (Equal Temperament drifting to Just Intonation) and 0 (no drift in tuning – Equal Temperament throughout).

Listeners are more likely to report a drift in the music’s tuning if one occurs, but are not seen to be statistically more likely to report one when presented with a stronger level of drift in tuning. Furthermore, the proportion of listeners reporting the two drifting tunings to have indeed ‘gone out of tune’ is approximately half. A better investigative model is suggested to inform further study.

[Russoniello 2010] C. V. Russoniello, V. Pougtachev, E. Zhirnov, and M. T. Mahar. “A Measurement of Electrocardiography and Photoplethesmography in Obese Children”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Issue 3, September 2010, pages 257–259, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9136-8. Publication 20552266 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish heart rate variability normative data on obese children and to comparing the accuracy of two medical technologies photoplethesmography (PPG) with electrocardiography (ECG) while measuring heart rate variability (HRV). PPG is a relatively new technique that holds promise for health care practitioners as an evaluative tool and biofeedback instrument due to its cost and easy administration. This study involved ten children who were recruited for an after-school program designed to reduce obesity. Three-five-minute recordings of HRV were collected while the children were lying in the supine position on a therapy bed. PPG was measured from a thumb sensor and ECG from sensors placed under wristbands on both wrists. The results indicate that PPG is as effective as ECG in measuring the eleven parameters of heart rate variability.

[Russoniello 2013] Carmen V. Russoniello, Yevgeniy N. Zhirnov, Vadim I. Pougatchev, and Evgueni N. Gribkov. “Heart Rate Variability and Biological Age: Implications for Health and Gaming”, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Volume 16, Number 4, April 2013, pages 302–308, doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.1505. Publication 23574369 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Accurate and inexpensive psychophysiological equipment and software are needed to measure and monitor the autonomic nervous system for gaming and therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) derived from photoplethesmography (PPG) technology was predictive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) aging or biological age. Second, we sought to determine which HRV variable was most predictive of ANS change and aging. To test our hypotheses, we first conducted a criterion related validity study by comparing parameters of a 5 minute resting HRV test obtained from electrocardiography (ECG), the current "gold standard," with PPG technologies, and found them to be significantly correlated (r≥0.92) on all parameters during a resting state. PPG was strongly correlated to ECG on all HRV parameters during a paced six breaths per minute deep breathing test (r≥0.98). Further analysis revealed that maximum variation of heart rate had the highest negative correlation (r=-0.67) with age. We conclude that PPG is comparable to ECG in accuracy, and maximum variation of heart rate derived from a paced breathing test can be considered a marker of biological aging. Therapeutic interventions and games designed to reduce dysfunction in the ANS can now be developed using accurate physiological data.

[Rust 1996] Ezra Gardner Rust. The Music and Dance of the World's Religions: A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography of Materials in the English language, published by the Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996, 476 pages, ISBN 0-313-29561-1 (978-0-313-29561-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Despite the world-wide association of music and dance with religion, this is the first full-length study of the subject from a global perspective. The work consists of 3,816 references divided among 37 chapters. It covers tribal, regional, and global religions and such subjects as shamanism, liturgical dance, healing, and the relationship of music, mathematics, and mysticism. The referenced materials display such diverse approaches as analysis of music and dance, description of context, direct experience, observation, and speculation. The references address topics from such disciplines as sociology, anthropology, history, linguistics, musicology, ethnomusicology, theology, medicine, semiotics, and computer technology. Chapter 1 consists of general references to religious music and dance. The remaining 36 chapters are organized according to major geographical areas. Most chapters begin with general reference works and bibliographies, then continue with topics specific to the region or religion. This book will be of use to anyone with an interest in music, dance, religion, or culture.

[Ryan 1909] Marah Ellis Ryan (born 1860); Edward Sheriff Curtis (illustrations) (1868–1952). The Flute of the Gods, published by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York, 1909, 338 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ryan 2009] Marah Ellis Ryan; Edward Sheriff Curtis (illustrations). The Flute of the Gods, published by Project Gutenberg, September 28, 2009, retrieved February 5, 2010. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #30125 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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