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References - O

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter O. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - O

[Oberndorfer 1921] Anne Shaw Faulkner Oberndorfer (1877–1948). What We Hear in Music: A Course of Study in Music History and Appreciation, for Use in the Home, Music Clubs, Conservatories, High Schools, Normal Schools, Colleges and Universities ..., Fourth Edition, published by the Victor Talking Machine Company, Camden, New Jersey, 1921, 421 pages. Publication whatwehearinmusi00oberiala on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Obikane 2009] Yasuo Obikane. “Direct Simulation on a Fipple Flute Using the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equation”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 60, 2009, pages 794–798. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper presents both two and three dimensional aeroacoustic direct simulations of near fields around a fipple flute, a recorder, known as a musical instrument, by using the compressible Navier-Stokes equation following the work presented ICCFD5 in Seoul 2008. The objective is to confirm our aeroacoustic method for a larger domain than the last work and extend the dimension from two to three. A multi-directional off diagonal difference scheme is used for the computer domain of (2000x1000) points for two dimensional regular meshes, and (240x150x120) points for the three dimensional computation. In addition, a new acoustic isotropic scheme(AIS) is tested in the outer boundary conditions. As the results in the two dimensional problem showed almost the same flow pattern as that obtained in the smaller domain in the last work, and the Howe’s vortex oscillation in his theory of Flute was observed in the present problem. As extension to the large domain, they showed spherical wave patterns clearly from the mouth of the fipple flute in the two dimensional cases. For three-dimensional cases, the computation is stable, and circular patterns of the wave were observed, but the computation required weeks to reach a solution. For the AIS, several wave patterns were tested, and it was confirmed the AIS is much better than the weighted scheme, which was calibrated in the inertial sub-range for high speed flows. The computation was successful to show the main frequency and obtained a pattern similar to the fipple flute spectrum patterns.

[OBrien 2001] Michael John O'Brien and James William Cogswell. Mississippian Community Organization: The Powers Phase in Southeastern Missouri, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, published by Springer, 2001, 324 pages, ISBN 0-306-46480-2 (978-0-306-46480-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: The Powers Phase Project, a multiyear archaeological program undertaken in southeastern Missouri by the University of Michigan in the late 1960s and early 1970s, represents a milestone in Americanist archaeology. This volume reinterprets a number of the earlier conclusions from the long-term excavations of the Turner and Snodgrass sites and enhances the usefulness of the findings for archaeologists interested in the late prehistory of the Mississippi River Valley.

[ODwyer 2004] Simon O'Dwyer. Prehistoric Music of Ireland, published by Tempus Publishing, Stroud, Gloustershire, United Kingdom, 2004, 160 pages, ISBN 0-7524-3129-3, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Odyssey 2010] Odyssey Productions. Wave The Ocean, Wave The Sea: Alan Lomax's ''Southern Journey'' 1959-1960, Global Jukebox, 16 tracks, December 14, 2010, total time 43:45, ASIN B004F3VXN6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oishi 2011] Shigehiro Oishi, Selin Kesebir, and Ed Diener. “Income Inequality and Happiness”, Psychological Science, Volume 22, Number 9, September 2011, pages 1095–1100, doi:10.1177/0956797611417262 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Using General Social Survey data from 1972 to 2008, we found that Americans were on average happier in the years with less national income inequality than in the years with more national income inequality. We further demonstrated that this inverse relation between income inequality and happiness was explained by perceived fairness and general trust. That is, Americans trusted other people less and perceived other people to be less fair in the years with more national income inequality than in the years with less national income inequality. The negative association between income inequality and happiness held for lower-income respondents, but not for higher-income respondents. Most important, we found that the negative link between income inequality and the happiness of lower-income respondents was explained not by lower household income, but by perceived unfairness and lack of trust.

[Okada 2009] K. Okada, A. Kurita, B. Takase, T. Otsuka, E. Kodani, Y. Kusama, H. Atarashi, and K. Mizuno. “Effects of Music Therapy on Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Incidence of Heart Failure Events, and Plasma Cytokine and Catecholamine Levels in Elderly Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease and Dementia”, International Heart Journal, Volume 50, Number 1, January 2009, pages 95–110. Publication 19246850 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Music therapy (MT) has been used in geriatric nursing hospitals, but there has been no extensive research into whether it actually has beneficial effects on elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and dementia. We investigated the effects of MT on the autonomic nervous system and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with CVD and dementia, since these are related to aging and chronic geriatric disease. We also investigated the effects of MT on congestive heart failure (CHF) events.Eighty-seven patients with pre-existing CVD were enrolled in the study. We assigned patients into an MT group (n = 55) and non-MT group (n = 32). The MT group received MT at least once per week for 45 minutes over 10 times. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). We measured plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in both the MT group and non-MT group. We compared the incidence of CHF events between these two groups. In the MT group, rMSSD, pNN50, and HF were significantly increased by MT, whereas LF/HF was slightly decreased. In the non-MT group, there were no significant changes in any HRV parameters. Among cytokines, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MT group was significantly lower than those in the non-MT group. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower in the MT group than in the non-MT group. CHF events were less frequent in the MT group than in the non-MT group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that MT enhanced parasympathetic activities and decreased CHF by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels.

[OLA 1899] Ontario Legislative Assembly. Sessional Papers - Legislature of the Province of Ontario, Volume 1, 1899. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olderogge 1960] D. A. Olderogge (1903–1987). “The Origin of the Hausa Language”, contained in [Wallace-AFC 1960], 1960, pages 795–802. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Oldys 1907] Henry Oldys. “Music of Man and Birds”, Harpers, Volume 114, Number 7, 1907, pages 766–771. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oliver 2001] Emmanuelle Oliver. “Categorizing the Ju|’hoan Musical Heritage”, African Study Monographs, Supplement 27, March 2001, pages 11–27. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The article presents an illustration of a reflexion on musical categorization, as applied to the Ju|’hoansi settled in North-Eastern Namibia. Their musical heritage can be divided into categories based on the identification and the opposition of musical features, which are culturally relevant. The article also deals with the relations between musical categories, social context and verbalisation as well as with the question of the invariants and the transformations within the system.

[Olsen 1967] Poul Rovsing Olsen. “An Aulos in The Danish National Museum”, Danish Yearbook of Musicology, Volume 5, 1966–1967, pages 3–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olsen-GD 1995] G. Douglas Olsen. “Creating the Contrast: The Influence of Silence and Background Music on Recall and Attribute Importance”, Journal of Advertising, Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 1995, pages 29–44. Publication 4188987 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: The author investigates the ways in which advertisers can use silence in radio commercials to increase attention to, and subsequent retention of, information in an advertisement. It is argued here that, when music is used in an advertisement, listener attention can be focused on specific pieces of information by cutting to silence just before presenting the crucial information and by continuing the underlying silence as the information is presented. An experiment is reported in which silence effectively increases the listener retention of ad information, in comparison with the use of either background music or background silence throughout. The effect was greatest when the highlighted information was the last item of a series. However, counter to expectations, advertisements with no background music whatsoever did not induce greater overall recall than ads with background music throughout.

[Olsen-L 1972] Loran Olsen. “Nez Perce Songs of Historical Significance, as Sung by Sol Webb”, published by the Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, 1972. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olsen-L 1979] A. Loran Olsen. “The Nez Perce Flute”, Northwest Anthropological Research Notes, Volume 13, Number 1, Summer 1979, pages 36–44. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (10)

Abstract: The flutes and whistles of the Nez Perce Indians and their Plateau neighbors exemplify a uniform way of fabricating the "whistle-head." Comparisons indicate that the Plateau people conceived of flute construction and sound production somewhat differently from other tribal groups in North America .

[Olsen-L 1989] Loran Olsen. Guide to the Nez Perce Music Archive: An Annotated Listing of Songs and Musical Selections Spanning the Period 1897-1974, published by Washington State University, School of Music and Theatre Arts, Pullman, Washington, 1989, 40 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olsen-L 1999] Loran Olsen. A Legacy from Sam Morris, published by the Northwest Interpretive Association, Seattle, Washington, 1999. Companion guide to [Morris-S 1995]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olsen-L 2001] Loran Olsen. Qillóowawya: Hitting the Rawhide — Serenade Songs from the Nez Perce Musical Archive, published by the Northwest Interpretive Association, Seattle, Washington, 36 tracks, 2001, 38 pages, ISBN 0-914019-45-7 (978-0-914019-45-9), audio CD and booklet. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olson-DP 2009] Douglas P. Olson. “Improvisation”, The Hastings Center Report, Volume 39, Number 6, November–December 2009, page 6. Publication 40407661 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oma 2008] Kristin Armstrong Oma. “Yoga in the Bronze Age? — Reflections on the Pictorial Evidence of the Use of Body Techniques to Attain Altered States of Conciousness”, contained in [Chilidis 2008], 2008, pages 485–496. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ondraskova 2009] Adriena Ondraskova, Sebastian Sevcik, and Pavel Kostecky. “A Significant Decrease of the Fundamental Schumann Resonance Frequency During the Solar Cycle Minimum of 2008–9 as Observed at Modra Observatory”, Contributions to Geophysics and Deodesy, Volume 39, Number 4, 2009, pages 345–354. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Pitch-to-Frequency Calculator (3)

Abstract: The Schumann resonances (SR) are electromagnetic eigenmodes of the resonator bounded by the Earth’s surface and the lower ionosphere. The SR frequency variability has been studied for more than 4 decades. Using data from the period 1988 to 2002, S´atori et al. (2005) showed that the SR fundamental mode frequency decreased on the 11-year time scale by 0.07 – 0.2 Hz, depending on which component of the field was used for estimation and likely also on the location of the observer. A decrease by 0.30 Hz from the latest solar cycle maximum to the minimum of 2009 is found in data from Modra Observatory. This extraordinary fall of the fundamental mode frequency can be attributed to the unprecedented drop in the ionizing radiation in X-ray frequency band. Although the patterns of the daily and seasonal variations remain the same in the solar cycle minimum as in the solar cycle maximum, they are significantly shifted to lower frequencies during the minimum. Analysis of the daily frequency range suggests that the main thunderstorm regions during the north hemisphere summer are smaller in the solar cycle minimum than in the maximum.

[Opler 1940] Morris Edward Opler (1907–1996). “Myths and Legends of the Lipan Apache Indians”, Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society, Volume 36, 1940, 296 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Opler 1941] Morris Edward Opler. An Apache Life-Way — The Economic, Social and Religious Institutions of the Chiricahua Indians, published by the Chicago University Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1941. Publication apachelifewayeco00ople on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Opler 1943] Morris Edward Opler. “Navaho Shamanistic Practice among the Jicarilla Apache”, New Mexico Anthropologist, Volume 6/7, published by the University of New Mexico, January–March 1943, pages 13–18. Publication 4291257 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oppermann 2014] Marcia Oppermann. Flutes of the World — and their stories …, Second Edition, published by CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014, 14 pages, ISBN 1-5053-8311-0 (978-1-5053-8311-9). Age level 7-8. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Prima, Tilina, Ocarina, Bambina and Little Pine are flutes from different parts of the world with their own distinct and unique personalities. Then, one day they start life in the hands of teenage April opening a whole universe of musical expression which is accessible to everyone. The musical journey goes deep and offers a very good insight into music learning and music making as well. Enjoy the musical journey in the company of the FLUTES OF THE WORLD!

[Opren 1874] J. M. Opren. “A Glimpse into the Mythology of the Maluti Bushmen”, The Cape Montly Magazine, Volume 9, July 1874. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Opren 1919] J. M. Opren. “Folklore of the Bushmen”, Folklore, Volume 30, Number 2, June 30, 1919, pages 139–156. Reissue of [Opren 1874]. Publication 1254856 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oravec 2013] Christine Oravec. “Yuccas, Butterflies, and Flute Players: The Significance of San Juan Basketmaker Rock Art in the Flower World Image Complex”, Thirty Third Annual Symposium of the Utah Rock Art Research Association (URARA), Moab, Utah, October 11–14, 2013, 2013, pages 15–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The “Flower World” is the name of a complex of verbal and visual imagery that may have been used by ancient and historical Puebloan peoples to portray their daily lives and their place in the cosmos. For fifteen years researchers have identified its characteristic elements and discussed its importance for understanding the Puebloan people. The results have been greater understanding of its possible Mayan and Aztec antecedents and recognition of its influence upon such Puebloan cultural productions as songs, ceremonies, pottery, kiva murals, and rock art.

[Oravec 2014] Christine Oravec. Yuccas, Agaves, Butterflies and Flute Players: The Significance of San Juan Basketmaker Rock Art in the Flower World Image Complex, Presented to the Dixie Archaeology Society, January 8, 2014, 77 pages. See the Utah Rock Art web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks (5)

[Orem 1918] Preston Ware Orem (1865–1938). American Indian Rhapsody — for piano, published by Presser, 1918, 15 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Indianist Movement

[Ortiz 1979] Alfonso Ortiz (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 9: Southwest, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1979, 717 pages, ISBN 1-127-53651-6 (978-1-127-53651-1). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (3)

Publisher's description: 59 chapters on Puebloan peoples and prehistory of southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico.

[Ortiz 1983] Alfonso Ortiz (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 10: Southwest, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1983, 884 pages, ISBN 0-16-004579-7 (978-0-16-004579-0). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 56 chapters on non-Puebloan peoples and on economy, social organization, and rituals of southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico.

[Osburn 1946] Mary Hubbell Osburn. “Prehistoric Musical Instruments in Ohio”, Ohio State Archaelogocial and Historical Quarterly, Volume 55, 1946, pages 12–20. See the Ohio History web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Oshinsky 2008] James Oshinsky. Return to Child — Music for People’s Guide to Improvising Music and Authentic Group Leadership, Second Edition, January 2008, 191 pages. See the Return to Child web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Perfect Intervals

[OsKeNonTon 1923] Os-Ke-Non-Ton (1888–1955) (performer); Thurlow Lieurance (composer) (1878–1963). By the Waters of Minnetonka, Columbia Phonograph, A-3173, 2 tracks, 1923, 78 rpm 10" shellac audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ostler 2004] Jeffrey Ostler. The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee, Series: Studies in North American Indian History, published by, Cambridge University Press, September 23, 2004, 406 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-521-60590-8, softcover, doi:10.2277/0521605903. See the Cambridge University Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

Cambridge University Press Summary: This volume presents an overview of the history of the Plains Sioux as they became increasingly subject to the power of the United States in the 1800s. Many aspects of this story - the Oregon Trail, military clashes, the deaths of Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, and the Ghost Dance - are well-known. Besides providing fresh insights into familiar events, the book offers an in-depth look at many lesser-known facets of Sioux history and culture. Drawing on theories of colonialism, the book shows how the Sioux creatively responded to the challenges of US expansion and domination, while at the same time revealing how US power increasingly limited the autonomy of Sioux communities as the century came to a close. The concluding chapters of the book offer a compelling reinterpretation of the events that led to the Wounded Knee massacre of December 29, 1890.

[Owen 2009] James Owen. “Bone Flute Is Oldest Instrument, Study Says”, National Geographic News, June 24, 2009, retrieved December 29, 2009. See the National Geographic web site. Bone Flute Is Oldest Instrument, Study Says Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: The Hohle Fels Griffon Vulture Flute

[Owen-B 1979] Barbara Owen. The Organ in New England, published by The Sunbury Press, Raleigh, North Carolina, 1979, 649 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Organ Pipes and the Native American Flute

Publisher's description: Traces the evolution of organs and their builders in New England from the Colonial era to the 20th century.

 
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