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References - P

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter P. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - P

[Paderewski 2001] Ignacy Jan Paderewski. “Tempo Rubato”, Polish Music Journal, Volume 4, Number 1, Summer 2001, retrieved September 29, 2010. ISSN 1521 - 6039. Tempo Rubato Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Meter for Native American Flutes

[Padilla 1996] Stan Padilla. Chants and Prayers, First Edition, published by the Book Publishing Company, Tennessee, 1996, 112 pages, ISBN 1-57067-020-X (978-1-57067-020-6), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

Publisher's description: Stan Padilla has drawn from the rich oral traditions of many Native American tribes to bring you this collection of prayers, chants, and thoughts. These words of wisdom have been spoken, sung, and danced to by countless generations, and are imbued with a timeless magic. They are as relevant today as when first crafted and still capable of moving the heart and mind to consider greater things.

[Paige 1970] Harry W. Paige. Songs of the Teton Sioux, First edition, published by Westernlore Press, Los Angeles, California, 1970, 195 pages, ASIN B001R1IO4U, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The beautiful and mysterious song of the Sioux is a carefully crafted and highly individualized ritual performed to invoke the strength of the spirits in order to harness the power of nature. In this, the first literary study of a fascinating tradition, Dr. Harry W. Paige immerses himself in the Sioux society and culture to unlock the mystery of this enchanting ritual. Passionate and intoxicating, The Songs of The Teton Sioux will astound and fascinate scholar and casual reader alike. The voice of their people may be fading, but the powerful songs of the Sioux will live on forever.

[Palisca 1984] Claude V. Palisca. “Introductory Notes on the Historiography of the Greek Modes”, The Journal of Musicology, Volume 3, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Summer 1984, pages 221–228. Publication 763812 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pan 2008] Wei Pan, Micah K. Johnson, Larry Polansky, Daniel Rockmore, and Douglas Repetto. “OWT: A Real-Time Optimal Tuning Application”, Proceedings of the ICMC, Belfast, Ireland, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper presents a software application for computing optimal tuning systems in real-time, complete with a graphical user interface and MIDI player. The optimal tuning systems are created from a framework, proposed by us, that formalizes historical and cross-cultural criteria. The parameters of the system are a fixed number of pitches, a repeat factor, an ideal tuning set, and weights for keys and intervals. This framework allows for an efficient least-squares solution to a tuning problem, thus enabling real-time control of the parameters. With this software, a user can visualize, modify, and hear optimal tuning systems while the music is playing.

[Panger 2002] M. A. Panger, A. S. Brooks, B. G. Richmond, and B. Wood. “Older than the Oldowan? — Rethinking the Emergence of Hominin Tool Use”, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, Volume 11, 2002, pages 235–245. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Papan-Matin 2003] Firoozeh Papan-Matin. “The Crisis of Identity in Rumi’s Tale of the Reed”, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Volume 23, Numbers 1 and 2, 2003, pages 246–253. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry by Rumi

[Paquette 2005] Daniel B. Paquette. Flute Dreams — Playing the Native American Flute, published by iUniverse, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2005, 88 pages, ISBN 0-595-37131-0 (softcover), 0-595-81530-8 (e-book) (978-0-595-37131-0 (softcover), 978-0-595-81530-2 (e-book)). See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Parker-DM 2009] D. M. Parker. “Make Native American-Style Flute from PVC”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2009, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2009, pages 11–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Parker-M 2003] Mike Parker. “Making a Six-Hole Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 18–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Parker-S 2013] Steve Parker. JI Guide, 2013, 32 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This booklet is not meant as an introduction to Just Intonation nor to the maths involved although some of that will be covered. It is neither exhaustive nor definitive. Rather it is an introduction to one of many methods of composing with just intervals. It is really a tidying of my own notebooks and investigations and a convenient grouping of information. Those conversant with writing in JI will find this information neither difficult nor novel. It is also in no way a shortcut - the intervals and their combinations will need to be learnt mathematically and particularly aurally. I do hope to present the information logically so this process may at least be accelerated.

[Parncutt 2001] Richard Parncutt. “Critical Comparison of Acoustical and Perceptual Theories of the Origin of Musical Scales”, Proceedings of the International Symposium of Musical Acoustics, Perugia, Italy. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Parncutt 2002] Richard Parncutt and Gary McPherson (editors). The Science and Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning, published by Oxford University Press, 2002, 400 pages, ISBN 0-19-535017-0 (978-0-19-535017-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Parsons 1925] Elsie Clews Parsons (1874–1941). The Pueblo at Jemez, published by Phillips Academy, Andover, 1925. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Parsons 1929] Elsie Clews Parsons. “Ritual Parallels in Pueblo and Plains Cultures, with Special Reference to Pawnee”, American Anthropologist, Volume 31, Number 4, October–December 1929, pages 642–654, doi:10.1525/aa.1929.31.4.02a00050. Publication 661175 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Parsons 1938] Elsie Clews Parsons. “The Humpbacked Flute Player of the Southwest”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 40, Number 2, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1938, pages 337–338. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Parsons 1939] Elsie Clews Parsons. Pueblo Indian Religion, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1939. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (5)

[Partch 1979] Harry Partch. Genesis of a Music: An Account of a Creative Work, its Roots and its Fulfillments, published by Da Capo Press, August 22, 1979, 517 pages, ISBN 0-306-80106-X (978-0-306-80106-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Among the few truly experimental composers in our cultural history, Harry Partch's life (1901–1974) and music embody most completely the quintessential American rootlessness, isolation, pre-civilized cult of experience, and dichotomy of practical invention and transcendental visions. Having lived mostly in the remote deserts of Arizona and New Mexico with no access to formal training, Partch naturally created theatrical ritualistic works incorporating Indian chants, Japanese kabuki and Noh, Polynesian microtones, Balinese gamelan, Greek tragedy, dance, mime, and sardonic commentary on Hollywood and commercial pop music of modern civilization. First published in 1949, Genesis of a Music is the manifesto of Partch's radical compositional practice and instruments (which owe nothing to the 300-year-old European tradition of Western music.) He contrasts Abstract and Corporeal music, proclaiming the latter as the vital, emotionally tactile form derived from the spoken word (like Greek, Chinese, Arabic, and Indian musics) and surveys the history of world music at length from this perspective. Parts II, III, and IV explain Partch's theories of scales, intonation, and instrument construction with copious acoustical and mathematical documentation. Anyone with a musically creative attitude, whether or not familiar with traditional music theory, will find this book revelatory.

[Parthun 1976] Paul Parthun. “Tribal Music in North America”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 62, Number 5, January 1976, pages 32–45. Publication 3394976 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Not too long ago it was fashionable to believe that the native American and his music were "vanishing." The implicationw as that they were culturally and musically weak. Many eighteenth-and nineteenth-century observers reported that the music consisted of wild shrieking, meaninglesss ounds, and monotonous drumming, and the Indianist school of composers, while asserting the vitality and beauty of the native expression, also preached that these attributes could be perceived only if they were transferred to the European music palette.

[Patashnik 1988] Oren Patashnik (born 1954). BibTeXing, February 8, 1988, 16 pages. BibTeXing Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Alternate Citation Formats

[Paterson 1990] Scott Paterson. Recorder Care, Information Booklet #1, published by the American Recorder Society Education Committee, Saint Louis, Missouri, March 1990, 16 pages. Recorder Care Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Care and Maintenance of the Native American Flute

[Patrusky 1980] Ben Patrusky. “Pre-Clovis Man: Sampling the Evidence”, Mosaic, Volume 11, Number 5, September/October 1980, pages 2–10. Pre-Clovis Man Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Patston 2011] Lucy L. M. Patston and Lynette J. Tippett. “The Effect of Background Music on Cognitive Performance in Musicians and Nonmusicians”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 29, Number 2, December 2011, pages 173–183. Publication mp.2011.29.2.173 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Patterson-MW 2010] Michelle Wick Patterson (born 1973). “The "Pencil in the Hand of the Indian": Cross-Cultural Interactions in Natalie Curtis's "The Indians' Book"”, The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, Volume 9, Number 4, October 2010, pages 419–449. Publication 20799405 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Native American communities met the many challenges of the early twentieth century in ways that defy easy categories of "progressive" or "traditional." Indian people used many different outlets, including cultural appeals to non-Indian audiences, to craft survival strategies. Natalie Curtis's The Indians' Book (1907), a collection of Native music, art, and folklore, became one of these outlets. Through an examination of the contributions made by two Native leaders, Lololomai (Hopi) and High Chief (Southern Cheyenne), this essay considers the ways in which local Native American leaders sought to shape popular representations of their tribes. Additionally, it explores how these leaders used Curtis's work to address local political and social issues in their communities. Their efforts to influence the themes of The Indians' Book represents an attempt to, as historian Frederick Hoxie terms it, "talk back to civilization."

[Patterson-MW 2010a] Michelle Wick Patterson. Natalie Curtis Burlin — A Life in Native and African American Music, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 2010, ISBN-13 978-0-8032-3757-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Paul 2006] Russill Paul and Wayne Teasdale. The Yoga of Sound: Tapping the Hidden Power of Music and Chant, published by New World Library, March 1, 2006, 306 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Color of Sound - Pitch-to-Color Calculator

[Pavesic 1999] Max G. Pavesic. “Reflections on the United States National Museum - Gates Expeditions to the American Southwest, 1901 and 1905”, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 21, Number 1, published by the, Malki Museum, 1999, pages 136–145. Publication 27825694 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

Abstract: American archaeology has reached a level of intellectual maturity which allows the study and analysis of its development. While most studies have stressed the growth of the discipline, few have emphasized the sociohistorical context or the motivations of the individuals involved. The United States National Museum-Gates Southwest expeditions serve as a focus of these historical variables, and this report discusses community lifestyle, expedition participants, and financial agreements to clarify the organization and success of the endeavors.

[Pawloski 2009] Tom Pawloski. Disinfecting and Sanitizing Musical Instruments, February 2009, 2 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Payne 1988] Richard W. Payne (1918–2004). “The Plains Flutes”, The Flutist Quarterly, Volume 13, Number 4, 1988, pages 11–14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Names of the Native American Flute, The Warble (2)

[Payne 1989] Richard W. Payne. “Indian Flutes of the Southwest”, Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, Volume 15, 1989, pages 5–31. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fifteen citations: Indigenous North American Flutes (2), The Development of Flutes in North America (8), The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: Yuma Flute Player - Full Image, Flutopedia Image Detail: Yuma Flute Player - Detail, Flutopedia Image Detail: Four Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Payne 1991] Richard W. Payne. “Bone Flutes of the Anasazi”, The Kiva, Volume 56, Number 2, published by the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, in English and Spanish, 1991, pages 165–177. Publication 30247265 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Anasazi sites have contributed a substantial number of tubular bone artifacts, many of which can be considered as flutes or whistles. Similarities in the design of these instruments would indicate that these prehistoric inhabitants of the Southwest had some appreciation of simple harmonic ratios as well as efficient methods for sound generation utilizing open tubes.
Translation: Los sitios Anasazi han contribuido una cantidad de artefactos tubulares de hueso, muchos de ellos probablementeflautas o silbatos. Las similitudes en el diseño de los instrumentos indicarían que estos habitantes del Suroeste de los Estados Unidos tenían cierto entendimiento de simples proporciones armónicas así como métodos eficientes para la generación de sonidos utilizando tubos abiertos.

[Payne 1991a] Richard W. Payne. “Medicine and Music: Whistles of Eastern Oklahoma Indians”, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 68, Number 4, 1991, pages 424–433. ISSN 0009-6024. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From [White-PM 2000]: Whistles are described from each of the Five Civilized Tribes who occupied the eastern part of Indian Territory in the 19th century. Today, dance and peyote whistles are still widely used among the plains Indians who live in western Oklahoma.

[Payne 1992] Richard W. Payne and John D. Hartley. “Pre-Columbian Flutes of Mesoamerica”, Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society, Volume 18, 1992, pages 22–61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Payne 1993] Richard W. Payne. The Hopi Flute Ceremony, published by Toubat Trails Publishing Co., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1993, 68 pages, ASIN B003X65VY8, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks, Indigenous North American Flutes, Contemporary Rim-Blown Flutes (2)

Publisher's description: The Hopi Flute ceremony, held in alternate years to the better known and more dramatic Snake ceremony, is an appeal for late summer rain. Fragmentary historical accounts of this ancient ceremony have been reported, though in recent years intimate details and opportunities for observation have been closely held by the Hopi.

[Payne 1999] Richard W. Payne. The Native American Plains Flute, published by Toubat Trails Publishing Co., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1999, 76 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Plains Style and Woodlands Style Native American Flutes, The Warble, Plans for Making Native American Flutes (2), The Development of Flutes in North America, Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

Correction: Jon Norris noted an error on the middle of page 29: a C# needs to be added to this scale.

[Payne 1999a] Richard W. Payne. The Native American Plains Flute & Friends, published by Toubat Trails Publishing Co., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 33 tracks, 1999, audio CD. Contains 21 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

67 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (33), A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (33)

[Payne 2000] Richard W. Payne. Indigenous Aerophones of the Northwest Coast, published by Toubat Trails Publishing Co., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2000, 31 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Payne 2004] Richard W. Payne. The Diatonic Native American Flute Sings: Original Stories and Songs by Dr. Richard W. Payne, 26 tracks, 2004, audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

56 citations: A Brief History of the Native American Flute (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (26), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (26)

[Payne-R 2002] Ronnie Payne. Heart of the Wood — The Story of Contemporary Native American Flutemaking, published by Zadjik Productions, Tacoma, Washington, 2002, CD-ROM. See the Native American Flutes web site by Ronnie Payne. Heart of the Wood Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Plains Style and Woodlands Style Native American Flutes, A Brief History of the Native American Flute (2)

Publisher description: The Native American flute has evolved from humble origins into a highly expressive instrument. Legends tell us that Woodpecker made the first Native American flute and, of course, Wind was the first player. After nearly dying out, there was a renaissance of the tradition in the latter half of the 20th century. This is the story of contemporary Native American flute making.

Heart of the Wood is a multimedia program thatg features numerous facets of the Native American flute including a brief history, some of the legends, and construction methods. The promary focus, however, is upon contemporary flute makers and provides profiles and flute picture galleries of over fifty of these makers.

[Peabody 1917] Charles Peabody. “A Prehistoric Wind-instrument from Pecos, New Mexico”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 19, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1917, pages 30–33. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pegg 1995] Carole Pegg. “Ritual, Religion and Magic in West Mongolian (Oirad) Heroic Epic Performance”, British Journal of Ethnomusicology, Volume 4, 1995, pages 77–99. Publication 3060684 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper is based on the multiple voices of bards of different ethnic groups, visited during fieldwork in West Mongolia in 1989 and 1990. It looks briefly at the brutal demise of heroic epic performance under the Soviet regime (1921-90) and questions Vladimirtsov's contention that the steppe aristocracy was the creator, bearer, preserver and disseminator of Oirad epics. It suggests instead that epic performance was a ritual and magical activity within the homes of ordinary Mongolian herders as well as in monasteries. This paper presents for the first time the folk and shamanist beliefs and activities surrounding the performance of West Mongolian epics, as well as the power of the epic text, the musical instrument (tovshuur) and the bard. It looks at the religious syncretism within the texts-the object of bowdlerisation by the communists-and at worship of the epic hero as deity. Finally, it contributes to the oral and textual traditions debate by considering the ritual performance of epic texts.

[Pegg 2001] Carole Pegg, Helen Myers, Philip V. Bohlman, and Martin Stokes. “Ethnomusicology”, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 8, published by Macmillan Publishing, New York, 2001, pages 367–403. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pegg 2008] Carole Pegg, Helen Myers, Philip V. Bohlman, and Martin Stokes. “Ethnomusicology — Academic Discipline Concerned Primarily with Living Music (and Musical Instruments and Dance) of Oral Tradition, Outside the Limits of Urban European Art Music”, The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online, L. Macy (editor), 2008, retrieved December 19, 2010. See the Oxford Music Online web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Pelinski 1990] Ramón Pelinski (recording and commentary); Christian Leden (recording). Musique et Chants Inuit: Eskimo Point et Rankin Inlet «Inuit Music and Chants: Eskimo Point and Rankin Inlet», Série Traditions, Montreal, Canada, UMMUS, 202, in French and English, 1990. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pellerite 1999] James J. Pellerite. Echoes & Boundaries, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Zalo / JP-Publications, 23 tracks, 1999, audio CD. See the James Pellerite web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pellerite 2007] James J. Pellerite. Visions, Dreams, & Memories, 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pellerite x] James J. Pellerite. Portrayals — for Solo Native American Flute, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Zalo / JP-Publications. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Adaptations of etudes from literature for modern flute; considerable contrast in melodic elements; instructional text is presented for each piece to offer assistance in the study of the Native flute’s techniques.

[Penalosa 2012] David Peñalosa; Peter Greenwood (editor and contributor); Joel Mielke and Rahsan Ekedal (illustrators); Vanessa Linberg, William P. Gottlieb, and Kellie Jo Brown (photographers); Fernando Peñalosa (consultant editor). The Clave Matrix: Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins, published by the CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012, 304 pages, ISBN 1-4782-9947-9 (978-1-4782-9947-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: CLAVE MATRIX: The entire interwoven structure of clave-based music as it relates to its generative source. CLAVE: A Spanish word meaning 'code,' or 'key,' as in the key to a mystery or puzzle. Also 'keystone,' the wedge-shaped stone in the center of an arch that ties all the stones together. Clave is the key pattern that both binds and decodes the rhythmic structure of Afro-Cuban music. MATRIX: The point of origin from which something takes form and develops; a grid-like array of elements, an interwoven pattern.

[Peng 2004] C.-K. Peng, Isaac C. Henry, Joseph E. Mietus, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Gurucharan Khalsa, Herbert Benson, and Ary L. Goldberger. “Heart Rate Dynamics During Three Forms of Meditation”, International Journal of Cardiology, Volume 95, Number 1, May 2004, pages 19–27, doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.02.006. Publication 15159033 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Dynamics During Three Forms of Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: This study was designed to quantify and compare the instantaneous heart rate dynamics and cardiopulmonary interactions during sequential performance of three meditation protocols with different breathing patterns.
Background: We analyzed beat-to-beat heart rate and continuous breathing signals from 10 experienced meditators (4 females; 6 males; mean age 42 years; range 29-55 years) during three traditional interventions: relaxation response, breath of fire, and segmented breathing.
Results: Heart rate and respiratory dynamics were generally similar during the relaxation response and segmented breathing. We observed high amplitude, low frequency (approximately 0.05-0.1 Hz) oscillations due to respiratory sinus arrhythmia during both the relaxation response and segmented breathing, along with a significantly (p<0.05) increased coherence between heart rate and breathing during these two maneuvers when compared to baseline. The third technique, breath of fire, was associated with a different pattern of response, marked by a significant increase in mean heart rate with respect to baseline (p<0.01), and a significant decrease in coherence between heart rate and breathing (p<0.05).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that different meditative/breathing protocols may evoke common heart rate effects, as well as specific responses. The results support the concept of a "meditation paradox," since a variety of relaxation and meditative techniques may produce active rather than quiescent cardiac dynamics, associated with prominent low frequency heart rate oscillations or increases in mean resting heart rate. These findings also underscore the need to critically assess traditional frequency domain heart rate variability parameters in making inferences about autonomic alterations during meditation with slow breathing.

[Pennanen 2008] Risto Pekka Pennanen. “Lost in Scales: Balkan Folk Music Research and the Ottoman Legacy «ИЗГУБЉЕНИ У ЛЕСТВИЦАМА: ПРОУЧАВАЊЕ ФОЛКЛОРА НА БАЛКАНУ И ОТОМАНСКО НАСЛЕЂЕ»”, Muzikologija – Musicology, Volume 8, in English and Serbian, 2008, pages 127–147. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented ‘Oriental’ musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the ‘Oriental’ characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece.

The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

[Pennanen 2010] Risto Pekka Pennanen. “Melancholic Airs of the Orient — Bosnian Sevdalinka Music as an Orientalist and National Symbol”, Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 9, 2010, pages 76–90. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Peper 1999] Erik Peper and Vicci Tibbitts. “Protocol for the Treatment of Asthma”, The Healing Breath: A Journal of Breathwork Practice, Psychology and Spirituality, Volume 1, Number 2, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper describes a training protocol to reduce the onset and severity of asthmatic symptoms. Subjects with asthmatic symptoms were initially trained to master effortless diaphragmatic breathing with surface electrolyographic and incentive inspirometer feedback. Inhalation volume was the physiological parameter used to measure skill acquisition. The protocol consisted of a pre-desensitization phase (mastering effortless diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation, peripheral hand warming and generalizing effortless diaphragmatic breathing while performing daily tasks). The desensitization-training phase consisted of inhalation awareness and desensitization exercises to promote effortless breathing under most conditions (abdominal versus thoracic awareness, volume awareness, purposeful wheezing, imagery rehearsal of stressors, role rehearsal and actual exposure to allergens. The methodology and helpful hints are described for each practice. Most subjects mastered the skills, inhibited their automatic escalation of dysfunctional breathing, and demonstrated the ability to continue to breathe diaphragmatically under a variety of conditions. Although this protocol was used with patients with asthma, it could be adapted as a treatment approach to other disorders (e.g., hyperventilation syndrome, anxiety or panic).

[Peper 2007] Erik Peper, Rick Harvey, I-Mei Lin, Hana Tylova, and Donald Moss. “Is There More to Blood Volume Pulse Than Heart Rate Variability, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, and Cardiorespiratory Synchrony?”, Biofeedback, Volume 35, Issue 2, Summer 2007, pages 54–61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A growing body of research reports the health benefits of training heart rate variability (HRV), and the clinical use of HRV training protocols has increased dramatically in recent years. Many of the home training devices and many of the sophisticated biofeedback instrumentation systems rely on the blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor, or photoplethysmograph, because it is more user friendly than the electrocardiogram used in medical settings. However, the BVP signal is valuable in its own right, not merely as a convenient measure of HRV. This article explores the methodology of BVP recording, the underlying physiology, and the potential benefits from BVP treatment and training protocols. For example, the shape of the BVP waveform reflects arterial changes correlated with hypertension. In addition, BVP training offers promise for the treatment of migraine and the monitoring of human sexual arousal.

[Pepper 1905] George H. Pepper (1873–1924). Ceremonial Objects and Ornaments from Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 7, Number 2, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., April–June 1905, pages 183–197. Publication ceremonialobject00pepprich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Flutopedia Image Detail: Encrusted objects from Pueblo Bonito

Abstract: In northwestern New Mexico there is a group of ruined pueblos that stretch for miles along the fertile valleys and mesa tops. The Chaco canon proper contains the major portion of these ruins, one of the greatest of which in point of interest is Pueblo Bonito. The writer visited and explored parts of this ruin in the summer of 1896, and the investigations were continued thereafter for several years.

[Pepper 1909] George H. Pepper. “The Exploration of a Burial-Room in Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico”, Putnam Anniversary Volume: Anthropological Essays Presented to Frederic Ward Putnam in Honor of His Seventieth Birthday, April 16, 1909, by His Friends and Associates, published by G. E. Stechert & Co., New York, 1909, pages 196–252. Publication cu31924029880774 on Archive.org (open access). The Exploration of a Burial-Room in Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Thirteen citations: Flutopedia Revision History, Flutopedia Image Detail: Six Pueblo Bonito Flutes, Flutopedia Image Detail: Design of Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563, Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito Large Flute, Classification of Flutes, Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563, The Development of Flutes in North America, The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (6)

[Pepper 1920] George H. Pepper; Nels C. Nelson (additional notes); Clark Wissler (foreward). “Pueblo Bonito”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 27, 1920, 398 pages. Reprinted in [Pepper 1996]. Pueblo Bonito Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito Flute, Room 85, H-7270, The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (3), Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563, Flutopedia Image Detail: Six Pueblo Bonito Flutes, Flutopedia Image Detail: Design of Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563

[Pepper 1996] George H. Pepper; David E. Stuart (introduction). Pueblo Bonito, published by the University of New Mexico Press, October 1996, 398 pages, ISBN 0-8263-1736-7 (978-0-8263-1736-0). Originally published in 1920. Reprint of [Pepper 1920] Pueblo Bonito. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: One of the most spectacular ruins in North America is Pueblo Bonito, located at Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico. This book, originally published in 1920 and unavailable for decades, describes the earliest archaeological investigations of Pueblo Bonito. The excavations at Bonito, begun a century ago, in 1896, were overseen by the American Museum of Natural History, which published Pepper's book. To celebrate a century of archaeology at Pueblo Bonito the book is reissued with a preface that provides context for archaeologists and visitors to Chaco.

[Pepping 2009] Amanda Pepping. “A Look at the Role of Musical Wind Instruments in Asthma Therapy”, International Trumpet Guild Journal, January 2009, pages 17–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Percy 1607] George Percy. Observations by Master George Percy, 1607, contained in [Tyler 1907], 1607, pages 1–23. Observations by Master George Percy, 1607 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Perdue 2001] Theda Perdue (editor). Sifters: Native American Women's Lives, Viewpoints on American Culture, published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 2001, 272 pages, ISBN 0-19-513081-2 (978-0-19-513081-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: In this edited volume, Theda Perdue, a nationally known expert on Indian history and southern women's history, offers a rich collection of biographical essays on Native American women. From Pocahontas, a Powhatan woman of the seventeenth century, to Ada Deer, the Menominee woman who headed the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the 1990s, the essays span four centuries. Each one recounts the experiences of women from vastly different cultural traditions—the hunting and gathering of Kumeyaay culture of Delfina Cuero, the pueblo society of San Ildefonso potter Maria Martinez, and the powerful matrilineal kinship system of Molly Brant's Mohawks. Contributors focus on the ways in which different women have fashioned lives that remain firmly rooted in their identity as Native women. Perdue's introductory essay ties together the themes running through the biographical sketches, including the cultural factors that have shaped the lives of Native women, particularly economic contributions, kinship, and belief, and the ways in which historical events, especially in United States Indian policy, have engendered change.

[Perkins 2000] Laura Lee Perkins and Ken Green. First Light — Traditional Wabanaki Music: Abenaki - Maliseet - Mic-Mac - Passamaquoddy - Penobscot, New Approach Studio, WO 8201, 19 tracks, 2000, total time 45:55, ASIN B002ROIPY0, audio CD. See the White Owl Products web site. Contains 19 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

39 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (19), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (19), Maliseet Love Song - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Perkins 2001] Laura Lee Perkins. Native American Flute Tutor, published by Larura Lee Perkins, M.Ed., Searsport, ME, WO 8283, 2001. See the White Owl Products web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Laura Lee Perkins, M. Ed. provides a simple approach to learning the Native American flute. This is an easy to understand book for learning to play the Native American flute. It can be used by an individual or group. The instructional recording allows you to progress at your own pace. Included in the last chapter of the book are the 19 Wabanaki tunes found on her recording First Light (WO 8201). Once you have completed the instructional chapters, you will be ready to play along with the First Light cassette or CD.

[Perkins 2004] Laura Lee Perkins. Earth Mother Flute Songs Songbook (song book), published by Larura Lee Perkins, M.Ed., Searsport, ME, 2004. Simple finger numbering system. See the White Owl Products web site. Contains 35 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Perticone 1990] F. Perticone, R. Ceravolo, R. Maio, C. Cosco, and P. L. Mattioli. “Heart Rate Variability and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Volume 13, Number 12, Part 2, December 1990, pages 2096–2099, doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.1990.tb06949.x. Publication 1704600 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death in infancy. The pathophysiological mechanism leading to SIDS is still obscure. In the QT hypothesis, the mechanism must be an arrhythmogenic sympathetic imbalance: the infants die suddenly of cardiac arrhythmia. Recently, it has been suggested that analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), expressed as standard deviation or variance analysis, can provide adequate information on sympathovagal interaction. We studied 150 newborns enrolled in a previous prospective electrocardiographic study to evaluate the predictive value of QT interval for SIDS. We analyzed the ECGs recorded with infants alert on the fourth day of life and after 2 months. For each ECG, the HRV was calculated using the first standard deviation of of RR intervals (ms) measured for 1 minute. The average RR interval was 441 +/- 71 ms at the fourth day and 410 +/- 39 ms at the second month. The QTc and HRV mean values were 396 +/- 23 and 23 +/- 12 ms at the fourth day, 412 +/- 19 and 15 +/- 7 msec at the second month. Therefore, the SD values of heart rate were correlated with QTc in order to assess a possible relationship between the two variables. The correlation coefficient and regression equation were: -0.639 and y = 423.67 - 1.18*X (P less than 0.001) at the fourth day, -0.146 and y = 418.09 - 0.37*X (NS) at the second month. In conclusion, our data seems to confirm a delayed maturation or impaired functioning of the autonomic nervous system in the first weeks of life, reflecting a direct correlation with QT prolongation.

[Perticone 1994] Francesco Perticone, Raffaele Maio, Carmela Cosco, Fabiola Pugliese, Cosima Cloro, Domenico A Borelli, and Pier L Mattioli. Heart Rate Variability and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Pediatric Research, Volume 36, 1994, page 61A, doi:10.1203/00006450-199407000-00353 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We studied 465 newborns enrolled in a previous prospective electrocardiographic study to evaluate the predictive value of QT interval for SIDS. We analyzed the ECGs recorded with babies alert on the 4th day of life and after 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. For each ECG, the HRV was calculated using the first standard deviation of RR intervals (ms) measured for 2 minutes. Besides, the HRV values were correlated with QTc values in order to asses a possible relationship between the 2 variables. Data are reported in table:

Our data seems to confirm a delayed maturation or impaired fuctioning of the autonomic nervous system in the first months of life, reflecting a direct correlation with QT prolongation.

[Perttula 2004] Timothy K. Perttula (editor). “The Prehistoric Archeology of Texas”, published by Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 2004. See the Texas Beyond History web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Peskin 1992] Carolyn Peskin. “The Lost World of Pre-Columbian Flutes”, American Recorder, Volume 33, Number 1, March 1992, pages 9–14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Summary: Columbus may have brought the banes and benefits of Western Civilization to the new World, but sophisticated aerophones were here already.

[Peters 2003] Kevin Peters and Kent Bush. “The Nez Perce Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 7–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Peters 2006] Kevin Peters. The Nez Perce Flute, produced by TOMV, 2006, 1:13. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Petit 1999] J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J. M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. “Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 Years from the Vostok Ice Core”, Nature, Number 399, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., June 3, 1999, pages 429–436, doi:10.1038/20859. See the article abstract on the Nature web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2)

Abstract: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial–interglacial cycles. The succession of changes through each climate cycle and termination was similar, and atmospheric and climate properties oscillated between stable bounds. Interglacial periods differed in temporal evolution and duration. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years.

[Petit 2001] Jean Robert Petit. Vostok Ice Core Data for 420,000 Years, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #2001-076, published by the NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, Colorado, 2001, retrieved October 4, 2011. View this reference Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Petru 1993] Vit Petrů (born 1944), Alžběta Carbolová, and V. Kloc. “Zobcová flétna jako pomůcka při léčbě respiračních onemocnění «The Fipple Flute as a Treatment Aid in Respiratory Diseases»”, Československá Pediatrie, Volume 48, Number 7, in Czech, 1993, pages 441–442. Publication 8374986 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Zobcová flétna jako pomůcka při léčbě respiračních onemocnění Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pettit 2001] Jeremy W. Pettit, John P. Kline, Tulin Gencoz, Faruk Gencoz, and Thomas E. Joiner, Jr. “Are Happy People Healthier? — The Specific Role of Positive Affect in Predicting Self-Reported Health Symptoms”, Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 35, Issue 4, December 2001, pages 521–536, doi:10.1006/jrpe.2001.2327 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Previous empirical work sought to establish relationships between psychological variables and physical health. Research investigating the associations between positive and negative affectivity and physical health have produced mixed results, often suggesting that negative affectivity generally is more strongly associated with health symptoms. We investigated the role of both positive and negative affectivity in predicting self-reported health symptoms. Positive affectivity emerged as a significant predictor of good health, while negative affectivity failed to predict changes in health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of the benefits of positive emotions in promoting health and improving physical health via psychological interventions.

[Pfaff 1857] John Pfaff. “Flute”, United States Patent 17,054, Granted April 14, 1857, 2 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Pfaff 1864] John Pfaff. “Improvement in Fifes”, United States Patent 45,270, Granted November 29, 1864, 2 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Improvement in Fifes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Pfeiffer 1990] John Pfeiffer. “The Emergence of Modern Humans”, Mosaic, Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 1990, pages 14–23. See the Mosaic Magazine web site. The Emergence of Modern Humans Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Philp 1995] Kenneth R. Philp (editor). Indian Self-Rule — First-Hand Accounts of Indian-White Relations from Roosevelt to Reagan, published by the Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah, 1995, 355 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-87421-180-1. Original copyright 1986 by the Institute of the American West. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Phippen 2009] Peter Phippen. Woodnotes Wyld: Historic Flute Sounds from the Dr. Richard W. Payne Collection, INAFA Productions Historic Recordings Series, INAFA Productions, 16 tracks, 2009, total time 51:01, ASIN B003MRBD90 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[Picken 1959] Laurence Picken. “Twelve Ritual Melodies of the T'ang Dynasty”, contained in [Rajeczky 1959], 1959, pages 145–171, retrieved April 11, 2011. Publication stdiamemoriaebel000107mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description from [Rust 1996]: A transcription of 12 ritual melodies of the 12th century from pitch pipe and flute notations.

[Picken 1962] Laurence Picken. “Musical Terms in a Chinese Dictionary of the First Century”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 14, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1962, pages 40–43. Publication 835557 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Picken 1969] L. E. R. Picken. Review: Music and Musical Sources of the Sonq Dynasty, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 89, Number 3, published by the American Oriental Society, July–September 1969, pages 600–621. Publication 596624 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Under the stimulus of Mrs. Rulan Chao Pian's recent monograph, the organisation of tables of modes in Sonq sources has been examined and shown to throw new light both on musical practice and on concepts and theory. Diatonic modes with a flattened "phrygian" second degree are shown to have been specified in Shyhlin Goangjih. Modal modulation between modes with the same final is discussed with reference to fann, and the tune of the Dancing Horses, Chingbeiyueh (Keibairaku in the Tōgaku repertory), transcribed from the shō part-book, illustrates this phenomenon. In Shyhlin, tunes for the song-types linq and mann show size-distinctions previously established for the secular songs of Jiang Kwei. In these tunes, so many lengthened notes are specified that their rhythmic organisation is virtually explicit. Hypothetical structures proposed for Jiang Kwei's secular songs are thus confirmed. The primary function of the huei that mark acoustic nodes on the strings of the chyn was to facilitate playing in harmonics. Their use in defining stopping-points was secondary.

[Piedade 2004] Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade. O Canto do Kawoká: Música, Cosmologia e Filosofia Entre os Wauja do Alto Xingu «The Song of Kawoká: Music, Cosmology and Philosophy among the Upper Xingu Wauja», Doctoral dissertation – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, in Portuguese, 2004, 254 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Esta tese é uma etnografia do ritual das flautas kawoká entre os índios Wauja do Alto Xingu. Elas fazem parte do chamado “complexo das flautas sagradas”, observado em várias sociedades amazônicas e em outras partes do mundo. A investigação da música das flautas kawoká envolve o estudo da cosmologia e do xamanismo, e igualmente questões da socialidade, tais como relações de gênero e política. Seguindo pistas do discurso nativo, o trabalho focaliza o sistema motívico, entendido como cerne da música de kawoká. Neste nível, estão em operação princípios de repetição e diferenciação que constituem a base do pensamento musical nativo, um dos pilares de sua cosmologia e filosofia.

This dissertation is an ethnography of the kawoká flute ritual amongst the Wauja Indians of Upper Xingu. These flutes are part of the so-called “sacred flutes complex”, which is observed in various Amazonian societies and in other parts of the world. The investigation of the kawoká flute music involves the study of cosmology and shamanism, and also of questions of sociality, typically gender relationships and politics. Following the clues of the native discourse, this dissertation focuses the motivic system, central in kawoká music. At this level, principles of repetition and differentiation constitutes the fundamental operational rules, which designs the basis of native musical thought, one of the crucial nexus of Wauja cosmology and philosophy.

[Piedade 2006] Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade. “Reflexões a partir da etnografia da música dos índios Wauja «Reflections from the Ethnography of Music of the Wauja Indians»”, Revista Anthropológicas, Volume 17, Number 1, in Portuguese, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Este artigo trata de aspectos de pesquisa de campo entre os índios Wauja do alto Xingu, Mato Grosso. Gira em torno de dois tópicos principais: as relações entre complexo das flautas sagradas, xamanismo e mundo sobrenatural, sistema musical e musicalidade nativa; e o pensamento wauja sobre tradição e mudança, e as relações entre os Wauja e o mundo da sociedade envolvente.

This article deals with aspects of my field research among the Wauja Indians from the upper Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The article comments two main topics: the relationship between the sacred flutes complex, shamanism and the supernatural world, musical system and native musicality; and also the relationship between the Wauja and the surrounding society, the Wauja thought on tradition and change.

[Piedra 2014] Olman Eduardo Piedra. Creative Musical Improvisation in the Development and Formation of Nexus Percussion Ensemble, D.M.A. dissertation – Graduate College of Bowling Green, State University, Michigan, May 2014, viii + 128 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pietroforte 1965] Alfred Pietroforte; Vinson Brown (editor). Songs of Yokuts and Paiutes, published by Naturegraph Publishers, Healdsburg, California, 1965, 64 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Pietroforte 2005] Alfred Pietroforte. Yokuts and Paiute Songs and Culture — With CD, published by Naturegraph Publishers, Healdsburg, California, 2005, 61 pages, ISBN 0-87961-274-6 (978-0-87961-274-0), softcover. See the Naturegraph web site. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2)

Publisher's description: Our nation's first folk songs were those of native inhabitants. This book attempts to resurrect the early remnants of Indian folk songs sung in California. These songs reveal the Yokuts and Paiutes of California and their ancestors to be a people with rich feeling and imagination.

As a musician and collector of folk songs, Pietroforte embarked on a mission in 1949 to collect native folk songs, only to discover very little information even existed prior to 1840. His only alternative was to visit rancherias and reservations first hand and find those interested in preserving their past to form a link in the chain that ties together past with present.

Pietroforte made friends with the singers and taped tribal information they and family elders provided. He succeeded in preserving a sample of the music and culture of the Yokuts and Paiutes in the pages of this book. The book contains 25 of the old songs captured on tape, which were later transcribed and set to music. A CD with these songs is included in each book.

[Piggott 1892] F. T. Piggott. “The Music of Japan”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, 18th Session, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 1892, pages 103–120. Publication 765318 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pilling 1888] James Constantine Pilling (1846–1895). Bibliography of the Iroquoian Languages, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 6, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1888, 208 pages. Publication bulletin13smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Pilling 1891] James Constantine Pilling. Bibliography of the Algonquain Languages, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 13, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1891, 614 pages. Publication bulletin13smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pimentel 2009] Bret Pimentel. Woodwind Doubling on Folk, Ethnic, and Period Instruments in Film and Theater Music, D.M.A. dissertation – The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, May 2009, 148 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Woodwind doubling is the practice of playing instruments from more than one woodwind family. In musical theater and film music, woodwind doublers are valuable for their ability to produce the sounds of a varied woodwind section for a fraction of the cost of hiring a specialist musician to play each instrument. Since the 1990’s, composers and orchestrators in musical theater and film scoring have shown increased interest in instrumental sounds from outside the traditional symphony orchestra. Many have featured folk, ethnic, or period instruments as solo instruments, bringing authentic sounds to scenes set in faraway locations or historical periods, giving an exotic flair to fictional locales, or simply adding new colors to the usual palette of instrumental sounds. Composers of film and theater scores have used ethnic woodwinds, in particular, in their scoring. To meet the demand for ethnic woodwind sounds, many prominent woodwind doublers on Broadway and in Hollywood have adopted these instruments, in addition to their usual arrays of modern Western instruments. Eight folk, ethnic, and period woodwinds recently employed in film and theater scoring have been selected for study in this document: bamboo flutes (especially the Indian bansuri and flutes used by some flutists in Irish traditional music), the Chinese dizi, the Armenian duduk, the Native American flute, the panflutes of Romania and South America, the pennywhistle, the recorder, and the Japanese shakuhachi. For each instrument, a representative example of use in theater or film music has been selected and transcribed from a commercial audio recording. Each transcription is discussed with emphasis on demands placed upon the ethnic woodwind musician. Additional discussion of each instrument includes suggestions for purchasing instruments, fingering charts, description of playing technique, description of instrument-specific performance practices, discussion of various sizes and/or keys of each instrument, discussion of instrument-specific notation practices, annotated bibliographies of available pedagogical materials, lists of representative recordings (including authentic ethnic music and other music), and information on relevant organizations and associations of professional or amateur musicians.

[Pimentel 2014] Bret Pimentel. The Problem with "Ethnic" Woodwinds, June 20, 2014. The Problem with "Ethnic" Woodwinds Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: I am trying to get away from using the term “ethnic” woodwinds, one that I have used frequently in the past as a catch-all for the instruments I play that aren’t modern Western woodwinds. The term was problematic from the beginning, since, for example, I was using it to include instruments like recorders, which fall squarely under the umbrella of Western music traditions, but are arguably period or historical instruments. Additionally, I find that the term “ethnic” increasingly grates on my ear as too ethnocentric and limited a view, and incompatible with my real attitudes concerning music from cultures and traditions other than my native ones.

[Pisani 2005] Michael V. Pisani. Imagining Native America in Music, published by the Yale University Press, New Haven, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Indianist Movement

[Pisani 2006] Michael V. Pisani. A Chronological Listing of Musical Works on American Indian Subjects, Composed Since 1608, retrieved February 6, 2010. See the Chronological Listing web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pishbin 2012] T. Pishbin, S. M. P. Firoozabadi, N. Jafarnia Dabanloo, F. Mohammadi, and S. Koozehgari. “Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Volume 2, Number 12, December 2012, pages 452–456. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart’s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person’s ECG signal can be registered in other person’s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p<0.05) and decreases sympathetic activity, as indicate by decrease LF power (p<0.01) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.05).

[Plomley 1802] Norman James Brian Plomley. The Baudin Expedition and the Tasmanian Aborigines, 1802, published by Blubber Head Press, 1983, 245 pages, ISBN 0-908528-10-8 (978-0-908528-10-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pohar 1994] Vida Pohar. “Veliki sesalci iz viška zadnjega glaciala v Sloveniji «Great Mammals Descending from the Culmination Point of the Last Glacial in Slovenia»”, Razred za naravoslovne vede Classis 4, Historia Naturalis, Volume 34, Number 4, in Slovenian, 1994, pages 87–100. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: The study of animals fossil remains from 7 Tardigravettin localities indicated that the Würm periods of cooling attained their culmination during the third Würm stadial (WIII). This is proved by remains of the reindeer, polar fox and mammoth. The studies suggest the cold impulse was not extremely cold during all its duration. The appearance of the wild boar and beaver indicate smaller warming periods after the culmination of the stadial. Investigations in the Betalov spodmol also indicated that the cave bear did not become extinct in the studied area before the culminating point of WIII

[Pohlit 2011] Stefan Pohlit. Julien Jalâl Ed-Dine Weiss: A Novel Tuning System for the Middle-Eastern Qānūn, Doctoral dissertation – Istanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul Technical University, Institute of Social Sciences, October 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pohlmann 2001] Egert Pöhlmann and Martin Litchfield West. Documents of Ancient Greek Music: The Extant Melodies and Fragments, published by Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 2001, 234 pages, ISBN 0-19-815223-X (978-0-19-815223-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This uniquely complete and up-to-date collection of the surviving remains of ancient Greek music will serve as the standard work of reference for decades to come. Since its appearance in 1970, Egert Pohlmann's Denkmaler altgriechischer Musik has been the standard collection of the surviving fragments of ancient Greek music. But the publication of many further texts in recent years has put it in urgent need of updating. In this new English edition, prepared in collaboration with Martin West, the number of items has risen to 61, of which 23 are additions to the content of the 1970 book. All the texts, new and old, have been carefully revised against the original documents or photographs, and many improved readings have been obtained as a result.

[Polansky 1993] Larry Polansky and Stephanie Nelson. “The Music of the Voyager Interstellar Record”, Journal of Applied Communication, Volume 21, Number 4, 1993, pages 358–376. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Polansky 2009] Larry Polansky, Daniel Rockmore, Micah K. Johnson, Douglas Repetto, and Wei Pan. “A Mathematical Model for Optimal Tuning Systems”, Perspectives of New Music, Volume 47, Number 1, Winter 2009, pages 69–110. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we propose a mathematical framework for the optimization of tuning systems. We begin with an informal definition of “tuning system.” We then propose five general constraints that seem common to their evolution. The central idea of this paper is the quantification of those constraints in terms of a set of numerical parameters. Given a choice of parameter values we use appropriate optimization methods to produce an optimal tuning for a specific set of values. Finally, we consider some historical and Javanese tunings from this perspective, and use the framework to generate a few examples of novel tuning systems.

[Polk 1983] Charles Polk. “Natural and Man-Made Noise in the Earth — Ionosphere Cavity at Extremely Low Frequencies”, Space Science Reviews, Volume 35, Number 1, May 1983, pages 83–89, doi:10.1007/BF00173695 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Pitch-to-Frequency Calculator

Abstract: The equations for the Earth-ionosphere cavity resonance fields are given and some of the approximations used in their derivation are indicated. Typical electric and magnetic 5 to 20 Hz Schumann resonance field intensities are listed and compared with the level of other natural and man-made electromagnetic noise. Applications of Schumann resonances to thunderstorm location and measurement of global lightning activity are reviewed briefly. Ionospheric conductivity profiles appropriate for this frequency range are discussed and the importance of atmospheric conductivity below 60 km is pointed out.

[Pollack 1992] David Pollack and A. Gwynn Henderson (editors). Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky, Volume 2, published by the Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky, 1992, 276 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pollack 2008] David Pollack (editor). The Archaeology of Kentucky: An Update, in two volumes, State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 3, published by the Kentucky Heritage Council, 2008, 1132 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-934492-28-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pollock 1896] William Pollock (Syreh Ryrut Kuwyh - a Pawnee). “The Indian Flute”, The Musical Record, Number 413, published by the Oliver Ditson Company, Boston, June 1896, page 12, hardcover. Lorin F. Deland, Editor. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Porter 1945] Kenneth W. Porter. “Notes on Seminole Negroes in the Bahamas”, Florida Historical Quarterly, Volume 24, 1945, pages 56–60. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Porter-J 1995] James Porter. “New Perspectives in Ethnomusicology: A Critical Survey”, Revista Transcultural de Música / Transcultural Music Review, Number 1, in Spanish and English, June 1995, retrieved December 19, 2010. ISSN:1697-0101. New Perspectives in Ethnomusicology Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Post 2004] Jennifer C. Post. Ethnomusicology: A Guide to Research, Routledge Music Bibliographies, published by Psychology Press, 2004, 470 pages, ISBN 0-415-93834-1 (978-0-415-93834-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: An annotated bibliography to books, recordings, videos, and websites in the field of ethnomusicology. The book is divided into two parts. Part One is organized by resource type in categories of greatest concern to students and scholars. It includes handbooks and guides; encyclopedias and dictionaries; indexes and bibliographies; journals; media sources; and archives. It also offers annotated entries on the basic literature of ethnomusicological history and research. Part Two provides a list of current publications in the field that are widely used by ethnomusicologists. Multiply indexed, this book serves as an excellent tool for librarians, researchers, and scholars in sorting through the massive amount of new material that has appeared in the field over the last decades.

[Postgate 2007] J. Nicholas Postgate. Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern, published by the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, London, 2007, 187 pages, ISBN 0-903472-21-X (978-0-903472-21-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: For all five thousand years of its history, Iraq has been home to a mixture of languages, spoken and written, and the same is true today. In November 2003, to celebrate the country's rich diversity and long history as a centre of civilisation, the British School presented a series of talks by experts on each of the major languages of Iraq and their history, and this illustrated volume brings these now to a wider public. Iraq's languages come from different linguistic families - Semitic, Indo-European, and agglutinative languages like Sumerian, Hurrian and Turkish. Some, although long dead, have a prime place in the history of the Old World: Sumerian, probably the first language to be written and the vehicle of cuneiform scholarship for more than two millennia, and Akkadian, the language of Hammurapi and the Epic of Gilgamesh, and used across the Near East for administration and diplomacy. The history of Aramaic is even longer, stretching back to overlap with Akkadian before 1000 BC. It survives, precariously, in both written and spoken forms, being one of four languages spoken in Iraq today. Of these, Arabic as a major world language has often been described, but here we have an account of the vernacular Iraqi Arabic dialects, and the descriptions of Iraqi Kurdish and Turkman are unique, detailed and authoritative.

[Potter 2006] John Potter. Vocal Authority — Singing Style and Ideology, November 2006, 236 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-521-02743-4, Softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Vocal Authority is about how singing styles develop and change, why classical singing is different from pop singing, and what singers actually mean when they sing. It takes a historical perspective, beginning with the ancient world, looking at changes in style up to the present day and why, for example, Freddie Mercury and Montserrat Caballe could sing together.

[Powell 1987] E. Dave Powell. Learn to Play Native American Flute, in two volumes, Phoenix, Arizona, EDP-01 and EDP-02, 1987, total time 32 minutes, ASIN B00GE5EF0Q, audio cassette and booklet. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Powell 2002] Ardal Powell. The Flute, published by Yale University Press, 2002, 347 pages, ISBN 0-300-09498-1 (978-0-300-09498-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Western Concert Family of Flutes

Publisher's description: This authoritative book tells the story of the flute in the musical life of Europe and North American from the twelfth century to the present day. It discusses the evolution of the instrument, the revolutions in playing style and repertoire, the lives of flute players and makers, and the uses of the instrument within various types of music. The volume will delight both those who play the flute and those who love its music.

[Powell 2005] Eric A. Powell. “The Turquoise Trail”, Archaeology, Volume 58, Number 1, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, January/February 2005, pages 24–29. See the Arghaeology magazine web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Subtitle: Did an extensive trade network link the American Southwest with Mesoamerica?

[Powell-JW 1894] J. W. Powell (1834–1902). “Report of the Director”, Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1890-91, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1894, pages xix – xlvii, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu1218901891smit on Archive.org (open access). See the Archive.org web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Power 1997] Camilla Power and Ian Watts. “The Woman with the Zebra's Penis: Gender, Mutability and Performance”, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Volume 3, Number 3, published by the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, September 1997, pages 537–560. Publication 3034766 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In certain African hunter-gatherer cultures (the Khoisan and Hadza), gender appears mutable and paradoxical with respect to sex. During initiation ritual, girls acquire `masculine' characteristics, such as penises and hunting weapons; boys are treated as menstruants. Anthropological models of a hierarchized `masculine' v. `feminine' correlated with biological sex, would not predict such reversals. Alternative models of `multiple' genders fail to account for the structural similarities between female and male initiations, which tend to unify gender irrespective of sex. Using data on Khoisan and Hadza ritual and myth, with illustrations from southern African rock art, a `native model' of gendered symbolic oppositions is presented. This indigenous model represents gender as mutable through time, and as correlated with ritual potency, not with biological sex; the model thereby supports predictions made by the `sex-strike' theory of the origins of symbolic culture.

[Powers-S 1877] Stephen Powers (1840–1904). Tribes of California, Contributions to North American ethnology, Volume 3, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1877, 635 pages, frontispiece, 44 figures (including 42 plates), 3 pages music, pocket map. J. W. Powell, Geologist in Charge. Reissued in [Powers-S 1976]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Powers-S 1976] Stephen Powers. Tribes of California, published by the University of California Press, 1976, 508 pages, ISBN 0-520-03172-5 (978-0-520-03172-2). Reissue of [Powers-S 1877]. Library of Congress call number 75-13150. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Powers-WK 1980] William K. Powers. “The Art of Courtship Among the Oglala”, American Indian Art Magazine, 1980, pages 40–47. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Powers-WK 1990] William K. Powers. War Dance — Plains Indian Musical Performance, published by the University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, Arizona, 1990, 199 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-8165-1365-9, softcover. See the University of Arizona Press web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Prairie 2006] Michael Prairie. Understanding the Acoustics of The Native American-Style Flute, October 4, 2006, 62 pages. See the Mike Prairie's acoustic of the flute web page. Understanding the Acoustics of The Native American-Style Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

From the Preface: This paper represents a compilation of my understanding of the physics of the flute so far, and is currently an evolving document. It is written from the perspective of the Native American style flute with a fixed sound hole configuration and a limited second-octave range. The treatment is appropriate for the penny whistle as well. Most of the treatment is also consistent with mouth-blown flutes like the simple-system Irish flute or the shakuhachi, but no effort is made to account for embouchure variations.

[Prairie 2011] Michael Prairie. Back Pressure, November 25, 2011, 3 pages. See the Mike Prairie's acoustic of the flute web page. Back Pressure Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flute Crafting Dimensions (2), Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Summary: An article on how the back-pressure is related to some of the basic dynamics of the interaction between the jet and the air column in a flute.

[Prairie 2014] Michael Prairie. Nodal Interference, August 30, 2014, 4 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Nodal Interference

[Prattis 2011] Ian Prattis (editor). Earth My Body, Water My Blood, published by Baico Publishing, April 22, 2011, 158 pages, ISBN 1-926945-19-0 (978-1-926945-19-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Earth My Body - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Prestini 2003] Elena Prestini. The Evolution of Applied Harmonic Analysis: Models of the Real World, published by Birkhäuser, Boston, Massachusetts, 2003, 349 pages, ISBN 0-8176-4125-4 (978-0-8176-4125-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Price 1990] Lew Paxton Price. Native North American Flutes, 1990, ISBN 0-917578-07-4, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flute Makers' Forum, A Brief History of the Native American Flute, Names of the Native American Flute, FAQ for the Native American Flute

Author's description: This is a small book on the flutes of the North American Indian, covering such things as their flute types, uses, evolution, religious connotations, etc. Original work, representing a year's research by a flutemaker/mathematician.

[Price 1991] Lew Paxton Price. Secrets of the Flute, 1991, ISBN 0-917578-08-2, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: NAFlutomat - Native American Flute Design Tool, Flute and Sound Calculators on Flutopedia, Acoustic Length of a Flute, Crafting Native American Flutes, Flute Makers' Forum, NAFlutomat - Native American Flute Design Tool

Author's description: Covers the physics, math, and design of non-mechanical flutes and the non-mechanical part of mechanical flutes. This is original work and the subject material is not available from other sources at this time. It is ideal for the teaching of the musical science of flutes and other woodwinds, for use by professional flute designers, and for hobbyists.

[Price 1992] Lew Paxton Price. “The Oldest Magick — Chinese Changes and the Ti”, New Moon Rising, Volume 4, Number 5, Issue 21, September/October 1992. The Oldest Magick Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Price 1994] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using the Native American Love Flute, Love Flutes Series, Book 1, published by L. P. Price, P.O. Box 88, Garden Valley, CA 95633, 1994, 46 pages, ISBN 0-917578-09-0, softcover. Library of Congress call number ML990.C68 P75 1994. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flute Makers' Forum, Names of the Native American Flute

Author's description: Tells how to design, craft, play, and pray the Native American Love Flutes of the more popular current varieties. This book is the foundation upon which the other books in the series are based and was originally written to be sufficient unto itself. Although the other books in this series allow one to expand his or her knowledge of flute-making, they are not sufficient without having read this book first.

[Price 1995] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using Grandfather's Flute, Love Flutes Series, Book 2, 1995, ISBN 0-917578-11-2, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flute Makers' Forum, Names of the Native American Flute

Author's description: The second book in the Love Flute series. Tells how to create and use one of the varieties of older flutes, gives tables and graphs to aid in optimizing and creating more varieties of new and old Native American flutes, and explains more about the creation and use of the Native American flute. The particular type of older flute featured here will not choke up from moisture as do the most of the contemporary types of native flutes, and its playing quality is unsurpassed. Furthermore, it is ideal for creating flutes from materials such as heat-treated bamboo which has a natural beauty of its own.

[Price 1995a] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using Older Native American Flutes, Love Flutes Series, Book 3, 1995, ISBN 0-917578-13-9, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The third book in the love flute series. The older Native American flutes used tuning holes in the last stages of their creation. This book tells how to create and use flutes with tuning holes, how to compute and use equivalent diameters, gives tables and graphs on flutes with tuning holes, and tells more about the use of the flute.

[Price 1995b] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using Smaller Native American Flutes, Love Flutes Series, Book 4, 1995, ISBN 0-917578-14-7, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The fourth book in the love flute series. Tells the advantages of and how to create and use smaller Native American flutes, provides tables and graphs for creating smaller flutes, tells the nature of nodal interference and how to eliminate it, includes a chapter on ways to improve the appearance of any flute, and includes some philosophical comments.

[Price 1995c] Lew Paxton Price. The Oldest Magic, 1995, ISBN 0-917578-10-4, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Author's description: Almost everything anyone ever wanted to know about musical scales, modes, keys, language, prehistory, folk flutes, and the uses of music and its influence upon our society since ancient times. Included are instructions for making various types of ancient flutes. This book is an aid to satisfying the most insatiable of curiosities in regard to music and music theory, as well as a means of exposing one to facts that have been kept from the general public through the years. This particular book has elicited the most praise from my readers through the years.

[Price 1996] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using the Native American Concert Flute, Love Flutes Series, Book 8, 1996, ISBN 0-917578-16-3, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The eighth book in the love flute series. This is the most advanced book in the series, describing how to make an optimized Native American style flute which has a moisture-removing mechanism and independent adjustments for sound quality, transition point, and temperature. Includes a chapter called "Greatest of Secrets" which has universal significance. This book is not recommended unless the student is already familiar with flute-making.

[Price 1997] Lew Paxton Price. More Secrets of the Flute: More of the Physics, Math, and Design of Non-Mechanical Folk Flutes, published by El Dorado Press, 1997, ISBN 0-917578-17-1, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: NAFlutomat - Native American Flute Design Tool, Flute Makers' Forum, Crafting Native American Flutes, Finger Hole Size, NAFlutomat - Native American Flute Design Tool, Flute and Sound Calculators on Flutopedia, Nodal Interference

Author's description: The sequel to Secrets of the Flute, this book tells more about flute physics and math. The result of six more years of flute research, combined with the book above, this book allows the flutemaker to design the most extreme examples of flutes with accuracy, and is ideal for those who wish to have a total comprehension of the flute.

[Price 1998] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using Larger Native American Flutes, Love Flutes Series, Book 5, 1998, ISBN 0-917578-19-8, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The fifth book in the love flute series. Tells the advantages of, and how to create and use, larger Native American flutes, provides tables and graphs for creating larger flutes, explains the difficulties of larger flute design and how to work with them, gives ways to vary flute length without seriously affecting the sound, and includes some philosophical comments.

[Price 1998a] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using the Largest Native American Flutes, Love Flutes Series, Book 6, published by L. P. Price, P.O. Box 88, Garden Valley, CA 95633, 1998, 50 pages, ISBN 0-917578-20-1, softcover. Library of Congress call number ML990.N37 P75 1998. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The sixth book in the love flute series. Tells the advantages of, and how to create and use, the largest Native American flutes, provides tables and graphs for creating them, explains the difficulties of large flute design and how to work with them, and includes some philosophical comments.

[Price 1998b] Lew Paxton Price. Creating and Using Very Small Native American Flutes, Love Flutes Series, Book 7, 1998, ISBN 0-917578-22-8, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Makers' Forum

Author's description: The seventh book in the love flute series. Tells the advantages of and how to create and use the smallest feasible full-working Native American flutes, provides designs for creating them (up to G# two above middle C), explains the difficulties of tiny flute design and how to work with them, and includes some philosophical comments. Tiny flutes are, by far, the most challenging of all flutes to design and craft.

[Price 2007] Lew Paxton Price. Dimensions in Music — For those who wish to enhance their compositions, 2007. See the Article on Lew Paxton Price's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: There are people in the various flute circles who are no longer beginners. This is should help them to remember the fundamentals of musical composition.

[Price 2007a] Lew Paxton Price. The Transposition Pattern — For those who wish to enhance their compositions, 2007. See the Article on Lew Paxton Price's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Price 2010] Lew Paxton Price. “How I Make Flutes Today”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2010, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, February 2010. See the Lew Paxton Price web site. How I Make Flutes Today Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: FAQ about Crafting Native American Flutes, Flute Crafting Dimensions

[Price 2011] Lew Paxton Price. Flute Physics, 2011. Flute Physics Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Price-DT 2008] Douglas T. Price and Gary M. Feinman. Images of the Past, Fifth Edition, published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008, ISBN-13 978-0-07-340520-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Primeaux-A 1980] Asa Primeaux and sons (Cleveland, Mike, Gerald), Stuart Snake, Terry Foolbull, and Asa Primeaux, Sr., with speical Assistance from Time Stricker. 32 Yankton Sioux Peyote Songs, Volume 1, Taos, New Mexico, Indian Records, 1171A, 1980, audio cassette, monophonic. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Prins 2007] Harald E. L. Prins and Bunny McBride. Asticou's Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500-2000, in two volumes, published by The National Park Service, Northeast Region Ethnography Program, Boston, Massachussets, December 2007, 658 pages. Asticou's Island Domain Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

NPS Summary: Native Americans have lived in this area for thousands of years. Today Maine's four Indian tribes—Maliseet, Micmac, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot—are known collectively as the Wabanaki ("Dawnland People" or "People of the Dawn"). Acadia National Park lies in the center of the Wabanaki homeland, which stretches from Newfoundland, Canada, to the Merrimac River valley in New Hampshire and Massachusetts.

The first-ever ethnographic study of the Wabanaki in the Mount Desert Island region was completed in 2007. You can access the study from the links below, but be aware that the files are very large and should only be downloaded with a high-speed connection.

[Prinzing 2009] Scott S. Prinzing. American Indian Music: More than Just Flutes and Drums — A Guide to American Indian Music, Indian Education for All, published by the Montana Office of Public Instruction, Winter 2009, 23 pages. See the Montana Office of Public Instruction web site. American Indian Music: More than Just Flutes and Drums Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The goal of American Indian Music: More Than Just Drums and Flutes is to assist Montana teachers in incorporating an appreciation for Indian music into music and social studies curricula to meet Indian Education for All criteria.

[Pritzker 2000] Barry M. Pritzker. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples, published by the Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 2000, 624 pages, ISBN 0-19-513877-5 (978-0-19-513877-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

Publisher's description: Dispelling myths, answering questions, and stimulating thoughtful avenues for further inquiry, this highly readable reference provides a wealth of specific information about all known North American Indians. Readers will delight in the stirring narratives about everything from notable leaders and relations with non-natives; to customs, dress, dwellings, and weapons; to government and religion. Addressing over 200 groups of Native American groups in Canada and the United States, A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and People is at once exhaustive yet readable, covering myriad aspects of a people spread across ten geographical regions.

Listed alphabetically for easy access, each Native American group is presented in careful detail, starting with the tribal name, translation, origin, and definition. Each entry then includes significant facts about the group's location and population, as well as impressive details about the history and culture of the group. Bringing each entry up-to-date, Editor Barry Pritzker also addresses with ease current information on each group's government, economy, legal status, and reservations. Engaging and precise, Pritzker's prose makes this extensive work an enjoyable read. Whether he is giving the court interpretation of the term "tribe" (Many traditional Native American groups were not tribes at all but more like extended families) or describing how a Shoeshone woman served as a guide on the Louis and Clarke expedition, the material is always presented in a clear and lively manner.

In light of past and ongoing injustices and the momentum of Indian and Intuit self-determination movements, an understanding of these native cultures as well as their contributions to contemporary society becomes increasingly important. This book provides all the essential information necessary to fully grasp the history, culture, and current feelings surrounding North American Indians. It is not only a compelling resource for students and researchers of Native American studies, anthropology, and history, but an indispensable guide for anyone concerned with the past and present situation of the numerous Native American groups.

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[Provine 1974] Robert C. Provine, Jr. “The Treatise on Ceremonial Music (1430) in the Annals of the Korean King Sejong”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 18, Number 1, January 1974, pages 1–29. Publication 850057 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pruzsinszky 2010] Regine Pruzsinszky. “Singers, Musicians and their Mobility in the Ur III Period Cuneiform Texts”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 31–39, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pruzsinszky 2010a] Regine Pruzsinszky and Dahlia Shehata. Musiker und Tradierung: Studien zur Rolle von Musikern bei der Verschriftlichung und Tradierung von literarischen Werken «Musicians and Tradition: Studies on the Role of Musicians in the Transcript, and Tradition of Literary Works», Volume 8 of Wiener Offene Orientalistik, published by LIT Verlag Münster, in German, 2010, 268 pages, ISBN 3-643-50131-5 (978-3-643-50131-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Puccini 1910] Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924). La Fanciulla del West — (opera), 1910. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pueblo 1972] . Pueblo Songs of the Southwest — Recorded Live at the Gallup Inter-Tribal Ceremonial, Taos, New Mexico, Indian House, 1972, ASIN B004A2BQZM, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Puhan 2006] Milo A Puhan, Alex Suarez, Christian Lo Cascio, Alfred Zahn, Markus Heitz, and Otto Braendli. “Didgeridoo Playing as Alternative Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: Randomised Controlled Trial”, British Medical Journal, Volume 332, Number 7536, February 4, 2006, pages 266–270, doi:10.1136/bmj.38705.470590.55. Publication 16377643 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the effects of didgeridoo playing on daytime sleepiness and other outcomes related to sleep by reducing collapsibility of the upper airways in patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and snoring.
Design: Randomised controlled trial.
Setting: Private practice of a didgeridoo instructor and a single centre for sleep medicine.
Participants: 25 patients aged > 18 years with an apnoea-hypopnoea index between 15 and 30 and who complained about snoring.
Interventions: Didgeridoo lessons and daily practice at home with standardised instruments for four months. Participants in the control group remained on the waiting list for lessons.
Main Outcome Measure: Daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale from 0 (no daytime sleepiness) to 24), sleep quality (Pittsburgh quality of sleep index from 0 (excellent sleep quality) to 21), partner rating of sleep disturbance (visual analogue scale from 0 (not disturbed) to 10), apnoea-hypopnoea index, and health related quality of life (SF-36).
Results: Participants in the didgeridoo group practised an average of 5.9 days a week (SD 0.86) for 25.3 minutes (SD 3.4). Compared with the control group in the didgeridoo group daytime sleepiness (difference -3.0, 95% confidence interval -5.7 to -0.3, P = 0.03) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (difference -6.2, -12.3 to -0.1, P = 0.05) improved significantly and partners reported less sleep disturbance (difference -2.8, -4.7 to -0.9, P < 0.01). There was no effect on the quality of sleep (difference -0.7, -2.1 to 0.6, P = 0.27). The combined analysis of sleep related outcomes showed a moderate to large effect of didgeridoo playing (difference between summary z scores -0.78 SD units, -1.27 to -0.28, P < 0.01). Changes in health related quality of life did not differ between groups.
Conclusion: Regular didgeridoo playing is an effective treatment alternative well accepted by patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Trial registration ISRCTN: 31571714.

[Pulver 1922] Jeffrey Pulver. “The Music of Ancient Egypt”, Proceedings of the Musical Association, 48th Session, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 1922, pages 29–55. Publication 765727 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Purtill 2008] Mark Purtill. A Beginner’s Guide to the Anasazi Dream Flute, September 2008, 10 pages, retrieved September 11, 2010. See the Mark Purtill's Anasazi Dream web site. A Beginner’s Guide to the Anasazi Dream Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Indigenous North American Flutes

[Purtill 2010] Mark Purtill. Scale Theory - Part 1, 2010, 4 pages, retrieved September 11, 2010. See the Mark Purtill's Anasazi Dream web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Putnam 2007] Arthur "Kills Straight" Putnam. Learn How to Play the Native American Flute, 2007, 29 pages. Learn How to Play the Native American Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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