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References - S

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter S. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - S

[Sachs 1929] Curt Sachs (1881–1959). Geist und Werden der Musikinstrumente «Spirit and Evolution of Musical Instruments», published by D. Reimer, Berlin, Germany, in German, 1929. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sachs 1940] Curt Sachs. The History of Musical Instruments, published by Dover Publications, 1940, 505 pages, ISBN 0-486-45265-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Sachs 1941] Curt Sachs. “The Mystery of the Babylonian Notation”, Musical Quarterly, Volume 27, Number 1, January 1941, pages 62–69, doi:10.1093/mq/XXVII.1.62. Publication 739367 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sachs 1943] Curt Sachs. The Rise of Music in the Ancient World, First Edition, published by W W Norton & Co., New York, June 1943, 321 pages, retrieved January 8, 2012, ISBN 0-393-09718-8 (978-0-393-09718-4), hardcover. Publication TheRiseOfMusicInTheAncientWorld on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: In this groundbreaking, all encompassing work, an eminent musicologist explores the evolution of music, from the ecstatic singing and Shaman songs of early civilizations to the development of more structured styles in Egypt, East Asia, India, Greece, Rome, the Middle East, and Europe. Eight plates of illustrations depict players and orchestras

[Sachs 1944] Curt Sachs. “The Mystery of the Babylonian Notation”, International Congress of Musicology, New York, September 11–16, 1939, contained in [Mendel 1944], 1944, pages 161–167. Publication papersreadatinte00amer on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sachs 1956] Curt Sachs (editor). Man's Early Musical Instruments, Ethnic Folkways Records, FE 4525, 1956. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sachs 1965] Curt Sachs. Geist und Werden der Musikinstrumente «Spirit and Evolution of Musical Instruments», Second Edition, published by Frits A. M. Knuf, Hilversum, The Netherlands, in German, 1965, 282 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Saenger 2007] Katherine Saenger. “Rick Wilson and the "Old Flutes" Website”, New York Flute Club Newsletter, May 2007, pages 6–9. Rick Wilson and the "Old Flutes" Website Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Western Concert Family of Flutes

[Saintilan 1993] Nicole Saintilan. "Music - If So it May be Called:" Perception and Response in the Documentation of Aboriginal Music in Nineteenth Century Australia, Masters of Music dissertation – Department of Music, The University of New South Wales, August 1993, 109 pages. "Music - If So it May be Called:" Perception and Response in the Documentation of Aboriginal Music in Nineteenth Century Australia Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In 1901 Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer was amongst the first to make recordings of Aboriginal music with his documentation of central Australian speech and song. Since this time a substantial body of recordings has accrued providing a resource for an understanding of Aboriginal music in the twentieth century. But what is known of Aboriginal music in the time between white settlement and Federation? For years, historians have held up a few nineteenth century notations of Aboriginal music as monuments of historical importance. Names such as Lesueur, Field, Lumholtz, Lhotsky, Nathan, and Torrence, are familiar to anyone who has read accounts of early music making in Australia, but the importance of their work has not yet been clarified. This thesis explores the significance of these early notations and addresses questions of how they could be viewed in light of nineteenth century Aboriginal music and the attitudes of the societies that produced them. ‘Perception and response’ refer to how coupled societies deal with cultural difference. Through notations, we see one society’s perception of difference and the way they choose to express them. The works when viewed according to aspects such as method of observation and notation, date and reason for notation, and use of the finished product, form groups which highlight major trends in thought and attitude. Although after examination these works may show us very little about Aboriginal music, they are more than just the first notations of music in this country or fairly funny souvenirs of the past; they are significant as, through the changing styles of transcription, we can see the history of attitudes towards indigenous Australians in the nineteenth century.

[Sajfert 2011] Vjekoslav Sajfert, Sonja Krstić, Dušan Popov, Nicolina Pop. “Absorption of Sound Waves”, Seria Fizică (Physics Series), Analele Universităţii de Vest din Timişoara (Annals of the West University of Timisoara), Volume 55, January 2011, pages 13–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effect of sound absorption in sound pipe was examined. It turned out those two types of absorption takes place in sound pipe: irreversible and reversible ones. Absorption of irreversible type has exponential distribution and for it relatively simply can be determined resulting absorption which essentially determined the quality of sound pipe. The reversible absorption decreases intensity of sound and it means that is a suitable to make instruments from the woods with minimal reversible absorption characteristics.

[Sakki 2003] M. Säkki, Jaan Kalda, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “What Does the Correlation Dimension of the Human Heart Rate Measure?, Version 2”, January 8, 2003, 5 pages 4 figures, arXiv:physics/0112031 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It is shown that in the case of human heart rate, the scaling behaviour of the correlation sum (calculated by the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm) is a result of the interplay of various factors: finite resolution of the apparatus (finite-size effects), a wide dynamic range of mean heart rate, the amplitude of short-time variability being a decreasing function of the mean heart rate. The value of the scaling exponent depends on all these factors and is a certain measure of short-time variability of the signal.

[Salem 2006] Harry Salem and Sidney A. Katz. Inhalation Toxicology, Second edition, published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Salomon 1928] Julian Harris Salomon (born 1896). The Book of Indian Crafts and Indian Lore, published by Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, 1928, xvii + 418 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Salomon 2000] Julian Harris Salomon. The Book of Indian Crafts and Indian Lore, published by Dover Publications, 2000, 418 pages, ISBN 0-486-41433-7 (978-0-486-41433-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sammler 2007] Daniela Sammler, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas Fritz, and Stefan Koelsch. “Music and Emotion: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Processing of Pleasant and Unpleasant Music”, Psychomusicology, Volume 44, 2007, pages 293–304, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00497.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Human emotion and its electrophysiological correlates are still poorly understood. The present study examined whether the valence of perceived emotions would differentially influence EEG power spectra and heart rate (HR). Pleasant and unpleasant emotions were induced by consonant and dissonant music. Unpleasant (compared to pleasant) music evoked a significant decrease of HR, replicating the pattern of HR responses previously described for the processing of emotional pictures, sounds, and films. In the EEG, pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music was associated with an increase of frontal midline (Fm) theta power. This effect is taken to reflect emotional processing in close interaction with attentional functions. These findings show that Fm theta ismodulated by emotionmore strongly than previously believed.

[Sandelowsky 1983] B. H. Sandelowsky. “Archaeology in Namibia”, American Scientist, Volume 71, Number 6, November–December 1983, pages 606–615. Publication 27852346 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Subtitle: Fossils, stone tools, and abundant rock art testify to the continuous hominid and human occupation of this corner of southwestern Africa for the last two million years.

[Sandercock 2005] Gavin R. H. Sandercock, Paul D. Bromley, and David A. Brodie. “Effects of Exercise on Heart Rate Variability: Inferences from Meta-Analysis”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 37, Number 3, March 2005, pages 433–439, doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000155388.39002.9D. Publication 15741842 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic exercise training produces a resting bradycardia that is thought to be due partly to enhanced vagal modulation.
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise training on heart rate and measures of heart rate variability associated with vagal cardiac modulation and to quantify the relationship between changes in these measures.
Methods: A random effects model of effect size (d) for change in high frequency (HF) power and RR interval was calculated. Within-group heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic. Where heterogenous effects were found, subgroup analyses were performed using the between-group Q statistic.
Results: A meta-analysis of 13 studies measuring HF (N=322 cases) produced an overall effect size of d=0.48 (C.I. 0.26-0.70, P=0.00003). Twelve studies (298 cases) reported a change in RR interval with an overall effect size of d=0.75 (C.I. 0.51-0.96, P<0.00001). Effect sizes for RR interval data were significantly heterogenous. Subgroup analysis revealed significantly smaller responses of RR interval to training in older subjects (P<0.1). Effect sizes for change in HF were homogenous, although a trend toward an attenuated response to training was exhibited in older subjects (P>0.10). Linear, quadratic, and cubic fits all revealed weak (P>0.05) relationships between effect sizes for change in HF and RR interval.
Discussion: Exercise training results in significant increases in RR interval and HF power. These changes are influenced by study population age. The smaller effect size for HF and weak relationship between HF and RR interval suggest factors additional to increased vagal modulation are responsible for training bradycardia.

[Sandner 1973] Erich Sandner. “Cylindrical Flute”, United States Patent 3,763,737, Granted October 9, 1973, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Cylindrical Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Sanford 1970] Charles Frederic Sanford. An Interpretative Study of the Ohio Hopewell Mortuary Cult in North American Archeology, Master of Arts dissertation – Ohio State University, Anthropology, Ohio State University, Anthropology, 1970, 86 pages. Thesis advisor Raymond S. Baby. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: Using methods of inference and analogy, selected objects in grave association of the prehistoric Hopewell culture-complex in southern Ohio appear to define a cult of the dead, and further suggest the presence of ritual specialists (shamans) and a highly structured social system. The mortuary cult may have been based upon cosmological elements similar to those present in aboriginal eastern North America, and with the data at least three hypothetical funeral variants can be reconstructed.

[Saoud 2004] Rabah Saoud. “The Arab Contribution to Music of the Western World”, published by FSTC Limited, 9 Conyngham Road, Victoria Park, Manchester, M14 5DX, United Kingdom, March 2004, 26 pages, retrieved May 23, 2008. Publication ID: 4052. See the Publisher web site. The Arab Contribution to Music of the Western World Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sapir A] Edward Sapir; Jacob D. Sapir (transcriptions). Unpublished Manuscript on Southern Paiute Music with Transcriptions Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sapir-E 1910] Edward Sapir. “Song Recitatives in Paiute Mythology”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 23, Number 89, July–September 1910, pages 455–472. Publication journalofamefolk23ameruoft on Archive.org (open access). Contains 12 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sapir-E 1930] Edward Sapir. “Text of the Kaibab Paiute and Uintah Utes”, Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Volume 65, 1930, pages 297–535. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sarantos 2000] John Sarantos. Under One Sky — Fourty-One Native American Songs (song book), published by RabbitDog Publishing, Louisville, Kentucky, April 2000, 32 pages. Nakai tablature notation, two versions: five-hole or six-hole finger diagrams. Contains 41 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Sarantos 2000a] John Sarantos and Wayne McCleskey. Under One Sky — Traditional Native American Songs for the Contemporary Native American Flute, Revised Second Edition (song book), published by Wind Warrior Publications, Seattle, Washington, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sarantos 2002] John Sarantos. A Kokopelli Songbook — Finger Chart Songbook, Volume 2 (song book), 2002. six-hole finger diagrams. Contains 27 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sarantos A] John Sarantos. A Kokopelli Christmas — Songs for the Winter Seasons, Second Edition (song book), published by Wind Warrior Publications, Seattle, WA. Nakai tablature notation, five-hole and six-hole finger diagrams. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sargent 1952] Margaret Sargent. “Folk and Primitive Music in Canada”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 4, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1952, pages 65–68. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sarno 1995] Louis Sarno and Bernie Krause (born 1938). Bayaka: Extraordinary Music of the Babenzélé Pygmies and Sound of Their Forest Home, published by Ellipsis Arts, Roslyn, New York, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Craig Harris, All Music Guide description: The Babenzele Pygmys, who call themselves "Bayaka", have produced music since before history was ever notated. As evidenced by the album, "Bayaka: The Extraordinary Music Of The Babenzele Pygmys And Sounds Of Their Forest Home", recorded in the field by New Jersey-born Louis Sarno and Bernie Krause in 1995, the polyphonic choral singing of this cooperative community of hunter gatherers continues to echo through the rainforest of Central African Republic. According to Sarno, who has lived with the community for more than a decade, "musically speaking, the Bayaka all begin life as musical prodogies. By the time they are teenagers, they have the technical ability and the genius to sing music that sends shivers down the spine. At middle age, their music has the power to heal damaged souls".

Sarno's interest in the music of the Babenzele Pygmys was sparked when he heard a traditional Pygmy song on the radio in 1979. In the late-80s, Sarno decided to spend time living with the community. His friendship and respect for the group enabled him to record "Bayaka". In addition to the Pygmy's unique singing and musical accompaniment, the album incorporates the naturalistic sounds of crickets, frogs and birds and other sounds of the Central African rainforest.

In addition to writing a well-researched, hard cover included with the cd. Sarno wrote an autobiogrpahical book, "Song From The Forest", that was published by Houghton Mifflin.

[Sato 2001] Kentaro Sato. Sato Method of Solfege Syllables, 2001, retrieved July 13, 2010. See the Sato Method web page. Sato Method of Solfege Syllables Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Smaller Intervals

Abstract: This Method is an expansion and modification of the traditional method of solfege syllables which is widely used in the English speaking counties around the world.

[Sato-S 2010] S. Sato, S. Makita, R. Uchida, S. Ishihara, and M. Masuda. “Effect of Tai Chi training on baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in patients with coronary heart disease”, International Heart Journal, Volume 51, Number 4, July 2010, pages 238–241. Publication 20716839 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese conditioning exercise that has been used to integrate slow movements, controlled breathing, and mental concentration. The aim of the study was to determine whether Tai Chi training in addition to cardiac rehabilitation would result in a shift toward increased vagal activity of autonomic markers, such as baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) (male/female: 13/7, mean age: 67.8 +/- 4.2 years, mean interval time after a coronary event: 19.8 months) completed this study. The Tai Chi group (n = 10) practiced supervised Tai Chi training once a week and home-based Tai Chi training three times a week together with conventional cardiac rehabilitation for one-year. The control group (n = 10) conducted the conventional cardiac rehabilitation only. BRS and HRV were evaluated at the baseline and after one-year of Tai Chi training. Compared with the controls, patients in the Tai Chi group showed statistically significant improvement in BRS (P = 0.036). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and other covariates. On the other hand, there were no significant trends seen in HRV. Additional Tai Chi training during cardiac rehabilitation may augment reflex vagal regulation, which adds importantly to knowledge of cardiac rehabilitation on autonomic regulation and clinical management of CHD.

[Sawyer 1975] Jesse O. Sawyer. Notes on Musical Instruments, 1975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

California Language Archive description: Notes on musical instruments of indigenous California. Includes photographs of each item, with negatives.

[Sayce 1898] A. H. Sayce (1846–1933). Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, Fifth Edition, published by Williams and Norgate, London, 1898, 565 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Scavone 2005] Gary Scavone and Andrey da Silva. “Frequency Content of Breath Pressure and Implications for Use in Control”, Proceedings of the NIME 2005 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2005, pages 93–96. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The breath pressure signal applied to wind music instruments is generally considered to be a slowly varying function of time. In a context of music control, this assumption implies that a relatively low digital sample rate (100-200 Hz) is sufficient to capture and/or reproduce this signal. We tested this assumption by evaluating the frequency content in breath pressure, particularly during the use of extended performance techniques such as growling, humming, and flutter tonguing. Our results indicate frequency content in a breath pressure signal up to about 10 kHz, with especially significant energy within the first 1000 Hz. We further investigated the frequency response of several commercially available pressure sensors to assess their responsiveness to higher frequency breath signals. Though results were mixed, some devices were found capable of sensing frequencies up to at least 1.5 kHz. Finally, similar measurements were conducted with Yamaha WX11 and WX5 wind controllers and results suggest that their breath pressure outputs are sampled at about 320 Hz and 280 Hz, respectively.

[Schaeffer 1968] Claude-Frédéric-Arm (1898–1982) and Schaeffer and Jean Nougayrol (editors). Nouveaux textes accadiens, hourrites et ugaritiques des archives et bibliothèques privées d'Ugarit «New Akkadian Texts, Hurrian and Ugaritic Archives and Private Libraries of Ugarit», Ugaritica 5; Bibliothèque archéologique et historique / Institut français d'archéologie de Beyrouth 80; Mission de Ras Shamra 16, published by P. Geuthner, Paris, France, in French, 1968, 806 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schechtman 1989] Vicki L. Schechtman, Ronald M. Harper, Karen A. Kluge, Adrian J. Wilson, Howard J. Hoffman, and David P. Southall. “Heart Rate Variation in Normal Infants and Victims of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”, Early Human Development, Volume 19, Number 3, June 1989, pages 167–181, doi:10.1016/0378-3782(89)90077-7. Publication 2776682 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Infants who later succumb to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) exhibit lower overall heart rate variability during waking than do other infants. This study attempts to determine which type or types of heart rate variation are reduced in SIDS victims. Long-term recordings of heart rate and respiration were obtained from normal infants and infants who later died of SIDS, and heart rate variation in three frequency bands was examined: respiratory sinus arrhythmia (periods 0.9–3.0 s), ‘mid-frequency’ (periods 4.0–7.5 s) and ‘low-frequency’ (periods 12–30 s). All three types of heart rate variation were diminished in SIDS victims under 1 month of age during waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with controls. Partitioning heart rate effects showed that in waking, and to a lesser extent in REM sleep, the reduction in all types of heart rate variation exceeded that which would have been predicted based on higher heart rates in SIDS victims. No heart rate-independent reduction in any type of heart rate variation was observed in quiet sleep. This state-dependent reduction in three types of heart rate variation could indicate an abnormality of autonomic control mechanisms during waking and REM sleep in infants who later succumb to SIDS.

[Schellenberg 2004] E. Glenn Schellenberg. “Music Lessons Enhance IQ”, Psychological Science, Volume 15, Number 8, August 2004, pages 511–514, doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00711.x. Publication 15270994 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons with the WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991). Compared to children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ from pre- to post-lessons. The effect was relatively small but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Nevertheless, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to post-test improvements in adaptive social behavior that were not evident in the music groups.

[Schellenberg 2006] E. Glenn Schellenberg. “Long-term Positive Associations Between Music Lessons and IQ”, Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 98, Number 2, May 2006, pages 457–468, doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.2.457 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In Study 1 (N = 147), duration of music lessons was correlated positively with IQ and with academic ability among 6- to 11-year-olds, even when potential confounding variables (i.e., family income, parents' education, involvement in nonmusical activities) were held constant. In Study 2 (N = 150), similar but weaker associations between playing music in childhood and intellectual functioning were evident among undergraduates. In both studies, there was no evidence that musical involvement had stronger associations with some aspects of cognitive ability (e.g., mathematical, spatial-temporal, verbal) than with others. These results indicate that formal exposure to music in childhood is associated positively with IQ and with academic performance and that such associations are small but general and long lasting.

[Schellenberg 2010] E. Glenn Schellenberg. “Music Lessons and Nonmusical Abilities: Conclusions and Controversies”, Music Cognition, Language and Thought - Annual scientific workshop, McMaster Institute for Music & the Mind, McMaster University, November 20, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schellenberg 2011] E. Glenn Schellenberg. “Examining the Association Between Music Lessons and Intelligence”, British Journal of Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3, 2011, pages 283–302, doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.2010.02000.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Although links between music training and cognitive abilities are relatively well-established, unresolved issues include the generality of the association, the direction of causation, and whether the association is mediated by executive function. Musically trained and untrained 9- to 12-year olds were compared on a measure of IQ and five measures of executive function. IQ and executive function were correlated. The musically trained group had higher IQs than their untrained counterparts and the advantage extended across the IQ subtests. The association between music training and executive function was negligible. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that the association between music training and IQ is mediated by executive function. When considered jointly with the available literature, the findings suggest that children with higher IQs are more likely than their lower-IQ counterparts to take music lessons, and to perform well on a variety of tests of cognitive ability except for those measuring executive function.

[Schlesinger 1917] Kathleen Schlesinger (1862–1953). “The Origin of the Major and Minor Modes, In two parts”, The Musical Times, Volume 58, Number 893, July–August 1917, pages 297–301 and 352–355. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schlesinger 1938] Kathleen Schlesinger. “Correspondence”, Music & Letters, Volume 19, Issue 4, October 1938, pages 491–492, doi:10.1093/ml/XIX.4.491 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schlesinger 1939] Kathleen Schlesinger. The Greek Aulos — A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival or Rebirth in Folk-music, published by Methuen & Co., 1939, 577 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schmid 2010] K. Schmid, J. Schönlebe, H. Drexler, and M. Mueck-Weymann. “The Effects of Cannabis on Heart Rate Variability and Well-being in Young Men”, Pharmacopsychiatry, Volume 43, Number 4, June 2010, pages 147–150, doi:10.1055/s-0030-1248314. Publication 20191442 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: The effects of cannabis use on the autonomic regulation of the heart had been identified in tests with volunteers. We studied these effects of cannabis use on young adults in everyday life.
Methods: We measured heart rate variability (HRV) and well-being (WHO-5 score) in young men during a routine medical examination. Seventy-two men were identified with a positive drug screening test solely for tetrahydrocannabinol. The comparison group consisted of 72 men, matched according to age and body mass index, who used no illicit drugs or pharmaceuticals.
Results: In the cannabis group, HRV was significantly increased compared to the control group. The median value of root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) at rest was 56.2 ms in the drug users and 48.6 ms in the controls (p<0.05). The ratio of low-to-high frequency was higher in the controls (median 1.87 vs. 1.62; p<0.05). Psychological well-being, measured by WHO-5 score was significantly lower in cannabis users.
Discussion: Our data support the hypothesis that the use of cannabis leads to a change in cardiovascular sympathovagal balance.

[Schmidt-Jones 2011] Catherine Schmidt-Jones. “Standing Waves and Wind Instruments, Version 1.10”, published by Connexions, March 11, 2011, 10 pages. See the paper on the Connexions web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The musical sounds of aerophones (woodwinds and brass) are created by standing waves in the air inside the instruments.

[Schmidtmann 2011] Gunnar Schmidtmann, Susanne Jahnke, Egbert J. Seidel, Wolfgang Sickenberger, and Hans-Jürgen Grein. “Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations in Professional Brass and Woodwind Musicians During Common Playing Conditions”, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 249, Number 6, 2011, pages 895–901, doi:10.1007/s00417-010-1600-x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Summary: Background We investigated the effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) of playing brass and woodwind instruments by monitoring IOP and BP in a representative group of professional musicians under a variety of common playing conditions. Methods IOP and BP measurements were recorded from 37 brass and 15 woodwind instrument players, before and after playing tones of low, middle and high frequency. We also measured IOP and BP before and during playing common exercises of 10 minutes duration, as well as after playing a sustained high-pitched tone, to test for changes in IOP under conditions of maximum effort. Results Playing tones on brass and woodwind instruments causes a temporary elevation in IOP and BP, depending on the tone frequency: brass instrument players showed a significant elevation after playing high and middle frequency tones (p<0.0001) whereas woodwind instrument players showed a significant increase only for high frequencies (e.g., oboe, 17±2.9 mm Hg to 21±4.4 mm Hg; p=0.017). Playing a typical exercise of 10 minutes temporarily increased IOP in both groups of musicians. Finally, playing a sustained tone of high pitch caused a significant elevation in IOP in brass instrument players only (16.6±3.5 mm Hg to 23.3±8.9 mm Hg; p<0.0001). Conclusions The temporary and sometimes dramatic elevations and fluctuations in IOP observed in this study, coupled with daily exposure to instrument play, puts professional wind instrument players at increased risk of developing glaucoma. Consequently, these musicians should be monitored for signs of glaucoma, especially those with co-existing risk factors.

[Schneider 2004] Achim Schneider. Ice-age musicians fashioned ivory flute, Nature News, Published online December 17, 2004, retrieved January 2, 2010, doi:10.1038/news041213-14. ISSN: 1744-7933; EISSN: 1476-4687. See the article on the Nature News web site. Ice-age musicians fashioned ivory flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: The Mammoth Ivory flute

[Schneider-RL 1966] Roger Lee Schneider. A Preliminary Study of a Fort Ancient Site, Masters Thesis – Department of Education, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, 1966. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schniedewind 2008] William M. Schniedewind. Origins of the Written Bible, produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, 2008. See the PBS Web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Schoolcraft 1821] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793–1864). Journal of a Tour into the Interior of Missouri and Arkansaw: From Potosi, of Mime a Burton, in Missouri Territory in a South-West Direction, Toward the Rocky Mountains Performed in the Years 1818 and 1819, Volume 4, Issue 5 of A Collection of Modern and Contemporary Voyages & Travels, Sir Richard Phillips, printed for Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1821, 102 pages. Reissued in [Schoolcraft 2009]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schoolcraft 1825] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Travels in the Central Portions of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising Observations on its Mineral Geography, Internal Resources, and Aboriginal Population, published by Collins and Hannay, 1825, 459 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schoolcraft 1839] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Indian Tales and Legends, Volume 2, Algic Researches, comprising Inquiries Respecting the Mental Characteristics of the North American Indians, First Series, published by Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, 1839, 244 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Schoolcraft 1845] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Oneó: or Characteristics of the Red Race of America — from Original Notes, published by Wiley and Putnam, New York and London, 1845, 512 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Schoolcraft 1847] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. The Red Race of America, Volume 919 of the Harvard College Library History of Science project, published by Wm. H. Graham, New York, 1847, 416 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schoolcraft 1851] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States: Collected and Prepared Under the Direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, per Act of Congress of March 3rd, 1847, published by Lippincott, Grambo & Co., Philadelphia, 1851, 607 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schoolcraft 2009] Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Journal of a Tour into the Interior of Missouri and Arkansaw, published by General Books LLC, 2009, 94 pages. Reissue of [Schoolcraft 1821]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schrag 2005] Brian Edward Schrag. How Bamiléké Music-Makers Create Culture in Cameroon, Doctoral dissertation – University of California, Los Angeles, 2005, 320 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schroeder 1920] O. Schroeder. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschieden Inhalts «Cuneiform Texts from Assur with Various Content», Volume 1, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 35, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Schroeder 1922] O. Schroeder. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts «Historical Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 2, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 37, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Schullian 1948] Dorothy M. Schullian and Max Schoen. Music and Medicine, published by Henry Schuman, New York, 1948, 499 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schulz 2001] Regine Christiane Schulz. “Harp and Flute in a 26th Dynasty Tomb”, Joined Meeting of CIPEG and the International Committee of Museums with Musical Instruments Collections (CIMICIM), ICOM, Barcelona, Spain, 2001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schuman 2000] J. S. Schuman, E. C. Massicotte, S. Connolly, E. Hertzmark, B. Mukherji, and M. Z. Kunen. “Increased Intraocular Pressure and Visual Field Defects in High Resistance Wind Instrument Players”, Ophthalmology, Volume 107, Number 1, January 2000, pages 127–133. Publication 10647731 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Schutte 1980] Harm Kornelis Schutte. The Efficiency of Voice Production, Doctoral dissertation – University of Gröningen, The Netherlands, published by Kemper, Gröningen, Netherlands, 1980, 194 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schutte 2003] Harm K. Schutte, James A. Stark, and Donald G. Miller. “Change in Singing Voice Production, Objectively Measured”, Journal of Voice, Volume 17, Number 4, December 2003, pages 495–501. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Although subglottal pressures in conversational speech are relatively easily measured and thus known, the higher values that sometimes occur in singing (especially in tenors) have received little attention in the literature. Still more unusual is the opportunity to measure a large-scale change over decades in the application of pressure in singing production. This study compares measurements of subglottal pressure in a tenor/singing teacher (JS) at two points in his career: in his early thirties, when he was a subject in HS's dissertation study on the efficiency of voice production; and recently, in his fifties, in connection with JS's forthcoming book on the history of the pedagogy of Bel Canto. Although a single case study, its points of special interest include the high values initially measured (up to 100 cm H2O) and the reduction of this figure by more than 50% in the maximal values of the recent measurements. The study compares these values with those of other singers in the same laboratory (both with esophageal balloon and directly, with a catheter passed through the glottis) and in the literature, as well as discusses in detail the problems pertaining to the measurement (repeatability, correcting for lung volume, etc.). As a sophisticated subject, JS makes some pertinent observations about the changes in his use of subglottal pressure.

[Schwab 2004] B. Schwab and A. Schultze-Florey. “Velopharyngeal Insufficiency in Woodwind and Brass Players”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 19, Number 1, March 2004, pages 21–25. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the extent to which velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a problem for woodwind and brass musicians. Intraoral pressure measurements were performed to determine pressure peaks, mean pressure, and maximum attainable pressures. Of the pool of 148 symphony orchestra professionals and student musicians, 81 were aware of VPI and 24 showed symptoms; six reported that VPI occurred in association with colds, stress, or the playing of extremely high notes. One musician noted that VPI occurred only on return from vacation. Of the symptom-free musicians, 15% reported that they noticed symptoms of VPI during their training, but that these gradually dissipated. Despite reports in the medical literature that predominantly young musicians are affected, only 47% of symptomatic participants in this study were music students (41% of the subjects). Oboists and clarinetists were the most frequently affected, perhaps because they develop relatively high mean pressures. Music instructors are advised to perform pressure measurements during instruction.

[Schwab 2004a] B. Schwab and A. Schultze-Florey. “Intraorale Druckentwicklung bei Holz- und Blechbläsern «Investigations into Intraoral Pressure in Woodwind and Brass Musicians»”, Musikphysiologie und Musikermedizin, Volume 11, Number 4, in German, 2004, page 183. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schwartz-S 2014] Sharona Schwartz. “They Didn’t Give a Flute: Musician Says Customs Agents at JFK Airport Destroyed Every One of His 11 Handmade Instruments”, The Blaze, January 1, 2014. They Didn’t Give a Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: A professional flutist says that U.S. Customs and Border Protection agents smashed every one of his 11 instruments upon landing at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport last week, saying they were made of agricultural material that is not allowed into the U.S.

[Schweinsberger 1950] Sanchia Schweinsberger. “Bone Flutes and Whistles Found in Ohio Valley Sites”, Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, Volume 59, 1950, pages 28–33. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (3)

[Seeberger 2003] Friedrich Seeberger. Klangwelten der Altsteinzeit «Sound World of the Old Stone Age», published by the Urgeschichtliches Museum, Karlstraße 21, 89143 Blaubeuren, Germany, 2003, total time 21:03. See the Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Seeger 1987] Anthony Seeger. “The Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music”, World of Music, Volume 29, Number 3, 1987, pages 95–98. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

[Seeger 1987a] Anthony Seeger and Louise S. Spear (editors). Early Field Recordings: A Catalogue of Cylinder Collections at the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, published by Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1987, 218 pages, ISBN 0-253-31840-8 (978-0-253-31840-4), hardcover. Publication earlyfieldrecord00indi on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Seeger-P 2009] Pete Seeger; Peter Blood (editor, first edition); Michael Miller and Sarah A. Elisabeth (editors, revised edition). Where Have All the Flowers Gone — A Singalong Memoir, published by Sing Out, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 2009, 313 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-393-33861-4, softbound book with CD-ROM. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Kayowajineh - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Seeman 1995] Mark F. Seeman. “When Words are Not Enough: Hopewell Interregionalism and the use of Material Symbols at the GE Mound”, Native American Interactions, M Nassaney and K. Sassaman (editors), pubished by the University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN, 1995, pages 122–143. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Flutopedia Image Detail: Distribution of Hopewell Panpipes

[Sehmann 2000] Karin Harfst Sehmann. “The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 48, Number 2, published by Sage Publications for MENC: The National Association for Music Education, Summer 2000, pages 136–150. Publication 3345572 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sellers 1941] Ovid R. Sellers. “Musical Instruments of Israel”, The Biblical Archaeologist, Volume 4, Number 3, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, September 1941, pages 33–47. Publication 3209320 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Selvaraj 2008] N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand. “Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Derived from Finger-tip Photoplethysmography as Compared to Electrocardiography”, Volume 32, Number 6, November–December 2008, pages 479–484, doi:10.1080/03091900701781317. Publication 18663635 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is traditionally derived from RR interval time series of electrocardiography (ECG). Photoplethysmography (PPG) also reflects the cardiac rhythm since the mechanical activity of the heart is coupled to its electrical activity. Thus, theoretically, PPG can be used for determining the interval between successive heartbeats and heart rate variability. However, the PPG wave lags behind the ECG signal by the time required for transmission of pulse wave. In this study, finger-tip PPG and standard lead II ECG were recorded for five minutes from 10 healthy subjects at rest. The results showed a high correlation (median = 0.97) between the ECG-derived RR intervals and PPG-derived peak-to-peak (PP) intervals. PP variability was accurate (0.1 ms) as compared to RR variability. The time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot HRV parameters computed using RR interval method and PP interval method showed no significant differences (p < 0.05). The error analysis also showed insignificant differences between the HRV indices obtained by the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis showed high degree of agreement between the two methods for all the parameters of HRV. Thus, HRV can also be reliably estimated from the PPG based PP interval method.

[Semaw 2003] S. Semaw, M. J. Rogers, J. Quade, P. R. Renne, R. F. Butler, M. Dominguez-Rodrigo, D. Stout, W. S. Hart, T. Pickering, and S. W. Simpson. “2.6-Million-year-old Stone Tools and Associated Bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia”, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 45, Number 2, August 2003, pages 169–177, doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Sengpiel 2009] Eberhard Sengpiel. Speed of Sound — Temperature Matters, Not Air Pressure, 2009, 1 page. Speed of Sound Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: FAQ for the Native American Flute

[Seps 2001] B. Seps, F. Beckers, D. Ramaekers, and A. E. Aubert. “The Influence of Training on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Older Adults”, Memorias II Congreso Latinoamericano de Ingeniería Biomédica, La Habana, Cuba, May 23–25, 2001, 2001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effect of one-year physical training on heart rate variability in older adults was evaluated in 14 healthy men (age > 55 year). Measures of heart rate variability were obtained in both time and frequency domain. Ten-minute ECG recordings were made in supine position and in standing position. A progressive climbing exertion test till exhaustion was performed to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ) and maximal wattage level (Wmax ). Results show a small gain in maximal oxygen consumption and no changes in HRV parameters during the first 6 months of training. In the last six months of training there was a trend towards a decreasing HRV, Also VO2max and Wmax showed a small decrease at 1 year of training. A correlation between changes in physiological and HRV parameters, suggest an accordance between VO2max and power spectral analysis. It can be concluded that heart rate variability does not change by physical training in elderly population.

[Shackman 2009] Alexander J. Shackman, Brenton W. McMenamin, Heleen A. Slagter, Jeffrey S. Maxwell, Lawrence L. Greischar, and Richard J. Davidson. “Electromyogenic Artifacts and Electroencephalographic Inferences”, Brain Topography, Volume 22, Number 1, June 2009, pages 7–12, doi:10.1007/s10548-009-0079-4. Publication 19214730 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Muscle or electromyogenic (EMG) artifact poses a serious risk to inferential validity for any electroencephalography (EEG) investigation in the frequency-domain owing to its high amplitude, broad spectrum, and sensitivity to psychological processes of interest. Even weak EMG is detectable across the scalp in frequencies as low as the alpha band. Given these hazards, there is substantial interest in developing EMG correction tools. Unfortunately, most published techniques are subjected to only modest validation attempts, rendering their utility questionable. We review recent work by our laboratory quantitatively investigating the validity of two popular EMG correction techniques, one using the general linear model (GLM), the other using temporal independent component analysis (ICA). We show that intra-individual GLM-based methods represent a sensitive and specific tool for correcting on-going or induced, but not evoked (phase-locked) or source-localized, spectral changes. Preliminary work with ICA shows that it may not represent a panacea for EMG contamination, although further scrutiny is strongly warranted. We conclude by describing emerging methodological trends in this area that are likely to have substantial benefits for basic and applied EEG research.

[Shaeffner 1968] André Shaeffner. Origine des Instruments de Musique «Origins of Musical Instruments» Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaffer 1981] Aaron Shaffer. “A New Musical Term in Ancient Mesopotamian Music”, Iraq, Volume 43, Number 1, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Spring 1981, pages 79–83, doi:10.2307/4200135. Publication 4200135 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaffer 2013] Fred Shaffer. BCIA HRV Biofeedback Certificate of Completion Didactic Workshop — Strategies to Achieve Clean HRV Biofeedback Recordings, 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaffer-F 2011] Fred Shaffer and Donald Moss. “Clinical Efficacy of HRV Biofeedback”, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shahidi 2005] Fereidoon Shahidi (editor). Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Six volume set, Sixth edition, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Care and Maintenance of the Native American Flute (2)

[Shahidi 2005a] Fereidoon Shahidi and Homan Miraliakbari. “Tree Nut Oils”, 2005, pages 175–193. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Care and Maintenance of the Native American Flute (4)

[Shalev-Eyni 2006] Sarit Shalev-Eyni. “Solomon, his Demons and Jongleurs: The Meeting of Islamic, Judaic and Christian Culture”, Al-Masāq, Volume 18, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, 2006, pages 145–160, doi:10.1080/09503110600838635 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The legend of Solomon's special ability to control demons originated in Jewish-Hellenistic circles and became widespread in later Judaic, Islamic and Christian culture. In the Qur’ān, as well as in the earlier Babylonian Talmud and other rabbinic sources, the legend was adopted with a clear tendency to avoid the pragmatic demonic aspects of the story. In a similar vein, Qur’ānic commentators presented the relations between Solomon and the demons as an expression of the supernatural rule of the king over the cosmos and ignored his shameful end. The inclusion of the legend in the most sacred canonical text of Islam, and its connotation of eternity may explain the frequent representation in Muslim art. On the other hand, the avoidance by the Christian establishment authorities and the relegation to profane literature mocking the king may account for its absence in western official art. A combination between the high and low aspects of Solomon is seen in an illuminated medieval Hebrew Mahzor from South Germany. The divine aspect of Solomon as he appears in the Mahzor is paralleled in the Muslim examples. These similarities are the result of close textual traditions deriving from the same sources. Yet a possible pictorial testimony linking East and West may be discerned in the Ottoman illuminated Book of Suleiman, possibly based on a western tradition.

[Shamir 1999] Ilan Shamir. Advice from a Tree: Guided Journal, published by Your True Nature, 1999, 120 pages, ISBN 1-930175-03-5 (978-1-930175-03-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

[Shands 2010] Donn Shands. How to Build a Simple North American Style Flute, March 1, 2010, 71 pages. How to Build a Simple North American Style Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Crafting Native American Flutes

[Sharif-M 1999] M. Sharif and B. K. Thapar. “Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India”, contained in [Masson 1999], 1999, pages 128–137. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Sharp 1992] William E. Sharp and David Pollack. “The Florence Site Complex: Two Fourteenth-Century Fort Ancient Communities in Harrison County, Kentucky”, contained in [Pollack 1992], 1992, pages 183–218. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaw 1996] Douglas W. Shaw and Deborah M. Finch (technical coordinators). Desired Future Conditions for Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems: Bringing interests and concerns together, September 18-22, 1995; Albuquerque, New Mexico. General Technical Report RM-GTR-272. Fort Collins, Colorado: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station., 1996, 359 pages. Desired Future Conditions for Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Shaw-AM 1926] Anna Moore Shaw. “Songs of the Indians”, American Mercury, Volume 7, 1926, pages 65–68. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaw-B 1829] Benjamin Shaw and Charles Spilman. Columbian Harmony, Cincinnati, 1829. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Shearer 1975] Tony Shearer (1926–2002). The Praying Flute: Song of the Earth Mother, published by Tony Shearer, Cortez, Colorado, 1975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shearer 1987] Tony Shearer. The Praying Flute: Song of the Earth Mother, published by Naturegraph Publishers, Inc., California, 1987, 96 pages, ISBN 0-87961-268-1. See the Naturegraph web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shearer 1991] Tony Shearer. The Praying Flute: Song of the Earth Mother, published by Amon Olorin Flutes, Helena, Montana, 1991, spiral binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shelemay 1990] K. K. Shelemay (editor). The Garland library of Readings in Ethnomusicology, Volume 7, contains [Stumph 1886], 1990. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shepard 1994] Mark Shepard. Flutecraft — An Artisan's Guide to Bamboo Flute Making, Second Edition, published by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, Willits, California, 1994, 50 pages, comb binding. See the Flutecraft page on Mark Shepard's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Mark’s classic treatment, first published in 1976, of the craft of making bamboo flutes. Includes detailed instructions, along with a practical, in-depth discussion of flute acoustics. Now in an improved format with illustrations by Monty Levenson.

[Shepard 1999] Mark Shepard, Anne Subercaseaux, and Paul Horn. How to Love your Flute: A Guide to Flutes and Flute Playing, Second Edition, published by Shepard Publications, 1999, 112 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Shepard 2001] Mark Shepard. Simple Flutes: A Guide to Flute Making and Playing, or How to Make and Play Great Homemade Musical Instruments for Children and All Ages from Bamboo, Wood, Clay, Metal, PVC Plastic, or Anything Else, published by Shepard Publications, January 2001, 44 pages, ISBN 0-938497-18-9 (978-0-938497-18-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shepard-RN 1964] Roger N. Shepard. “Circularity in Judgements of Relative Pitch”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 36, Number 12, published by the Acoustical Society of America, December 1964, pages 2346–2353, doi:10.1121/1.1919362 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A special set of computer‐generated complex tones is shown to lead to a complete breakdown of transitivity in judgments of relative pitch. Indeed, the tones can be represented as equally spaced points around a circle in such a way that the clockwise neighbor of each tone is judged higher in pitch while the counterclockwise neighbor is judged lower in pitch. Diametrically opposed tones—though clearly different in pitch—are quite ambiguous as to the direction of the difference. The results demonstrate the operation of a “proximity principle” for the continuum of frequency and suggest that perceived pitch cannot be adequately represented by a purely rectilinear scale.

[Shi 2009] Ping Shi. Photoplethysmography in Noninvasive Cardiovascular Assessment, Doctoral dissertation – Loughborough University, Leicestershire, England, May 2009, 151 pages, retrieved June 19, 2012. See the Loughborough Institutional Repository web site. Photoplethysmography in Noninvasive Cardiovascular Assessment Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The electro-optic technique of measuring the cardiovascular pulse wave known as photoplethysmography (PPG) is clinically utilised for noninvasive characterisation of physiological components by dynamic monitoring of tissue optical absorption. There has been a resurgence of interest in this technique in recent years, driven by the demand for a low cost, compact, simple and portable technology for primary care and community-based clinical settings, and the advancement of computer-based pulse wave analysis techniques. PPG signal provides a means of determining cardiovascular properties during the cardiac cycle and changes with ageing and disease. This thesis focuses on the photoplethysmographic signal for cardiovascular assessment. The contour of the PPG pulse wave is influenced by vascular ageing. Contour analysis of the PPG pulse wave provides a rapid means of assessing vascular tone and arterial stiffness. In this thesis, the parameters extracted from the PPG pulse wave are examined in young adults. The results indicate that the contour parameters of the PPG pulse wave could provide a simple and noninvasive means to study the characteristic change relating to arterial stiffness. The pulsatile component of the PPG signal is due to the pumping action of the heart, and thus could reveal the circulation changes of a specific vascular bed. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents one of the most promising quantitative markers of cardiovascular control. Calculation of HRV from the peripheral pulse wave using PPG, called pulse rate variability (PRV), is investigated. The current work has confirmed that the PPG signal could provide basic information about heart rate (HR) and its variability, and highly suggests a good alternative to understanding dynamics pertaining to the autonomic nervous system (ANS) without the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) device. Hence, PPG measurement has the potential to be readily accepted in ambulatory cardiac monitoring due to its simplicity and comfort. Noncontact PPG (NPPG) is introduced to overcome the current limitations of contact PPG. As a contactless device, NPPG is especially attractive for physiological monitoring in ambulatory units, NICUs, or trauma centres, where attaching electrodes is either inconvenient or unfeasible. In this research, a prototype for noncontact reflection PPG (NRPPG) with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) as a light source and a high-speed PiN photodiode as a photodetector is developed. The results from physiological experiments suggest that NRPPG is reliable to extract clinically useful information about cardiac condition and function. In summary, recent evidence demonstrates that PPG as a simple noninvasive measurement offers a fruitful avenue for noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring. Key words: Photoplethysmography (PPG), Cardiovascular assessment, Pulse wave contour analysis, Arterial stiffness, Heart rate (HR), Heart rate variability (HRV), Pulse rate variability (PRV), Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Electrocardiogram (ECG).

[Shiloah 1978] Amnon Shiloah (recording and liner notes). Beduin Music of Southern Sinai, Ethnic Folkways Records, FE 4204, 1978. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa

[Shore 1965] A. F. Shore. “A Bronze Flute with Demotic Inscription”, The British Museum Quarterly, Volume 30, Number 1/2, published by the British Museum, Autumn 1965, pages 35–36. Publication 4422917 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shutler 1974] Richard Shutler, Jr. and Duance C. Anderson (editors); Dale R. Henning (journal editor). The Cherokee Sewer Site (13CK405): A Preliminary Report of a Stratified Paleo-Indian/Archaic Site in Northwestern Iowa, Journal of the Iowa Archaeological Society, Volume 21, 1974. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Siepmann 2008] Martin Siepmann, Volkan Aykac, Jana Unterdörfer, Katja Petrowski, and Michael Mueck-Weymann. “A Pilot Study on the Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Patients with Depression and in Healthy Subjects”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 33, 2008, pages 195–201, doi:10.1007/s10484-008-9064-z. Publication 18807175 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic arousal have been proposed as major contributors to the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with depression. It was aim of the present study to assess the feasibility of using heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback to treat moderate to severe depression. This was an open-label study in which 14 patients with different degrees of depression (13 f, 1 m) aged 30 years (18-47; median; range) and 12 healthy volunteers attended 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback over two weeks. Another 12 healthy subjects were observed under an active control condition. At follow up BDI was found significantly decreased (BDI 6; 2-20; median 25%-75% quartile) as compared to baseline conditions (BDI 22;15-29) in patients with depression. In addition, depressed patients had reduced anxiety, decreased heart rate and increased HRV after conduction of biofeedback (p < 0.05). By contrast, no changes were noted in healthy subjects receiving biofeedback nor in normal controls. In conclusion, HRV biofeedback appears to be a useful adjunct for the treatment of depression, associated with increases in HRV.

[Silber 2007] Michael H. Silber, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Michael H. Bonnet, Sudhansu Chokroverty, Madeleine M. Grigg-Damberger, Max Hirshkowitz, Sheldon Kapen, Sharon A. Keenan, Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Penzel, Mark R. Pressman, and Conrad Iber. “The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Adults”, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Volume 3, Number 2, March 2007, pages 121–131. Publication 17557422 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Adults Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules. Reliability studies of R & K scoring were reviewed; reliability was low for stage one and moderate for slow wave sleep. Evidence indicated that K complexes and slow waves are expressed maximal frontally, spindles centrally and alpha rhythm over the occipital region. Three derivations of EEG, two of electro-oculography, and one of chin EMG were recommended. Scoring by 30-second epochs was retained. New terminology for sleep stages was proposed. Attenuation of alpha rhythm was determined to be the most valid electrophysiological marker of sleep onset. Alternative measures were proposed for non-alpha generating subjects. K complexes associated with arousals were determined to be insufficient alone to define the new stage N2. No evidence was found to justify dividing slow wave sleep into two stages. No reasons were found to alter the current slow wave amplitude criteria at any age. The phenomena of REM sleep were defined. The rules for defining onset and termination of REM sleep periods were simplified. Movement time was eliminated and major body movements defined. Studies are needed to test the reliability of the new rules. Future advances in technology may require modification of these rules with time.

[Silverman 1995] Sydel Silverman and Nancy J. Parezo (editors). “Preserving the Anthropological Record, Second Edition”. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Silverman-H 2002] Helaine Silverman and Donald A. Proulx. The Nasca, Reprint Edition, Peoples of America, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002, 339 pages, ISBN 0-631-23224-9 (978-0-631-23224-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Simon 2000] Artur Simon and Ulrich Wegner (editors). CD-Konvolut: Music! 100 Recordings «100 Years of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv 1990-2000», Museum Collection Berlin series, in cooperation with Schott-Wergo (Mainz), CD SM 1701-2, published by the Ethnologisches Museum Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, in French and English, 2000, 4 CDs plus 284 page booklet. EAM Code 4010 2281 70122. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Simon 2000a] Artur Simon (editor). Das Berliner Phonogramm-Archiv 1900–2000 — Sammlungen der traditionellen Music der Welt «The Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv 1900-2000 - Collections of Traditional Music of the World», published by VWB - Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, Berlin, 2000, Hardcover. See the publisher web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Simpson-WK 1976] William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III — G 7101-7102, Giza Mastabas, Volume 2, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1976. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Simpson-WK 1980] William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of the Western Cemetery: Part 1, Giza Mastabas, Volume 4, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1980. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skilton 1920] Charles Sanford Skilton (1868–1941). Sioux Flute Serenade — for orchestra, published by Carl Fischer, New York, 1920. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skilton 1926] Charles Sanford Skilton. American Indian Fantasy — For Organ, 1926. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skilton 1932] Charles Sanford Skilton. American Indian Fantasy — Orchestrated, 1932. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skinner 1913] Alanson Skinner (1886–1925). “Social Life and Ceremonial Bundles of the Menomini Indians”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 13, Part 1, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1913, pages 1–166. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skinner 1915] Alanson Skinner. “Associations and Ceremonies of the Menomini Indians”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 13, Part 2, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1913, pages 167–216. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (2)

[Skinner 1915a] Alanson Skinner and John V. Satterlee. “Folklore of the Menomini Indians”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 13, Part 3, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1913, pages 217–547. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Skinner 1920] Alanson Skinner. Medicine Ceremony of the Menomini, Iowa, and Wahpeton Dakota, With Notes on the Ceremony among the Ponca, Bungi Ojibwa, and Potawatomi, Indian Notes and Monographs - A series of publications relating to the American Aborigines, Volume 4, published by the Museum of the American Indian - Heye Foundation, New York, 1920, 422 pages, retrieved June 5, 2013. Publication medicineceremony00skin on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Preface: The ceremony commonly known as the Medicine Dance was once widely practised among the central Algonkian and southern Siouan tribes, which occupied approximately the upper and middle Mississippi valley. The rite extended northward almost to the shores of Hudson bay, thence westward nearly to the foothills of the Rockies, where it was carried by the Plains Cree and the Ojibwa. On the great plains the ceremony was not performed by the tribes of true prairie culture, among which the Sun Dance was paramount. East of the Mississippi it died out more gradually as an organization, but the individual properties and characteristics of the shamans continued long beyond the boundaries of the cult itself.

[Skinner 1921] Alanson Buck Skinner; F. W. Hodge (series editor). Material Culture of the Menomini, Indian Notes and Monographs - A series of publications relating to the American Aborigines, published by the Museum of the American Indian - Heye Foundation, New York, 1921, 604 pages. Publications materialcultureo00skin, materialcultureo01skin, materialcultureo00skinuoft, and materialcultureo00skiniala on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Skinner 1925] Alanson Skinner. “Songs of the Menomini Medicine Ceremony”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 27, Number 2, April–June 1925, pages 290–314, doi:10.1525/aa.1925.27.2.02a00040 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Abstract: This collection of songs was obtained by the writer in June, 1919, on the Menomini Reservation near Keshena, Wisconsin, and was recorded on a series of phonograph records.

[Skrydstrup 2009] Martin Skrydstrup. Towards Intellectual Property Guidelines and Best Practices for Recording and Digitizing Intangible Cultural Heritage — A Survey of Codes, Conduct and Challenges in North America, published by the World Intellectual Property Organization, June 2009, 156 pages. Initial version dated October 2006, updated June 2009. Towards Intellectual Property Guidelines and Best Practices for Recording and Digitizing Intangible Cultural Heritage Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia.com Legal Information, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Executive summary: Indigenous communities and developing States have had extensive first-hand experiences with the ways in which ethnographic materials recorded in different formats within their territories have subsequently been misappropriated. For this reason, Indigenous communities today claim a say over whether, how and on what terms elements of their intangible cultural heritage are studied, recorded, re-used and represented by researchers, museums, commercial interests and others. These claims lie at the confluence of technological innovations and the many benefits they offer, on the one hand, and renewed claims by indigenous communities and developing States for greater protection of their cultural expressions and knowledge systems, often considered “public domain” by conventional intellectual property (IP) law, on the other. A matter of particular concern is the institutional handling of “culturally sensitive materials” depicting secret or sacred ceremonial practices. Within a complex web of issues, calls for new IP-type standards for enhanced protection of traditional knowledge (TK) and traditional cultural expressions (TCEs), and recent institutional digitization efforts enabling instantaneous distribution of ethnographic materials in various media to anywhere in the world, the IP system is faced with unprecedented challenges, both conceptually and policy-wise. The Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has been set up to discuss some of these issues and possibly develop a sui generis ("of its own kind or class") legal instrument which, amongst others, reconciles creators’ rights with wide scale accessibility and dissemination of TCEs in today’s global knowledge economy.

[Slater 1960] John R. Slater. “A Comparison of Two Fertility Figures”, Monument: A Review of the Humanities and the Arts / Arizona State College, Volume 1, 1960, pages 16–24. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sleigh 1999] J. W. Sleigh and J. Donovan. “Comparison of Bispectral Index, 95% Spectral Edge Frequency and Approximate Entropy of the EEG, with Changes in Heart Rate Variability during Induction of General Anaesthesia”, British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 82, Number 5, May 1999, pages 666–671, doi:10.1093/bja/82.5.666. Publication 10536540 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We have compared bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and approximate entropy (ApEn) in 37 patients during induction and recovery from a short general anaesthetic. Heart rate variability (HRV) was also compared during induction only. These indices were noted at the start of induction, when a syringe held between the thumb and fingertips was dropped, at insertion of a laryngeal mask or tracheal tube (tube insertion), at incision, at the end of surgery, on return of the gag reflex and when the patient could follow a verbal command. When indices at the start of induction were compared with those at tube insertion, all four decreased significantly. BIS decreased from a mean of 95.38 (SEM 1.02) to 44.22 (1.05), mean SEF from 20.91 (1.19) to 14.14 (0.70) Hz, mean HRV from 37.1 (7.75) to 17.9 (3.6) bpm2 and ApEn from 0.90 (0.06) to 0.65 (0.04). Using logistic regression, the indices were compared both individually and in combination as to the power of distinguishing awake (at pre-induction) from asleep (at tube insertion) states. BIS had the best predictive power, with a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity 94.4%, positive predictive value 94.7% and negative predictive value 97.1%. A combination of the indices conferred no additional predictive advantage.

[Slifer 1994] Dennis Slifer and James Duffield. Kokopelli: Fluteplayer Images in Rock Art, published by Ancient City Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1994, 199 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Slifer 2007] Dennis Slifer. Kokopelli: The Magic, Mirth, and Mischief of an Ancient Symbol, published by Gibbs Smith, 2007, 199 pages, ISBN 1-4236-0174-2 (978-1-4236-0174-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Slotkin 1952] J. S. Slotkin (editor). Menomini Peyotism: A Study of Individual Variation in a Primary Group with a Homogenous Culture, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Volume 42, Part 4, published by the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1952. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smiley 1951] Terah L. Smiley. “A Summary of Tree Ring Dates from Some Southwestern Archaeological Sites”, University of Arizona Bulletin, Volume 22, Number 4, Tuscon, Arizona, October 1951. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research Bulletin, Number 5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Smith 1612] John Smith. A Map of Virginia: With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion, contained in [Tyler 1907], 1612, pages 76–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-BB 1959] Barbara B. Smith. “Folk Music in Hawaii”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 11, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1959, pages 50–55. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-CI 2008] Christopher Irwin Smith, Olle Pellmyr, David M. Althoff, Manuel Balcázar-Lara, James Leebens-Mack and Kari A. Segraves. “Pattern and Timing of Diversification in Yucca (Agavaceae): Specialized Pollination Does Not Escalate Rates of Diversification”, Proceedings: Biological Sciences, Volume 275, Number 1632, published by The Royal Society, February 7, 2008, pages 249–258. Publication 25249498 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The yucca-yucca moth interaction is one of the most well-known and remarkable obligate pollination mutualisms, and is an important study system for understanding coevolution. Previous research suggests that specialist pollinators can promote rapid diversification in plants, and theoretical work has predicted that obligate pollination mutualism promotes cospeciation between plants and their pollinators, resulting in contemporaneous, parallel diversification. However, a lack of information about the age of Yucca has impeded efforts to test these hypotheses. We used analyses of 4322 AFLP markers and cpDNA sequence data representing six non-protein-coding regions (trnT-trnL, trnL, trnL intron, trnL-trnF, rpsl6 and clpP intron 2) from all 34 species to recover a consensus organismal phylogeny, and used penalized likelihood to estimate divergence times and speciation rates in Yucca. The results indicate that the pollination mutualism did not accelerate diversification, as Yucca diversity (34 species) is not significantly greater than that of its non-moth-pollinated sister group, Agave sensu latissimus (240 species). The new phylogenetic estimates also corroborate the suggestion that the plant-moth pollination mutualism has at least two origins within the Agavaceae. Finally, age estimates show significant discord between the age of Yucca (ca 6-10 Myr) and the current best estimates for the age of their pollinators (32-40 Myr).

[Smith-GH 1932] G. Hubert Smith. “The Winona Legend”, Minnesota History Magazine, Volume 13, Number 4, 1932, pages 367–376. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-H 1904] Hermann Smith (1824–1910). The World's Earliest Music: Traced to its Beginnings in Ancient Lands, published by William Reeves, London, 1904, 362 pages. Publications worldsearliestmu00smituoft and worldsearliestmu04smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-HI 1910] H. I. Smith. “The Prehistoric Ethnology of a Kentucky Site”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 6, Part 2, New York, 1910, pages 173–241. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Smith-J 2000] Janet Smith and Anne Kilmer. “Laying the Rough, Testing the Fine”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2000], 2000, pages 127–140. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Author's description: Discusses the diatonic lyre tuning procedures on the tablet CBS10996 from Nippur, first millennium, B C., "The Mathematical Text," (so named because it refers to lyre strings by numbered pairs). A comparison is made between this ancient set of seven tunings and modern piano tuning procedure "Laying the Bearing Octave." Music notation and tablature examples given. Other aspects on the subject of basic diatonic tuning are discussed. (Temperament is still unknown for this system). Fourteen names for string pairs (two-note intervals or ditones) on the lyre form the basis for Hurrian Hymn notation and arrangement on “Sounds from Silence.”

[Smith-J 2003] Janet Smith. Seven Modes for an Ancient Lyre — Music in Seven Ancient Tunings Using Samples from a Replica of the Silver Lyre from Ur, Bella Roma Music, BRM 101, 14 tracks, 2003, audio CD. See the Bella Roma Music web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-J 2008] Janet Smith. Interview with Prof. Anne Kilmer, Tuscon Arizona, January 2008, 2008, retrieved February 22, 2011. Interview with Prof. Anne Kilmer, Tuscon Arizona, January 2008 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-MW 1949] M. W. Smith (editor). Indians of the Urban Northwest, New York, 1949. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1912] The Smithsonian Institution. Expeditions Organized or Participated in by the Smithsonian Institution in 1910 and 1911, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 59, Number 11, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., July 17, 1912, 51 pages, retrieved September 13, 2010. Publication 2087. Publication expeditionsorgan191013191516smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1916] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1915, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 66, Number 3, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1916, 119 pages, retrieved September 13, 2010. Publication 2407. Publication expeditionsorgan191013191516smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1917] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1916, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 66, Number 17, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1917, 134 pages, retrieved September 13, 2010. Publication 2438. Publication smithsonianmisce661917smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1921] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1920, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 72, Number 6, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1921, 126 pages, retrieved September 13, 2010. Publication 2619. Publication smithsonianmisce721922smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1925] The Smithsonian Institution. “Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1924”, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 77, Number 2, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., April 17, 1925, 136 pages, retrieved March 24, 2011. Publication 2794. Publication smithsonianmisce771926smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America

[Smithsonian 1931] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1930, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 66, Number 3, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1931, 224 pages, retrieved December 12, 2010. Publication 3111. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1932] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1931, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 66, Number 3, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1932, 190 pages, retrieved December 12, 2010. Publication 3134. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 1933] The Smithsonian Institution. Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1932, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 66, Number 3, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1933, 96 pages, retrieved December 12, 2010. Publication 3213. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smithsonian 2004] The Smithsonian Institution. Lakota Winter Counts — The Teachers' Guide, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 2004, 33 pages. See the Lakota Winter Counts Online Exhibit web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Native American Flute - Cultural Considerations for Facilitators, Flutopedia Image Detail: Winter Count - Painting, The Development of Flutes in North America, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Smithsonian 2005] The Smithsonian Institution. Lakota Winter Counts — Online Exhibit, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., March 3, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2010. See the Lakota Winter Counts Online Exhibit web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The-Man-Who-Owns-the-Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Smithsonian 2011] National Museum of the Natural History. Camping with the Sioux — Fieldwork Diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Archives of the Smithsonian Institution, 2011, retrieved January 16, 2012. Camping with the Sioux Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Smyth 2007] A. S. H. Smyth. “Pipe Work”, Early Music Today, August/September 2007, pages 16–17. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: When Barnaby Brown started researching the links between the triplepipes and the Sardinian launeddas he didn’t realise the cultural storm he was going to create. Adam Smyth joined him in experiencing a living part of an ancient Celtic-Mediterranean tradition.

[Snoussi 2003] Manoubi Snoussi. Initiation à la Musique Tunisienne «Introduction to Tunisian Music», Volume 1 - Musique Classique, Centre des Musiques Arabes et Méditerranéennes Ennejma Ezzahra, Tunis, Tunisia, in French, 2003, 139 pages, hardcover with 3 CDs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This book is a multimedia document consisting of a written version with sound illustrations (3 cds) of a series of radio programmes (26 out of a total of 188) produced in the early sixties by the late Manoubi Snoussi, companion and private secretary to Baron Rodolphe d’Erlanger.
These programmes are divided into five series (classical music, folk music Islamic liturgy, popular liturgy and military music)

In this book which deals with what is known as the Arabo-Andalusian musical repertoire, (Manoubi Snoussi gives us an overview of the Tunisian musical experience and then proceeds to present an exhaustive study of the musical genres in favour in Tunisia but also, in different versions, in the other countries of the Maghreb.

With the publication of this book the Centre for Arab and Mediterranean Music initiated a series of musicological publications aimed at promoting greater knowledge of Tunisian music.

[Snow 2010] James Yellow Hawk Snow. On-Line Recordings on Myspace, retrieved April 12, 2010. See the James Yellow Hawk Snow MySpace web page. Contains 9 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Snyder 1996] Gary Snyder. Mountains and Rivers without End, published by Counterpoint, 1996, 184 pages, ISBN 1-887178-57-0 (978-1-887178-57-0), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From Publishers Weekly: A magnificent achievement, this epic poem belies the common take that Snyder's poetic career is notable mainly in the past tense and is refracted by the works of others. Without doubt, Snyder's exploration of nature, Zen Buddhism and his travels through unexplored corners of American society influenced the Beat writers of the 1950s and early 1960s, and some of his early works (Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, 1965, and Turtle Island, which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1975) are masterpieces. This new, vital work sums up stylistic and thematic concerns by uniting 39 poems written between 1956 and 1996 (many published here for the first time) into a seamless whole that, like a modern Leaves of Grass, combines fascination with the varied particulars of the way people live with awe at the majesty of nature. Each of four sections is organized around a familiar Snyder focus: the demands made on people by nature and time ("The road that's followed goes forever;/ in half a minute crossed and left behind"); observation of the terrain he occupies ("Slash of calligraphy of freeways of cars") and various American landscapes ("trucks on the freeways,/ Kenworth, Peterbilt, Mack,/ rumble diesel depths,/ like boulders bumping in an outwash glacial river"); and subtle tributes to those who have survived the last 40 years ("At the end of the ice age/ we are the bears, we are the ravens,/ We are the salmon/ in the gravel/ At the end of an ice age"). A concluding essay, "The Making of Mountain and Rivers Without End," serves as an intellectual mini-autobiography and a gloss on some of the Eastern influences on the poem. This is a major work by a venerable master of post-WWII American poetry.

[Snyder-S 2004] Susan Snyder. Total Literacy: An Arts-Based Guide to Building Early Literacy Skills, 2004, 214 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[So 2000] Jenny F. So (editor). Music in the Age of Confucius, published by the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 2000, 152 pages, ISBN 0-295-97953-4 (978-0-295-97953-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Chinese archaeologists digging in central China in 1977 unexpectedly uncovered two of the earliest and most extensive groups of musical instruments in the entire ancient world, dating from nearly 2500 years ago. since these percussion, string, and wind instruments were in near-pristine condition - some still playable, others inscribed with musicological information - they provided hitherto unimagined possibilities for th study of music and the history of musical instruments in ancient China. Presented here are the insights of six specialists who describe these instruments' sophisticated tuning systems, techniques of manufacture and inscriptions revealing their musical and non-musical significance in ancient Chinese society. It has become apparent that different types of music existed in Bronze Age China (2000-500 BC) for state rituals as well as for private entertainment. The authors place this evidence in the context of recent archaeological discoveries and reassess it in light of classical history and the literature on Chinese music. The three main families of instruments are also examined in detail in individual chapters. Lovers of art and music, as well as enthusiast of archaeology, musicology, and cultural history, should find this a compelling and readable presentation of the latest research and ideas on one of the world's oldest and most profound artistic expressions.

[Solis 2000] Ruth Shady Solís (born 1946), Martha Prado, Carlos Leyva, Jorge Moreno, Carlos Jimenez, and Celso Llimpe. “Las Flautas de Caral-Supe: Aproximaciones al Estudio Acústico-Arqueológico del Conjunto de Flautas más Antiguo de América «The Flutes of Caral-Supe: Approaches to the Archaeological Survey Acoustic-Set of America's Oldest Flute»”, Boletín del Museo de Arqueología y Antropología de la UNMSM, Volume 3, Number 11, Lima, in Spanish, 2000, pages 2–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (7)

Abstract: Thirty-two flutes were found in the Sacred City of Caral-Supe. The group were discovered in the exterior of a circular plaza of a pyramidal complex (2500 B.C.). The flutes are done in pelican bone and were found in a closed cultural context. For this reason, the study will allow to know the musical possibilities of the instruments and the acoustical knowledge of that society.

[Solis 2001] Ruth Shady Solís, Jonathan Haas, and Winifred Creamer. “Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru”, Science, Volume 292, Number 5517, April 27, 2001, pages 723–726, doi:10.1126/science.1059519 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

Abstract: Radiocarbon dates from the site of Caral in the Supe Valley of Peru indicate that monumental corporate architecture, urban settlement, and irrigation agriculture began in the Americas by 4090 years before the present (2627 calibrated years B.C.) to 3640 years before the present (1977 calibrated years B.C.). Caral is located 23 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and contains a central zone of monumental, residential, and nonresidential architecture covering an area of 65 hectares. Caral is one of 18 large preceramic sites in the Supe Valley.

[Solis 2003] Ruth Shady. “Caral: La Civilización Más Antigua de América «Caral: The Oldest Civilization of America»”, published by Proyecto Especial Arqueológico Caral-Supe, Lima, in Spanish, 2003, 10 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Solis 2004] Ruth Shady Solís. Caral. The City of the Sacred Fire «La Ciudad del Fuego Sagrado», published by Graph & Consult, Cuzzi y Cia. S.A. Interbank, Centura SAB, Peru, 2004, 260 pages. See the Caral web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

[Solis 2006] Ruth Shady. “La Civilización Caral: Sistema social y manejo del territorio y sus recursos. Su transcendencia en el proceso cultural andino «The Caral Civilization: Its Social System and Management of Territory and Resources and its Transcendence in Early Andean Cultural Processes»”, Boletín de Arqueología PUCP Nº 10. Procesos y expresiones de poder, identidad y orden tempranos en Sudamérica. Primera Parte. Peter Kaulicke y Tom D. Dillehay, editores, Lima, in Spanish, 2006, pages 59–89. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this article we describe the civilization at the Caral site with reference to: a) the transverse management of land and its resources based on the complementary economies of fishing and farming, and on the establishment of networks of interaction and trade systems with distant populations in the Andean highlands and the Andean jungle; b) the social organization, the pattern of distribution of settlements in each section of the Supe Valley, the differences among those settlements in terms of their extension and constructed volume, the relevance of the capital zone, the importance of duality in the location of settlements on the two banks of the river as well as in buildings grouped into two halves, and the design and planned construction of the city of Caral; c) the evaluation of archaeological information in a theoretical framework based on inferences about social and political organization drawn from pertinent ethnohistoric and ethnographic sources; and d) finally, the impact of the Caral civilization in the area over time. Ultimately, we reflect on the cultural, climatic, and social changes that took place over time at Caral and other sites and on the hegemony of this civilization in the area.

[Solis 2009] Ruth Shady. “Caral-Supe y su Entorno Natural y Social en los Orígenes de la Civilización «Caral-Supe and Natural Environment and Social Origins of Civilization»”, capter 7 of [Marcus-J 2009], in Spanish, 2009, pages 99–120. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Song 2003] Hye-Sue Song and Paul M. Lehrer. “The Effects of Specific Respiratory Rates on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 28, Number 1, March 2003, pages 13–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this study respiratory rates of 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 breaths per minute were employed to investigate the effects of these rates on heart rate variability (HRV). Data were collected 16 times at each respiratory rate on 3 female volunteers, and 12 times on 2 female volunteers. Although mean heart rates did not differ among these respiratory rates, respiratory-induced trough heart rates at 4 and 6 breaths per minute were significantly lower than those at 14 breaths per minute. Slower respiratory rates usually produced higher amplitudes of HRV than did faster respiratory rates. However, the highest amplitudes were at 4 breaths per minute. HRV amplitude decreased at 3 breaths per minute. The results are interpreted as reflecting the possible effects of the slow rate of acetylcholine metabolism and the effect of negative resonance at 3 cycles per minute.

[Sonneck 1905] O. G. Sonneck (1873–1928). “Early American Operas”, Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft, Volume 6, Jahrg., H. 3., published by Franz Steiner Verlag, April 1905, pages 428–495. Reissued in [Sonneck 1921], pages 16-92. Publication 929173 on JSTOR (subscription access). Early American Operas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Death Song of the Cherokee Indians - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Sonneck 1921] O. G. Sonneck. Miscellaneous Studies in the History of Music, published by The MacMillan Company, New York, 1921, 344 pages. Contains a reissue of [Sonneck 1905]. Miscellaneous Studies in the History of Music (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Death Song of the Cherokee Indians - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Soressi 2007] Marie Soressi and Francesco D’Errico. “Pigments, Gravures, Parures: Les Comportements Symboliques Controversés des Néandertaliens «Pigments, Prints, Ornaments: Controversial Symbolic Behavior of Neanderthals»”, contained in [Vandermeersch 2007], in French, 2007, pages 297–309. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sotheby 1999] Sotheby's. Fine American Indian Art, published by Sotheby's, New York, 1999. Date of sale: May 26, 1999. MetMuseum Watson Library call number 119.8T 1999 May 26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Southgate 1890] Thomas Lea Southgate (1836–1917). “The Recent Discovery of Egyptian Flutes, and their Significance”, The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Volume 31, Number 572, October 1, 1890, pages 585–587. Publication 3361142 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Southgate 1891] Thomas Lea Southgate. “On a Pair of Ancient Egyptian Double-Flutes”, Proceedings of the Musical Association for the Investigation and Discussion of Subjects Connected with the Art and Science of Music, Seventeenth Session, published by Novello, Ewer & Co., London, 1891, pages 13–33, retrieved December 30, 2009. Contains 3 songs. On a Pair of Ancient Egyptian Double-Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2), The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Southgate 1908] Thomas Lea Southgate. “The Evolution of the Flute”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, 34th Session, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of the Royal Musical Association, 1908, pages 155–175. Publication 765801 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication proceedingsmusi00britgoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2)

[Southgate 1909] Thomas Lea Southgate. “Flute Music: A Brief Survey”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, Volume 36, Issue 1, 1909, pages 109–124, doi:10.1093/jrma/36.1.109. Publication 765588 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Southgate 1915] Thomas Lea Southgate. “Ancient Flutes from Egypt”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 35, Number 1, published by The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 1915, pages 12–21. Publication 624521 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication journalofhelleni35sociuoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sowder 2010] Erik Sowder, Richard Gevirtz, Warren Shapiro, and Crystal Ebert. “Restoration of Vagal Tone: A Possible Mechanism for Functional Abdominal Pain”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Number 3, September 2010, pages 199–206, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9128-8. Publication 20229150 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) causes disruption of daily activities/missed school days, over utilization of healthcare, unnecessary surgeries, and anxiety in 10-15% of children. Its etiology is not clearly understood, however the success of several clinical protocols suggests that autonomic dysregulation is a factor. In this study autonomic activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), was compared between children with FAP and a comparison group. Twenty children with FAP and 10 children without FAP between the ages of 5 and 17 years old were compared on autonomic regulation using an ambulatory system at baseline and 8 weeks later. Children with FAP participated in 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback aimed at normalizing autonomic balance. At baseline, children with FAP appear to have more autonomic dysregulation than children without FAP. After completing HRV biofeedback, the FAP group was able to significantly reduce their symptoms in relation to significantly increasing their autonomic balance. In a sample of children with FAP, it appears that HRV biofeedback treatment improved their symptoms and that a change in vagal tone was a potential mediator for this improvement. The present study appears to point to excessive vagal withdrawal as an underlying mechanism of FAP.

[Spear 1984] Louise S. Spear. “Cylinder Recordings from Carl Lumholtz' "Unknown Mexico"”, ReSOUND, Volume 3, Number 1, published by the Archives of Traditional Music, Indiana, January 1984. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America

[Spear 2002] Louise Spear. “Moving from the Analog to the Digital Millennium: Discovery and Rediscovery Among the Field Recordings in the UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive”, contained in [Berlin 2002], 2002, pages 381–384. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spear-C 1995] Charles Spear. “The Flageolet”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1909] Frank G. Speck (1881–1950). “Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians”, University of Pennsylvania Museum Anthropological Publications, Volume 1, Number 1, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, 1909, pages 1–154. Reissued in [Speck 2004]. Contains 3 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Names of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Speck 1911] Frank G. Speck; Jacob D. Sapir (music transcriptions). “Ceremonial Songs of the Creek and Yuchi Indians”, University of Pennsylvania Museum Anthropological Publications, Volume 1, Number 2, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, 1911, pages 155–245. Contains 54 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1937] Frank G. Speck. “Oklahoma Delaware Ceremonies, Feasts, and Dances”, Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Number 7, Philadelphia, 1937. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1940] Frank G. Speck. Penobscot Man, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1940. Reissued in [Speck 1968] and [Speck 1997]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1942] Frank G. Speck and George Herzog (1901–1983). The Tutelo Spirit Adoption Ceremony: Reclothing the Living in the Name of the Dead, published by the Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Harrisburg, 1942, 125 pages. Reissued in [Speck 2001]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1949] Frank G. Speck. Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1949, xii + 192 pages. Reissued in [Speck 1995]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Speck 1964] Frank G. Speck. Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago, published by the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1964, 4 sound tape reels (1 hr., 45 min.) : analog, 7 1/2 ips, full track, mono ; 7 inch. Recordings of Cherokee, Creek, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux, Santee, Tutelo, and Winnebago Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12)

Abstract: Recordings of Cherokee, Naskapi, Penobscot, Sioux (Santee), and Winnebago materials. The copies in the APS Library were made from discs recorded by Speck in the field in various places in the United States, Canada, and Labrador between 1935 and 1937.

[Speck 1968] Frank G. Speck. Penobscot Man — The Life History of a Forest Tribe in Maine, published by Octagon Books, May 1968, ISBN 0-374-97533-7 (978-0-374-97533-3). Reissue of [Speck 1940]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1995] Frank G. Speck. Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House, published by Bison Books, 1995, 208 pages, ISBN 0-8032-9231-7 (978-0-8032-9231-4), ASIN 0803292317. Reissue of [Speck 1949]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 1997] Frank G. Speck. Penobscot Man, published by the University of Maine Press, Philadelphia, 1997, 404 pages, ISBN 0-89101-095-5 (978-0-89101-095-1), ASIN 0891010955. Reissue of [Speck 1940]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Speck 2001] Frank G. Speck and George Herzog. The Tutelo Spirit Adoption Ceremony, 2001, 125 pages, ISBN 0-89271-096-9. Reissue of [Speck 1942]. Library of Congress call number 2003276727. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

PABookstore.com description: Noted anthropologist Frank G. Speck presents an ethnological study of the Tutelo tribe, which migrated through colonial Pennsylvania. The book includes their history in Pennsylvania, and a comprehensive description of the Spirit Adoption Ceremony and other Tutelo rites and dances. Ethnomusicologist George Herzog provides transcriptions and an analysis of Tutelo music.

[Speck 2004] Frank G. Speck; Jason Baird Jackson (Introduction). Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians, Bison Books Edition, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 2004, 175 pages, ISBN 0-8032-9313-5 (978-0-8032-9313-7), softcover. Reissue of [Speck 1909]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spence 1914] Lewis Spence (1874–1955). The Myths of the North American Indians, 1914, retrieved April 23, 2010. Publication mythsofnorthamer00spen on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spence-KW 1968] K. W. Spence and J. T. Spence (editors). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Volume 2, published by Academic Press, New York, 1968. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spencer 1959] Robert F. Spencer. The North Alaskan Eskimo: A Study in Ecology and Society, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 171, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1959, vi + 490 pages + 9 plates + 2 figures + 4 maps. Publication bulletin1711959smit2 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spiegelhalder 2011] Kay Spiegelhalder, Lena Fuchs, Johannes Ladwig, Simon D. Kyle, Christoph Nissen, Ulrich Voderholzer, Bernd Feige, and Dieter Riemann. “Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Subjectively Reported Insomnia”, Journal of Sleep Research, Volume 20, Number 1, Part 2, March 2011, pages 137–145, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00863.x. Publication 20626615 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to epidemiological studies, insomnia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, it is yet to be determined whether this link is mediated by known cardiovascular risk factors. The current study aimed at investigating the association between primary insomnia, defined as subjectively reported sleep disturbance in the absence of any other pathology or substance intake, and alterations in polysomnographically determined nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 4,581 nocturnal short-term electrocardiographic recordings (5 min each) from 104 participants (58 with primary insomnia, 46 healthy controls) were evaluated for HR as well as for time and frequency domain measures of HRV. In the primary insomnia group, we found a lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and a lower standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) compared to healthy controls. However, between-group differences in resting HR were not found, and previous results of an increase in sympathovagal balance and a decrease in parasympathetic nocturnal activity in objectively determined insomnia could not be confirmed in our sample of self-report insomnia patients. When restricting our analyses to insomnia patients with objectively determined short sleep duration, we found reduced parasympathetic activity as indicated by decreased high frequency power of HRV, as well as decreased root mean square of successive RRI differences (RMSSD) and percentage of successive RRIs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) values. A lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and alterations in HRV variables might, at least partially, mediate the increased rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in insomnia patients.

[Spier 1928] L. Spier (1893–1961). Havasupai Ethnography, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 29, Part 3, 1928, pages 81–392. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Spier 1933] L. Spier. Yuman Tribes of the Gila River, published by Courier Dover, Chicago, 1933, 433 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks (3)

Publisher's description: Noted anthropologist's superb study of the relatively primitive tribes south of the Pueblo Indians; one of the basic works in the ethnography of the North American Indian. Coverage of tribal distribution, housing, dress, manufactures, time reckoning, social relations, religious beliefs, games, sports. Also, a selection of important tribal tales. 15 photographs.

[Spinden 1915] Herbert Joseph Spinden. “Home Songs of the Tewa”, The American Museum Journal, Volume 15, Number 2, published by the The American Museum of Natural History, New York, February 1915, pages 73–78 + 8 plates. Publication americanmuseumjo15amer on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spinden 1915a] Herbert Joseph Spinden. “Indian Dances of the Southwest”, The American Museum Journal, Volume 15, Number 3, published by the The American Museum of Natural History, New York, March 1915, pages 103–115. Publication americanmuseumjo15amer on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spinden 1933] Herbert Joseph Spinden. Songs of the Tewa, published by the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts, New York, 1933, 256 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spinden 1993] Herbert Joseph Spinden; Alice Marriot (preface). Songs of the Tewa, Third Edition, published by Sunstone Press, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1993, viii + 125 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spitall 1961] William Guy Spitall. “A Brief Note on Iroquois Musical Instruments”, American Indian Tradition, Volume 7, Number 4, 1961, page 137. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spott 1942] Robert Spott and Alfred L. Kroeber (1876–1960). “Yurok Narratives”, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 35, published by the University of California, Berkeley, California, 1942, pages 143–356. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Spottswood 1976] Richard K. Spottswood (editor). Songs of Love, Courtship & Marriage, Folk Music in America Series, Volume 2, Library of Congress Music Division, LBC 2, 1976, ASIN B009UDIKGY, 12-inch LP, 33 1/3 RPM, monophonic. Recorded 1925-1964. LCCN call number 75-750855. See the The American Folk Life Center, Folk Recordings web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2)

[Spottswood 1990] Richard Keith Spottswood; James H. Billington (foreward) (born 1929). Ethnic Music on Records: A Discography of Ethnic Recordings Produced in the United States, 1893 to 1942, Volume 5, Mid-East, Far-East, Scandinavian, English language, American Indian, International, 1990, 512 pages, ISBN 0-252-01718-8 (set), 0-252-01723-4 (volume 5). Library of Congress call number 89-20526. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spycket 1998] Agnes Spycket. “"Le Carnaval des Animaux": On Some Musician Monkeys from the Ancient Near East”, Iraq, Volume 60, 1998, pages 1–10. Publication 4200450 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stacey 1906] Reid Stacey. “Some Zuni Ceremonies and Melodies”, The Musiclovers Calendar, Volume 2, Number 1, published by Breitkopf & Hartel, New York, December 1906, pages 54–61. Contains 5 songs. Some Zuni Ceremonies and Melodies Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Zuni Sunrise - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Stackert 2010] Jeffrey Stackert, Barbara Nevling Porter, and David P. Wright. Gazing on the Deep, Ancient Near Eastern and Other Studies in Honor of Tsvi Abusch, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, 2010, 684 pages, ISBN 1-934309-26-5 (978-1-934309-26-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stainer 1900] John Stainer (1840–1901). The Music Of The Bible — With Some Account of the Development of Modern Musical Instruments from Ancient Types, published by Novello, Ewer & Co., London, 1900. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stanford 2008] Keith Stanford. Ki-e-ta's Manual for the Making of the Native American Style Flute (NAF), Version 12, 2008, 50 pages. See the CherryCows web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Crafting Native American Flutes

[Stanford 2008a] Keith Stanford. Ki-e-ta’s Shop Booklet for the Native American Style Flute (NAF), 2008, 87 pages. See the CherryCows web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Crafting Native American Flutes

[Stanford 2010] Keith Stanford. Playing the Native Flute in Six Weeks, published by CherryCows, 2010, total time 3:30:00. 19 digital video downloads (WMV format). See the Video on the CherryCows web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stanford 2012] Keith Stanford. Native Yucca Stalk Flute Making Manual, 2012, 86 pages. See the CherryCows web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Stanley 2004] David Stanley (editor). Folklore in Utah: A History and Guide to Resources, All USU Press Publications, Paper 31, published by the Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah, 2004, 352 pages, ISBN 0-87421-507-2 (e-book). Folklore in Utah Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stark-R 2000] Rudolf Stark, Anne Schienle, Bertram Walter, and Dieter Vaitl. “Effects of Paced Respiration on Heart Period and Heart Period Variability”, Psychophysiology, Volume 37, Number 3, May 2000, pages 302–309. Publication 10860408 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigated psychophysiological responses to paced respiration of different frequencies. Twenty men and 20 women (mean age: 24.3 years) underwent five breathing conditions (paced with 0.15 Hz, 0.20 Hz, 0.25 Hz, 0.30 Hz, and unpaced), each lasting 5 min. As dependent physiological measures heart period, and different heart period variability (HPV) parameters were assessed. Psychological variables consisted of mood estimates as well as rated accuracy and effort to follow the pacing rhythm. HPV decreased with higher breathing frequencies, under paced and unpaced conditions, whereas mood ratings did not change. Subjects indicated more effort and less accuracy in following the pacing signal, the more its frequency differed from their spontaneous breathing frequency. The comparison of a spontaneous breathing condition with a frequency-matched paced condition revealed that pacing per se provoked a reduction in heart period. Because this decrease was not accompanied by changes in any of the HPV frequency components, their validity as measures of autonomic control needs to be questioned.

[Stasney 2003] C. Richard Stasney, Mary Es Beaver, and Margarita Rodriguez. “Hypopharyngeal Pressure in Brass Musicians”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 18, Number 4, December 2003, pages 153–155. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Brass instrument players are exposed to unique health risks due to increased pharyngeal pressures necessary for performance. One such risk is development of laryngoceles, or "blowout" of the larynx. This cross-sectional observational study was performed to determine the pressure required to play different frequencies in a variety of brass instruments. The hypothesis tested was that enharmonic frequencies require the same pharyngeal pressure regardless of the instrument. The brass instruments tested were high-pressure, low-flow instruments (trumpet or French horn) or low-pressure, high-flow instruments (tuba or trombone). We were not able to substantiate Jacobs' theory that enharmonic frequencies resulted in equal pressures regardless of instrument, but we did elicit some high pressures in the hypopharynx when playing the trumpet or horn at higher frequencies.

[Statnekov 2003] Daniel K. Statnekov. Animated Earth — A Story of Peruvian Whistles and Transformation, published by North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California, 2003, 202 pages, ISBN 1-55643-463-4 (978-1-55643-463-1), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stauss 2003] Harald M. Stauss. “Heart Rate Variability”, American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, Volume 285, Number 5, November 2003, pages R927–R931, doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00452.2003 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stearns 1921] Frederick Stearns (1831–1907) and Albert Augustus Stanley (1851–1932). Catalogue of the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments, Second Edition, published by The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1921, 276 pages. Publication catalogueofstear00steaiala on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stern 2010] Max Stern. “Reconstructing the Voice of King David's Harps”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 161–174, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: For the composer of the 21st century even the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, in all their transpositions and permutations, have become passé. New spectral materials available through sound generators and processors attached to conventional instruments extend the contemporary musician’s sound palette into the unknown. Frequently micro-tones and indigenous tonalities from various ethnic traditions, once considered exotic, have been integrated into contemporary compositions, East and West, crossing over boundaries between folk and art music, though unbridgeable. In sharp contrast, when we gaze at iconographic representations of ancient instruments, particularly lyres and harps attributed to King David we see relatively primitive instruments of only a few strings, which can, with difficulty be tuned at all, to say nothing of changing tuning during performance. (Indeed the chromatic harp was one of the great innovations of the 19th century, enabling this folk instrument to enter the symphony orchestra.) The question all this raises seems to be - is an instrument of 3 or 4 or 5 strings, whose pitches are fixed (at least during the duration of a given selection) capable of music of any aesthetic value, whatsoever? It was this question which I attempted to solve, by posing a creative solution. What kind of music might the author of the Psalms have played?

[Stevens 2004] Christine Stevens. “Group Drumming — A Rational Strategy for Wole Person Care”, Paradigm, Volume 7, Number 4, Winter 2004, pages 6–7. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stevens 2012] Christine Stevens. Music Medicine: The Science and Spirit of Healing Yourself with Sound, published by Sounds True, 2012, 264 pages, ISBN 1-60407-799-9 (978-1-60407-799-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stevenson 1888] Tilly E. Stevenson (1849–1915). The Religious Life of the Zuñi Child, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1888. Reissued in [Stevenson 2010]. Publication cu31924104094127 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Stevenson 1894] Matilda C. Stevenson. “A Chapter of Zuñi Mythology”, contained in [Wake 1894], 1894, pages 312–319. A Chapter of Zuñi Mythology Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Stevenson 1904] Matilda Coxe Stevenson. “The Zuni Indians: Their mythology, esoteric fraternities, and ceremonies”, Twenty-third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1901-1902, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1904, pages 3–608 + 139 plates + 34 figures, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu23smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Zuni Sunrise - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, Names of the Native American Flute

[Stevenson 2010] Tilly E. Stevenson. The Religious Life of the Zuñi Child, published by Nabu Press, 2010, 64 pages, ISBN 1-171-51448-4 (978-1-171-51448-0). Reissue of [Stevenson 1888]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stevenson-J 1884] James Stevenson. “Illustrated Catalogue of the Collections Obtained from the Pueblos of Zuñi, New Mexico, and Wolpi, Arizona, in 1881”, Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881-'82, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1884, pages 511–594, retrieved March 15, 2010. J. W. Powell, Director. Publication annualreportofbu318811882smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutopedia Revision History, The Warble, Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Stevenson-R 1959] Robert Stevenson. “Ancient Peruvian Instruments”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 12, published by the Galpin Society, May 1959, pages 17–43. Publication 841943 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stevenson-R 1968] Robert Stevenson. Music in Aztec and Inca Territory, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1968, 378 pages, ISBN 0-520-03169-5 (978-0-520-03169-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stevenson-R 1973] Robert Stevenson. “Written Sources for Indian Music until 1882”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 17, Number 1, published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology, January 1973, pages 1–40. Publication 850094 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Stevenson-R 1976] Robert Stevenson. Music in Aztec and Inca Territory, Second Edition, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1976, 378 pages, ISBN 0-520-03169-5 (978-0-520-03169-2), ASIN B0007I54CY Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (3)

[Steward 1933] Julian H. Steward. “Ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute”, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 33, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1933, pages 233–350. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Names of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Preface: The following account of the ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute is based on two visits of about six weeks each to Owens valley and Mono lake during the summers of 1927 and 1928 and a short visit in December, 1931. The first two trips were made under the auspices of the Department of Anthropology, University of California.

[Steward 1937] Julian H. Steward. Ancient Caves of the Great Salt Lake Region, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 116, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1937, 131 pages. Reissued in [Steward 2009]. Publication bulletin1161937smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Steward 1941] Julian H. Steward. “Archeological Reconnaissance of Southern Utah”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 128, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1941, pages 275–353. Anthropological paper number 18. Publication bulletin1281941smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Steward 1941a] Julian H. Steward. Culture Element Distributions: XIII - Nevada Shoshone, Anthropological Records, Volume 4, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, April 3, 1941, pages 209–360. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Steward 1948] Julian H. Steward (editor). Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 3: The Tropical Forest Tribes, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 143, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1948, xxvi + 986 pages + 126 plates + 134 figures + 8 maps. Publication bulletin14331948smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America

[Steward 1962] Julian H. Steward. “Alfred Kroeber 1876–1960 — Biographical Memoir”, published by the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1962, pages 192–253. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Steward 2009] Julian H. Steward. Ancient Caves of the Great Salt Lake Region, published by University of Utah Press, October 31, 2009, 131 pages, ISBN 0-87480-990-8 (978-0-87480-990-9). Reissue of [Steward 1937]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stewart 1941] Omer C. Stewart. Culture Element Distributions: XIV - Northern Paiute, Anthropological Records, Volume 4, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, June 6, 1941, pages 361–446. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stirling 1933] M. W. Stirling. “Report of the Chief”, Forty-Eigth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1930-1931, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1933, pages 1–21, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu48smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stobart 1996] Henry Stobart. “The Llama's Flute: Musical Misunderstandings in the Andes”, Early Music, Volume 24, Number 3 (Early Music from Around the World), published by Oxford University Press, August 1996, pages 470–481. Publication 3128262 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stokum A] Gary Stokum and Dr. Kathleen Joyce-Grendahl. Hymns for the Native American Flute — With Inspirational Quotes and Sayings (song book). Nakai tablature notation and sheet music, no finger diagrams. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stone 1976] Ruth M. Stone and Frank J. Gillis. “African Music and Oral Data — A Catalog of Field Recordings, 1902-1975, Second Edition”, published by the University of Michigan, 1976, 412 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stone 2007] Ruth Stone. Theory for Ethnomusicology, published by Prentice Hall, August 11, 2007, 256 pages, ISBN 0-13-240840-6 (978-0-13-240840-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stone-CL 1987] Connie L. Stone. People of the Desert, Canyons and Pines: Prehistory of the Patayan Country in West Central Arizona, Cultural Resource Series, Monograph Number 5, published by the Arizona State Office of the Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, Arizona, September 1987, 97 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This book describes the prehistory and Native American peoples ofthe Patayan country, an area of western Arizona that can also be called the Kingman region in reference to its central town. If one were to draw a box around this portion ofwest central Arizona, its corners clockwise from the northeast would be the lower Grand Canyon, an unparalleled natural wonder; the town of Prescott, Victorian homes nestled in the piney woods of the first territorial capital; Lake Havasu along the Colorado River, home of theimported London Bridge; and Hoover Dam, a wonder of engineering.

[Stone-WH 1874] W. H. Stone. “On Wind Pressure in the Human Lungs During Performance on Wind Instruments”, Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, Volume 1, 1874, pages 13–14, doi:10.1088/1478-7814/1/1/302. On Wind Pressure in the Human Lungs During Performance on Wind Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

[Stowe 2004] David W. Stowe. How Sweet the Sound: Music in the Spiritual Lives of Americans, published by the Harvard University Press, 2004, 352 pages, ISBN 0-674-01290-9 (978-0-674-01290-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

Publisher description: Musical expression is at the heart of the American spiritual experience. And nowhere can you gauge the depth of spiritual belief and practice more than through the music that fills America's houses of worship. Most amazing is how sacred music has been shaped by the exchanges of diverse peoples over time. How Sweet the Sound traces the evolution of sacred music from colonial times to the present, from the Puritans to Sun Ra, and shows how these cultural encounters have produced a rich harvest of song and faith.

Pursuing the intimate relationship between music and spirituality in America, Stowe focuses on the central creative moments in the unfolding life of sacred song. He fills his pages with the religious music of Indians, Shakers, Mormons, Moravians, African-Americans, Jews, Buddhists, and others. Juxtaposing music cultures across region, ethnicity, and time, he suggests the range and cross-fertilization of religious beliefs and musical practices that have formed the spiritual customs of the United States, producing a multireligious, multicultural brew.

Stowe traces the evolution of sacred music from hymns to hip-hop, finding Christian psalms deeply accented by the traditions of Judaism, and Native American and Buddhist customs influenced by Protestant Christianity. He shows how the creativity and malleability of sacred music can explain the proliferation of various forms of faith and the high rates of participation they've sustained. Its evolution truly parallels the evolution of American pluralism.

[Stowe-HB 1852] Hariet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896). Uncle Tom's Cabin, published by John P. Jewett & Company and Jewett, Proctor & Worthington, Boston and Cleveland, Ohio, 1852. Reissued in [Stowe-HB 1995]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Stowe-HB 1995] Hariet Beecher Stowe. Uncle Tom's Cabin, published by Project Gutenberg, January 1995, retrieved November 8, 2010. Reissue of [Stowe-HB 1852]. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #203 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Strathern 1989] Andrew Strathern. “Flutes, Birds, and Hair in Hagen (PNG)”, Anthropos, Band 84, 1989, pages 81–87. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Strathmann 1987] Arnfred R. Strathmann. “Flute”, United States Patent 4,664,011, Granted May 12, 1987, 10 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Strathmann 1992] Arnfred R. Strathmann. “Flute Mouthpiece with Adjustable Core Gap”, United States Patent 5,107,740, Granted April 28, 1992, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Mouthpiece with Adjustable Core Gap Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Figure 1 of U.S. Patent 5,107,740, Fipple Designs for Native American Flutes, Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Stratton-Porter 1910] Gene Stratton-Porter. Music of the Wild, published by Jenning and Graham, Eaton and Mains, Cincinnati and New York, 1910, 430 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Strauven 2010] Peter Strauven and Jan M. F. Van Reeth. “Pythagoras, The Origins of Musical Modi and the Dactyls”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 63–71, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: Music theory in the Christian and Muslim Mediterranean world is interconnected with philosophical considerations, indebted to theology, cosmology and mythology. The almost entire lack of musical source materials, however, hinders research relating to common grounds of these different, but interrelated systems. By taking as an example the philosophical considerations reflected by the multifaceted Eastern and Western music theory dealing with forms of (ordered) modality, we will show that a theoretical, philosophical and theological basis for modal systems preceded their respective musical applications. In our search to the remote origins of these philosophical considerations, we will follow the traces of Persian and Babylonian mythology. A comparison of these mythological accounts, be it in their Western, Levantine form, to the Greco-Minoan myth of the dactyles and to ancient Pythagorism, will not only show a philosophical continuity, but at the same time will reveal musico-theoretical fundamentals. Indeed, when we finally confront these results with musical theory again, we will try to retrace behind these ancient religious and mythological symbols, a musical meaning, with practical consequence.

[Stream 2011] William B. Stream. “Creating Student Engagement? HMM: Teaching and Learning with Humor, Music, and Movement”, Creative Education, Volume 2, Number 3, May 17, 2011, page 189–192, doi:10.4236/ce.2011.23026 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: With growing concerns about student engagement, the theme of creative teaching and learning provides an ex-cellent catalyst to consider methods that enhance students’ classroom experiences. Good teaching is akin to weaving a fabric of connectedness between student, teacher, and subject (Palmer, 2007). Teacher-student con-nection and student engagement are the two most important ingredients in teaching (Lowman, 1995). This paper explores three effective methods of weaving the fabric and engaging students in higher education. Examples of how to use humor, music, and movement to deepen learning while adding energy, engagement, and interaction are offered. A review of research supporting the methods explored in this paper is included.

[Streeter 2012] C. C. Streeter, P, L. Gerbarg, R. B. Saper, D. A. Ciraulo, and R. P. Brown. “Effects of Yoga on the Autonomic Nervous System, Gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and Allostasis in Epilepsy, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder”, Med Hypotheses, Volume 78, Number 5, May 2012, pages 571–579, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.021. Publication 22365651 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is restored. It is hypothesized that stress induces (1) imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, (2) underactivity of the gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter system, and (3) increased allostatic load. It is further hypothesized that yoga-based practices (4) correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and (5) reduce allostatic load. Depression, epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain exemplify medical conditions that are exacerbated by stress, have low heart rate variability (HRV) and low GABAergic activity, respond to pharmacologic agents that increase activity of the GABA system, and show symptom improvement in response to yoga-based interventions. The observation that treatment resistant cases of epilepsy and depression respond to vagal nerve stimulation corroborates the need to correct PNS underactivity as part of a successful treatment plan in some cases. According to the proposed theory, the decreased PNS and GABAergic activity that underlies stress-related disorders can be corrected by yoga practices resulting in amelioration of disease symptoms. This has far-reaching implications for the integration of yoga-based practices in the treatment of a broad array of disorders exacerbated by stress.

[Stringfield 1924] Lamar Stringfield (1897–1959). Indian Sketches — for flute and string quartet Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stringfield 1924a] Lamar Stringfield. Indian Legend — for flute and string quartet, Opus 23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stroutsos 2002] Gary Stroutsos; Paul Thompson (special guest). Echoes of Canyon de Chelly, Red Feather Music, RFP 7008, 17 tracks, 2002, ASIN B000060OWO, audio CD. Contains 7 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stuart 1972] Wendy Bross Stuart. Gambling Music of the Coast Salish Indians, MMus dissertation – University of British Columbia, University of British Columbia, 1972, v + 114 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stuhler 1977] Barbara Stuhler and Gretchen V. Kreuter (editors). Women of Minnesota, Selected Biographical Essays, First Edition, published by Minnesota Historical Society Press, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1977. Reissue of [Stuhler 1998]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stuhler 1998] Barbara Stuhler and Gretchen V. Kreuter. Women of Minnesota: Selected Biographical Essays, Second edition, published by the Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1998, 467 pages, ISBN 0-87351-367-3 (978-0-87351-367-8). Reissued in [Stuhler 1977]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stumpf 1892] Carl Stumpf (1848–1936). “Phonographierte Indianermelodien”, Vierteljahrschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, Volume 8, in German, 1892, pages 127–144. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stumph 1886] Carl Stumph. “Lieder der Ballakula-Indianer”, reprinted in pages 45-62 of [Shelemay 1990], Vierteljahrschrift für Musikwiessenschaft, Volume 2, 1886, pages 405–426. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sturtevant 2001] William C. Sturtevant and Raymond J. DeMallie. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 1, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 2001, 1360 pages, ISBN 0-16-050400-7 (978-0-16-050400-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Sturup 1972] B. Stürup and M. Müller. “A Neolithic (?) Globular Flute from Denmark. In From Bone Pipe and Cattle Horn to Fiddle and Psaltery, pp. 48-54. Copenhagen: Musikhistorisk museum.”, 1972, pages 48–54. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Subtelny 1966] Joanne D. Subtelny, Joseph H. Worth, and Mamoru Sakuda. “Intraoral Pressure and Rate of Flow During Speech”, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Volume 9, December 1966, pages 498–518. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

Abstract: Instrumentation and procedures are described for simultaneous recording and study of sound, oral and nasal pressure, and oral and nasal airflow during speech. The pressure and flow instruments were developed to minimize interference with articulatory movements and sound propagation. Amplitude and duration measures of intraoral pressures for 30 normal speakers are reported as a function of: subject grouping (age and sex), phoneme classification, articulatory position, and phonetic context. Measures of oral pressure, rate of oral flow, and sound power associated with stress and increased vocal effort (loudness) are included to illustrate graphically the interrelationships between oral pressure and flow parameters, and the effect of differences in vocal effort upon both values. Further investigations using the type of instrumentation described are recommended to gain simultaneous and faithful recording of both pressure and flow parameters, thus permitting independent and interdependent analyses to facilitate understanding of the physical bases of speech.

[Suits 2005] Roland Suits. “Reconstructing and Making Replicas of Musical Instruments from the Conservator´s / Instrument Maker’s Viewpoint”. Reconstructing and Making Replicas of Musical Instruments from the Conservator´s / Instrument Maker’s Viewpoint Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sultzman 1999] Lee Sultzman. Sauk and Fox History, First Nations Histories, November 24, 1999, retrieved January 16, 2012. Sauk and Fox History Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Summer 2006] David Summer. “Blowin' in the Wind — Capturing the Flute in Your Home Studio”, Recording, March 2006, pages 50–51. Blowin' in the Wind Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sundberg 1987] Johan Sundberg. The Science of the Singing Voice, published by the Northern Illinois University Press, Dekalb, Illinois, 1987, 227 pages, ISBN 0-87580-542-6 (978-0-87580-542-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sundberg 1991] Johan Sundberg, Ninni Elliot, and Patricia Gramming. “How Constant is Subglottal Pressure in Singing?”, Speech Transmission Laboratory. Quarterly Progress and Status Reports (STL-QPSR), Volume 1, 1991, pages 53–63. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to previous investigations by Leanderson, Sundberg, & von Euler, subglottal pressure in singing is adapted to pitch and loudness. Thus, wide musical intervals and great, sudden changes of loudness were found to be associated with substantial and precise pressure changes. In this study, we will focus on the significance to subglottal pressure of smaller, but equally important effects, namely those associated with musical expression, particularly alternations between stressed and unstressed syllables. We will use a GAELTEC pressure transducer introduced through the nose for measuring changes in subglottal pressure during vocal exercises and artistic performance of lieder and arias. Synchronous recordings are made of fundamental frequency and loudness. Professional singers will serve as subjects.

[Surmeli 2007] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “EEG Neurofeedback Treatment of Patients with Down Syndrome”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 11, Number 1, 2007, pages 63–68, doi:10.1300/J184v11n01_07 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: Down syndrome is the most common identifiable cause of intellectual disability, accounting for almost one third of cases and approximately 1 in 800 births. Neurofeedback (NF) is an operant conditioning method for retraining brain wave (EEG) patterns. An increasing number of clinicians use operant conditioning of EEG activity as a method of helping children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Generalized Learning Disability (ADHD/ADD or GLDO). Some Down syndrome children display symptoms of ADHD/ADD, GLDO or both. We believed that NF may have potential in helping children with Down syndrome.
Methodology: Eight children with Down Syndrome (ages 6–14) were evaluated through questionnaire, parent interview, and pre- and post-treatment quantitative EEG's. All eight children were seen by the first author and by the special educator at the baseline, and at the 20th, 40th and 60th treatment sessions. Pre-treatment QEEGs were analyzed using the NxLink normative database and generally showed excess delta and theta EEG patterns. None of the subjects were able to speak more than one word sentences and they had very limited vocabulary (between 5–10 words). They usually pointed a finger to communicate and were not able to engage in basic conversation. All children displayed very poor attention and concentration, poor memory, impulsivity, behavior problems, in some cases balance problems. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether QEEG guided, bipolar montage NF training is effective in developing speech, improving attention and concentration, improving learning, decreasing behavioral problems or impulsivity, and alleviating balance problems in Down Syndrome children. All subjects were medication-free during treatment. NF training was conducted using Lexicor Biolex software with electrode placement guided by QEEG findings, seeking to normalize abnormal QEEG patterns. Training continued until the subjects demonstrated improvement and there were significant improvements in the reports of parents, or until a total of 60 treatment sessions were provided. Scores derived from a combination of questionnaire and parental ratings were obtained pre- and post-treatment in the areas of memory, speech and language, attention, behavior, and balance.
Results: One subject dropped out after eight sessions. All seven children who completed NF training showed significant (p < .02) improvement in all areas evaluated based on the questionnaire and parent interviewing, and changes were found in QEEGs. Further study with a control group and additional outcome measures is warranted.

[Surmeli 2009] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Therapy in Personality Disorders: 13 Case Studies”, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 40, Number 1, January 2009, pages 5–10, doi:10.1177/155005940904000107. Publication 19278127 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to DSM-IV, personality disorder constitutes a class only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress. Classical treatment of choice for personality disorders has been psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy. Our study is to determine if subjects with antisocial personality disorders will benefit from quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback treatment. Thirteen subjects (9 male, 4 female) ranged in age from 19 to 48 years. All the subjects were free of medications and illicit drugs. We excluded subjects with other mental disorders by clinical assessment. Psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy or any other treatment model was not introduced to any of the subjects during or after neurofeedback treatment. For the subject who did not respond to neurofeedback, training was applied with 38 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback training without success. Evaluation measures included qEEG analysis with Nx Link data base, MMPI, T.O.V.A tests and SA-45 questionaries at baseline, and at the end of neurofeedback treatment. Lexicor qEEG signals were sampled at 128 Hz with 30 minutes-neurofeedback sessions completed between 80-120 sessions depending on the case, by Biolex neurofeedback system. At baseline and after every 20 sessions, patients were recorded with webcam during the interview. Twelve out of 13 subjects who received 80-120 sessions of neurofeedback training showed significant improvement based on SA-45 questionaries, MMPI, T.O.V.A. and qEEG/Nx Link data base (Neurometric analysis) results, and interviewing by parent/family members. Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders. Further study with controls is warranted.

[Surmeli 2010] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “Post WISC-R and TOVA Improvement with QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Training in Mentally Retarded: A Clinical Case Series of Behavioral Problems”, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 41, Number 1, January 2010, pages 32–41, doi:10.1177/155005941004100108. Publication 20307014 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to the DSM-IV, Mental Retardation is significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two of the following skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health and safety. In pilot work, we have seen positive clinical effects of Neurofeedback (NF) applied to children with Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) and other forms of mental retardation. Given that many clinicians use NF in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Generalized Learning Disability cases, we studied the outcomes of a clinical case series using Quantitative EEG (QEEG) guided NF in the treatment of mental retardation. All 23 subjects received NF training. The QEEG data for most subjects had increased theta, alpha, and coherence abnormalities. A few showed increased delta over the cortex. Some of the subjects were very poor in reading and some had illegible handwriting, and most subjects had academic failures, impulsive behavior, and very poor attention, concentration, memory problems, and social skills. This case series shows the impact of QEEG-guided NF training on these clients' clinical outcomes. Fourteen out of 23 subjects formerly took medications without any improvement. Twenty-three subjects ranging from 7-16 years old attending private learning centers were previously diagnosed with mental retardation (severity of degree: from moderate to mild) at various university hospitals. Evaluation measures included QEEG analysis, WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised) IQ test, TOVA (Test of Variables of Attention) test, and DPC-P (Developmental Behaviour Checklist) were filled out by the parents. NF trainings were performed by Lexicor Biolex software. NX-Link was the commercial software reference database used to target the treatment protocols, along with the clinical judgment of the first author. QEEG signals were sampled at 128 samples per second per channel and electrodes were placed according to the International 10-20 system. Between 80 and 160 NF training sessions were completed, depending on the case. None of the subjects received any special education during NF treatment. Two subjects with the etiology of epilepsy were taking medication, and the other 21 subjects were medication-free at the baseline. Twenty-two out of 23 patients who received NF training showed clinical improvement according to the DPC-P with QEEG reports. Nineteen out of 23 patients showed significant improvement on the WISC-R, and the TOVA. For the WISC-R test, 2 showed decline on total IQ due to the decline on some of the subtests, 2 showed no improvement on total IQ although improvement was seen on some of the subtests, however even these cases showed improvement on QEEG and DPC-P. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of NF treatment in mental retardation. The results of this study encourage further research.

[Susman 1943] Amelia Susman. The Accentual System of Winnebago, Doctoral dissertation – Columbia University, New York, 1943, 156 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Sutarto 2010] Auditya Purwandini Sutarto, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, and Nora Mat Zin. “Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback: A New Training Approach for Operator’s Performance Enhancement”, Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, Volume 3, Number 1, 2010, pages 176–198, doi:10.3926/jiem.2010.v3n1.p176-198 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min) to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators.

[Suttles 2004] John Suttles. “Screaming G Flute Plans”, 2004, 1 page. Screaming G Flute Plans Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Plans for Making Native American Flutes

[Suzuki-DT 1959] Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. Zen and Japanese Culture, Second Edition, Bollingen Series LXIV, published by Pantheon / The Bollingen Foundation, New York, 1959, hardcover. Originally published in 1938 as "Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Culture". Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry and Readings for Memorial Services

Publisher's description: One of this century's leading works on Zen, this book is a valuable source for those wishing to understand its concepts in the context of Japanese life and art. In simple, often poetic, language, Daisetz Suzuki describes what Zen is, how it evolved, and how its emphasis on primitive simplicity and self-effacement have helped to shape an aesthetics found throughout Japanese culture. He explores the surprising role of Zen in the philosophy of the samurai, and subtly portrays the relationship between Zen and swordsmanship, haiku, tea ceremonies, and the Japanese love of nature. Suzuki's contemplative discussion is enhanced by anecdotes, poetry, and illustrations showing silk screens, calligraphy, and examples of architecture.

[Swann 1985] Brian Swann. Song of the Sky: Versions of Native American Song-Poems, 1985. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Swann 1993] Brian Swann. Song of the Sky: Versions of Native American Song-Poems, Revised, Expanded Edition, published by the University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, December 1993, 160 pages, ISBN 0-87023-872-8 (978-0-87023-872-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Swann 1997] Brian Swann (editor). Native American Songs and Poems: An Anthology, published by Dover Publications, Mineola, New York, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Swanson 2009] Kimberly S. Swanson, Richard N. Gevirtz, Milton Brown, James Spira, Ermina Guarneri, and Liset Stoletniy. “The Effect of Biofeedback on Function in Patients with Heart Failure”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pages 71–91. Publication 19205870 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased HRV has been consistently associated with increased cardiac mortality and morbidity in HF patients. The aim of this study is to determine if a 6-week course of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and breathing retraining could increase exercise tolerance, HRV, and quality of life in patients with New York Heart Association Class I-III heart failure (HF). Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to either the treatment group consisting of six sessions of breathing retraining, HRV biofeedback and daily practice, or the comparison group consisting of six sessions of quasi-false alpha-theta biofeedback and daily practice. Exercise tolerance, measured by the 6-min walk test (6MWT), HRV, measured by the standard deviation of normal of normal beats (SDNN), and quality of life, measured by the Minnesota Living with Congestive Heart Failure Questionnaire, were measured baseline (week 0), post (week 6), and follow-up (week 18). Cardiorespiratory biofeedback significantly increased exercise tolerance (p = .05) for the treatment group in the high (>or=31%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) category between baseline and follow-up. Neither a significant difference in SDNN (p = .09) nor quality of life (p = .08), was found between baseline and follow-up. A combination of HRV biofeedback and breathing retraining may improve exercise tolerance in patients with HF with an LVEF of 31% or higher. Because exercise tolerance is considered a strong prognostic indicator, cardiorespiratory biofeedback has the potential to improve cardiac mortality and morbidity in HF patients.

[Swanton 1922] John R. Swanton (1873–1958). Early History of the Creek Indians and their Neighbors, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 73, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1922, 492 pages, hardcover. Publication bulletin731922smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Swanton 1952] John R. Swanton. The Indian Tribes of North America, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1952, 726 pages, hardcover. Publication bulletin1451952smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Swanton 1968] John Reed Swanton. Indian Tribes of the American Southwest: California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, published by the Shorey Book Store, Seattle, Washington, 1968, 529 pages, ASIN B0006XVK3M. Extract from [Swanton 1952]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sweet 1981] Ralph Sweet. The Fifer's Delightful Companion, Fifth Edition, March 1981, 84 pages, comb binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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