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References - C

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter C. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - C

[Caballero 2014] Rodrigo Caballero. The Resounding Body: Epistemologies of Sound, Healing, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Canada's West Coast, Ph.D. dissertation – University of British Columbia, published by the University of British Columbia, April 2014, xiii + 193 pages. The Resounding Body Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The main claim of this dissertation is that practices of sound healing are driven by a skepticism towards how conventional medicine conceptualizes and treats the body. Therefore, sound healing in thought and practice may be seen as revolving around an implicit desire to redefine the body, health, and listening. I refer to this as “negating the biomedical body” and show how it is underscored by frequent recourse to medical concepts adopted from complementary and alternative medicine. This dissertation illustrates how practitioners’ negating of the biomedical body as well as their deeply embodied conception of listening and sound bear surprising consistency across a variety of sound healing practices. In this sense, sound healing is caught up in changing values regarding health, medicine, and healthcare delivery in the contemporary west. Notwithstanding its antithetical stance, however, sound healing can also be further understood when its dialectical relation to science and medicine is considered. In practice this unstable and problematic relationship is most pronounced in the contradiction between practitioners’ negating of the biomedical body (rooted in embodiment and indeterminacy) and popular appeals to science (rooted in representation and objectification). Ultimately, I argue that in lieu of recognition from established medicine, a distinguishing role for sound healing rests on resolving this dialectical tension. This it accomplishes through the formulation of a new vernacular— hinging on terms such as “vibration,” “frequency,” and “resonance”—and a privileging of the body’s immaterial and energetic dimensions (a process I term the “naturalization of energy”). I suggest that one outcome of this dialectic is the new “body-as-vibration,” a conceptual model of the body that is believed to be amenable to science but that still preserves sound healers’ need to formulate a new epistemology for the body and health.

[CAD 2011] Martha T. Roth (editor in charge). The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD), 21 Volumes (26 total parts), published by The Oriental Institute, Chicago, Illinois, Date of publication completion June 2011, 10,000 pages, retrieved December 22, 2011. Publication began 1921. also known as The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: The CAD project was initiated in the early 1920s, not long after James Henry Breasted founded the Oriental Institute in 1919, and barely one hundred years after the decipherment of the cuneiform script. This initial decipherment, and the soon-to-follow achievements in understanding the languages in which the hundreds of thousands of clay tablets were inscribed, opened an unsuspected treasure-house for the study and appreciation of one of the world's oldest civilizations.

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary was conceived to provide more than lexical information alone, more than a one-to-one equivalent between Akkadian and English words. By presenting each word in a meaningful context, usually with a full and idiomatic translation, it recreates the cultural milieu and thus in many ways assumes the function of an encyclopedia. Its source material ranges in time from the third millennium b.c. to the first century a.d., and in geographic area from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east.

With sixteen of the projected twenty-one volumes published and the remaining volumes in various stages of preparation, with close to two million file cards - a database which is continually updated and which is accessible to scholars and students who wish to consult it - the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary has become an invaluable source for the study of the civilizations of the ancient Near East, their political and cultural history, their achievements in the sciences of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and linguistics, and not least the timeless beauty of their poetry.

[Cadman 1908] Charles Wakefield Cadman (1866–1946). From the Land of the Sky-Blue Water, Opus 45, Number 1, published by White-Smith Music Publishing Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago, 1908, 8 pages. http://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page. See the Historic American Sheet Music, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University web site. Contains 4 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cadman 1909] Charles Wakefield Cadman. Four American Indian Songs — Harmonized and Elaborated by Charles Wakefield Cadman (song book), published by the White-Smith Publishing Company, Boston, New York, and Chicago, 1909, 34 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

[Cadman 1912] Charles Wakefield Cadman. Idealized Indian Themes — for pianoforte, Opus 54, published by White-Smith Music Publishing Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago, 1912, 22 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cadman 1914] Charles Wakefield Cadman. From Wigwam to Tepee, Opus 57, published by White-Smith Music Publishing Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago, 1914. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cadman 1915] Charles Wakefield Cadman. “The ‘Idealization’ of Indian Music”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 1, Number 3, published by the Oxford University Press, July 1915, pages 387–396, doi:10.1093/mq/I.3.387. Publication 738149 on JSTOR (subscription access). See the Musical Quarterly web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cadman 1917] Charles Wakefield Cadman. Thunderbird Suite, Opus 63, published by White-Smith Music Publishing Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago, 1917. Publication thunderbirdpiano00cadm on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cadman 1920] Charles Wakefield Cadman. “The American Indian's Music Idealized”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, pages 659–660. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cajune 2011] Julie Cajune (director, producer); Jan Nickman (co-producer); Jennifer Greene (writer); Joanne Bigcrane (narrator); Paul Thompson, Fernando Cellicion, Gary Stroutsos, and Florentine Johnson (performers). Remembering the Songs: Music Traditions from the Zuni, Navajo, and Salish, Center for American Indian Policy and Applied Research, Salish Kootenai College and Npustin Press, Pablo, Montana and Arlee, Montana, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

WorldCat Summary: While the CD includes both traditional Zuni, Navajo and Salish songs, performed by American Indian musicians, the DVD features interviews with musicians Paul Thompson and Fernando Cellicion whose performances are featured on the CD. Additionally, the DVD includes an interview with Lucy Vanderburg, daughter of Salish musician Jerome Vanderburg. Vanderburg not only composed songs, but was on of the last Salish men to make and play the traditional Salish flute.

[Cajune 2011a] Julie Cajune (writer); Gary Stroutsos (producer and performer); Doug Geist (recording and mixing). Paul Thompson, Fernando Cellicion, and Florentine Johnson (performers). Remembering the Songs: Music Traditions from the Zuni, Navajo, and Salish, Center for American Indian Policy and Applied Research, Salish Kootenai College and Npustin Press, Arlee, Montana, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

WorldCat Summary: While the CD includes both traditional Zuni, Navajo and Salish songs, performed by American Indian musicians, the DVD features interviews with musicians Paul Thompson and Fernando Cellicion whose performances are featured on the CD. Additionally, the DVD includes an interview with Lucy Vanderburg, daughter of Salish musician Jerome Vanderburg. Vanderburg not only composed songs, but was on of the last Salish men to make and play the traditional Salish flute.

[Calabrese 2000] Calabrese P, Perrault H, Dihn TP, Eberhard H, Benchetrit G. “Cardiorespiratory Interactions During Resistive Load Breathing”, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Volume 279, Number 6, December 2000, pages R2208–R2213. Publication 11080087 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

[Caldwell 2009] Duncan Caldwell. “Palaeolithic Whistles or Figurines? — A Preliminary Survey of Pre-historic Phalangeal Figurines”, Rock Art Research, Volume 26, Number 1, 2009, pages 65–82. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Phalangeal Whistles, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Pre-Historic phalanges with anthropic holes through one side of their shafts have usually been interpreted as whistles. But identical bones are used by several peoples as human effigies — most commonly of women and babies. Distal limb bones with incised or sculpted heads, eyes, arms and vulvas prove that such bones were also interpreted anthropomorphically by Eurasian cultures in the past. The use of phalangeal figurines from central Siberia to Greenland also suggests that the practice spread around the Arctic from ancient sources. Ethnographic examples illustrate a few roles women have played in the region’s cold weather economies and how female effigies reflect such roles, but are not offered as strict analogies with Palaeolithic counterparts. Instead a case is made from new internal readings of several pre-Historic objects incorporating feminine imagery — including the ‘woman between reindeer hooves’ from Laugerie-Basse and an engraving from Étiolles — that some ancient feminine images reflect a vision of women in keeping with the division of labour in northern hunter-gatherer subsistence models. Economic necessities may partly explain how pregnancy and compact feminine effigies have been viewed ideologically in cold Eurasian areas for millennia. Finally, the possible existence of perforated phalanges from the Middle Palaeolithic and even earlier is noted and a protocol of tests is suggested for determining whether their holes are anthropic or natural. If any of the holes in these older specimens turn out to be manmade, then the conclusion that pre-Historic perforated phalanges are likely to be figurines will have to be extended to those made by archaic humans like Neanderthals.

[Caldwell-JR 1964] Joseph R. Caldewll. “Interaction Spheres in Prehistory”, Scientific Papers, Volume 12, Number 2, pubished by the Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois, 1964, pages 133–143. in Hopewellian Studies, edited by J. Caldwell and R. Hall. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Calonahuskie 1989] Louis Calonahuskie, Marilou Awiakta, and Richard "Geet" Crowe. Voices of Memory: Historical Role of Oral Tradition, produced by, Kentucky Educational TV, 1989, video VHS. Museum of the Cherokee Indian call number 2009.020.0001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Museum of the Cherokee Indian card catalog description: Includes brief historical sketch of Cherokees with emphasis on Eastern Band; shots of modern downtown Cherokee; discussion of Fading Voices project — Interviews with Lois Calonehuskie, Marilou Awiakta, and Richard ”Geet” Crowe. Flute music from the ”Ani Sha Ho Ni” project. Photos from Museum of the Cherokee Indian archives.

[Cambel 2003] H. Çambel and A. Özyar. Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: Die Bildwerke «Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: The Image Works», Mainz am Rhein, in German, 2003, ISBN-13 978-3-8053-3085-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Campbell 2011] Dennis R. M. Campbell. Observations on the Lyric Structure of Hurrian Songs and the Fragment KBo 35.39, 2011, 35 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Campbell-C 1987] Colin Campbell. Art in Crisis: Contact Period Rock Art in the South-Eastern Mountains of Southern Africa, M.S. dissertation – University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 28, 1987. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Campbell-DA 1964] David A. Campbell. “Flutes and Elegiac Couplets”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 84, published by The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 1964, pages 63–68. Publication 627693 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Campbell-OD 1917] Olive Dame Campbell (1882–1954) and Cecil James Sharp (1859–1924). English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 1917. Publication englishfolksongs00camp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Campbell-PD 1995] P. D. Campbell and D. Wescott. “California Elderwood Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, Number 2, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995, pages 27–29. ISSN 1078-4845. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Campbell-PS 1994] Patricia Shehan Campbell and David P. McAllester (1916–2006). “David P. McAllester on Navajo Music”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 81, Number 1, published by Sage Publications for MENC: The National Association for Music Education, July 1994, pages 17–23. Publication 3398792 on JSTOR (subscription access). Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Music teachers are increasingly interested in opening their classrooms and rehearsal rooms to music that originates from outside the Western European art tradition.This interest shows up in the pages of MENC journals, in the programming for MENC conferences, and in the National Standards, which refer to study of music "representing diverse genres and cultures".

The interest stems, in part, from mandates imposed on teachers by school districts, principals, and parents, as well as by the perceived needs of the communities or neighborhoods in which they are located. But the interest brings with it a series of questions: How does one maintain musical integrity when so many new musical traditions are begging for representation? What is the authentic repertoire of a given musical culture? What should be the context in which one teaches the music of a culture? In what ways can teachers come into the music of a given tradition? Are there resources that are more valid than others for use in the classroom?

Ethnomusicology-the study of music in culture, or music as culture-can help teachers come to grips with these questions. Through this series of articles, some of the foremost scholars in that field offer their insights into the challenges of teaching world musics in the multicultural classrooms of today.

[Candelario 1948] John S. Candelario; Gerald Nailor (cover art). Indian Songs of the Southwest, Gems for Collectors Series, Taos, New Mexico, Thunderbird Records, C-481, C-484, C-487, 1948, set of 78 rpm 10" audio discs (four). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Track Listing: C-481 Apache Songs: Mountain Sprits Dance / Sun Greeting Ceremony
C-484 Hopi Songs: Butterfly Dance / War Dance
C-484 Navajo Songs: Yeibichai / Squaw Dance
C-487 Taos Songs: War Dance / Moonlight Song

[CanPost 2007] Canada Post. Canada’s Stamp Details, Volume 16, Number 3, July–September 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Canright 1985] David Canright. “Pentatonics I Have Known”, 1/1, the Journal of the Just Intonation Network, Volume 1, Number 2, 1985, retrieved January 28, 2015. Pentatonics I Have Known Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cantos 1981] Earl J. Cantos, Jr. “Hand Flute and Percussion Instrument”, United States Patent 4,269,104, Granted May 26, 1981, 3 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Hand Flute and Percussion Instrument Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Caplice 1988] Richard I. Caplice and Daniel C. Snell. Introduction to Akkadian, published by Gregorian and Biblical Book Shop, 1988, 106 pages, ISBN 88-7653-566-7 (978-88-7653-566-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Cappo 1984] B. Cappo and D. Holmes. “The utility of prolonged respiratory exhalation for reducing physiological and psychological arousal in non-threatening and threatening situations”, J Psychosom Res, Volume 28, Number 4, 1984, pages 265–273. Publication 6481661 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To determine whether slowing and altering the respiratory pattern is an effective means for reducing physiological and psychological arousal, subjects participated in one of three treatment conditions in which they reduced their respiration rate to 6 cpm and either inhaled quickly and exhaled slowly, inhaled slowly and exhaled quickly, or spent equal amounts of time inhaling and exhaling. Other subjects participated in a distraction control condition or in a no-treatment control condition. Arousal was measured during a practice period, a threat (electrical shocks) anticipation period, and a threat confrontation period. The results indicated that the breathing manipulations were not effective in reducing arousal during the practice period, but that inhaling quickly and exhaling slowly was consistently effective for reducing physiological (skin resistance) and psychological (subjective cognitive) arousal during the anticipation and confrontation periods.

[Capron 1953] Louis Capron. “The Medicine Bundles of the Florida Seminole and the Green Corn Dance”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 151, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, pages 155–210. Anthropological paper number 35. Publication bulletin1511953smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cardin 1947] Clarisse Cardin. “Bio-bibliographie de Marius Barbeau”, Les Archives de Folklore, Volume 2, in French, 1947, pages 17–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Carlos 1996] Wendy Carlos. “Three Asymmetric Divisions of the Octave”, 1996. Three Asymmetric Divisions of the Octave Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Carr 2006] Christopher Carr and D. Troy Case. Gathering Hopewell — Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, published by Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006, ISBN 0-306-48478-1, hardcover, doi:10.1007/b138920 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Carrick 2013] Carrick Brain Centers. Tricks for Developing a Sharper Memory, February 22, 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Carroll 2004] Alex K. Carroll, M. Nieves Zedeño, and Richard W. Stoffle. “Landscapes of the Ghost Dance: A Cartography of Numic Ritual”, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, Volume 11, Number 2, 2004, pages 127–156, doi:10.1023/B:JARM.0000038064.42041.aa Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Recent historical and ethnographic research indicates that the study of ritual behavior could be greatly enhanced by combining parameters of place and landscape use with interpretation of material culture. This strategy is especially useful for identifying the archaeological record of ritual among societies that incorporated topographic features and natural resources into their liturgical order. In this article we apply a behavioral framework to the study of Numic ritual technologies. By intergrating ethnographic and historic data on the geography, practice, and material culture of the nineteenth-century Nevada Ghost Dance, we demonstrate how this framework helps to determine the configuration of a ritual place and its position relative to other ritual and nonritual places.

[Carson 2006] C. F. Carson, K. A. Hammer, and T. V. Riley. “Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties”, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Volume 19, Number 1, January 2006, pages 50–62, doi:10.1128/CMR.19.1.50–62.2006 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Many complementary and alternative medicines have enjoyed increased popularity in recent decades. Efforts to validate their use have seen their putative therapeutic properties come under increasing scrutiny in vitro and, in some cases, in vivo. One such product is tea tree oil (TTO), the volatile essential oil derived mainly from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia. Employed largely for its antimicrobial properties, TTO is incorporated as the active ingredient in many topical formulations used to treat cutaneous infections. It is widely available over the counter in Australia, Europe, and North America and is marketed as a remedy for various ailments.

[Carstens 2004] Kenneth C. Carstens and Philip J. DiBlasi. “Unique Prehistoric Cultural Artifacts in the S-Bend Area of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky”, contained in [Hockensmith 2004], 2004, pages 69–83. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Carter 1976] Samuel Carter III (born 1904). Cherokee Sunset: A Nation Betrayed: A Narrative of Travail and Triumph, Persecution and Exile, First Edition, published by Doubleday, 1976, 318 pages, ISBN 0-385-06735-6 (978-0-385-06735-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Casarez 2005] Lisa Casarez. Learn the Hidatsa, Arikara and Mandan Languages, 2005, retrieved October 31, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Casey 2007] Mike Casey and Bruce Gordon. Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation, 2007, 160 pages. Sound Directions Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cassens 1995] Daniel L. Cassens. “Some Important Indiana Hardwoods — Their Characteristics and Uses, Revised edition”, Forestry and Natural Resources, Marketing and Utilization, FNR 27, published by Purdue University, Cooperative Extension Service, April 1995, ASIN B0006YDHIW Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Castaneda 1904] Pedro de Castañeda; George Parker Winship (translator and editor) (1871–1952). The Journey of Coronado 1540–1542 — from the City of Mexico to the Grand Canon of the Colorado and the Buffalo Plains of Texas, Kansas, and Nebraska, published by A. S. Barnes & Company, New York, 1904, 251 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Castetter 1938] Edward F. Castetter, Willis H. Bell, and Alvin R. Grove. “The Early Utilization and the Distribution of Agave in the American Southwest”, Ethnobiological Studies In The American Southwest, The University Of New Mexico Bulletin, December 1, 1938. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[CastroSotos 2009] Ana Elisa Castro Sotos, Stijn Vanhoof, Wim Van Den Noortgate, and Patrick Onghena. “The Transitivity Misconception of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient”, Statistics Education Research Journal, Volume 8, Number 2, 2009, pages 33–55. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite the relevance of correlational studies for most research domains, many students, teachers, and researchers alike hold misconceptions concerning the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. One of these, the transitivity misconception, has not yet been documented in a systematic way. This paper summarizes the first empirical study, using 279 university students, and examines the relationship between student-based and task-based factors and the appearance of this misconception. In particular, two task-based factors seemed to have a significant effect on its appearance. In addition, the respondents’ level of confidence in their answer to the transitivity item was significantly lower than for most other times.

[CatholicOnline 2011] Catholic Online. “Huron Indians”, 2011, retrieved October 24, 2011. See the Catholic Encyclopedia Online web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1841] George Catlin (1796–1872). Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Volume 2, published by the author, 1841, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Catlin 1848] George Catlin. Catlin's Notes of Eight Years' Travels and Residence in Europe, with His North American Indian Collection — With Anecdotes and Incidents of the Travels and Adventures of Three Different Parties of American Indians whom he Introduced to the Courts of England, France, and Belgium, in Two Volumes, First to Fourth Edition, all issued in the same year, published by George Catlin, London, 1848, 296 and 336 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1857] George Catlin. Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Volume 1, Ninth Edition, published by Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden, 1857, 264 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Names of the Native American Flute, Flutopedia Image Detail: 'Dakota arts and customs' showing the George Catlin Pawnee flute, The Development of Flutes in North America, Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (2)

[Catlin 1859] George Catlin. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, published by J. W. Bradley, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1859, 792 pages, hardcover. Reissued in [Catlin 2005] and as two volumes in [Catlin 1973] and [Catlin 1973a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1869] George Catlin. Shut Your Mouth, First Edition, published by N. Trübner, London, England, 1869, 92 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1871] George Catlin. North and South American Indians, 1871. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1876] George Catlin. Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians — With Letters and Notes, Written during Eight Years of Travel and Adventure among the Wildest and Most Remarkable Tribes Now Existing, Volume 1, published by Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly, London, 1976, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Portrait of Màndeh-Pàhchu with a Native American Flute, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Catlin 1903] George Catlin. North American Indians, Volume 2, published by John Grant, Edinburgh, 1903, 303 pages, hardcover. Reissue of letters 32-58 of [Catlin 1859]. Reissued in [Catlin 2004]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Catlin 1973] George Catlin. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Volume 1, published by Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, 1973, 289 pages, ISBN 0-486-22118-0 (978-0-486-22118-2), ASIN 0486221180, softcover. Reissue of [Catlin 1859]. See the Dover Publications web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 1973a] George Catlin. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Volume 2, published by Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, 1973, 266 pages, ISBN 0-486-22119-9, softcover. Reissue of [Catlin 1859]. See the Dover Publications web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 2002] George Catlin, Brian W. Dippie, George Gurney, Therese Thau Heyman, and The Renwick Gallery. George Catlin and his Indian Gallery, published by the Smithsonian American Art Museum, W. W. Norton & Co., October 2002, 294 pages, ISBN 0-393-05217-6 (978-0-393-05217-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 2004] George Catlin. North American Indians, published by Penguin Classics, February 24, 2004, 560 pages, ISBN 0-14-243750-6 (978-0-14-243750-6), softcover. Reissue of [Catlin 1903]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Catlin 2005] George Catlin. Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, March 1, 2005, 824 pages, ISBN 0-7661-9385-3 (978-0-7661-9385-7), softcover. Reissue of [Catlin 1859]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cavanagh 1973] Beverley Cavanagh. “Imagery and Structure in Eskimo Song Texts”, Canadian Journal for Traditional Music, Volume 1, 1973, pages 3–16, retrieved April 20, 2010. See the Canadian Journal of Traditional Music web site. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cavanagh 1985] Beverley Cavanagh. “North America: Indian and Inuit Music”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 29, Number 2, Spring–Summer 1985, pages 337–342, doi:10.2307/852148. Publication 852148 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cazden 1958] Norman Cazden. “Pythagoras and Aristoxenos Reconciled”, Journal of the American Musicological Society, Volume 11, Number 2/3, Summer–Autumn 1958, pages 97–105. Publication 829897 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The Pythagorean and Aristoxenian viewpoints have represented poles of fundamental and irreconcilable conflict for some two thousand years. Pythagoras regards relationships among musical tones as manifestations of abstract number, signifying a pervasive cosmic principle. Aristoxenos ascribes the ordering of musical tones to the judgment of the ear, contingent therefore on mundane musical practice and its history.

[Celiz 1719] Fray Francisco Céliz. Diary of the Alarcón Expedition into Texas, 1718–1719, 1719. Translated Fritz L. Hoffman, Quivira Society, Los Angeles, 1935. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cellicion 1988] Fernando Cellicion; Millard Clark (producer). The Traditional Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion, Lawton, Oklahoma, Indian Sounds, IS-5060, 9 tracks, 1988, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twenty citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (10), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (10)

[Cellicion 1990] Fernando Cellicion; Millard Clark (producer). The Traditional and Contemporary Indian Flute of Fernando Cellicion, Lawton, Oklahoma, Indian Sounds, IS-5061, 14 tracks, 1990, ASIN B00GUP4N7K, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

28 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (14), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (14)

[Census 2011] U. S. Census Bureau. The American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States Wall Map, published by the U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division, Cartographic Operations Branch, Revision date July 13, 2011, retrieved October 24, 2011. See the Census Bureau web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Indian Tribal Maps

Abstract: The "American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States" wall map shows the American Indian and Alaska Native Areas reported or delineated for Census 2000. The map contains related graphics that reflect Census 2000 data.

[Cerny 1987] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Das altmesopotamische Tonsystem, seine Organisation und Entwicklung im Lichte der neuerschlossenen Texte «The Mesopotamian Sound System, its Organization and Development in the Light of New Closed Texts»”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 55, in German, 1987, pages 41–57. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 1988] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Probleme der Musikaufzeichnung aus Ugarit — Versuch einer neuen Interpretation des "Hymnus h 6" «Problems of Recording Music from Ugarit - Attempt at a New Interpretation of the "Hymn H 6"»”, Sulmu / Vavrousek Petr. - Prague : Univerzita Karlova, in German, 1988, pages 49–62. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 1994] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Some Musicological Remarks on the Old Mesopotamian Music and its Terminology”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 62, Number 1, 1994, pages 17–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 2004] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Another Look at the Mesopotamian "Tonal" System - Ascending or Descending?”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 72, Number 1, 2004, pages 25–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The ancient Mesopotamian music (tonal) system was first interpreted as ascending (Kilmer, Duchesne-Guillemin, Wulstan, Gurney, Thiel and myself). Criticism of the "descending interpretation" (Krispijn, West, and, more recently, Gurney). No argument for this is valid (transformation of original heptatonic and nomenclature, primitive scales, ancient Greece a.o.). Musical-anthropological constants and nomenclature, psychology in the interpretation of notated sources, and the construction of harps all speak for the "ascending" interpretation. Question of Gurney's new reading ...

[Cervellin 2011] Gianfranco Cervellin and Giuseppe Lippi. “From Music-beat to Heart-beat: A Journey in the Complex Interactions Between Music, Brain and Heart”, European Journal of Internal Medicine, Volume 22, Number 4, 2011, pages 371–374, doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2011.02.019. Publication 21767754 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Although the potential influence of music in eliciting organic reactions has been appreciated since the ancient Assyrian and Greek cultures, its relationship with body responses has been believed for long to belong to the field of magic. Growing experimental evidence now attests that some kind of music might indeed modulate several cardiac and neurological functions, as well as trigger biochemical measurable stress-reducing effects in certain individuals, mostly depending on their subjective musical education. On this basis, music has been increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different diseases in healthy and ill subjects over recent years (e.g., the so called "Mozart effect"), although the underlying scientific background is still poorly understood. The aim of this article is to review the current scientific evidences about the complex and multifaceted interactions between music and human biology.

[Chafe 2005] Chris Chafe. “Oxygen Flute: A Computer Music Instrument that Grows”, Journal of New Music Research, Volume 34, Number 3, 2005, pages 219–226. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The quality of the air we breathe depends on a balance of plant and animal life. Oxygen Flute is an interactive computer music environment that makes the exchange of gases audible. Gallery visitors enter a chamber with bamboo and four continuously performing (digitally modeled) flutes. Patterns in levels of carbon dioxide measured inside the chamber create the music. The computer flutes are played both in real time and from the accumulated history of fluctuations recorded in the space. The flute models are simulations of 9,000 year-old bone flutes from China.

[Chambers 1990] John Chambers; Larry Polansky (editor); Carter Scholz (editor and designer). Divisions of the Tetrachord, published by Frog Peak Music, 1990, 326 pages, ISBN 0-945996-04-7 (978-0-945996-04-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Champollion 1876] M. Jacques-Joseph Champollion-Figeac (1778–1867). Egypte Ancienne «Ancient Egypt», in French, 1876. Publication egypteancienne00cham on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chan 1998] Agnes Suiyin Chan, Yim-Chi Ho, and Mei-Chun Cheung. “Music Training Improves Verbal Memory”, Nature, Volume 396, Number 6707, November 12, 1998, page 128, doi:10.1038/24075. Publication 9823892 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the left planum temporale region of the brain is larger in musicians than in non-musicians. If this results from a change in cortical organization, the left temporal area in musicians might have a better developed cognitive function than the right temporal lobe. Because verbal memory is mediated mainly by the left temporal lobe, and visual memory by the right, adults with music training should have better verbal, but not visual, memory than adults without such training. Here we show that adults who received music training before the age of 12 have a better memory for spoken words than those who did not. Music training in childhood may therefore have long-term positive effects on verbal memory.

[Chaplin 2010] Todd Chaplin. Southern Cross Flutes — A Native American Style Flute Guide, 2010, 19 pages. See the Southern Cross web site. Southern Cross Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Charlesworth 1992] James H. Charlesworth. Archaeology, Jesus, and Christian Faith, in What Has Archaeology to Do with Faith?, published by Trinity, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1992. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Charters 1978] Samuel Charters. African Flutes (Gambia), Ethnic Folkways, FE-4230, 10 tracks, 1978, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissued in [Charters 2004]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (10)

Liner Notes: Recorded in the vi lIages of Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the upper Gambia basin in November, 1976.

[Charters 2004] Samuel Charters. African Flutes (Gambia), Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04230, 10 tracks, 2004, audio CD. Originally issued as Folkways Ethnic FE-4230. Reissue of [Charters 1978]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Liner Notes: Recorded in the vi lIages of Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the upper Gambia basin in November, 1976.

[Chase 1998] Philip G. Chase and April Nowell. “Taphonomy of a Suggested Middle Paleolithic Bone Flute from Slovenia”, Current Anthropology, Volume 39, Number 4, August–October 1998, pages 549–553. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chase-WG 1973] William G. Chase and Herbert A. Simon. “Perception in Chess”, Cognitive Psychology, Volume 4, Number 1, 1973, pages 55–81. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

Abstract: This paper develops a technique for isolating and studying the perceptual structures that chess players perceive. Three chess players of varying strength - from master to novice - were confronted with two tasks: (1) A perception task, where the player reproduces a chess position in plain view, and (2) de Groot’s (1965) short-term recall task, where the player reproduces a chess position after viewing it for 5 sec. The successive glances at the position in the perceptual task and long pauses in tbe memory task were used to segment the structures in the reconstruction protocol. The size and nature of these structures were then analyzed as a function of chess skill.

[Chatters 2014] James C. Chatters1, Douglas J. Kennett, Yemane Asmerom, Brian M. Kemp, Victor Polyak, Alberto Nava Blank, Patricia A. Beddows, Eduard Reinhardt, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, Deborah A. Bolnick, Ripan S. Malhi, Brendan J. Culleton, Pilar Luna Erreguerena, Dominique Rissolo, Shanti Morell-Hart, and Thomas W. Stafford, Jr. “Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans”, Science, Volume 344, Number 6185, May 16, 2014, pages 750–754, doi:10.1126/science.1252619 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Abstract: Because of differences in craniofacial morphology and dentition between the earliest American skeletons and modern Native Americans, separate origins have been postulated for them, despite genetic evidence to the contrary. We describe a near-complete human skeleton with an intact cranium and preserved DNA found with extinct fauna in a submerged cave on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. This skeleton dates to between 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years ago and has Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics and a Beringian-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (D1). Thus, the differences between Paleoamericans and Native Americans probably resulted from in situ evolution rather than separate ancestry.

[Chaumeil 1997] Jean-Pierre Chaumeil. “Les Os, les Flûtes, les Morts. Mémoire et Traitement Funéraire en Amazonie «Bones, flutes and the dead. Memory and funeral customs in the Amazon»”, Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Volume 83, in French, 1997, pages 83–110, doi:10.3406/jsa.1997.1672 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Bones, flutes and the dead. Memory and funeral customs in the Amazon A close examination of empirical data related to funeral customs in the Amazon reveals that there are two distinct, contrasting ways of coping with dead. Some groups try to erase the memory of their dead, whereas others strive to keep contact with them. This research thus partly contradicts the common wisdom that the archetypal form of mourning in the Lowlands involves an abrupt break with spirits of the dead. We also suggest a possible link between the possession of sacred flutes — found in several Amazonian societies — , the conservation of bones, and the memorization of the defunct. The conjuncture of these three elements should encourage investigation regarding the very specific form of historical memory developed by these societies.

[Chazanoff 1990] Daniel Chazanoff (born 1923). Music of the Native North American — for the Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1990, 32 pages, comb binding. Catalog number FOS03. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: An introduction with a brief overview of the Native American flute as it relates to the various tribes represented. Includes melodies from the Great Lakes and Eastern Woodlands, Southeast, Plains, Southwest, Pueblo, Great Basin- Plateau, Northwest and California Indians. For the student of music there is much to be learned from the Native Americans in the use of sustained and broken line melodies; simple, compound and changing meters; rhythmic diversity; a variety of scales; chromatic alteration; and antiphonal singing, alternating between a soloist and chorus (when phrases overlap, polyphony results).

[Chazanoff 1993] Daniel Chazanoff. Native American Music in Seven Volumes — For the Flute or Recorder with Drum / Rattle ad. Lib., in seven volumes (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1993. Catalog number FOS12. All seven volumes in a slipcase. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993a] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Southwest (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS05. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993b] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Plains (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS06. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993c] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Pacific Northwest (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS07. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993d] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Lakes and Woods (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS08. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993e] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Great Basin-Plateau (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS09. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993f] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the Southeast (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS10. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1993g] Daniel Chazanoff. The Indians of the California (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, contained in [Chazanoff 1993], published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902, 1993. Catalog number FOS11. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff 1997] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Cherokee Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder with Drum & Rattle, in two volumes (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1997, 64 pages, comb binding. Catalog numbers FOS14A and FOS14B. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: Introduction with a brief overview of the history of the Cherokee Nation and their music. Volume 1: Ceremonial Songs, Ceremonial Dances. Volume 2: Social Dances, Women’s Dances, Songs related to courtship, Lullabies, Corn Dances, Hunting Songs.

[Chazanoff 1998] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Alabama Tribe (Alibamu) — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1998, 28 pages, comb binding. Catalog number FOS15. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: Introduction with overview of Alabama music, dances by women, precussive instruments and rhythms and the Alabama Flute. Corn Dance Songs, Buffalo Dance Songs, Nateka Dance Songs, Woman’s Dance Songs, Horse Dance Songs, Chicken Dance Songs, Duck Dance Songs, Quail Dance Songs, Terrapin Dance Songs, Frog Dance Songs and Rabbit Dance Songs.

[Chazanoff 1998a] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Santo Domingo Pueblo — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1998, 34 pages, comb binding. Catalog number FOS16. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: Introduction with overview of flutes, drums, whistles, rattles and Santo Domingo Pueblo music characteristics. Songs of Medicine Men, Songs related to irrigation and crops, Songs related to corn, Songs related to wheat, Buffalo Dance Songs, Songs of the Winter Solstice Ceremony, Bow and Arrow Dance Songs, Historic Pageant and Mimic Bullfight songs, OPI Dance Songs.

[Chazanoff 1998b] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Choctaw Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder, in two volumes (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 1998, 60 pages, comb binding. Catalog numbers FOS23A and FOS23B. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: Introduction with overview of history, Choctaw music, Choctaw music characteristics. Volume 1: War Songs, Ball Game Songs and Bullet Game Songs, Tick Dance Songs, Drunken-Man Dance Songs, Duck Dance Songs, Snake Dance Songs. Volume 2: Steal-Partner Dance Songs, Bear Dance Songs, Stomp Dance Songs, Terrapin Dance Songs (Tortoise), Quail, Turkey and Chicken Dance Songs, Pleasure Dance Songs.

[Chazanoff A] Daniel Chazanoff. Ceremonial Dance — Based upon a Religious Ceremonial Dance of the Northern Ute Tribe, for SATB Recorder Quartet (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS126. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff B] Daniel Chazanoff. A Song of Greeting — Based upon "Greeting Song" of the Tlingit Tribe of British Columbia, for SATB Recorder Quartet (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS127. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff E] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Tohono O'odham Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder, in two volumes (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, 60 pages, comb binding. Catalog numbers FOS24A and FOS24B. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: Introduction with overview of the Tohoho O’odham (Papago) people, their musical instruments and their use, and music characteristics. Volume 1 - Songs Connected with Legends, Songs used in the Treatment of the sick. Volume 2 - Songs Connected with Ceremonies, Songs Connected with Expeditions to Obtain Salt, War Songs, Dream Songs, Hunting Songs, Song of the Bat Dance, Songs for the Entertainment of Children, Flute Melodies.

[Chazanoff G] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Crow (Apsaroke) and their Cousins the Hidatsa Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS31. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff H] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Makah Tribe — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS32. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff I] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Mandan Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS33. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff J] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Menominee Nation — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS34. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff K] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Northern Ute Tribe — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS35. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff L] Daniel Chazanoff. Music of the Iroquois Confederacy — For the Native American Flute or Recorder (song book), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, North Carolina, comb binding. Catalog number FOS37. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff M] Daniel Chazanoff. A Farewell Ceremony (Score), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS21S. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Based upon the Ojibway (Chippewa) 'Farewell to the Warriors'. Music for Concert Bands, 5:00 minutes.

[Chazanoff N] Daniel Chazanoff. A Farewell Ceremony (Parts), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS21P. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Based upon the Ojibway (Chippewa) 'Farewell to the Warriors'. Music for Concert Bands, 5:00 minutes.

[Chazanoff P] Daniel Chazanoff. Proclamation for the Native American (Score) — Based upon the 'Power Song of the Eagle' Nez Perce Tribe for Wind Ensemble, Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS17S. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff Q] Daniel Chazanoff. Proclamation for the Native American (Parts) — Based upon the 'Power Song of the Eagle' Nez Perce Tribe for Wind Ensemble, Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS17P. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff R] Daniel Chazanoff. Romance on a Winnebago Love Song (Score) — For Native American Flute (Recorder or Transverse Flute) and String Orchestra (String Quartet), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS26S. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff S] Daniel Chazanoff. Romance on a Winnebago Love Song (Parts) — For Native American Flute (Recorder or Transverse Flute) and String Orchestra (String Quartet), Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS26P. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chazanoff T] Daniel Chazanoff. Song of the Forest — A Pastoral poem based upon the 'Song of the Forest' of the Ojibway or Chippewa Nation, Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS19S. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: For Concert Band, 6:00 minutes

[Chazanoff U] Daniel Chazanoff. Song of the Forest — A Pastoral poem based upon the 'Song of the Forest' of the Ojibway or Chippewa Nation, Susato Press Native American Music Series, published by Susato Press, Brasstown, NC 28902. Catalog number FOS19P. See the Susato Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: For Concert Band, 6:00 minutes

[Chen 1996] Cheng-Yih Chen. Early Chinese Work in Natural Science — A Re-examination of the Physics of Motion, Acoustics, Astronomy and Scientific Thoughts, published by the Hong King University Press, Hong Kong, 1996, 300 pages, ISBN 962-209-385-X (978-962-209-385-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: This book re-examines the nature of early Chinese work in natural science, on the basis of original records analysis and artifacts discovered in recent decades by archaeological explorations of China's past. It presents a concise account of early scientific ideas and thoughts of nature, and their effect on the development of natural science. It is suggested that the traditional characterization of early Chinese work in natural science requires substantial modification. The absence of early Chinese participation in the development of 'modern' science is not, as commonly assumed, a consequence of lacking early scientific tradition in ancient China. It is argued that the concept of 'inhibitive' factors is dubious without taking their dynamical relationships into account, and that socio-economical and political influence has to be considered when seeking answers to the major setbacks in science and technology in China. The book also shows that there is no basis for the claims saying that acoustics and astronomy in China have their roots in Babylon

[Chen-SE 1995] Shenchang Eric Chen. “QuickTime VR — An Image-Based Approach to Virtual Environment Navigation”, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual ACM Conference on Comptuer Graphics, Los Angeles, August 1995, pages 29–38. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Browser Capabilities for Flutopedia

Abstract: Traditionally, virtual reality systems use 3D computer graphics to model and render virtual environments in real-time. This approach usually requires laborious modeling and expensive special purpose rendering hardware. The rendering quality and scene complexity are often limited because of the real-time constraint. This paper presents a new approach which uses 360-degree cylindrical panoramic images to compose a virtual environment. The panoramic image is digitally warped on-the-fly to simulate camera panning and zooming. The panoramic images can be created with computer rendering, specialized panoramic cameras or by "stitching" together overlapping photographs taken with a regular camera. Walking in a space is currently accomplished by "hopping" to different panoramic points. The image-based approach has been used in the commercial product QuickTime VR, a virtual reality extension to Apple Computer's QuickTime digital multimedia framework. The paper describes the architecture, the file format, the authoring process and the interactive players of the VR system. In addition to panoramic viewing, the system includes viewing of an object from different directions and hit-testing through orientation-independent hot spots.

[Cheney 1892] Simeon Pease Cheney and John Vance Cheney. Wood Notes Wild — Notations of Bird Music, published by Lee and Shepard, Boston, 1892, 261 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cheng 2009] Jack Cheng. “A Review of Early Dynastic III Music: Man's Animal Call”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 68, Number 3, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2009, pages 163–178, doi:10.1086/613988. A Review of Early Dynastic III Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Introduction: A review of the texts, images and actual musical instruments of the Early Dynastic III period leads to new insights into how Sumerians understood their world, and to the fine line they drew between civilization and nature.

[Cheong 2014] Kong F. Cheong, Terry G. Powis, Paul F. Healy, Roger Blench, and Linda Howie. “Recovering Music from Pacbitun, Belize: New Evidence for Ancient Maya Instruments”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, Volume 11, 2014, pages 177–190. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cherkasky 1999] Leonid Cherkasky (born 1938). Zhivi Struni Ukraini «Live Strings of the Ukraine», published by KM Academia, Kiev, in Ukrainian, 1999, 108 pages, ISBN 966-518-066-5, softcover. See the Ukrainian State Museum of Theater, Music, and Film Arts web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

[Cherkasky 2007] Leonid Cherkasky. Musical Instruments of the Ukrainian People, published by Baltia-Druk Publishers, in Ukrainian and English, 2007, 64 pages, ISBN 966-8137-46-9 (978-966-8137-46-4), hardcover. See the publisher web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

[Cheung 2008] Vincent C. K. Cheung. “Tudor Dedications to the Blessed Virgin: History, Style, and Analysis of Music from the Eton Choirbook”, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chiang 2008] May May Chiang. Research on Music and Healing in Ethnomusicology and Music Therapy, M.A. thesis – University of Maryland, College Park, 2008, 97 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This thesis examines current developments in the research and discourse on music and healing. Ethnomusicology has involved extensive work on documenting traditional music and healing traditions; however, ethnomusicologists have neglected to contribute their knowledge and effort to healthcare-oriented research. Music therapy, on the other hand, has been focusing on the benefit of the patient, but rarely relates its practices to traditional music and healing traditions or non-Western music. Despite the recent establishment of the Medical Ethnomusicology Special Interest Group in the Society for Ethnomusicology and increasing awareness of world music and cultural diversity in music therapy, scholars in the two fields have not yet collaborated with each other extensively. The motivations for this thesis are: to review previous developments in research on music and healing, to find out the reasons for the changes in the research trends of the past decade, and to see possible research directions in the future.

[Chico 1980] Leo “Chico”. Her Many Horses — Memoirs of a Lakota (Sioux) Fancy Dance Champion, published by St. Francis Mission Records, Marquette University Libraries, 1980. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chilidis 2008] K. Chilidis, J. Lund, and C. Prescott (editors). Facets of Archaeology. Essays in Honour of Lotte Hedeager on her 60th Birthday, Oslo Archaeological Series, Volume 10, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Chretien 1945] C. Douglas Chrétien. Culture Element Distributions: XXV - Reliability of Statistical Procedures and Results, Anthropological Records, Volume 8, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1945, pages 469–490. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Christensen 2002] Dieter Christensen. “Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv: The First 100 Years”, contained in [Berlin 2002], 2002, pages 19–31. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Christensen-D 1960] Dieter Christensen; Bruno Nettl (translation) (born 1930). “Inner Tempo and Melodic Tempo”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 4, Number 1, January 1960, pages 9–14. Publication 924229 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Christensen-N 1922] Nils Christensen. “Method for Shaping Metal Tubing”, United States Patent 1,432,279, Granted October 17, 1922, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Method for Shaping Metal Tubing Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Christianson 1923] Theodore Christianson. “The Long and Beltrami Explorations in Minnesota One Hundred Years Ago”, Minnesota History Bulletin, Volume 5, November 1923, pages 249–264. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Beltrami Flutes - The Earliest Known Wooden Native American Flute

[Civil 2008] Miguel Civil. ARES III: The Early Dynastic Practical Vocabulary A: Archaic HAR-ra A, Volume 4 of Archivi reali di Ebla: Studi, Missione archeologica italiana in Siria, published by Missione Archeologica Italiana in Siria, Rome, 2008, 181 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Civil 2010] Miguel Civil. The Lexical Texts in the Schøyen Collection, Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology, Volume 12, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, July 15, 2010, xxii+308 pages, ISBN 1-934309-11-7 (978-1-934309-11-7), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Publisher's description: Contains an introduction and complete editions of several hundred lexical texts, including full transliterations and commentaries, along with accompanying photos of the tablets.

The lexical texts in the Schøyen Collection constitute perhaps the most important group of new lexical sources now known. Miguel Civil has prepared the complete publication of this remarkably well-preserved and diverse collection of sources that adds greatly to the Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon (MSL) series and particularly to those working in lexicography, philology, and Sumerian and Babylonian culture.

[CJT 1894] C.J.T. (prefatory note). Folk-lore and Legends. Oriental and North American Indian, published by Gibbings and Company, Limited, London, 1894, 192 pages, ASIN B008GVXDDG. Publication cihm_07121 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Clapham 1966] John Clapham. “Dvorak and the American Indian”, The Musical Times, Volume 107, Number 1484, published by Musical Times Publications Ltd., October 1966, pages 863–867. Publication 953317 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Clark-ME 1990] M. E. Clark and R. Hirschman. “Effects of Paced Respiration on Anxiety Reduction in a Clinical Population”, Biofeedback Self Regulation, Volume 15, Number 3, 1990, pages 273–284. Publication 2223892 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paced respiration on autonomic and self-report indices of affect within a clinical population. Thirty-six alcohol-dependent inpatients scoring high in trait anxiety were randomly assigned to either a pacing or attention control group. The paced subjects received 10 minutes of slow-breathing training during the first experimental session, while control subjects simply counted the pacing tones. In a second session, paced subjects were asked to breathe at the same lowered rate (10 cycles per minute) on their own, while the remaining subjects were instructed to relax. Prior to and following each session, self-ratings of tension level and state anxiety were collected. As expected, paced subjects evidenced greater reductions in self-rated tension, state anxiety, and skin conductance levels compared to the control subjects. It was concluded that respiratory pacing is an easily learned self-control strategy and potentially may be a useful therapeutic tool.

[Clark-PR 2009] Patricia Roberts Clark. Tribal Names of the Americas: Spelling Variants and Alternative Forms, Cross-Referenced, published by McFarland, 2009, 319 pages, ISBN 0-7864-3833-9 (978-0-7864-3833-4), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

Abstract: Scholars have long worked to identify the names of tribes and other groupings in the Americas, a task made difficult by the sheer number of indigenous groups and the many names that have been passed down only through oral tradition. This book is a compendium of tribal names in all their variants—from North, Central and South America—collected from printed sources. Because most of these original sources reproduced words that had been encountered only orally, there is a great deal of variation. Organized alphabetically, this book collates these variations, traces them to the spellings and forms that have become standardized, and supplies see and see also references. Each main entry includes tribal name, the "parent group" or ancestral tribe, original source for the tribal name, and approximate location of the name in the original source material.

[Clark-RE 2012] Richard E. Clark, Paul A. Kirschner, and John Sweller. “Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction”, American Educator, Spring 2012, pages 6–11. Putting Students on the Path to Learning Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[Clarke-EF 1999] Eric F. Clarke. “Rhythm and Timing in Music”, contained in [Deutsch 1999], 1999, pages 473–500. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Meter for Native American Flutes

[Clayton 1831] David L. Clayton and James P. Carrell. The Virginia Harmony, printed by Robinson and Hollis, March 11, 1831, 167 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Harmony Grove, Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (2)

[Clayton-M 1996] Martin Clayton. “Ethnographic Wax Cylinders at the British Library National Sound Archive: A Brief History and Description of the Collection”, British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Volume 5, published by the British Forum for Ethnomusicology, 1996, pages 67–92. Publication 3060867 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

Abstract: The ethnographic wax cylinder collection held at the British Library National Sound Archive, totalling over 3,000 items, contains material of considerable musical and historical interest, much of which has been until now little known outside the Archive. This paper summarises the history of the recordings and thier accumulation under a single roof, and briefly describes their significance, with the aid of quotations from contemporary sources. The history of the collection is discussed with reference to the earliest recordings, recordings from Oceania, Australia, Africa, South Asia and other areas, connections with other archives, and the current situation.

[Clayton-M 2004] Martin Clayton, Rebecca Sager, and Udo Will. “In Time with the Music: The Concept of Entrainment and its Significance for Ethnomusicology”, ESEM-Counterpoint, Volume 1, 2004. In Time with the Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Entrainment, broadly defined, is a phenomenon in which two or more independent rhythmic processes synchronize with each other. To illuminate the significance of entrainment for various directions of music research and promote a nuanced understanding of the concept among ethnomusicologists, this publication opens with an exposition of entrainment research in various disciplines, from physics to linguistics and psychology, while systematically introducing basic concepts that are directly relevant to musical entrainment. Topics covered include consideration of self-synchrony and interpersonal synchrony in musical performance, humans’ innate propensities to entrain, the influence of cultural and personal factors on entrainment, the numerous functions of musical entrainment in individual health, socialization, and cultural identification, and a presentation of methodologies and analytical techniques. Finally, some case studies illustrating one methodological strand, that of chronometric analysis, exemplify how the application of the entrainment concept might lead to an understanding of music making and music perception as an integrated, embodied and interactive process.

[Clements 1990] William M. Clements. “Schoolcraft as Textmaker”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 103, Number 408, April–June 1990, pages 177–192. Publication 541854 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Narratives of the Native American Flute

Abstract: Henry Rowe Schoolcraft's primary interest in Native American oral literature focused on its ability to provide an insider's view of Indian cultures. Consequently, he recognized the importance of fidelity to the originals when presenting texts of the Ojibwa stories and songs he collected. In practice, though, he made major changes in the material. Part of the rationale for his changes involved a desire to ensure that the texts would be perceived as true literature.

[Clifford 2002] Gari D. Clifford. Signal Processing Methods for Heart Rate Variability, Doctoral dissertation – St. Cross College, University of Oxford, England, Fall 2002, 244 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Clift 2008] Stephen Clift, Grenville Hancox, Rosalia Staricoff, and Christine Whitmore. Singing and Health: Summary of a Systematic Mapping and Review of Non-Clinical Research, published by the Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health, Folkestone, Kent, England, 2008, 20 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-899253-30-2. See the Sidney De Haan Research Centre Web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Clift 2008a] Stephen Clift, Grenville Hancox, Rosalia Staricoff, and Christine Whitmore. Singing and Health: A Systematic Mapping and Review of Non-Clinical Research, published by the Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health, Folkestone, Kent, England, August 2008, 135 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-899253-33-3. See the Sidney De Haan Research Centre Web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The aims of this study are: to systematically identify existing published research on singing, wellbeing and health; to map this research in terms of the forms of singing investigated, designs and methods employed and participants involved: to critically appraise this body of research, and where possible synthesise findings to draw general conclusions about the possible benefits of singing for health. The hypothesis underpinning this review is that singing, and particularly group singing, has a positive impact on personal wellbeing and physical health.

[Clift 2013] Stephen Clift, Ian Morrison, Simon Coulton, Pauline Treadwell, Sonia Page, Trish Vella-Burrows, Isobel Salisbury, Matthew Shipton, and Ann Skingley. A Feasibility Study on the Health Benefits of a Participative Community Singing Programme for Older People with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), published by the Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health, Folkestone, Kent, England, January 2013, 12 pages. See the Sidney De Haan Research Centre Web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Clough 1993] John Clough, Jack Douthett, N. Ramanathan and Lewis Rowell. “Early Indian Heptatonic Scales and Recent Diatonic Theory”, Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 15, Number 1, published by the University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory, Spring 1993, pages 36–58. Publication 745908 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Two questions are addressed: (1) By what path did ancient Indian musicians make their way from a "chromatic" universe of 22 microtonal divisions of the octave (the śrutis) to a "diatonic" set of seven degrees? and (2) What features do the resulting scale structures have in common with later versions of the diatonic scale in the West? The authors examine the selection principles that appear to have guided these musicians, and explore some of the remarkable features and implications of their solutions. The two basic early Indian heptatonic scales (sa-grāma and ma-grāma) share a number of features with the Western diatonic scale: (1) distinct step sizes which are consecutive integers, (2) dual tetrachords, (3) exactly one tritone, (4) distinct sizes of fifths which are consecutive integers, (5) a maximal number of consonant fifths (consistent with feature 4), and (6) first- or second-order maximal evenness (as defined by Clough and Douthett). There are three smaller feature sets, each including two or three of the above features, that serve to define both the early Indian heptatonics and the Western diatonic: given the appropriate chromatic cardinality (22 or 12), each feature set corresponds either (a) to all and only the heptatonics specified in the early Indian treatises plus two permissible altered versions or (b) uniquely to the Western diatonic.

[CMS 2003] University of Chicago. The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2003, ISBN 0-226-10403-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute, FAQ for the Native American Flute

[Cogulu 2013] Tolgahan Çoğulu. “En Yerli Bati Enstrumani «Western Music's Most Turkish Instrument»”, Skylife, in Turkish and English, March 2013, pages 40–41. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Formerly unsuitable for playing eastern music, the classical guitar has undergone a transformation in the hands of Tolgahan Çoğulu, who invented a device for adding and removing frets on the neck of the instrument and produced the "microtonal guitar".

[Colburn 2009] Jerome Colburn. “A New Interpretation of the Nippur Music-Instruction Fragments”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 61, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, January 2009, pages 97–109. ISSN 0022-0256 (print). Publication 25608635 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Colburn 2009a] Jerome Colburn. “CBS 1766 as a Guide to String Pairs, Including Seconds”, N. A. B. U., Volume 3, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Colby 1895] Leonard Wright Colby. “Wanagi Olowan Kin: The Ghost Songs of the Dakotas”, Proceedings and collections of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Volume 6, published by Lincoln Printing Co., 1895, pages 131–150. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cole 1994] Sally J. Cole. “Roots of Anasazi and Pueblo Imagery in Basketmaker II Rock Art and Material Culture”, Kiva, Volume 60, Number 2, Winter 1994, pages 289–311. Publication 30246661 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Rock art and analogous material culture of the Anasazi-Western Pueblo tra- dition on the Colorado Plateau are subjects of this paper. I argue that Anasazi and Pueblo imagery dating from approximately 500 B.C. to A.D. 1450 can be linked back to Basketmaker II times (approximately 500 B.C. to A.D. 450). Support for this premise lies in continuity of representations in material cul- ture over time. The continuity demonstrates conceptual consistencies in the face of cultural change. The subject imagery can be extended to traditional symbols of the Hopi, Zuni, and western Keresan of Acoma.
Translation: El arte rupestre y materiales culturales andlogos de la tradici6n Anasazi- Western Pueblo en la cuenca del Rio Colorado son materia de este trabajo. Se sugiere que las imdgenes Anasazi y pueblefiasfechadas entre el 500 A.C. y el 1450 o.c. pueden estar correlacionadas a tempranas imdgenes del periodo Basketmaker II (aproximadamente entre el 500 A.C. y el 450 o.c.). Esta premisa estd sustentada en la aparente continuidad de representaciones en el mate- rial cultural a traves del tiempo. Esta continuidad demuestra las consisten- cias conceptuales dentro de la esfera de cambio cultural. Las imagenes subjetivas pueden ser extendidas a simbolos tradicionales de los Hopi, Zuni, y los Keresan occidentales de Acoma.

[Coles 1967] John M. Coles. “Experimental Archaeology”, Proceedings of the Anthropological Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1966-1967, Volume 99, 1967, 2 plates, pages 1–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coles 1979] John M. Coles. Experimental Archaeology, published by Academic Press, 1979, 274 pages, ISBN 0-12-179750-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coles 2010] John M. Coles. Experimental Archaeology, 2010, ISBN-13 978-1-932846-26-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Collaer 1968] Paul Collaer. “Amerika: Eskimo und indianische Bevölkerung «America: Eskimo and Indian Population»”, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, Volume 1, Number 2, published by VEB Deutscher Verlag für Musik, in German, 1968. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (4)

[Collaer 1973] Paul Collaer. Music of the Americas: An Illustrated Music Ethnology of the Eskimo and American Indian Peoples, published by Praeger, New York, 1973, 389 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Collinson 1975] Francis M. Collinson. The Bagpipe: The History of a Musical Instrument, published by Routledge & K. Paul, 1975, 257 pages, ISBN 0-7100-7913-3 (978-0-7100-7913-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Collon 1990] Dominique Collon. Near Eastern Seals, Volume 2 of Interpreting the Past, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1990, 64 pages, ISBN 0-520-07308-8 (978-0-520-07308-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: A rich source of pictorial information about the Ancient Near East comes to us in the form of miniature reliefs, created from the impressions made in clay by tiny engraved stone seals. Originally used for sealing goods and writing tablets, these seals now provide important evidence for administrative practices, technical development, and long-distance trade. The designs themselves record religious beliefs, mythical characters, architectural styles, musical instruments, festivals, sport, warfare, transportation, and fashions in dress.

In this first comprehensive introduction to pre-Islamic Near Eastern seals, Dominique Collon discusses cylinder seals—a form unique to the Ancient Near East—as well as stamp seals, the earliest dating from the fifth millennium B.C. As a reflection of how their owners saw the world around them, Near Eastern seals are an essential tool for archaeologists in interpreting the past. A rich source of pictorial information about the Ancient Near East comes to us in the form of miniature reliefs, created from the impressions made in clay by tiny engraved stone seals. Originally used for sealing goods and writing tablets, these seals now provide important evidence for administrative practices, technical development, and long-distance trade. The designs themselves record religious beliefs, mythical characters, architectural styles, musical instruments, festivals, sport, warfare, transportation, and fashions in dress.

[Collon 2008] Dominique Collon. “Playing in Concert in the Ancient Near East”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 47–65. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (6)

Introduction: This paper focuses on depictions of groups of musicians playing together. The evidence selected comes predominantly from Mesopotamia (including Syria and south-western Iran) and Anatolia, between c. 3100 B.C. and c. 645 B.C. We shall only consider scenes showing groups of musicians playing musical instruments of different types. Men and women performers have not been distinguished because gender is often ambiguous (eunuchs, sastrati etc), as the first document in our series amply demonstrates; where there is ambiguity, rather than use 'he/she', the figure will be treated as masculine. The documents selected are numbered for ease of reference and are arranged in probable chronological order.

[Collura 2010] Thomas F. Collura. “Technical Foundations of Quantitative EEG (QEEG) for Neurofeedback Practitioners”, January 2010, 50 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coltman 1966] John W. Coltman. “Resonance and Sounding Frequencies of the Flute”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 40, Issue 1, 1966, pages 99–107, doi:10.1121/1.1910070 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: The passive resonance frequencies of the flute were measured with high precision and compared with the frequencies obtained by blowing. The differences, which vary from +20 to −25 cents over the scale, are wholly accounted for by air temperature and composition and by variation of coverage of the mouth hole. No frequency pulling due to the blowing mechanism was observed. Measurements of frequency and radiated power using an artificial blowing mechanism provide an explanation for the variations in lip configuration observed in photographs. The tapered head joint provides a partial compensation for lip-coverage variation, but irregularities in the resonant column give marked departures from calculated frequencies based on a smooth tube.

[Coltman 1968] John W. Coltman. “Sounding Mechanism of the Flute and Organ Pipe”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 44, 1968, pages 983–992, doi:10.1121/1.1911240 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Measurements on an artificially blown and mechanically excited flute head joint provide values of the complex acoustic back-pressure generated by the blowing jet. The magnitude of the acoustic back-pressure is calculable from the jet momentum and is approximately twice the static blowing pressure times the ratio of the lip-aperture area to the tube cross-section area. The phase of the induced back-pressure relative to the oscillation volume velocity is determined by the lip-to-edge distance and the velocity of propagation of a wave on the jet. Adjustment of this phase is demonstrated to be the major means by which the flutist selects the desired mode of oscillation of the instrument. The efficiency of conversion from jet power to acoustic oscillation power is low (2.4% at 440 Hz) and is about equal to the ratio of particle velocities in the air column and the jet. Nonlinear (turbulent) losses are measured and are substantial. Stroboscopic views of the jet motion under explicitly stated oscillation conditions show the large amplitude of the jet wave and its phase relative to the stimulating acoustic disturbance.

[Coltman 1971] John W. Coltman. “Effect of Material on Flute Tone Quality”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 49, Number 2, Part 2, 1971, pages 520–523. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: FAQ for the Native American Flute

Abstract: Three keyless flutes of identical internal dimensions were made of thin silver, heavy copper, and wood, respectively. They were played out of sight of musically experienced observers, who were asked to determine only whether tonese were alike or different. No statistically significant correlation between the listeners' scores and the material of the instrument body was found. Flutists who played the flutes, using an arrangement to eliminate visual or tactile clies, were unable to identify again a previously selected instrument.

[Coltman 1973] John W. Coltman. “Material Used in Flute Construction”, Woodwind World, Volume 12, Number 1, February 1973, pages 20–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coltman 2006] J. W. Coltman. “Jet Offset, Harmonic Content, and Warble in the Flute”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 120, Number 4, published by the Acoustical Society of America, October 2006, pages 2312–2319, doi:10.1121/1.2266562. Publication 17069326 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (2), The Warble

Abstract: The effects of jet offset in the flute, directing the jet above or below the edge, were explored by two distinct means-experiments with a Boehm flute sounded by an artificial blower, and time domain simulation. Very large changes in harmonic content and dynamics were observed, changing greatly with blowing pressure. Warble, a modulation of the tone at frequencies of the order of 20 Hz, was observed both in the experiment and in the simulation. The phenomenon is explained as a beat between the frequency of a second harmonic generated by nonlinearity in the jet current and a neighboring partial sustained by jet feedback near the second mode resonance. A second type of warble, in which amplitude modulation occurs in all partials but with different phases, is yet to be explained.

[Coltrain 2007] Joan Brenner Coltrain, Joel C. Janetski, and Shawn W. Carlyle. “The Stable- and Radio-Isotope Chemistry of Western Basketmaker Burials: Implications for Early Puebloan Diets and Origins”, American Antiquity, Volume 72, Number 2, 2007, pages 301–321. See the University of Utah Anthropology web site. The Stable- and Radio-Isotope Chemistry of Western Basketmaker Burials Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nineteen citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2), Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave (2), The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito, Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (14)

Abstract: The timing and degree of reliance on maize agriculture in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest has been a central issue in studies that examine the origins of Puebloan society. Both diffusionist (various, but see Wills 1995) and migrationist (Berry and Berry 1986; Matson 1991) models have been proposed to explain the processes responsible for the movement of maize (Zea mays) north into the Four Corners region. This paper reports bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values with paired accelerator radiocarbon dates on a large collection of human remains from western Basketmaker II/III sites in Marsh Pass and other areas of northeastern Arizona, as well as data on a small number of Puebloan remains including Chacoan Great House burials. The results make clear that Basketmaker II people were heavily dependent on maize by 400 B.C. Moreover, their degree of dependence is similar to that of Pueblo II and III farmers of the Four Corners region. These findings and the apparent rapidity of maize dependence support a migrationist model for the origins of maize farming in the northern Southwest.

[Combatalade 2010] Didier C. Combatalade. Basics of Heart Rate Variability Applied to Psychophysiology, February 2010, 36 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Comesana 2012] Daniel Fernandez Comesaña, Takashi Takeuchi, Sandra Morales Cervera, and Keith Holland. “Measuring Musical Instruments Directivity Patterns with Scanning Techniques”, 19th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV19), Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8–12, 2012, 2012, 8 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Characterizing directivity patterns of musical instruments implicitly requires measuring nonstationary sound fields. A priori, this fact implies using multichannel methods to assess any change along time at all regarded positions. However, this paper explores the advantages of using a static reference sensor close to the musical instrument to track any variations in the sound field during the measurement, allowing scanning techniques to be performed. The method developed is based on taking transfer functions between the scanning transducer and the reference sensor. Then, the number of positions measured is limited for each frequency depending on the dynamic range acquired. Experimental results of violin directivity patterns are presented along with a discussion focused on comparing the technique proposed with conventional multichannel measurement methods.

[Commuck 1845] Thomas Commuck. Indian Melodies, published by G. Lane & C. B. Tippett, New York, 1845, 116 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Comte 2003] Christian le Comte. Indígenas Argentinos «Indigenous Argentinians», published by Maizal, in Spanish, 2003, 32 pages, ISBN 987-9479-10-6 (978-987-9479-10-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conard 2004] Nicholas J. Conard, Maria Malina, Susanne C. Münzel, and Friedrich Seeberger. “Eine Mammuthelfenbeinflöte aus dem Aurignacien des Geißenklösterle: Neue Belege für eine musikalische Tradtion im Frühen Jungpaläolithikum auf der Schwäbischen Alb «A Mammoth Bone Flute from the Aurignacian of Geißenklösterle: New Evidence for a Musical Tradtion in Early Upper Paleolithic of the Swabian Alb»”, Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, Volume 34, in German, 2004, pages 447–462. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Mammoth Ivory flute, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Conard 2008] Nicholas J. Conard and Maria Malina. “New Evidence for the Origins of Music from the Caves of the Swabian Jura”, Challenges and Objectives in Music Archaeology, Orient-Archäologie 22, contained in [Both 2008], 2008, pages 13–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Bei Ausgrabungen der Universität Tübingen in den Höhlen der Schwäbischen Alb in Südwestdeutschland konnten drei paläolithische Flöten aus den aurignacienzeitlichen Schichten des Geißenklösterle geborgen werden. Darunter sind zwei Exemplare aus Vogelknochen und seit kurzem auch eine Flöte, die aus Mammutelfenbein gefertigt wurde.
Die Flöten aus dem Geißenklösterle sind weltweit die ältesten bekannten Musikinstrumente. Die Schichten, aus denen sie stammen, wurden mit der Thermolumineszenz-Methode auf ca. 37.000 Jahre vor heute und mit der Radiokohlenstoff-Methode auf 29–37.000 Jahre vor heute datiert. Die Instrumente stammen aus fundreichen Schichten, die sowohl zahlreiche organische als auch Steinartefakte sowie figürliche Kunst und Schmuck geliefert haben.
Experimentelle Rekonstruktionen zeigen, dass sowohl die Vogelknochenflöten als auch die Elfenbeinflöte voll entwickelte Musikinstrumente sind. Sie dokumentieren eine gut ausgebildete Musiktradition auf der Schwäbischen Alb während des frühen Jungpaläolithikums. Neue Ausgrabungen am Vogelherd führten darüber hinaus zu der Entdeckung dreier bearbeiteter Vogelknochenfragmente, die sehr wahrscheinlich ebenfalls zu einer Flöte, ähnlich den Knochenflöten aus dem Geißenklösterle, gehören.
Translation: During excavations by the University of Tübingen in the caves of the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany, three Paleolithic flutes were recovered from the Aurignacian layers of Geißenklösterle . Among them are two specimens from bird bones and, more recently, a flute, which was made ​​from Mammoth ivory.
The flutes of Geißenklösterle are the oldest known musical instruments worldwide. The layers from which they are derived have been dated by the thermoluminescence method to about 37,000 years before present and with the radiocarbon method to 29-37000 years ago. The instruments come from fund -rich layers that have delivered both numerous organic and stone artifacts , as well as figurative art and jewelery.
Experimental reconstructions demonstrate that both the bird bone flutes as well as the ivory flute are fully developed musical instruments. They document a well-trained musical tradition in the Swabian Alb during the early Upper Paleolithic. New excavations at Vogelherdhöhle have also led to the discovery of three processed bird bone fragments that are likely to also belong to a flute, similar to the bone flutes from the Geißenklösterle .

[Conard 2009] Nicholas J. Conard, Maria Malina, and Susanne C. Münzel. “New Flutes Document the Earliest Musical Tradition in Southwestern Germany”, Nature, Number 460, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., August 6, 2009, doi:10.1038/nature08169. See the article abstract on the Nature web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: The Hohle Fels Griffon Vulture Flute

Abstract: Considerable debate surrounds claims for early evidence of music in the archaeological record. Researchers universally accept the existence of complex musical instruments as an indication of fully modern behaviour and advanced symbolic communication but, owing to the scarcity of finds, the archaeological record of the evolution and spread of music remains incomplete. Although arguments have been made for Neanderthal musical traditions and the presence of musical instruments in Middle Palaeolithic assemblages, concrete evidence to support these claims is lacking. Here we report the discovery of bone and ivory flutes from the early Aurignacian period of southwestern Germany. These finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe, more than 35,000 calendar years ago. Other than the caves of the Swabian Jura, the earliest secure archaeological evidence for music comes from sites in France and Austria and post-date 30,000 years ago.

[Conclin 1843] George Conclin. The Great Indian Chief of the West: Or, Life and Adventures of Black Hawk, published by Applegate & Company, 1843. The Great Indian Chief of the West Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Congress 1968] United States Congress. Standard Reference Data Act of 1968 — H. R. 6279 / Public Law 90-396, 1968. Standard Reference Data Act of 1968 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia.com Legal Information

Abstract: To provide for the collection, compilation, critical evaluation, publication, and sale of standard reference data.

[Congress 2010] United States Congress. Indian Arts and Crafts Amendments Act of 2010 — H. R. 725 / Public Law 111-211, 2010. Indian Arts and Crafts Amendments Act of 2010 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Honoring the Tradition

[Congress 2012] United States Congress. FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 — Conference Report to accompany H.R. 658, February 1, 2012, 300 pages. FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Carrying Native American Flutes on Commercial Flights

[Conklin 1953] Harold C. Conklin and William C. Sturtevart. “Seneca Indian Singing Tools at Coldspring Longhouse — Musical Instruments of the Modern Iroquois”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 87, Number 3, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 30, 1953, pages 262–290. Publication 3143749 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Pronunciation Guide, Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Conlon 1983] Paula Conlon. The Flute of the Canadian Amerindian: An Analysis of the Vertical Whistle Flute with External Block and its Music, M.A. Thesis – Institute of Canadian Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, April 1983, 177 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

52 citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (25), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (25), Crafting Native American Flutes

Abstract: This paper is a study of the vertical whistle flute with external block and its music. This type of flute is found in the Algonkian, Iroquoian, Southeast, Plains, Plateau, Basic and North-west Coast areas.

The origins and traditional functins of the flute are discussed. Aspects of construction of flutes from museums and private collections are compared with the literary references and with transcriptions of flute melodies from the Algonkian, Plains and Basin areas. The musical analysis identifies similarities and differences of flute melodies from various areas and compares them to their vocal counterparts and the musical style of the region.

The documents on which the study is based are: (1) a compilation of the literature, (2) extensive documentation collected by the author from museums and private collections, (3) transcriptions from early twentieth century recordings and recently recorded material and (4) personal communication with Amerindian flute players and makers.

[Conlon 2002] Paula Conlon. “The Native American Flute: Convergence and Collaboration as Exemplified by R. Carlos Nakai”, contained in [Neuenfeldt 2002], The World of Music, Volume 44, Number 1, 2002, pages 61–74. Publication 41699400 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Traces the history of the Native American flute with external block, looking at its traditional function, construction, distribution, decline and rejuvenation, culminating with the multi-tiered use of the Native American flute at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Recent developments in the evolution of the Native American flute from a private courtship ritual to a more public expression of Native identity allow for an interaction of musical styles. Ute/Navajo flutist R. Carlos Nakai describes his music as contemporary traditional, stating that he builds on the memories of his heritage, utilizing the experiences that surround him to revitalize the ancient stories. The efforts of Nakai as an emissary connecting the Native American flute to a myriad of other cultures will be examined.

[Conlon 2004] Paula Conlon. Recording Reviews - Native America: Indian Flute Songs from Comanche Land [Doc Tate Nevaquaya], The World of Music, Volume 46, Number 3, 2004, pages 208–210. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conlon 2007] Paula Conlon. Comanche Flute Music Played by Doc Tate Nevaquaya, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 120, Number 475, Winter 2007, pages 77–79. Publication 4137866 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conlon 2013] Paula Conlon. “Contemporary Inuit Music from Arctic Canada”, World Literature Today, Volume 87, Number 2, March/April 2013, page 9. Publication worllitetoda.87.2.0009 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conrad 2000] Rudolf Conrad. “Nordamerikanische Vorsatzflöten zwischen Tradition und Kommerz «North American "Intent Flute" Between Tradition and Commerce»”, Study Group on Folk Musical Instruments at the Fourteenth meeting of the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM), Markneukirchen, Germany, June 21–26, 2000, in German, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

Conference summary: In his paper on the "Nordamerikanische Vorsatzflöten zwischen Tradition und Kommerz", Rudolf Conrad examined these instruments in regard to their transformation from a spiritual instrument to one linked to Indian rights and identity, tracing their increased market orientation and transformation into art objects.

[Conrad 2007] Rudolf Conrad. Cannunpa Olowan - Lakota Pipe Songs — Inspiration and Spiritual Identity in Native North American Music, Jahrbuch der Staatlichen Ethnographischen Sammlungen Sachsen, Band 43, published by LitVerlag, Berlin, 2007, pages 247–262, ISBN-13 978-3-8258-1484-7. ISSN 0075-8663. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Constas-M 2003] Marie Constas and Robert Constas. Native American Music for Recorder (song book), published by Mel Bay, 2003, 64 pages, ISBN 0-7866-6093-7 (978-0-7866-6093-3). Catalog #MB 99643. See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: A collection of original duet compositions for recorder presented in the Southwestern Native American style scored in the minor pentatonic scales. This book also includes shorter pieces transposed from the original upper line F fingering to C that are derived from the complete scores. Most of the music is scored for alto and tenor. These pieces are suitable for occasions of quiet joy or solemnity.

[Conway 1999] Steve Conway. “The Music of Plenty in the Prehistoric and Historic Southwest”, Chapter 6 of [Adler-MA 1999], 1999, pages 121–126. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conway 2008] Steve Conway. “Blowing Love”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2008, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2008, pages 4–6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cook 2014] Perry R. Cook and Dan Trueman. “Spherical Radiation From Stringed Instruments: Measured, Modeled, and Reproduced”, 2014, 9 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Directional impulse responses were collected for six stringed instruments, including two classical acoustic guitars, an archtop jazz acoustic/electric guitar, a mandolin, a violin, and a Hardanger (Norwegian folk) fiddle. Impulse responses were recorded simultaneously from 12 microphones spaced uniformly at the vertices of an icosahedron. Data was collected for all instruments with a human player holding the instrument, and for some instruments also with the instrument suspended without being held by the player. For one guitar, the violin, and the mandolin, the position was adjusted by small angles, and a total of 72 impulse responses (six sets of 12 microphones) were collected. Various signal processing techniques were used to investigate, factor, store, and implement the collected impulse responses. A software workbench was created which allows virtual microphones to be placed around a virtual instrument, and then allows signals to be processed through the resulting derived transfer functions. Signal sources for the application include plucked and bowed string physical synthesis models, or any external sound source. Instrument body transfer characteristics can be parametrically edited, adjusting body size, main resonances, etc. Applications of the database and application software have included adding directional radiation models to physical models for virtual reality and composition, and adding more realistic body resonances to electronic stringed instruments for real-time performance.

[Cooke 1980] C. K. Cooke. “Wooden and Bone Artefacts — Pomongwe Cave Matobo District, Zimbabwe”, The South African Archaeological Bulletin, Volume 35, Number 131, published by the South African Archaeological Society, June 1980, pages 25–29. Publication 3888720 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper describes and illustrates bone and wooden artefacts recovered from the Tshangula, Pomongwe and Wilton levels of the deposit excavated at Pomongwe Cave (Cooke 1963). Where possible discussion on the use of the artefacts is given. Methods of manufacture and the use of fire as part of the fashioning of wooden tools is detailed. Although many of the examples are unique in this country it has been possible to draw comparisons with implements used by modern ethnic groups in Zambia and South Africa and to earlier publications on the material culture of the Bushmen. Reference has been made to publications of excavated material from many sources. It is concluded that wood and bone were an important part of the material culture but that in most areas the acid nature and the dampness of the deposits in Zimbabwe has inhibited preservation.

[Coolidge 1999] Rita Coolidge (narrator). Songkeepers: A Saga of Five Native Americans Told Through the Sound of the Flute, published by America's Flute Productions, Lake Forest, Illinois, 1999, total time 48 minutes, video VHS. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coolidge-MR 1929] Mary Elizabeth Burroughs Roberts Coolidge (1860–1945). The Rain Makers — Indians of Arizona and New Mexico, published by Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1929, xiii + 326 pages, ISBN 0-404-15514-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2)

[Coope 2016a] Coope; Various Artists. Music of the Native American Indians Vol. I, Spiritual Songs, Coope, 10264344, 15 tracks, March 18, 2016, audio digital download. Reissue of CD #1 of [Retro 1997]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coope 2016b] Coope; Various Artists. Music of the Native American Indians Vol. II, The Indian Flute, Coope, 10264345, 12 tracks, March 18, 2016, audio digital download. Reissue of CD #2 of [Retro 1997]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12)

[Cope 2004] Gary Cope. The Background Music Project for Native American Flute, 14 tracks, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Huron Carol - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Coppens 2002] Philip Coppens. “Caral: The Oldest Town in the New World”, Frontier Magazine, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2002, retrieved September 4, 2010. Caral Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Abstract: In 2001, the oldest town in South America was officially announced. Dating to 2600 BC, it pushed back the date for the “first town” with one millennium. What is even more intriguing, is that the town of Caral has pyramids, contemporary with the Egyptian Pyramid Era.

[Coppens-W 1975] Walter Coppens, Barbara Brändli, and Jean François Nothomb. Music of the Venezuelan Yekuana (Makiritare) Indians, Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04104, 15 tracks, 1975. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of South America (2)

Publisher's description: "The Yekuana Indians, also known as Makiritare, whose total population is estimated at 1,500 to 2,000 persons, are the people whose life is closely related to the rivers as is suggested by their tribal name, which can be translated as ‘curiara (dugout canoa) people’ or ‘river people.’ When discovered around 1758-59 by the Spaniards, the Yekuana lived along several tributaries of the Upper Orinoco."

[Corbusier 1886] William H. Corbusier. “The Corbusier Winter Counts”, Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1882-1883, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1886, pages 127–147, retrieved March 15, 2010. pub-pre-1923. Publication annualreportofbu418821883smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Cormier 2010] Yvon Cormier. “Wind-instruments Lung: A Foul Note”, Chest, Volume 138, Number 3, September 2010, pages 467–468, doi:10.1378/chest.10-0868 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cosgrove 1947] C. B. Cosgrove. “Caves of the Upper Gila and Hueco Areas in New Mexico and Texas”, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 24, Number 2, published by Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1947, xv + 147 pages. Reissued in [Cosgrove 1968]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The Peabody Museum's archaeological campaign in southern New Mexico was inaugurated during the years 1924-27 by the complete excavation of a large classic Mimbres ruin on the Swarts Ranch in the Mimbres Valley. The results of that operation have been recorded ("The Swarts Ruin," by H. S. and C. B. Cosgrove). The work yielded valuable data on the architecture and burial customs of the period and produced a representative collection of artifacts, particularly rich in the beautiful Mimbres mortuary pottery. But it of course contained no specimens of cloth, basketry, or wood; and the desirabiliry of recovering such perishable materials as these, in order to round out our knowledge of the ancient material culture, led to the cave explorations with which the present paper is principally concerned.

[Cosgrove 1968] C. B. Cosgrove. “Caves of the Upper Gila and Hueco Areas in New Mexico and Texas”, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 24, Number 2, published by Kraus Reprint Corporation, New York, 1968, ISBN 0-527-01261-0 (978-0-527-01261-8). Reissue of [Cosgrove 1947]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cosic 2006] Irena Ćosić, Dean Cvetković, Qiang Fang, Emil Jovanov, and Harry Lazoura. “Human Electrophysiological Signal Responses to ELF Schumann Resonance and Artificial Electromagnetic Fields”, FME Transactions, Volume 34, Number 2, 2006, pages 93–103. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we compare the experimental findings from human electropysiological signal responses to environmental “geomagnetic” and artificial extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields in order to determine the transfer characteristic from acupuncture meridian analysis and EEG studies. The fundamental Schumann resonance frequency is claimed to be extremely benificial to existence of the biological cycle phenomena of plants, animals and humans. However, the results from our acupuncture meridian and EEG studies have shown that frequencies between 8.8 and 13.2 Hz, which fall between peaks of the Schumann resonance, mainly correlate with analysed human electrophysiological signals, while one study proves a correlation between transfer function of Schumann resonance and electro-acupunture meridian. The results from our acupuncture meridians and EEG activity studies confirm that the human body absorbs, detects and responds to ELF environmental EMF signals. This is a classical physics phenomenon utilised in telecommunication systems, which definitelly needs to be further investigated for possible biological cell-to-cell communication phenomena.
Translation: У овoм раду смo представили резултате наших истраживања утицаја геомагнетског и вештачког електромагнетног поља на електрофизиолошке сигнале човека. Упоредили смо наше резултантне анализе три акупунктурна меридијана и анализу ЕЕГ сигнала. Предходна истраживања фундаменталних Шуманових резонантних фреквенција су показала да су од велике користи за егзистенцију биолошких бића. Међутим, наши налази из три предходна акупунктурно меридијанских и ЕЕГ рада су показали да фреквенције измедју 8.8 и 13.2 Hz, који се иначе налазе ван Шумановог резонантног региона, су корелантне са анализиарним електрофизиолошким сигналима човека, док једно наше истраживање доказује супротно и указује да постоје утицајне корелације измедју Шуманове резонанције и електро-акупунктурских меридијана. Резултати наших истраживања указују да је човечије тело зависно од геомагнетског и вештачког електромагнетног поља. Ово је класичан пример принципа физике, који се и данас примењује у телекомуникацијним системима и који може објаснити неке механизме у комуникацију биолошких ћелија.

[Cossette 2008] Isabelle Cossette, Pierpaolo Monaco, Andrea Aliverti, and Peter T. Macklem. “Chest Wall Dynamics and Muscle Recruitment During Professional Flute Playing”, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 160, 2008, pages 187–195. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Respiratory parameters and sound were recorded during professional flute playing in order to assess what physiological processes were associated with the control of sound production that results in ‘breath support’ which in turn is associated with high quality playing. Four standing young professional flautists played flute excerpts with and without breath support. Recordings included optoelectronic plethysmographic measurements of chest wall volume (Vcw) and its compartments, surface electromyography of the scalene, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominus, parasternal and sternocleidomastoid muscles, mouth pressure, and sound. Flow was estimated from differentiating Vcw during playing. Results showed that flute support entails antagonistic contraction of non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles that tends to hold the rib cage at higher lung volume. This relieves the expiratory muscles from the task of producing the right mouth pressure, especially at the end of the phrases, so they can contribute more to the finer control of mouth pressure modulations required for high quality playing.

[Coul 2000] Manuel Op de Coul. What Is an Euler-Fokker Genus?, 2000, retrieved January 3, 2011. See the Article on the Huygens-Fokker Foundation Centre for Microtonal Music web site. What Is an Euler-Fokker Genus? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coul 2003] Manuel Op de Coul. Logarithmic Interval Measures, 2003. Logarithmic Interval Measures Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (2)

[Coul 2010] Manuel Op de Coul. Scala, 2010, retrieved October 18, 2010. See the Scala home page. Scala Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Scales for the Native American Flute, The Comprehensive Scale Catalog, Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings (3), Native American Flute Tunings

[Coul 2015] Manuel Op de Coul. Logarithmic Interval Measures, 2015, retrieved July 30, 2015. See the Huygens-Fokker Foundation web site. Logarithmic Interval Measures Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coulton 2015] S. Coulton, S. Clift, A. Skingley, and J. Rodriguez. “Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Community Singing on Mental Health-related Quality of Life of Older People: Randomised Controlled Trial”, British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, Volume 207, Number 3, September 2015, pages 250–255, doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.129908. Publication 26089304 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: As the population ages, older people account for a greater proportion of the health and social care budget. Whereas some research has been conducted on the use of music therapy for specific clinical populations, little rigorous research has been conducted looking at the value of community singing on the mental health-related quality of life of older people.
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community group singing for a population of older people in England.
Method: A pilot pragmatic individual randomised controlled trial comparing group singing with usual activities in those aged 60 years or more.
Results: A total of 258 participants were recruited across five centres in East Kent. At 6 months post-randomisation, significant differences were observed in terms of mental health-related quality of life measured using the SF12 (mean difference = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.06-4.76) in favour of group singing. In addition, the intervention was found to be marginally more cost-effective than usual activities. At 3 months, significant differences were observed for the mental health components of quality of life (mean difference = 4.77; 2.53-7.01), anxiety (mean difference = -1.78; -2.5 to -1.06) and depression (mean difference = -1.52; -2.13 to -0.92).
Conclusions: Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people.

[Courlander 1957] Harold Courlander (compiler); Alan P. Merriam (liner notes) (1923–1980). Africa South of the Sahara, Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04503, 38 tracks, 1957. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa

Publisher's description: This 1957 compilation attempts to provide a musical overview of the entire Sub–Saharan region, and also represents the scholarly contribution of American ethnomusicologist Alan P. Merriam (1923 — 1980) to the Folkways catalog. Merriam, who is best remembered for the book The Anthropology of Music, produced the album and provided an essay and track notes. This title went a long way towards dispelling prejudices and misconceptions listeners of the time may have had about African music. Merriam wrote, “The African music system works by its own rules and satisfies those who play it and sing it; it is neither necessarily older nor younger nor better nor worse.”

[Couse 1906] Eanger Irving Couse (1866–1936). “A Painter of Indians”, Academy Notes, Volume 2, Number 2, published by The Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, New York, July 1906, pages 22–23. Page 23 contains an image of the painting "An Indian Flute Player". A Painter of Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

Lead paragraph: One of the very interesting pictures in the First Annual Exhibition of Selected Paintings by American Artists, now open at the Albright Art Gallery, is the "Indian Flute Player" by Eanger Irving Couse, an illustration of which is presented in this issue of "Academy Notes." In the foreground, leaning against the trunk of a tree, is a stalwart brave playing upon a flute which he has made. A child, seated upon the ground near him, listens attentively. The figures are well drawn, are admirably modeled, and the attitudes are easy and naturaL The foreground is in shadow, but one has an impression of sunlight in the open space beyond the tree trunks.

[Cowan 2001] M. J. Cowan, K. C. Pike, and H. K. Budzynski. “Psychosocial Nursing Therapy Following Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Impact on two-year survival”, Nursing Research, Volume 50, 2001, pages 68–76. Publication 11302295 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Although psychosocial therapy has been shown to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction, it is unknown whether the benefits of psychosocial therapy on mortality reduction extend to out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest, a main cause of cardiovascular mortality.
Objective: Describe efficacy of psychosocial therapy on two-year cardiovascular mortality in sudden cardiac arrest survivors.
Method: Survivors of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation or asystole (N = 129), documented by electrocardiograms from registries of a citywide Medic One unit and two countywide emergency units, were randomized into a two group, experimental, longitudinal design. The intervention consisted of 11 individual sessions, implementing three components: physiologic relaxation with biofeedback training focused on altering autonomic tone; cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at self-management and coping strategies for depression, anxiety, and anger; and cardiovascular health education. The primary outcome measure was cardiovascular mortality.
Results: Risk of cardiovascular death was significantly reduced 86% by psychosocial therapy, p = .03. Six of the seven cardiovascular deaths in the control group were caused by ventricular arrhythmias. The cardiovascular death in the therapy group was due to stroke. Controlling for depression, previous myocardial infarction, low ejection fraction, decreased heart rate variability, and ventricular ectopic beats had little impact on estimated treatment effect. The risk of all-cause mortality was reduced by 62% in the therapy group, p = .13. There were a total of three deaths in the therapy group and eight deaths in the control group.
Conclusions: Psychosocial therapy significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death in sudden cardiac arrest survivors.

[Cowell 1952] John Coloff (performance); Willard Rhodes (recording) (1901–1992). Music of the World's Peoples, Volume 2, Smithsonian / Folkways, FW04505, 16 tracks, 1952, audio CD. Originally issued as Folkways Ethnic P-505. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Publisher's description: Continuing where Volume 1 left off, this album includes traditional musics of twelve different cultures, from Cuban to Sioux, Azerbaijani and Congolese. There are dances, work songs, songs of love and farewell. This is an extraordinarily diverse sampling of music from around the world. Three more volumes were published in this series.

[Cowell 1962] Henry Cowell (editor). Primitive Music of the World, New York, Folkways Records, FE 4581, 34 tracks, 1962, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. two 12-inch, 33⅓ rpm, monophonic discs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Cox 2013] Trevor Cox. Pitch Shifting to 432 Hz Doesn’t Improve Music, December 13, 2013, retrieved July 6, 2015. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coxeter 1962] H. S. M. Coxeter. “Music and Mathematics”, The Canadian Music Journal, Volume 6, 1962, pages 13–24. Reprinted in [Coxeter 1968]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coxeter 1968] H. S. M. Coxeter. “Music and Mathematics”, Mathematics Teacher, Volume 61, Number 3, March 1968, pages 312–320. Reprint of [Coxeter 1962]. Publication 27957839 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coyote 1975] Coyote Man (Robert Rathbun). Songs of the Californa Indians, Volume 1: Concow, Nisenan, Mountain Maidu, published by Pacific Western Traders, Folsom, California, 1975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cozad-E 1964] Everett Cozad. Kiowa Indian Love Call, American Indian Soundchief, SC 248, 1964. See the India House web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Cozad-L 1997] Leonard Cozad; Roger Harris and Jim Anquoe (interviewers); Vicky Gardner (transcription). Tribal Songs Project — First Interview, published by the Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, July 11, 1997, 25 pages. Item H1997.041; Catalog File #97.041.A-B. First interview. See the Oklahoma Historical Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cozad-L 1997a] Leonard Cozad; Roger Harris and Jim Anquoe (interviewers); Vicky Gardner (transcription). Tribal Songs Project — Second Interview, published by the Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, August 7, 1997, 28 pages. Item H1997.046; Catalog File #97.046.A-B. Second interview at Leonard Cozad's home in Hog Creek. See the Oklahoma Historical Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[CR 1955] Canyon Records. The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers, Canyon Records, C-6050, 8 tracks, 1955, ASIN B00KIXSKUG, 33⅓ rpm 10" audio disc. Reissued in [CR 1968] and [CR 1998]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3)

Review by Howard LaFay, High Fidelity Magazine, April 1955, page 68: Canyon Records C-6050. 10-in. $4.20, plus 50c shipping charge, 834 North Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Ariz.
This disk is a real sleeper. Apparently Canyon's first LP release, it is a brilliant success by any criterion. It also fills - in what may well prove definitive fashion - a gaping hole in the catalog.

According to the note on the jacket, "Canyon Records has sought out the foremost Indian singers and arranged with them and through tribal councils to collaborate in this memorable collection." Dances, ceremonies and songs have been taped on the spot. All are thoroughly authentic - or as authentic as any Indian music can be in this era of tribal break-up.

The gem of the collection is "Acoma - Song of the Sky City," sung by a Navajo named Natay. Indian music is supposed to be unmelodic, but not this song, which possesses an indescribable, haunting loveliness; its melody conveys a heartbreaking nostalgia for the endless plains and the ancient glory. Natay's voice is as surprisingly beautiful as the song. He has the vocal equipment to sing any material in any league.

The sound is spacious, full and crystal-clear.

[CR 1966] Canyon Records. The Great Plains, Indian Singers and Songs, Canyon Records, CR-6052, 20 tracks, 1966, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

Liner notes: Following many requests, Canyon Records presents on Long Play record the music of the Indians of the Great American Plains. In this memorable collection are 14 songs not previously released on Canyon Records, and 5 of the more-often asked for songs from Canyon Records library of single records.
The music has been recorded under varying conditions – on-location at actual dances, at celebrations and Pow-Wows, and in a modern studio setting. All recordings were originally obtained by Canyon Records through negotiation with the singers or song-owners, who expresses their pride in being able to be part of the growing archives of authentic Indian music–to be made known to today's listeners, and preserved in its integrity for the future.
Efrem Zimbalist, Sr., who studied primitive music all over the world, has been quoted as saying that American Indian music is the most difficult he has known. "Lacking in harmony, the Indian achieves his effects entirely by rhythm, often combining several rhythms in on song, and always using short intervals and very baffling pauses." (Fergusson - "Dancing Gods.")
The singing of the Plains is characterized by loudness and great vocal tension. The drumming is strong, almost heavy. Sometimes the song is faster, sometimes slower than the drum. Like much Indian music, it has a descending pattern.
As indicated in the descriptions of the individual selections, some of these singing groups are no longer together; some of the dance customs are disappearing. Recordings like the following may never again be possible. Here, for posterity, are some Great Plains Singers and Songs!

[CR 1968] Canyon Records. The Song of the Indian — American Indian Songs & Chants by Outstanding Tribal Singers, Canyon Records, CR-6050, 8 tracks, 1968, audio cassette. Reissue of [CR 1955]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3)

[CR 1976] Canyon Records (record company); William Horncloud (performer); Charles Red Cloud (performer, track A1); John Spotted Horse (composer, track A2); Raymond Boley (recording); J. William K. Powers and Mary Boley (program notes). Sioux Songs of War and Love, Canyon Records, CR-6150, 12 tracks, 1976, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissue of [ARP 1971]; All tracks were reissued in [CR 1998a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[CR 1998] Canyon Records; Stephen Butler and Mary Boley (program notes). Traditional Voices: Historic Recordings of Traditional Native American Music, Canyon Records Vintage Collection, Volume 20, Canyon Records, CR-7053, 30 tracks, 1998, audio CD. Reissue of [CR 1955]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (5), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (5)

[CR 1998a] Canyon Records (record company); William Horncloud (performer); Charles Red Cloud (performer, track A1); John Spotted Horse (composer, track A2); Raymond Boley (recording); J. William K. Powers and Mary Boley (program notes). Traditional Lakota Songs, Canyon Records Vintage Collection, Volume 15, Canyon Records, CR-6150, 17 tracks, 1998, audio CD. First 12 tracks are a reissue of [ARP 1971] and [CR 1976]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Publisher's description: This collection of seventeen traditional Lakota songs is by one of the great native singers of all time, William Horncloud, and includes honor songs, war songs, old Omaha dance songs, love songs and rabbit songs. Born in 1905, Horncloud learned songs reaching back into the 1800's and was instrumental for keeping Lakota culture alive.
National Library of Australia notes: Originally issued by Canyon Records as Sioux songs of war and love (C-6150, p1976); additional selections released on Sioux favorites (CR-6059) and William Horncloud sings rabbit Sioux songs (CR-6081).
Program notes by J. William K. Powers and Mary Boley in English with English translations of Lakota lyrics (1 folded sheet : ill.) laid in container.

[CR 1998b] Canyon Records. Yaqui Ritual and Festive Music, Canyon Records Vintage Collection, Volume 8, Canyon Records, CR-6140, 12 tracks, 1998, audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Cramer 1993] Owen Cramer. “The Variation of the Specific Heat Ratio and the Speed of Sound in Air with Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and CO2 Concentration”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 93, Issue 5, May 1993, pages 2510–2516, doi:10.1121/1.405827 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Right in Tune - article by Clint Goss, Electronic Tuners and the Native American Flute

Abstract: This paper describes a precise numerical calculation of the specific heat ratio and speed of sound in air as a function of temperature, pressure, humidity, and CO2 concentration. The above parameters are calculated utilizing classical thermodynamic relationships and a real gas equation of state over the temperature range 0°C–30°C. The shortcomings of previous determinations are also discussed. For both parameters, the coefficients of an interpolating equation are given, which are suitable for use in applications requiring high precision. The overall uncertainty in the specific heat ratio is estimated to be less than 320 ppm and the uncertainty in the speed of sound is similarly estimated to be less than 300 ppm.

[Crane 1968] H. R. Crane and James B. Griffin. “University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XII”, Radiocarbon, Volume 10, 1968, pages 61–114. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Breckenridge Flute (4)

[Crappell 2008] Courtney J. Crappell. Native American Influence in the Piano Music of Louis W. Ballard, Doctoral dissertation – University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 2008, 154 pages. UMI Number: 3355760. Native American Influence in the Piano Music of Louis W. Ballard Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Louis Wayne Ballard (1931-2007) combined his experiences in Native American music with his knowledge of Western art music to form a unique compositional style. As a Quapaw/Cherokee Indian he worked to synthesize Western and Native American music in an endeavor to create an awareness of Native American aesthetics in the mainstream consciousness of Western audiences. This study explores Native American influence in Ballard‟s compositions for solo piano and piano with orchestra. These works include the Four American Indian Piano Preludes (1963), two fantasies entitled A City of Silver (1981) and A City of Fire (1983), an impromptu entitled A City of Light (1984), and a partially completed piano concerto, later finished by Brent Michael Davids and titled as the Indiana Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (2007).

Interviews with participants familiar with Ballard‟s life and work inform discussion of his piano works and expand the biographical data previously available in dictionaries, encyclopedias, books, and dissertations. Native American musical style and imagery found within his piano music is examined using written descriptions, transcriptions, and recordings of traditional Native American music.

Ballard was the first Native American composer to incorporate Native American musical style within a Western idiom. This study aims to make his piano works more accessible for performers and teachers and introduce audiences to the cultural resources that lie within Ballard‟s compositions.

[Crawford 1997] Tim R. Crawford. Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, published by RainDance Publications, Suffolk, VA, 1997, 118 pages, ISBN 0-9659110-0-4. Nakai tablature notation, finger diagrams for some songs for five-hole and six-hole flutes. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

Summary from isbndb.com: Flute Magic: An Introduction To The Native American Flute is an excellent presentation for all of thos e who have any interest in the Native American Flute and is a suitable "class room" instructional guide and tutoring text covering such topics as history and designs, learning to play the Native American Flute, various performance techniques, instrument keys, an explanation and description of the TABlature created by R. Carlos Nakai to write out music for the Native American Flute and music composed for both the five hole and six hole Native American Flute.

[Crawford 1999] Tim R. Crawford; Dr. Kathleen Joyce-Grendahl (editor). Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Second Edition, published by RainDance Publications, Suffolk, VA, 1999, 172 pages, ISBN 0-9659110-1-2, comb binding. Nakai tablature notation, finger diagrams for some songs for five-hole and six-hole flutes. Contains 32 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fourteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (7), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (7)

[Crawford 1999a] Tim Crawford. “Outdoor Recording”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1999, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1999, pages 3–5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 1999b] Tim Crawford, Peter Phippen, Richard W. Payne, and Oliver W. Jones. “Which Came First — The Cedar Flute or the Cane Flute?”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1999, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1999, pages 10–11. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Crawford 1999c] Tim Crawford. “Song Writing — Getting Started!”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1999, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1999, pages 4–5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2000] Tim Crawford. “Bullroarers”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2000, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2000, pages 5–6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2002] Tim Crawford. “Thurlow Lieurance”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2002, Volume 1, 2002, pages 5–8. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4)

[Crawford 2005] Tim Crawford. “Attributed Uses, Other than Courting, of the Native American Flute — Part 1”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 16–18. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2005a] Tim Crawford. “Attributed Uses, Other than Courting, of the Native American Flute — Part 2”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 2–4. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2005b] Tim Crawford. “Attributed Uses, Other than Courting, of the Native American Flute — Part 3”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 2–4. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2006] Tim R. Crawford; Dr. Kathleen Joyce-Grendahl (editor). Flute Magic: An Introduction to the Native American Flute, Third Edition, published by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., 2006, 196 pages, ISBN 0-7866-5816-9 (book) (978-0-7866-5816-9 (book), 978-1-60974-346-8 (e-book)), UPC 7-96279-07283-0 (book). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twenty citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (9), The Warble (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (9)

Publisher's description: This book contains 20 chapters addressing everything from the origin and design of the Native American flute to a method for learning to play the instrument and read its music. Together with the fingering exercises presented in eight lessons, a number of tunes are included for both the five and six-hole Native American flute. Old standards, indigenous music, and original compositions are presented, meeting the needs of beginning to advanced players. This useful and practical guide to the Native American flute is suitable for either individual or classroom instruction.

[Crawford 2006a] Tim Crawford. “The Design of the Native American Flute May Not Be Entirely Unique to Native Americans”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2006, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2006, pages 3–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crawford 2006b] Tim Crawford. “Oldest Documented External Wind Way Native American Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2006, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2006, pages 8–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Crawford 2007] Tim Crawford. “Northwest Flute Connections”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2007, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2007, pages 2–5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Creath 2004] Katherine Creath and Gary E. Schwartz. “Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay”, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 10, Number 1, 2004, pages 113–122. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conclusion: This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions

[Creel 2009] Darrell Creel. “New Exhibits on Texas Beyond History Highlight Cultures of Texas Coast, Grand Prairie, and Edwards Plateau”, Friends of the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory Newsletter, December 2009, pages 16–18. New Exhibits on Texas Beyond History Highlight Cultures of Texas Coast, Grand Prairie, and Edwards Plateau Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cresson 1884] H. T. Cresson. “Construction of Ancient Mexican Terracotta Pitch Pipes and Flageolets”, The American Naturalist, Volume 18, published by the Press of McCalla & Stavely, England, 1884, pages 498–510. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Classification of Flutes

[Crickmore 2003] Leon Crickmore. “A Re-valuation of the Ancient Science of Harmonics”, Psychology of Music, Volume 31, Number 4, 2003, pages 391–403, doi:10.1177/03057356030314004 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Harmonics was the theoretical arithmetic underpinning the tuningofmusical instruments in ancient times. It was a numerical science based onratios ofstring-length. The ancients believed that the planets circled the heavensin similar mathematical proportions, and that, by analogy, these alsocorresponded to powers in the human psyche. Harmonics survived as such untilthe 17th century. Only recently, however, have musicologists made abreakthrough to a more comprehensive understanding ofits coherence andcultural significance. This article offers a short re-valuation ofharmonics. Itseeks to stimulate debate about the relevance ofthe relationships betweennumber and tone to contemporary thought, and whether an understanding of harmonics has anything to contribute to future interdisciplinary research intothe evolution ofmusic and the human mind.

[Crickmore 2007] Leon Crickmore. “A New Hypothesis for the Construction and Tuning of Babylonian Musical Scales”, Journal of Ancient Civilizations, Volume 22, 2007, pages 35–67. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2008] Leon Crickmore. “A Musical and Mathematical Context for CBS 1766”, Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 30, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, October 1, 2008, pages 327–338, doi:10.1525/mts.2008.30.2.327. Publication mts.2008.30.2.327 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

Introduction: CBS 1766 was published by Horowitz (2006). This cuneiform tablet, dating from about 1500 BC, shows a seven-pointed star within two concentric circles, below which are column of seven integers between one and seven. Horowitz reads the figures horizontally, in pairs, and suggests a mathematical explanation. Waerzeggers and Siebes (2007) propose and alternative musical interpretation, reading the figures in pairs, by columns. Thereby, they related the numbers to the seven-pointed star, which they understand as a visual tuning chart for seven heptachords on a seven-stringed instrument, supplementing the numerical and verbal instructions contained in CBS 10996. Finkel and Dumbrill at the British Museum support their view from both a philological and musical standpoint. Dumbrill cites CBS 1766 as evidence that the Babylonian scales were heptachords.

[Crickmore 2008a] Leon Crickmore. “A New Light on the Babylonian Tonal System”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 11–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

From the introduction: One of the most significant developments in recent musicology has been the transcription and interpretation of a number of musical cuneiform tablets dating from the second millennium B.C. It has been established that Old Babylonian music was diatonic and based on seven heptachords, corresponding to the first seven tones of the ancient Greek octave species. But a problem remains about the direction of these scales. This paper will suggest a resolution of the ‘dilemma’ reached by Kilmer in her pioneering research. It will also argue that the theoretical musicians of ancient Mesopotamia are likely to have quantified their scales, using sexagesimal arithmetic and numbers from their standard tables of reciprocals. The resulting tuning would therefore have been Just rather than Pythagorean.

[Crickmore 2008b] Leon Crickmore. “The Musicality of Plato”, Hermathena, Volume 180, 2008, pages 19–43. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A certain passage in the eighth book of Plato's Republic has been described as 'notoriously the most difficult in his writings'. This article offer a commentary on the passage, in the light of recent musicological and other related research and its insights into the ways in which Plato's political and moral thought is underpinned by the ancient science of harmonics.

[Crickmore 2009] Leon Crickmore. “A Possible Mesopotamian Origin for Plato's World Soul”, Hermathena, Volume 186, published by Trinity College, Dublin, Summer 2009, pages 5–23. Publication 23041697 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In the introduction to the Loeb translation of Plato's Timaeus, R.G. Bury notes: 'The primary operation of the Demiurge is to construct the World Soul. In his description of this process, Plato mixes myth with mathematics in a peculiarly baffling way'.

This article will argue that if Plato's mathematics is interpreted in accordance with the Pythagorean tradition and the ancient science of harmonics, the arithmetic quickly ceases to be 'baffling'. The article will also identify a possible Mesopotamian origin for Plato'e mathematical construct.

[Crickmore 2009a] Leon Crickmore. “The Tonal Systems of Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece: Some Similarities and Differences”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 1–16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2009b] Leon Crickmore. “Harmonic Mythology — Nine Interdiciplinary Research Notes”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 51–66. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2010] Leon Crickmore. “Egyptian Fractions and the Ancient Science of Harmonics”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 1–8, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesis that in ancient times there existed throughout the Near East a common mathematical approach to the definition of musical pitch in terms of ratios of pipe or string-length. This tradition became known by the time of Plato as the science of harmonics. As a branch of music theory, harmonics probably originated in Mesopotamia. It would later have been transmitted to Greece and Egypt. As performing musicians were traded widely by kings between the temples and palaces of cities across the Near East, they would have taken their knowledge of music theory with them. It seems reasonable therefore to assume that the science of harmonics would then have been accommodated to the various regional systems of arithmetic in use: sexagesimal in Mesopotamia; Pythagorean in Greece and in Egypt by means of Egyptian fractions.

[Crickmore 2012] Leon Crickmore. “A Musicological Interpretation of the Akkadian term siḫpu”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 64, 2012, pages 57–64, doi:10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057. Publication 10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This article aims to provide a musicological interpretation of the Akkadian term siḫpu, which makes sense to modern musicians and is compatible with the eight known cuneiform music texts.

[Cringan 1898] Alexander T. Cringan. “Pagan Dance Songs of the Iroquois”, Annual Archaeological Report 1897-98, being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, Volume 12, published by L. K. C. Meron, Toronto, Ontario, 1898, pages 168–198. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cringan 1903] Alexander T. Cringan. “Iroquois Folk Songs”, Annual Archaeological Report 1902, being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, Volume 17, published by L. K. C. Meron, Toronto, Ontario, 1903, pages 137–152. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1977] Richard L. Crocker. “Music and Archaeology”, IMSCR, Volume 12, Berkeley, California, 1977, pages 844–868. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1978] R{ichard} L. Crocker. “Remarks on the Tuning Text UET VII 74 (U.7/80)”, Orientalia, Volume 47, published by Faculty of Ancient Oriental Studies, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, Italy, 1978, pages 99–104, ASIN B0007BPL7E. Publication 43074799 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1984] R{ichard} L. Crocker and A{nn} D{raffkorn} Kilmer. “The Fragmentary Music Text from Nippur”, Iraq, Volume 46, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1984, pages 81–85. Publication 4200217 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1997] Richard L. Crocker. “Mesopotamian Tonal Systems”, Iraq, Volume 59, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1997, pages 189–202. Publication 4200443 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cronyn 1918] George William Cronyn (editor); Mary Hunter Austin (introduction); T. B. Platt (illustrator). The Path on the Rainbow — An Anthology of Songs and Chants from the Indians of North America, published by Boni and Liveright, New York, 1918, 347 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cros 2005] Anne Cros, Didier Demolin, Ana Georgina Flesia, and Antonio Galves. On the Relationship Between Intra-oral Pressure and Speech Sonority, Interspeech 2005, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We address the question of the relationship between two time series associated to the speech signal. The first one is the sonority function which was introduced in Galves et al. (2002) as an index of the local regularity of the speech signal. The second time series is the intra-oral pressure during the production of speech. We argue that the joint evolution of both time series can be well described by a simple probabilistic model. We show that our model is in good agreement with the results obtained by analyzing a linguistic corpus with recorded sentences in French and Kinyarwanda.

[Crosby 1931] Oscar T. Crosby. “Notes on Bushmen and Ovambo in South West Africa — Part 1”, Journal of the Royal African Society, Volume 30, Number 121, October 1931, pages 344–360. Publication 717169 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crow 2002] Taylor Crow. Indian Village, published by the San Juan Music Group, Delta Music GmbH, 13-673, 2 tracks, 2002, total time 71:53, EAN 4-006408-136736. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[CSWR 2008] Center for Southwest Research. Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection, 2008, set of audio CDs (four) plus guidebook with background information. Collection Number MU 4. Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America (2)

Abstract: This collection of sound recordings was donated to the John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music by the Music Department of the University of New Mexico. It consisted of three reels of pre-1963 commercial recordings of Native American music from Mexico and the Southwestern United States, which have been reformatted to cd.

The collection is a representation of the music traditions of various Southwestern American Indian and Mexican tribes. It consists of songs duplicated from commercial records that were, in turn, based on the field recordings collected by several notable folk music historians. The name of the native group is given when known, as is the name of the collector. The songs in this collection from Laura Boulton and Willard Rhodes also appear on commercial albums, which are catalogued and held by the UNM Library. Those from John H. Green and John S. Candelario are not found elsewhere in this Library, and are unique.

Various native languages are used in these recordings. There are songs from the Yaqui, Yuma, Chichimeca, Maya, Tarascan, Otomi, Zapotec and Ticul Indians. Others are songs of the Pima, Papago, Mohave and Hopi. In addition, there are songs from the pueblos of Taos, Zuni, San Ildefonso and Santa Ana, and from the Navajo, Apache and Mescalero Apache peoples. Some of the songs are in Spanish.

[CSWR 2010] Center for Southwest Research. James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs, 2010. James B. Wright Collection of Southwestern Native American and Hispanic Music, Interviews and Literary Programs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4)

Abstract: This broad collection contains traditional Southwestern Native American and Hispanic folk music, and popular music, dances, poetry readings and interviews collected in the 1970s and 1980s. Also included are Spanish medieval music, a Belen Los Pastores presentation, Matachines music from Tortugas, a Corrales history pageant, Anglo American country western songs and fiddle tunes, Laotian songs from Albuquerque, and a lecture by John Donald Robb.

[CTS 2012] Canary/Tompkins Square. Brass Pins & Pearls: International 78s, Tompkins Square, 23 tracks, July 2012, ASIN B008CZ6T78, audio CD. Originally released on two LP records (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio discs) in 2009 and 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

Publisher's description: A collection of radiant music from around the world compiled from 78rpm discs from the first half of the 20th century. Originally released at two LPs (A String of Pearls in late 2009 and Brass Pins & Match Heads in early 2011), each LP reacted directly to the early deaths of musician-friends of compiler Ian Nagoski and asked, “What is the value of the life of one musician?” The complexly interwoven performances are visceral and lifelike outpourings of strong emotions and outrageous feats of virtuosity. Musicians, famous and unknown alike from staggeringly varied backgrounds, together give the impression of the goodness, wonder and mystery of music itself. These 25 tracks span nearly as many cultures and languages but flow seamlessly as one human voice.

[Cuadra 2001] Patricio De la Cuadra, Tamara Smyth, Chris Chafe, and Han Baoqiang. “Waveguide Simulation of Neolithic Chinese Flutes”, International Symposium on Musical Acoustics, Perugia, Italy, September 2001, 2001, pages 181–184. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cuadra 2008] Patricio de la Cuadra, Benoît Fabre, Nicolas Montgermount, and Lauent De Ryck. “Analysis of Flute Control Parameters: A Comparison Between a Novice and an Experienced Flutist”, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Volume 94, Number 5, October 2008, pages 740–749, doi:10.3813/AAA.918091 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sound produced by flutes depends no only on the physical characteristics of the instrument but also on the control exerted by the musician. The latter is very important in some instruments of the flute family, especially in those where the air jet is shaped with the lip of the player. Some of the most relevant parameters controlled by the flautist, such as the distance from the lips to the shapr edge, the shape of the lips hole and the speed of the jet, are experimentally measured in this paper. Data produced by an experienced and a novice flautist are collected, analyzed and compared. Subjects are studied under normal musical playing conditions, playing phrases made out of simple musical intervals with subjective dynamics. Images of performer's lips are taken together with measurements of the blowing pressure and the sound inside and outside the instrument. Data analysis shows remarkable differences between the two subjects. The optimized coordination of several parameters in order to obtain a desired musical response, coupling between performer's mouth and the instrument, as well as the effecient use of the available resources are some of the differences observed.

[CUL 2004] Columbia University Libraries. Jewels in Her Crown — Treasures of Columbia University Libraries Special Collections, 2004. See the Exhibition web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Culbertson 1987] Evelyn Davis Culbertson. “Arthur Farwell's Early Efforts on Behalf of American Music, 1889–1921”, American Music, Volume 5, Number 2, published by the University of Illinois Press, Summer 1987, pages 156–175. Publication 3052160 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Culf 1998] Nicola Culf. Musicians’ Injuries: A Guide to Their Understanding and Prevention, published by Parapress Ltd, Tunbridge Wells, U.K., 1998, ISBN 1-898594-62-7 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Culiberg 2011] Metka Culiberg. “Fragments of Ice Age Environments — Palaeobotanical Research at Palaeolithic Sites in Slovenia”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 219–234. Fragments of Ice Age Environments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Palaeobotanic material, such as wood charcoal and/or pollen has been found in numerous Palaeolithic sites in Slovenia. More than 20 charcoal rich hearths were discovered in the Mousterian cave site Divje Babe I from the Middle Würm (approximately 80,000 to 40,000 BP). Thousands of specimens of charcoal were analysed from this site. It was established that conifers (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, Taxus, Juniperus) dominated the vegetation in the area of the site during that period, which were joined in warmer periods of the Glacial by various deciduous species, including beech (Fagus). Pollen analysis was also performed on sediments from the 9-meter deep profile. Palaeobotanical finds from other, mostly Upper Palaeolithic sites are much more scarce; however, it can be seen that Pinus was present in the vicinity of the sites in the last Würm stadial (W III), and was joined by other conifers in the Late Glacial and, soon afterwards, by deciduous trees, including beech.

[Culin 1907] Stewart Culin. “Games of the North American Indians”, Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1902-1903, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1907, pages 3–809 + 21 plates + 1,112 figures, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu24smithso on Archive.org (open access). Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Cummings 2008] Daniel Cummings. Native American Flute Meditation: Musical Instrument Design, Construction and Playing as Contemplative Practice, Senior Honors Projects. Paper 104, published by the University of Rhode Island, 2008. Native American Flute Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cummins 1904] Ella Uhrig Cummins. Acoma — Indian Intermezzo, published by the Thiebes-Stierlin Music Company, St. Louis, Missouri, 1904, 6 pages. Publication b10000112 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cunningham 2008] Penny Cunningham, Julia Heeb, and Roeland Paardekooper (editors). Experiencing Archaeology by Experiment, Proceedings of the Experimental Archaeology Conference 2007, Exeter, Oxbow Books, Oxford, England, 2008, ISBN 1-84217-342-1 (978-1-84217-342-8), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1905] Natalie Curtis (1875–1921). Songs of Ancient America — Three Pueblo Indian Corn-Griding Songs from Laguna, New Mexico Recorded, with Pianoforte Accompaniment and an Explanatory Introduction, published by G. Schirmer, New York, 1905, vi + 12 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1905a] Natalie Curtis. Songs of Ancient America Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1907] Natalie Curtis. The Indians' Book: An Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of their Race, published by Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York and London, 1907, 574 pages, hardcover. Reissued in [Curtis 1968] and [Curtis 1987]. Publication cu31924028767238 on Archive.org (open access). See the Natalie Curtis web site. Contains 29 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

33 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (16), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (16), Maliseet Love Song - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Curtis 1915] Natalie Curtis. “Busoni’s Indian Fantasy”, Southern Workman, Volume 44, October 1915, pages 538–543. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1919] Natalie Curtis. “Theodore Roosevelt in Hopi-Land”, The Outlook, Volume 123, 1919, pages 87–93. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1920] Natalie Curtis. “Saving Indian Music and Legend from Annihilation”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, page 666. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1921] Natalie Curtis. “American Indian Cradle Songs”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 7, Number 4, published by G. Schirmer, New York and Boston, 1921, pages 549–558, retrieved April 14, 2010, doi:10.1093/mq/VII.4.549. Contains 8 songs. American Indian Cradle Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Yuma Lullaby - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, About Flutopedia.com

[Curtis 1968] Natalie Curtis. The Indians' Book, published by Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1968, 584 pages, ISBN 0-486-21939-9, softcover. Reissue of [Curtis 1907]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis 1987] Natalie Curtis. The Indians' Book: Authentic Native American Legends, Lore & Music, published by Bonanza Books, New York, 1987, 584 pages, ISBN 0-517-61539-8 (978-0-517-61539-3), hardcover. Reissue of [Curtis 1907]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1907] Edward S. Curtis (1868–1952); Frederick Webb Hodge (editor) (1864–1956). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 1. The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1907, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. Reissued in [Curtis-E 1970]; Volume 1 reissued in [Curtis-E 2006]. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1908a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 2. The Pima. The Papago. The Qahatika. The Mohave. The Yuma. The Maricopa. The Walapai. The Havasupai. The Apache-Mohave, or Yavapai, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1908, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1908b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 3. The Teton Sioux. The Yanktonai. The Assiniboin, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1908, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Curtis-E 1909a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 4. The Apsaroke, or Crows. The Hidatsa, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1909, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Curtis-E 1909b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 5. The Mandan. The Arikara. The Atsina, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1909, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1911a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 6. The Piegan. The Cheyenne. The Arapaho, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1911, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1911b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 7. The Yakima. The Klickitat. Salishan tribes of the interior. The Kutenai, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1911, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1911c] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 8. The Nez Perces. Wallawalla. Umatilla. Cayuse. The Chinookan tribes, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1911, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Curtis-E 1913] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 9. The Salishan tribes of the coast. The Chimakum and the Quilliute. The Willapa, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1913, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1914] Edward S. Curtis (director). In the Land of the Headhunters, 1914, film. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1915] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 10. The Kwakiutl, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1915, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1916] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 11. The Nootka. The Haida, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1916, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1922] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 12. The Hopi, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1922, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1924a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 13. The Hupa. The Yurok. The Karok. The Wiyot. Tolowa and Tututni. The Shasta. The Achomawi. The Klamath, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1924, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1924b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 14. The Kato. The Wailaki. The Yuki. The Pomo. The Wintun. The Maidu. The Miwok. The Yokuts, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1924, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1926a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 15. Southern California Shoshoneans. The Diegueños. Plateau Shoshoneans. The Washo, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1926b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 16. The Tiwa. The Keres, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1926c] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 17. The Tewa. The Zuñi, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1928] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 18. The Chipewyan. The Western woods Cree. The Sarsi, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1928, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1930a] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 19. The Indians of Oklahoma. The Wichita. The southern Cheyenne. The Oto. The Comanche. The Peyote cult, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1930, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1930b] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Volume 20. The Alaskan Eskimo. The Nunivak. The Eskimo of Hooper Bay. The Eskimo of King Island. The Eskimo of Little Diomede Island. The Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales. The Kotzebue Eskimo. The Noatak. The Kobuk. The Selawik, published by University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1930, hardcover and portfolio of large, supplementary plates. See the American Memory, Library of Congress web site. The North American Indian Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 1970] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, in 20 Volumes, Landmarks in Anthropology Series, published by Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York, 1970. Reissue of [Curtis-E 1907] The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 1. The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-E 2006] Edward S. Curtis; Frederick Webb Hodge (editor). The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 1, published by Project Gutenberg, October 3, 2006, retrieved Febuary 3, 2010. Reissue of volume 1 of [Curtis-E 1907] The North American Indian, Being A Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, Volume 1. The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #19449 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curtis-J 1914] J. Curtis. “The Double Flutes”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 34, 1914, pages 89–105. Publication 624480 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Curwen 1940] E. Cecil Curwen. “The Significance of the Pentatonic Scale in Scottish Song”, Antiquity, Volume 14, Number 56, 1940, pages 347–362. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cushing 1896] Frank Hamilton Cushing (1857–1900). Outlines of Zuñi Creation Myths, Thirteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1891-'92, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1896, pages 321–447, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu1318911892smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cushing 1923] Frank Hamilton Cushing. “Origin Myth from Oraibi”, Journal of American Folk-Lore, Volume 36, Number 140, April–June 1923, pages 163–170. Publication 535212 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Cysarz 2004] Dirk Cysarz, Dietrich von Bonin, Helmut Lackner, Peter Heusser, Maximilian Moser, and Henrik Bettermann. “Oscillations of Heart Rate and Respiration Synchronize during Poetry Recitation”, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, Volume 287, 2004, pages H579–H587, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01131.2003. Oscillations of Heart Rate and Respiration Synchronize during Poetry Recitation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the synchronization between low-frequency breathing patterns and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate during guided recitation of poetry, i.e., recitation of hexameter verse from ancient Greek literature performed in a therapeutic setting. Twenty healthy volunteers performed three different types of exercises with respect to a cross-sectional comparison: 1) recitation of hexameter verse, 2) controlled breathing, and 3) spontaneous breathing. Each exercise was divided into three successive measurements: a 15-min baseline measurement (S1), 20 min of exercise, and a 15-min effect measurement (S2). Breathing patterns and RSA were derived from respiratory traces and electrocardiograms, respectively, which were recorded simultaneously using an ambulatory device. The synchronization was then quantified by the index , which has been adopted from the analysis of weakly coupled chaotic oscillators. During recitation of hexameter verse, was high, indicating prominent cardiorespiratory synchronization. The controlled breathing exercise showed cardiorespiratory synchronization to a lesser extent and all resting periods (S1 and S2) had even fewer cardiorespiratory synchronization. During spontaneous breathing, cardiorespiratory synchronization was minimal and hardly observable. The results were largely determined by the extent of a low-frequency component in the breathing oscillations that emerged from the design of hexameter recitation. In conclusion, recitation of hexameter verse exerts a strong influence on RSA by a prominent low-frequency component in the breathing pattern, generating a strong cardiorespiratory synchronization.

 
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