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References - L

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter L. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - L

[Laade 1971] Wolfgang Laade (producer, recording engineer). Music from South New Guinea, Folkways Records, FW04216, 26 tracks, 1971. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Oceana (3)

Publisher's description: Music from South New Guinea presents the music of tribes settled between the Fly River and the West Arian. Included are songs and dances such as the badara, a traditional dance performed at social events and holidays that is characterized by an “elastic syncopation…created by the drum being slightly faster than the metre of the song….” Among native instruments featured are the burari (flute), the dárombi (similar to a jew’s harp), tátaro (bundled panpipe), and búrubur (hour-glass-shaped drum). Liner notes provide an overview of the history and music of South New Guinea, track notes, pictures, and musical transcriptions.

[Lacroix A] Lee Lacroix. Crafting Your Own Native American Flute, total time 60 minutes, video DVD. Catalog number CM-26V. See the Shakuhachi.com web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Crafting Your Own Native American Flute will allow you to know the pure joy of working with beautiful wood and of crafting your own flute. You will play with the knowledge that you alone made this beautiful instrument. To play is to know the peaceful and quieting feelings much like those found in meditation.

This new 60 minute DVD video now makes it possible for anyone to craft their own Native American flute. The flute is traditionally crafted, double-chambered, and six hole, typical of the plains flute. It is native tuned and excellent for those new to Native American music as well as those who haven't yet experienced this type of flute. Like those of the original Americans, this instrument is meant to be played solo. It includes techniques that show the novice woodworker, as well as the accomplished artisan how to build this flute. It shows how to perform each operation using hand tools, as well as the same task using some power tools. Each step in construction is shown. It shows how to craft the barrel and how to craft the fetish figure with tips on how to design and make your own fetish or power animal. Each video comes with a full scale dimensioned drawing as an aid in construction.

[Laczko 1981] Gina Laczko. Apache Music and Musical Instruments, published by The Mesa Museum, Meza, Arizona, 1981, 26 pages, ASIN B0006E57CG, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ladd 2008] D. Robert Ladd. Intonational Phonology, Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, published by Cambridge University Press, 2008, 349 pages, ISBN 0-521-67836-6 (978-0-521-67836-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LADHH 2010] Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals. Infection Control and Musical Instruments, October 20, 2010, 3 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaFay 1955] Howard LaFay. “Records in Review - Folk Music”, High Fidelity, Volume 5, Number 2, April 1955, pages 67–68. Publication rm_High-Fidelity-1955-Apr on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaFlesche 1889] Francis La Flesche (1857–1932). “Death and Funeral Customs Among the Omahas”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 2, Number 4, January–March 1889, pages 3–11. Contains 1 song. Death and Funeral Customs Among the Omahas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[LaFlesche 1921] Francis La Flesche. “The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men”, Thirty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1914-1915, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1921, pages 37–597 + plates 1–23 + figures 1–15, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu36smithso on Archive.org (open access). Contains 31 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaFlesche 1925] Francis La Flesche. “The Osage Tribe: Rite of Vigil”, Thirty-Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1917-1918, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1925, pages 31–636, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu39smithso on Archive.org (open access). Contains 176 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaFlesche 1932] Francis La Flesche. A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1932, 406 pages. Publication bulletin1091932smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[LaFlesche 1939] Francis La Flesche. War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 101, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1939, 280 pages. Publication bulletin1011939smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 70 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lagos 2008] Leah Lagos, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, Marsha Bates, and Robert Pandina. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback as a Strategy for Dealing with Competitive Anxiety: A Case Study”, Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 3, 2008, pages 109–115. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback (BFB) is a relatively new approach for helping athletes to regulate competitive stress. To investigate this phenomenon further, a qualitative case study examined the impact of HRV BFB on the mood, physiology, and sport performance of a 14-year-old golfer. The golfer met once per week at a university lab for 10 consecutive sessions of HRV BFB training that included breathing at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The format and duration of sessions followed the HRV BFB protocol outlined previously by Lehrer, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo. Acute increases in total HRV, low-frequency HRV, and amplitude of oscillation at 0.1 Hz were observed during biofeedback practice. This effect became stronger across sessions, suggesting increases in baroreflex gain. Following HRV BFB, the golfer achieved his personal record score for 18 holes of golf, and his mean golf score (total number of shots per 18 holes of golf) was 15 shots lower than in his previous golf season. The golfer received no golf instructions during HRV BFB training. The results of this case study suggest that HRV BFB training may help the athlete cope with the stress of competition and/or improve neuromuscular function.

[Lagos 2011] Leah Lagos, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, Marsha Bates, and Robert Pandina. “Virtual Reality-Assisted Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback as a Strategy to Improve Golf Performance: A Case Study”, Biofeedback, Volume 39, Number 1, 2011, pages 15–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) biofeedback (BFB) may improve sport performance by helping athletes cope with the stress of competition. This study sought to identify whether HRV BFB procedure impacted psychological, physiological, and sport performance of a collegiate golfer. This individual was randomly selected to participate in 10 weeks of HRV BFB training according to the protocol developed by Leher, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo (2000). During the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth weeks of the study, the golfer and principal investigator met at a virtual reality golf center to practice skills for breathing at resonance frequency during golf performance. Results of the golf performance and HR were recorded during nine holes of virtual reality golf before and after 10 weeks of HRV BFB training. Self-report questionnaires were administered also before and after HRV BFB training to measure symptoms of anxiety, stress, and sensation seeking. Physiological measures, including HRV and respiration rate, were recorded in the lab during the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth weeks of the study. Golf performance and HRV were recorded during nine holes of virtual reality golf. Reduction in symptoms of anxiety, stress, and sensation seeking and increases in total HRV, low-frequency HRV, and amplitude of oscillation at .1 Hz and sport performance improving were observed. This effect became stronger across 10 weeks of HRV BFB training, suggesting that HRV BFB may improve sport performance by helping athletes to cope with sport stress. A larger-scale study was conducted and is in the process of analysis to confirm these findings.

[Laguna 1972] Frederica de Laguna. Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Volume 7, Numbers 1, 2, and 3, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, City of Washington, November 13, 1972, 1,395 pages in three separate bindings. Library of Congress call number 77-185631. See the Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Flutopedia Image Detail: Transcription of a Yakutat Tlingit song from 1786

[Lambert 1971] W. G. Lambert. “The Converse Tablet: A Litany with Musical Instructions”, contained in [Goedicke 1971], 1971, pages 335–353. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lambert-CA 2009] C. A. Lambert and S. A. Tishkoff. “Genetic Structure in African Populations: Implications for Human Demographic History”, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Volume 74, 2009, pages 395–402, doi:10.1101/sqb.2009.74.053 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The continent of Africa is the source of all anatomically modern humans that dispersed across the planet during the past 100,000 years. As such, African populations are characterized by high genetic diversity and low levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among loci, as compared to populations from other continents. African populations also possess a number of genetic adaptations that have evolved in response to the diverse climates, diets, geographic environments, and infectious agents that characterize the African continent. Recently, Tishkoff et al. (2009) performed a genomewide analysis of substructure based on DNA from 2432 Africans from 121 geographically diverse populations. The authors analyzed patterns of variation at1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers and identified 14 ancestral population clusters that correlate well with self described ethnicity and shared cultural or linguistic properties. The results suggest that African populations may have maintained a large and subdivided population structure throughout much of their evolutionary history. In this chapter, we synthesize recent work documenting evidence of African population structure and discuss the implications for inferences about evolutionary history in both African populations and anatomically modern humans as a whole.

[Lamme 2012] Maryse B. Lamme. The Musical Brain — How Music Evokes Emotions and Related Positive Feelings, Masters dissertation – Faculty of Medicine, Universiteit Utrecht. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The power of music in eliciting physical reactions has been known since the ancient Greek cultures. The mechanisms behind it however, have long been unclear and are only just recently being unraveled. Numerous brain imaging studies have shown an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the limbic system during self reported pleasure and strong physiological reactions, called chills, while listening to music. Actual feelings of reward can be evoked by music via dopamine release related activity in the nucleus accumbens, part of the limbic system. Different mechanisms could be responsible for eliciting feelings of reward and pleasure, such as violations of expectations of musical syntax, associative mechanisms or musical contagion. The idea that the strong positive effects of music can be of therapeutic use has lead to music being used as therapy in the Unites States since the forties. The ability of music therapy to relieve depressive symptoms as well as sustaining active patient involvement makes it an interesting method for treating depression. But the current main issue in depression is not necessarily failure of recovery, but the risk of relapse after recovery. Deficits in the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex are suggested to correspond to deep-seated cognitive vulnerability, which is an important factor contributing to relapse. Music has been shown to modify these brain structures. Therefore, in the current review, music is proposed as source of self therapy for ameliorating depressive symptoms in order to prevent relapse.

[Lancaster 1954] James A. Lancaster, Jean M. Pinkley, Philip F. Van Cleave, and Don Watson. Archeological Excavations in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, 1950, Archeological Research Series Number Two, published by the National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 1954, 118 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lancaster 2005] Jan Lancaster. Full Circle: Dayton C. Miller and Friends: Selections from the Dayton C. Miller Photograph Collection, published by the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., February 6, 2005, retrieved October 23, 2010. Full Circle Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landau 2013] Elizabeth Landau. “Playing for Time: Can Music Stave Off Dementia?”, September 11, 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landels 1963] J. G. Landels. “The Brauron Aulos”, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Volume 58, 1963, pages 116–119. Publication 30102923 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landels 1968] J. G. Landels. “A Newly Discovered Aulos”, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Volume 63, 1968, pages 231–238. Publication 30103192 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the introduction: An ancient reed-blown pipe (αύλός) has recently been acquired by the Museum of Greek Archaeology in Reading University. This article contains a full descriptive account of the instrument, and a brief discussion of its relationship to other surviving auloi.

[Landels 1981] J. G. Landels. “The Reconstruction of Ancient Greek Auloi”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3, February 1981, pages 298–302, doi:10.1080/00438243.1981.9979804. Publication 124241 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this article, the four main problems involved in reconstructing ancient Greek auloi are discussed, namely (i) the remains are incomplete, damaged, and not a representative sample, (2) theoretical calculations from resonant lengths do not take account of the vagaries of reeds or playing techniques, (3) Schlesinger's theory of equidistant holes is not supported by good evidence, and (4) the tone quality of the instrument cannot be reproduced without accurate knowledge of the reed construction.

[Landels 1999] John Gray Landels. Music in Ancient Greece and Rome, First Edition, published by Psychology Press, 1999, 296 pages, ISBN 0-415-16776-0 (978-0-415-16776-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Music in Ancient Greece and Romeis a comprehensive introduction to the study of music from Homeric times to the Roman emperor Trajan. John G. Landels offers the first scholarly overview of the practical and performance elements of music, rather than the moral and aesthetic discussion typified by the works of Plato. Illustrated with transcriptions of surviving musical scores, diagrams and line-drawings of instruments and performers, the book explores the contexts in which music played a role, such as mythology and poetry. Detailed discussion is also given to the instruments, including the aulos, the kithara and the lyre, as well as the ingenious notation system devised by the Greeks which enables us to read the few surviving scores.

[Lander 2009] Nicholas S. Lander. A Memento: The Medieval Recorder, October 12, 2009, retrieved June 10, 2010. See the Recorder Home Page web site. A Memento: The Medieval Recorder Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Western Concert Family of Flutes, The Medieval Recorder, Flutopedia Image Detail: The Tartu Recorder, 1350-1399

[Lang 2003] J. Stephen Lang. What the Good Book Didn't Say, published by Kensington Publishing Corp., New York, 2003, 320 pages, ISBN 0-8065-2460-X (978-0-8065-2460-3), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Langdon 1913] Stephen Langdon (1876–1937). Babylonian Liturgies — Sumerian Texts from the Early Period and from the Library of Ashurbanipal, for the most part Transliterated and Translated, published by the Librarie Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1913, li + 150 pages + 76 plates. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1917] Stephen Langdon. Sumerian Liturgical Texts, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 2, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1917, 161 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1919] Stephen Langdon. Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 4, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1919, 158 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1923] Stephen Langdon. “Sumerian and Semitic Religious and Historical Texts, Volume 1 of The H. Weld-Blundell Collection in the Ashmolean Museum”, Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Inscriptions, published by the Oxford University Press, 1923, 60 pages + 45 plates. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Langdon 1923a] Stephen Langdon. “Two Sumerian Hymns from Eridu and Nippur”, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Volume 39, Number 3, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, April 1923, pages 161–186. Publication 528626 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Langford 2001] Eric Langford, Neil Schwertman, and Margaret Owens. “Is the Property of Being Positively Correlated Transitive?”, The American Statistician, Volume 55, Number 4, November 2001, pages 322–325, doi:10.1198/000313001753272286 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Suppose that X, Y, and Z are random variables and that X and Y are positively correlated and that Y and Z are likewise positively correlated. Does it follow that X and Z must be positively correlated? As we shall see by example, the answer is (perhaps surprisingly) "no." We prove, though, that if the correlations are sufficiently close to 1, then X and Z must be positively correlated. We also prove a general inequality that relates the three correlations. The ideas should be accessible to students in a first (postcalculus) course in probability and statistics.

[Langwill 1972] Lyndesay G. Langwill (1897–1983). Index of Musical Wind-instrument Makers, Third Revised Edition, 1972, 232 pages, ISBN 0-902153-01-3 (978-0-902153-01-1), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langwill 1993] Lyndesay G. Langwill; William Waterhouse (editor). New Langwill Index: Dictionary of Musical Wind-instrument Makers and Inventors, First Edition, published by T. Bingham, 1993, 550 pages, ISBN 0-946113-04-1 (978-0-946113-04-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, The Western Concert Family of Flutes

Abstract: Entries for nearly 6500 makers & inventors active until circa 1950.

[Lanouette 1990] JoAnne Lanouette. “Erasing Native American Stereotypes”, AnthroNotes, Museum of Natural History Publication for Educators, Volume 2, Number 3, Fall 1990, 3 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Cultural Considerations for Facilitators

[LaPerouse 1797] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse (1741–1788). Voyage de La Pérouse Autour du Monde «The Voyage of La Pérouse Around the World», Four volumes and atlas, published by Imprimerie de la République, Paris, in French, 1797, lxxii + 1475 pages with 69 illustrations and 44 plates, doi:10.5962/bhl.title.15861. Translated to English in [LaPerouse 1799]. See the Biodiversity Heritage Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaPerouse 1798] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse; M. L. A. Milet-Mureau (editor). The Voyage of La Pérouse Round the World, In the Years 1785, 1786, 1786, and 1788, with the Nautical Tables, in two volumes, published by John Stockdale, Piccadilly, London, June 20, 1798, cxc + 289 pages with 51 plates. Translated from the French version [LaPerouse 1797]. Publication cihm_37562 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[LaPerouse 1799] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse. A Voyage Round the World, Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1786, and 1788, Two volumes and atlas, First edition, London, 1799. Translated from the French version [LaPerouse 1797]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[LaPerouse 1799a] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse; M. L. A. Milet-Mureau (editor) (1756–1825). A Voyage Round the World, Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1786, and 1788, in three volumes, Second edition, published by J. Johnson, London, 1799. Translated from the French version [LaPerouse 1797]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaPerouse 1806] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse; M. L. A. Milet-Mureau (editor). A Voyage Round the World, Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1786, and 1788, in three volumes, Third Edition, published by Lackington, Allen, and Co., London, 1806. Translated from the French version [LaPerouse 1797]. See the Excerpt on American Journeys web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaPerouse 2010] Jean François de Galaup, comte de LaPérouse; M. L. A. Milet-Mureau (editor). The Voyage of La Pérouse Round the World, in the Years 1785, 1786, 1786, and 1788, with the Nautical Tables, Volume 1 of 2, published by Gale ECCO, Print Editions, in French, July 23, 2010, 532 pages, ISBN 1-171-37457-7 (978-1-171-37457-2). Reprint of Volume 1 of [LaPerouse 1797]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lapp 2004] David R. Lapp. The Physics of Music and Musical Instruments, 2004, 119 pages. The Physics of Music and Musical Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Larger 1996] Etienne Larger, Séverine Ledoux. Cardiovascular Effects of French Horn Playing, The Lancet, Volume 348, Issue 9040, November 30, 1996, page 1528, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)65960-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Laroche 1955] Emmanuel Laroche. Le palais royal d' Ugarit 3 «The Royal Palace of Ugarit 3», contained in [Nougayrol 1955], in French, 1955, plates 108-109 in Volume 2, pages 327–335. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Laroche 1968] Emmanuel Laroche. Documents en langue hourrite provenant de Ras Shamra «Hurrian Documents from Ras Shamra», Chapter 2 of [Schaeffer 1968], in French, 1968, pages 447–543. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LaserLight 1995] LaserLight Digital. Authentic Native American Music, published by Delta Music Inc., LaserLight Digital, 12-551, 26 tracks, 1995, EAN 4-006408-125518. Contains 26 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[LaserLight 1995a] LaserLight Digital. Ceremonial and War Dances, published by Delta Music Inc., LaserLight Digital, 12-552, 20 tracks, 1995, EAN 4-006408-125525. Contains 20 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lasocki 1992] David Lasocki. “Paisible's Echo Flute, Bononcini's Flauti Eco, and Bach's Fiauti d'Echo”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 45, published by the Galpin Society, March 1992, pages 59–66. Publication 842261 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lasserre 1988] Francois Lasserre. “Musica babilonese e musica greca «Babylonian and Greek Music»”, contained in La musica in Grecia, ed. Bruno Gentili & Roberto Pretagostini, Rome & Bari, in Italian, 1988, pages 72–95. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Laubin 1989] Reginald and Gladys Laubin. Indian Dances of North America, The Civilization of the American Indian series, published by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, April 1989, 576 pages, ISBN 0-8061-2172-6 (978-0-8061-2172-7), softcover. Library of Congress call number 76-40962. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Laukat-S 2009] Sheryl Laukat and Tevis Lukat. “Woodwind Instrument”, United States Patent 7,563,970 B2, Granted July 21, 2009, 18 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Woodwind Instrument Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Laut 1909] Agnes C. Laut (1871–1936). Canada: the Empire of the North: Being the Romantic Story of the New Dominion's Growth from Colony to Kingdom, 1909, 442 pages. Reissued in [Laut 2006]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Laut 2006] Agnes C. Laut. Canada: the Empire of the North: Being the Romantic Story of the New Dominion's Growth from Colony to Kingdom, published by Project Gutenberg, December 14, 2006, 442 pages, retrieved October 7, 2010. Reissue of [Laut 1909]. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #20110 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 1988] Bo Lawergren. “The Origin of Musical Instruments and Sounds”, Anthropos, Volume 83, 1988, pages 31–45. Publication 40461485 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The earliest musical instruments are found to derive from a common source: hunting implements. Loud instruments (percussion instruments, reeds, trumpets) were used to call or repulse the prey and to signal between hunters. Quiet instruments (flutes, musical bows, bullroarers) had alternate uses as hunting tools (dagger edges, hunting bows and bolas, respectively). It is argued that "hand-song" was another, previously overlooked, early instrument used for signalling. Some literary sources from ancient Greece and China as well as iconographic material from Egypt and Mexico provide late descriptions of the music/hunt association.

[Lawergren 2000] Bo Lawergren. “Extant Silver Pipes from Ur, 2450 BC”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2000a], Studien zur Musikarchäologie, Volume 2, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2000, pages 121–132. Orient-Archäologie Band 7. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

[Lawergren 2000a] Bo Lawergren. “Strings”, contained in [So 2000], 2000, pages 65–85. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2000b] Bo Lawergren. “A "Cycladic" Harpist in the Metropolitan Museum of Art”, Source - Notes in the History of Art, Volume 20, Number 1, Fall 2000, pages 2–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2003] Bo Lawergren. “Western Influences on the Early Chinese Qin-Zither”, Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Volume 75, 2003, pages 79–109. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2007] Bo Lawergren. “Etruscan Musical Instruments and their Wider Context in Greece and Italy”, Etruscan Studies, Journal of the Etruscan Foundation, Volume 10, Issue 1, Article 10, January 1, 2007. Etruscan Musical Instruments and their Wider Context in Greece and Italy Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2008] Bo Lawergren. “Bull Lyres, Silver Lyres, Silver Pipes and Animals in Sumer, Circa 2500 B.C.”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 83–88. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2008a] Bo Lawergren. “Angular Harps Through the Ages — A Causal History”, contained in [Both 2008], 2008, pages 261–281. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2011] Bo Lawergren. “The Rebirth of the Angular Harp — The Re-creation of a Long-lost Instrument Relies on Research Going Back More than 4000 years”, Early Music America, Volume 17, Number 2, Summer 2011, pages 26–31 and page 57. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawrence 1978] Bruce B. Lawrence. Notes from a Distant Flute: Sufi Literature in Pre-Mughal India, First Edition, published by the Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, Tehran, 1978, 123 pages, ISBN 0-500-97352-0, ASIN B000R0EQ08. Reissued in [Lawrence 1985]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawrence 1985] Bruce B. Lawrence. Notes from a Distant Flute: The Extant Literature of Pre-Mughal Indian Sufism, published by the Great Eastern Book Company, June 1985, 123 pages, ISBN 0-87773-735-5 (978-0-87773-735-3), hardcover. Reissue of [Lawrence 1978]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawson 1988] Graeme Lawson and Angela Wardle. “A Roman Pipe from London”, Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS), Volume 39, 1988, pages 35–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract by Francis Grew, Sep 27, 1996: A piece of bone and copper alloy tubing has been identified as the remains of a Roman pipe, one of a pair of tibiae, of the kind often seen in classical paintings, sculpure and mosaics.The cylindrical bone sections have finger-holes to allow the production of different musical pitches; originally they fitted inside a series of tightly fitting but freely rotating metal sleeves, each with a different pattern of finger-holes which could be opened and closed in various combinations.

[Lawson 1991] Graeme Lawson and Angela Wardle. “A Roman Pipe from London”, Antiquities Journal, Volume 71, 1991, pages 229–230. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract by Francis Grew, Sep 27, 1996: A piece of bone and copper alloy tubing has been identified as the remains of a Roman pipe, one of a pair of tibiae, of the kind often seen in classical paintings, sculpure and mosaics.The cylindrical bone sections have finger-holes to allow the production of different musical pitches; originally they fitted inside a series of tightly fitting but freely rotating metal sleeves, each with a different pattern of finger-holes which could be opened and closed in various combinations.

[Lawson 1999] G. Lawson. “Getting to Grips with Music's Prehistory: Experimental Approaches to Function, Design and Operational Wear in Excavated Musical Instruments”, contained in [Harding 1999], 1999, pages 133–138. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawson 2010] G. Lawson. “Epistemology and Imagination Reconciling Music-Archaeological Scholarship and Ancient Music Performance Today”, contained in [Eichmann 2010], 2010, pages 265–276. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Laylander 2001] Don Laylander. “The Creation and Flute Lure Myths: Regional Patterns in Southern California Traditions”, Journal of Claifornia and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 23, Number 2, 2001, Pages 155–178, retrieved September 7, 2010. Publication 27825761 on JSTOR (subscription access). See the eScholarship web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: Among the ways in which traditional narratives shed light on prehistory, regional variations in shared myths provide insights concerning cultural conservatism or fluidity and the patterns of social interaction among groups. A comparative analysis of two myths recorded in numerous versions from southern California, western Arizona, and northern Baja California suggests that the region's traditional cultures were shaped by ongoing borrowing and innovation to a greater extent than has sometimes been supposed, and that individual narrative motifs typically had relatively short lifespans of a few centuries at most. Cultural interaction among the region's different peoples was evidently little constrained by disparate linguistic heritages, competing military alliances, or social and economic dissimilarities.

[Laylander 2006] Don Laylander. “Early Ethnographic Notes from Constance Goddard DuBois on the Indians of San Diego County”, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 26, Number 2, 2006, pages 205–214. Early Ethnographic Notes from Constance Goddard DuBois on the Indians of San Diego County Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Abstract: Between 1899 and 1908, Constance Goddard DuBois, a novelist, philanthropist, and amateur anthropologist, published two dozen ground-breaking studies of San Diego County's Native Americans Her writings focused on myths, ceremonies, and other elements of traditional culture, as well as the difficult circumstances faced by native groups in early twentieth-century America. DuBois' previously unpublished manuscripts and notes contain some additional information on these subjects, which is presented here.

[Leaf 2006] Helen Leaf. “English Medieval Bone Flutes — A Brief Introduction”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 59, published by the Galpin Society, May 2006, pages 13–19. Publication 25163855 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leaf 2008] Helen Leaf. English Medieval Bone Flutes, c.450–c.1550 A.D., Doctoral dissertation – London University, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leakey 1983] Mary D. {Douglas} Leakey (1913–1996). Africa's Vanishing Art: The Rock Paintings of Tanzania, First Edition, published by Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1983, 128 pages, ISBN 0-385-18968-0 (978-0-385-18968-2), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leaver 1979] Robin A. Leaver. “Olney Hymns 1779 — Part 1 – The Book and its Origins”, Churchman, Volume 93, Number 4, 1979. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Leaver 1980] Robin A. Leaver. “Olney Hymns 1779 — Part 2 – The Hymns and their Use”, Churchman, Volume 94, Number 1, 1980. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Leblanc 1986] Albert LeBlanc and Carolyn Sherrill. “Effect of Vocal Vibrato and Performer's Sex on Children's Music Preference”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 34, Number 4, Winter 1986, pages 222–237, doi:10.2307/3345258. Publication 3345258 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study measured the effect of low and high levels of vocal vibrato, employed by male and female performers, on the self-reported music listening preferences of upper elementary school children. A listening test was administered to 127 children from grades 4, 5, and 6 drawn from five classrooms in Lansing, Michigan. Test reliability was evaluated in terms of stability across time and internal consistency, and student behavior was observed during the test as an additional check on the validity of results. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks tests disclosed a significant preference for low levels of vibrato and for male singers, expressed by both sexes. Both male and female listeners associated “strong” performances with male rather than female performers. The preference for low levels of vibrato and male singers was weaker in the case of female listeners, indicating an interaction between listener sex and the vocal vibrato and performer sex variables.

[LeBlanc 1988] Albert LeBlanc, James Colman, Jan McCrary, Carolyn Sherrill and Sue Malin. “Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 36, Number 3, Autumn 1988, pages 156–168, doi:10.2307/3344637. Publication 3344637 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. The authors administered a listening test to 926 students in 45 classrooms from third grade through college level in Michigan and Pennsylvania. Test reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency, student behavior was observed during the test, and free-response feedback was solicited from the students at the end of the measurement procedure as an additional check on the validity of results. A Friedman analysis of variance disclosed a significant preference for increasingly faster tempi at every age level. These results confirm and extend those LeBlanc and McCrary obtained in a 1983 study that was limited to fifth- and sixth-grade students. Listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores, which were highest with the youngest listeners (third grade), declined steadily to a low point at seventh grade, then rose again as age increased to the college level.

[LeBlanc 1991] Albert LeBlanc. “Some Unanswered Questions in Music Preference Research”, Contributions to Music Education, Number 18, published by the Ohio Music Education Association, Fall 1991, pages 66–73. Publication 24127321 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Some common shortcomings of the existing research in music listening preference are identified, and promising strategies for generating research projects in music preference are presented. Several crucial questions that would merit investigation are posed, and advice is offered for graduate students who will soon embark on their own research projects.

[LeBlanc 1996] Albert LeBlanc, Wendy L. Sims, Carolyn Siivola, Mary Obert. “Music Style Preferences of Different Age Listeners”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 44, Number 1, Spring 1996, pages 45–59, doi:10.2307/3345413. Publication 3345413 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We measured the music preference opinions of 2,262 listeners for examples of art musk, traditional jazz, and rock. Our subjects were enrolled in Grades 1 through college, and we also tested adults who were not college students. Participants ranged in age from 6 to 91 years. We found that music preference means for the different styles were comparatively similar across grade levels, and when style subtest scores were pooled to make a general index of music preference, a characteristic pattern of responding across grade levels emerged. Listeners in Grade 1 had a high level of preference, but preference levels then declined to a low point at Grade 6. From that point, preference steadily rose into the high school years, reaching its highest point at college level. Preference declined again for our adult group, which included a good representation of senior citizens. However, adult preference was higher than that of any other grade levels except Grade 1 and college.

[LeBlanc 1999] Albert LeBlanc, Young Chang Jin, Lelouda Stamou and Jan McCrary. “Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences”, The 17th International Society for Music Education: ISME Research Seminar, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 141, Summer 1999, pages 72–76. Publication 40318987 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We tested the music listening preference opinions of 2,042 participants in Greece, Korea, and the United States using an 18 item listening test composed of art music, traditional jazz, and rock music examples. Listener ages ranged from 8 to 18 years, and listener gender was approximately equally distributed in each country. Age, country, and gender were all significant influences on music listening preference, but every variable was involved in significant two and three way interactions. We concluded that considerable caution must be exercised in attempting to apply research findings from one culture to predict music listening preference in another culture.

[LeBlanc 2001] Albert LeBlanc. “Paul Farnsworth: Pioneer Scholar of Music Listening Preference”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 149, Spring 2001, pages 3–12. Publication 40319084 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Paul Farnsworth was an important figure in the second generation of American music psychologists - the generation that came after Carl Seashore. Farnsworth was the originator of a line of research, the study of music listening preference, that has continued to the present day and is of great interest to music educators and music therapists. During a long career at Stanford University, Farnsworth authored three important books, served in leadership roles in the university, the American Psychological Association, and the American Musicological Society, and worked to establish a department of music at Stanford.

[Lee 1979] Dorothy Sara Lee (compilation); Willard Rhodes (foreward). Native North American Music and Oral Data: A Catalogue of Sound Recordings 1873-1976, published by the Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1979, xiv + 463 pages, ISBN 0-7837-9656-0 (978-0-7837-9656-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

From a review by Charlotte J. Frisbie, American Indian Quarterly, May 1979: This volume represents the second effort by Indiana University to document music and oral data archival holdings, The first, compiled by Ruth M. Stone and Frank J. Gillis, focused on African Music and Oral Data (1976) and was worldwide in coverage. The present volume restricts itself to cataloguing Native North American music and oral data holdings in the University's Archives of Traditional Music in Bloomington. Compiled by Dorothy Sara Lee, a doctoral candidate specializing in Ethnomusicology in the Universith's Folklore Department, it utilizes, with slight modifications, the GLIB-SELIND computer program employed by Stone and Gillis and designed by Jean Nakhnikian.

[Lee 1984] Dorothy Sara Lee (editor). The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 8: Early Anthologies, Studies in American Folklife, Number 3, Volume 8, published by the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center, Washington, D.C., 1984, 92 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This catalog describes wax cylinder recordings of music collected by two pioneers in ethnomusicology. The 101 cylinders in the Benjamin Ives Gilman Collection recorded at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago contain Fijian, Samoan, Uvean, Javanese, Turkish, and Kwakiutl or Vancouver Island Indian music. The Gilman Collection is arranged by cultural group. A set of 120 cylinder copies compiled shortly after World War I by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel from ethnic and tribal music at the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv offers music collected from 1900-1914 in 15 world geographic regions, including North America. The set is the first anthology of recordings of world music and contains some of the earliest recordings of "exotic" music. The Hornbostel Demonstration Collection is arranged by geographic region and includes an index by collector and by cultural group. Entries in each catalog list cylinder number, Archive of Folk Culture number, cylinder, collector's description of contents, performer, recording location and date, and notes containing technical information about sound quality. Bibliographies for both collections conclude the catalog. (LFL)

[Lee 1985] Dorothy Sara Lee and Maria La Vigna. Omaha Indian Music: Historical Recordings from the Fletcher/La Flesche Collection, published by the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., American Folklife Center, 44 wax cylinder transfers, 1985, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. See the Omaha Indian Music web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

88 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (44), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (44)

[Lee-B 1994] Brian Lee. Alternative Tunings and Free Range Eggs, 1994, 2 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lee-B 1995] Brian Lee. World Musics and Microtuning, 7 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lee-GG 2012] Gang Gyu Lee, Jungbok Lee, Bo Young Kim, and Sang Duk Hong. “A Case of Pneumoparotid: Initially Presented with Viral Parotitis”, Korean Journal Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surgery, Volume 55, Number 11, November 2012, pages 721–723, doi:10.3342/kjorl-hns.2012.55.11.721 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

Abstract: There are multiple causes of acute parotid swelling, including viral and bacterial infections, duct obstruction, neoplasms and enlargement accompanying connective tissue disease. Another possible cause of parotid swelling is pneumoparotid. Patients with pneumoparotid typically present with painless swelling in the parotid region with crepitus on palpation. We present a rare case of pneumoparotid with initial presentation of viral parotitis in the epidemic area of mumps.

[Lee-KM 2015] Kyung Myun Lee, Erika Skoe, Nina Kraus, and Richard Ashley. “Neural Transformation of Dissonant Intervals in the Auditory Brainstem”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 32, Number 5, June 2015, pages 445–459, doi:10.1525/mp.2015.32.5.445. Publication 10.1525/mp.2015.32.5.445 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Acoustic periodicity is an important factor for discriminating consonant and dissonant intervals. While previous studies have found that the periodicity of musical intervals is temporally encoded by neural phase locking throughout the auditory system, how the nonlinearities of the auditory pathway influence the encoding of periodicity and how this effect is related to sensory consonance has been underexplored. By measuring human auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to four diotically presented musical intervals with increasing degrees of dissonance, this study seeks to explicate how the subcortical auditory system transforms the neural representation of acoustic periodicity for consonant versus dissonant intervals. ABRs faithfully reflect neural activity in the brainstem synchronized to the stimulus while also capturing nonlinear aspects of auditory processing. Results show that for the most dissonant interval, which has a less periodic stimulus waveform than the most consonant interval, the aperiodicity of the stimulus is intensified in the subcortical response. The decreased periodicity of dissonant intervals is related to a larger number of nonlinearities (i.e., distortion products) in the response spectrum. Our findings suggest that the auditory system transforms the periodicity of dissonant intervals resulting in consonant and dissonant intervals becoming more distinct in the neural code than if they were to be processed by a linear auditory system.

[Lee-MS 2002] Myeong Soo Lee, Hwa Jeong Huh, Byung Gi Kim, Hoon Ryu, Ho-Sub Lee, Jong-Moon Kim, and Hun-Tae Chung. “Effects of Qi-Training on Heart Rate Variability”, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 30, Number 4, 2002, pages 463–470, doi:10.1142/S0192415X02000491. Publication 12568274 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study investigates changes in autonomic nervous function through Qi-training. The power spectrum of heart rate variability (HRV) was examined in 20 sedentary healthy subjects and 20 Qi-trainees. It was found that Qi-training in healthy young subjects during controlled respiration increases the high frequency (HF) power and decreases the low frequency / high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of HRV. These results support the hypothesis that Qi-training increases cardiac parasympathetic tone. In addition, Qi-trainees were found to have higher parasympathetic heart modulation compared with their age-matched, sedentary counterparts. This augmented HRV in Qi-trainees provides further support for long-term Qi-training as a possible non-pharmacological cardio-protective maneuver. In conclusion, Qi-training may stabilize the autonomic nervous system by modulating the parasympathetic nervous system.

[Lee-RK 1988] Riley Kelly Lee. “Fu Ho U vs. Do Re Mi: The Technology of Notation Systems and Implications of Change in the Shakuhachi Tradition of Japan”, Asian Music, Volume 19, Number 2, East and Southeast Asia, published by the University of Texas Press, Spring–Summer 1988, pages 71–81. Publication 833867 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Perfect Intervals

Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to examine some contemporary trends in the tradition of the shakuhachi, Japan's end-blown flute, by focusing on the impact of notation systems. In the title, I use "fu ho u" to refer to traditional shakuhachi notation systems, and "do re mi" to refer to the western staff systems as adopted by Japan during the Meiji era rather than to a specific solmization system.

[Lee-RK 1992] Riley Lee. Yearning for the Bell: A Study of Transmission in the Shakuhachi Honkyoku Tradition, Doctoral dissertation – University of Sydney, Australia, 1992, 684 pages. Yearning for the Bell Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Comprehensive Scale Catalog: Five-Tone Scales in Equal Temperament (2)

Description by Tai Hei Shakuhachi: This doctoral thesis (University of Sydny, 1993) looks at past and present processes of transmission within the tradition of the shakuhachi honkyoku ("original pieces"). The shakuhachi, an end-blown bamboo flute, has existed in Japan since the eighth century. since at least the fifteenth century, it has been used as a tool for spirituality, and has been particularly associated with Zen Buddhism. The honkyoku were composed, performed and transmitted within that spiritual context, especially during the Edo period (1600-1868) by mendicant priests called komuso ("priests of nothingness"). An understanding of the nature of the honkyoku was expressed in such concepts as honnin no kyoku (one's own piece), settai no ma (absolute timing), tettei on and ichi on jobutsu (one sound becoming Buddhahood).

A piece-specific genealogy chart for the honkyoku "Reibo" of the Oshu lineage is presented, which relies upon written and ancedotal material to trace two main lines of transmission. These lines transmit honkyoku which have become known as "Futaiken reibo", ('Reibo" of the Futai temple) and "Shoganken reibo" ('Reibo' of the Sogan temple). A comparative analysis of transcriptions of ten performances of thes "Reibo" pieces by six shakuhachi players representing these two line of transmission shows a high degree of variability and a number of patterns of similarities and differences. These patterns demonstrate the oral nature of the transmission, and allude to the process-oriented 'essence' of the honkyoku tradition.

[Lee-TA 1969] Thomas A. Lee, Jr. “The Artifacts of Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas, Mexico”, Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation, Volume 26, 1969. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Classification of Flutes

[Lefebvre 2010] Antoine Lefebvre. Computational Acoustic Methods for the Design of Woodwind Instruments, Ph.D. dissertation – McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, December 2010, xiv + 151 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

Abstract: This thesis presents a number of methods for the computational analysis of woodwind instruments. The Transmission-Matrix Method (TMM) for the calculation of the input impedance of an instrument is described. An approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is applied to the determination of the transmission-matrix parameters of woodwind instrument toneholes, from which new formulas are developed that extend the range of validity of current theories. The effect of a hanging keypad is investigated and discrepancies with current theories are found for short toneholes. This approach was applied as well to toneholes on a conical bore, and we conclude that the tonehole transmission matrix parameters developed on a cylindrical bore are equally valid for use on a conical bore.

A boundary condition for the approximation of the boundary layer losses for use with the FEM was developed, and it enables the simulation of complete woodwind instruments. The comparison of the simulations of instruments with many open or closed toneholes with calculations using the TMM reveal discrepancies that are most likely attributable to internal or external tonehole interactions. This is not taken into account in the TMM and poses a limit to its accuracy. The maximal error is found to be smaller than 10 cents. The effect of the curvature of the main bore is investigated using the FEM. The radiation impedance of a wind instrument bell is calculated using the FEM and compared to TMM calculations; we conclude that the TMM is not appropriate for the simulation of flaring bells.

Finally, a method is presented for the calculation of the tonehole positions and dimensions under various constraints using an optimization algorithm, which is based on the estimation of the playing frequencies using the Transmission-Matrix Method. A number of simple woodwind instruments are designed using this algorithm and prototypes evaluated.

[Lefebvre 2011] Antoine Lefebvre and Gary P. Scavone. “On the Bore Shape of Conical Instruments”, Canadian Acoustics / Acoustique canadienne, Volume 39, Number 3, 2011, pages 128–129. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lefebvre 2012] Antoine Lefebvre and Gary P. Scavone. “Characterization of Woodwind Instrument Toneholes with the Finite Element Method”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 131, Number 4, April 2012, pages 3153–3163, doi:10.1121/1.3685481. Publication 22501087 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Crafting Dimensions

Abstract: A method is proposed to determine the transfer matrix parameters of a discontinuity in a waveguide with the finite element method (FEM). This is used to characterize open and closed woodwind instrument toneholes and develop expressions for the shunt and series equivalent lengths. Two types of toneholes are characterized: Unflanged toneholes made of thin material, such as found on saxophones and concert flutes, and toneholes drilled through a thick material, such as found on most instruments made of wood. The results are compared with previous tonehole models from the literature. In general, the proposed expressions provide a better fit across a wide range of frequencies and tonehole sizes than previous results. For tall toneholes, the results are in general agreement with previous models. For shorter tonehole heights, some discrepancies from previous results are found that are most important for larger diameter toneholes. Finally, the impact of a main bore taper (conicity) on the characterization of toneholes was investigated and found to be negligible for taper angles common in musical instruments.

[Lefebvre 2013] Antoine Lefebvre, Gary P. Scavone, and Jean Kergomard. “External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments”, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Volume 99, June 21, 2013, pages 975–985. Publication 1207.5490 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The classical Transfer-Matrix Method (TMM) is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments. However, the TMM ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. We describe the Transfer-Matrix Method with external Interaction (TMMI) and then compare results using this approach with the Finite Element Method (FEM) and TMM, as well as with experimental data. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. In an appendix, a simple perturbation of the TMM to account for external interactions is investigated, though it is found to be inadequate at low frequencies and for holes spaced far apart.

[Legge 1875] James Legge (1815–1897). The Chinese Classics Translated into English, 1875. Publication chineseclassicst009549mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legge 1879] James Legge. The Sacred Books of China — The Texts of Confucianism, Part 1 - The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih King, The Hsiao King, The Sacred Books of the East, translated by various Oriental Scholars and edited by F. Max Müller, Volume 3, published by The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1879, 492 pages. Reissued in [Legge 2005]. Publications sacredbooksofch03conf and sacredbooksofchi025067mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2)

[Legge 1885] James Legge. The Sacred Books of the East, 1885. Publication sacredbooksofthe009462mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legge 1895] James Legge. The Chinese Classics, 1895. Publication ost-history-the_chinese_classics on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legge 1899] James Legge. I-Ching, 1899. Publication I-Ching on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legge 2005] James Legge. The Shih King, published by Project Gutenberg, November 1, 2005, retrieved Febuary 3, 2010. Reissue of [Legge 1879]. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #9394 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leggett 1989] Trevor Pryce Leggett (1914–2000). Zen and the Ways, 1989. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leggett 1991] Trevor Pryce Leggett. This is the Miracle, 1991. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legrain 1922] Léon Legrain. Historical Fragments, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 13, published by The University Museum, 1922, 108 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legramante 2002] J. M. Legramante, A. Galante, M. Massaro, A. Attanasio, G. Raimondi, F. Pigozzi, and F. Iellamo. “Hemodynamic and Autonomic Correlates of Postexercise Hypotension in Patients with Mild Hypertension”, American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Volume 282, Number 4, April 2002, pages R1037–R1043. Publication 11893607 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We investigated the interplay of neural and hemodynamic mechanisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH) in hypertension. In 15 middle-aged patients with mild essential hypertension, we evaluated blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), forearm (FVR) and calf vascular resistance (CVR), and autonomic function [by spectral analysis of R-R interval and BP variabilities and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)] before and after maximal exercise. Systolic and diastolic BP, TPR, and CVR were significantly reduced from baseline 60-90 min after exercise. CO, FVR, and HR were unchanged. The low-frequency (LF) component of BP variability increased significantly after exercise, whereas the LF component of R-R interval variability was unchanged. The overall change in BRS was not significant after exercise vs. baseline, although a significant, albeit small, BRS increase occurred in response to hypotensive stimuli. These findings indicate that in hypertensive patients, PEH is mediated mainly by a peripheral vasodilation, which may involve metabolic factors linked to postexercise hyperemia in the active limbs. The vasodilator effect appears to override a concomitant, reflex sympathetic activation selectively directed to the vasculature, possibly aimed to counter excessive BP decreases. The cardiac component of arterial baroreflex is reset during PEH, although the baroreflex mechanisms controlling heart period appear to retain the potential for greater opposition to hypotensive stimuli.

[Lehman 1967] Paul R. Lehman. Review of An Investigation of the Tuning Preferences of a Selected Group of Singers with Reference to Just Intonation, Pythagorean Tuning, and Equal Temperament, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 10, Summer 1967, pages 51–53. Publication 40316936 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lehmberg 2010] Lisa J. Lehmberg and C. Victor Fung. “Benefits of Music Participation for Senior Citizens: A Review of the Literature «老年人参與音樂活動的益處:文献回顾與梳理»”, Music Education Research International, Volume 4, 2010, pages 19–30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article is a review of the literature in the physical, psychological, and social benefits of active music participation for healthy senior citizens. It shows a connection of these benefits to an overall quality of life of older adults. Evidence suggests that active music making has a positive effect on quality of life. Active music participation holds numerous benefits for senior citizens, including, but not limited to (a) an overall sense of physical and mental well-being, including the lessening of stress, pain and medication usage, (b) the slowing of age-related cognitive decline, (c) feelings of pleasure and enjoyment, (d) pride and a sense of accomplishment in learning new skills, (e) creation and maintenance of social connections, (f) a means of creative self-expression, and (g) the construction of identity at a time in life when sense of identity may be in flux.
Translation: 本文回顧與梳理了老年人積極參與音樂活動從而獲得的生理、心理、以及社會效益的研究文獻。研究發現,
積極參與音樂活動所獲得的益處與老年人的生活質量有一定的關聯,而且參與音樂製作能够提高他們的整體
生活質量。積極參與音樂活動主要有以下幾方面的益處:1,能够使老年人從生理和心理上受益,例如减輕
壓力、疼痛、以及由於藥物治療帶來的生理和心理痛苦;2,减緩心理年齡的老化;3,有愉悅感;
學習新知識和新技巧能够帶來自豪感和成就感;5,促進幷保持社會交往;6,成爲顯示創造力的方式之一;
7,幫助老年人重新建立與認同自己新的社會身份。

[Lehmer 1929] Norman Derrick Lehmer. “The Music and Poetry of the American Indians”, The Poetry Review, London, 1929, pages 333–340. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lehrer 1997] Paul Lehrer, Richard E. Carr, Alexander Smetankine, Evgeny Vaschillo, Erik Peper, Stephen Porges, Robert Edelberg, Robert Hamer, and Stuart Hochron. “Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Versus Neck/Trapezius EMG and Incentive Inspirometry Biofeedback for Asthma: A Pilot Study”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 22, Number 2, June 1997, pages 95–109. Publication 9341966 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This pilot study compared biofeedback to increase respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) with EMG and incentive inspirometry biofeedback in asthmatic adults. A three-group design (Waiting List Control n = 5, RSA biofeedback n = 6, and EMG biofeedback n = 6) was used. Six sessions of training were given in each of the biofeedback groups. In each of three testing sessions, five min. of respiratory resistance and EKG were obtained before and after a 20-min biofeedback session. Additional five-min epochs of data were collected at the beginning and end of the biofeedback period (or, in the control group, self-relaxation). Decreases in respiratory impedance occurred only in the RSA biofeedback group. Traub-Hering-Mayer (THM) waves (.03-.12 Hz) in heart period increased significantly in amplitude during RSA biofeedback. Subjects did not report significantly more relaxation during EMG or RSA biofeedback than during the control condition. However, decreases in pulmonary impedance, across groups, were associated with increases in relaxation. The results are consistent with Vaschillo's theory that RSA biofeedback exercises homeostatic autonomic reflex mechanisms through increasing the amplitude of cardiac oscillations. However, deep breathing during RSA biofeedback is a possible alternate explanation.

[Lehrer 2000] Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, and Bronya Vaschillo. “Resonant Frequency Biofeedback Training to Increase Cardiac Variability: Rationale and Manual for Training”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 25, Number 3, September 2000, pages 177–191. Publication 10999236 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate and blood pressure, as well as other physiological systems, among healthy people, show a complex pattern of variability, characterized by multifrequency oscillations. There is evidence that these oscillations reflect the activity of homeostatic reflexes. Biofeedback training to increase the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) maximally increases the amplitude of heart rate oscillations only at approximately 0.1 Hz. To perform this task people slow their breathing to this rate to a point where resonance occurs between respiratory-induced oscillations (RSA) and oscillations that naturally occur at this rate, probably triggered in part by baroreflex activity. We hypothesize that this type of biofeedback exercises the baroreflexes, and renders them more efficient. A manual is presented for carrying out this method. Supporting data are provided in Lehrer, Smetankin, and Potapova (2000) in this issue.

[Lehrer 2004] Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Shou-En Lu, Anthony Scardella, Mahmood Siddique, and Robert H. Habib. “Biofeedback Treatment for Asthma”, Chest, Volume 126, August 2004, pages 352–361, doi:10.1378/chest.126.2.352. Publication 15302717 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Biofeedback Treatment for Asthma Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Study Objectives: We evaluated the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback as a complementary treatment for asthma.
Patients: Ninety-four adult outpatient paid volunteers with asthma.
Setting: The psychophysiology laboratory at The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and the private outpatient offices of participating asthma physicians.
Interventions: The interventions were as follows: (1) a full protocol (ie, HRV biofeedback and abdominal breathing through pursed lips and prolonged exhalation); (2) HRV biofeedback alone; (3) placebo EEG biofeedback; and (4) a waiting list control.
Design: Subjects were first prestabilized using controller medication and then were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Medication was titrated biweekly by blinded asthma specialists according to a protocol based on National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines, according to symptoms, spirometry, and home peak flows.
Measurements: Subjects recorded daily asthma symptoms and twice-daily peak expiratory flows. Spirometry was performed before and after each weekly treatment session under the HRV and placebo biofeedback conditions, and at triweekly assessment sessions under the waiting list condition. Oscillation resistance was measured approximately triweekly.
Results: Compared with the two control groups, subjects in both of the two HRV biofeedback groups were prescribed less medication, with minimal differences between the two active treatments. Improvements averaged one full level of asthma severity. Measures from forced oscillation pneumography similarly showed improvement in pulmonary function. A placebo effect influenced an improvement in asthma symptoms, but not in pulmonary function. Groups did not differ in the occurrence of severe asthma flares.
Conclusions: The results suggest that HRV biofeedback may prove to be a useful adjunct to asthma treatment and may help to reduce dependence on steroid medications. Further evaluation of this method is warranted.

[Lehrer 2007] P. M. Lehrer, R. L. Woolfolk, and W. E. Sime (editors). Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition, published by Guilford Press, New York, 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lehrer 2014] Paul M. Lehrer and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: How and Why Does it Work?”, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 5, Article 756, July 2014, 9 pages, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00756 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Leiberman 1998] Julie Lyonn Lieberman. Planet Musician: The World Music Sourcebook for Musicians, published by Hal Leonard Corporation, 1998, 131 pages, ISBN 0-7935-8695-X, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Leitch 1979] Barbara Leitch. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of America, published by Reference Publication, Catines, Inc., Michigan, 1979. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lepsius 1849] Richard Lepsius (1810–1884). Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien nach den zeichnungen der von Seiner Majestaet dem koenige von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm IV «Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia after the Drawings of by His Majesty the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV», in German, 1849. Publication denkmaelerausaeg12leps on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lescarbot 1609] Marc Lescarbot (1570–1641). Histoire de la Nouvelle-France «History of New France», in French, 1609. Reissued in [Lescarbot 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Lescarbot 1617] Marc Lescarbot. Histoire de la Nouvelle-France «History of New France - Third Edition», Troisième Edition enrichie de plusieurs choses singulieres, outre la suite de l'Histoire., in French, 1617. Reissued in [Lescarbot 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Lescarbot 2007] Marc Lescarbot. Histoire de la Nouvelle-France «History of New France - Third Edition», published by Project Gutenberg, in French, August 8, 2007, retrieved October 8, 2010. Reissue of [Lescarbot 1617]. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #22268 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[LeSourd 2007] Philip S. LeSourd (editor, translator). Tales from Maliseet Country: the Maliseet texts of Karl V. Teeter, Studies in the Anthropology of North America, published by the University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2007, 200 pages, ISBN 0-8032-2962-3 (978-0-8032-2962-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

Publisher's description: During the summer of 1963, Harvard linguist Karl V. Teeter traveled along the Saint John River, the great thoroughfare of Native New Brunswick, Canada, with his principal Maliseet consultant, Peter Lewis Paul. Together they recorded a series of tales from Maliseet elders whom Paul regarded as among the best Maliseet storytellers born before 1900, including Charles Laporte, Matilda Sappier, Solomon Polchies, William Saulis, and Alexander Sacobie. Paul also contributed eleven narratives of his own.

Tales from Maliseet Country presents the transcripts and translations of the texts Teeter collected, together with one tale recorded by linguist Philip S. LeSourd in 1977. The stories range from chronicles of shamanistic activity and mysterious events of the distant past, through more conventionally historical narratives, to frankly fictional yarns, fairy tales with roots in European traditions, and personal accounts of subsistence activities and reservation life. This entertaining and revealing volume testifies to the rich heritage of the Maliseets and the enduring vibrancy of their culture today.

Featuring a bilingual format, with Maliseet and English on facing pages, this is the first extensive collection to be published in the Maliseet language, a member of the far-flung Algonquian family spoken in New Brunswick. The volume is also the first to provide full phonemic transcriptions, including the notation of accentual contrasts, of the Maliseet tales. An authoritative introduction provides a guide to interpreting the texts.

[Lessard 2011] Andrée Lessard and Jonathan Boulduc. “Links between Musical Learning and Reading for First to Third Grade Students: A Literature Review”, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Volume 1, Number 7, June 2011, pages 109–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Letters 1969] Richard J. Letters. “The Scales of Some Surviving ΑΥΛΟΙ”, The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Volume 19, Number 2, published by Cambridge University Press for The Classical Association, November 1969, pages 266–268. Publication 637548 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: To know the scale of an aulos it is necessary to have a complete instrument.
None of the surviving auloi are complete. It is the purpose of this article to attempt to reconstruct the missing parts of several auloi and thus to determine their scales

[Leverett 1990] Adelyn Peck Leverett. A Paleographical and Repertorial Study of the Manuscript Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio, 91 (1378), Two Volumes, Doctoral dissertation – Princeton University, New Jersey, January 1990, 473 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This dissertation is an anaiysis of Trent 91, one of the series of fifteenth-century musical manuscripts known collectively as the Trent Codices. Trent 91 contains a large repertory of sacred music, most of it anonymously and uniquely preserved. The following study defines, for the first time, that repertory's pivotal place in the larger context of musical developments during the Renaissance.

[Levine 1993] Victoria Lindsay Levine. “Music Revitilization among the Choctaw”, American Music, Winter 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Levine 1998] Victoria Lindsay Levine. “American Indian Musics, Past and Present”, contained in [Nicholls 1998], 1998, pages 3–29. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Levine 2002] Victoria Lindsay Levine (editor). Writing American Indian Music: Historic Transcriptions, Notations, and Arrangements, Music of the United States of America series, Number 11, Recent Researches in American Music, Volume 4, published by A-R Editions, Madison, WI, 2002, xxxviii + 304 pages, ISBN 0-89579-494-2 (978-0-89579-494-9), softcover. Contains 116 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Levine-SK 2002] Stephen K. Levine. Crossing Boundaries: Explorations in Therapy and the Arts: a Festschrift for Paolo Knill, published by EGS Press, 2002, 238 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Levitin 2006] Daniel J. Levitin. This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession, published by Dutton/Penguin, New York, 2007, 322 pages, ISBN 0-452-28852-5 (978-0-452-28852-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Levy 2013] James Levy. Toward a New Model Of Urban Music Education: An Adaptation of el Sistema for a fourth Grade Keyboard Class, With Curricular Perspectives, 2013. Toward a New Model Of Urban Music Education Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Lewis-RB 2006] Rodney B. Lewis and John T. Hestand. “Federal Reserved Water Rights: Gila River Indian Community Settlement”, Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, Issue 133, published by the Universities Council on Water Resources, May 2006, pages 34–42. Federal Reserved Water Rights Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Lewis-RH 1993] Ralph H. Lewis. Museum Curatorship in the National Park Service 1904–1982, published by the U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources Division, 1993. See the publication on the National Park Service web site. Museum Curatorship in the National Park Service 1904–1982 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flutes in the David T. Vernon Indian Arts Collection

[Lewis-Williams 1977] James David Lewis-Williams. Believing and Seeing — An Interpretation of Symbolic Meanings in Southern San Rock Paintings, Doctoral dissertation – University of Natal, Durban, South Afriuca, 1977, 385 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lewis-Williams 2002] J. David Lewis-Williams. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art, published by Thames & Hudson, London, 2002, 320 pages, ISBN 0-500-05117-8 (978-0-500-05117-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Roger McDonald: Lewis-Williams proposed one of the most controversial and compelling theories about rock art and the beginnings of human image-making, based on a shamanistic model. He theorized that image-making in the caves some 35,000 years ago began with hallucinations ‘seen’ during altered states of consciousness. These altered states may have been triggered by psychoactive plant or mushroom use, sensory deprivation or other trance-inducing methods. The initial hallucinations ‘seen’ in these states were simple geometric patterns, that we can also ‘see’ under conditions of flickering light. As it is assumed that the human brain is physically the same as it was 35,000 years ago, we can say that contemporary humans ‘see’ the same visual stimuli as our prehistoric ancestors.

[Li 2003] Xiaole Li. Chen Yi's Piano Music: Chinese Aesthetics and Western Models, Doctoral dissertation – University of Hawai'i, August 2003, 380 pages, retrieved September 23, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Libeaux 2010] Angela Libeaux. The EGG Spectrum Slope in Speakers and Singers: Variations related to Voice Sound Pressure Level, Vowel and Fundamental Frequency «Spektrumlutning hos elektroglottografiska signaler relaterad till ljudnivå, vokal och grundtonsfrekvens i tal- och sångröst», Masters dissertation – The Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010, 55 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Libin 1994] Laurence Libin. Our Tuneful Heritage: American Musical Instruments from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, published by the Museum of Art, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, 1994, 90 pages, ISBN 0-8425-2325-1. Metropolitan Museum of Art call number N611.M87 L6 1994. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Published in conjunction with an exhibition of the same name held November 15, 1994 through August 26, 1995 at the Milton and Gloria Barlow Gallery for Musical Instruments, Museum of Art, Birgham Young University, Provo, Utah.

[Licht 2009] Carmilla M. M. Licht, Eco. J. C. de Geus, Richard van Dyck, and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx. “Association Between Anxiety Disorders and Heart Rate Variability in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 71, 2009, pages 508–518. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1903] Thurlow Lieurance (1878–1963). Indian Music, published by Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, 1903, 4 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1908] Thurlow Lieurance. Trusting, published by J. W. Jenkins Sons Music Co., Kansas City, Missouri, 1908. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1913] Thurlow Lieurance. Aooah: Love Song from the Red Willow Pueblos, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913, 3 pages. Sheet music for piano, voice, and Native American flute. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1913a] Thurlow Lieurance. Nine Indian Songs with Descriptive Notes (song book), published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913, 27 pages. for piano, voice, and Native American Flute. Publication nineindiansongsw00lieu on Archive.org (open access). Contains 9 songs. Nine Indian Songs with Descriptive Notes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Song Book

[Lieurance 1913b] Thurlow Lieurance. Lullaby: An Indian Love Song, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913, 4 pages. for piano, voice, and Native American Flute. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1913c] Thurlow Lieurance. “Indian Music”, The Southern Workman, Volume 42, Number 8, published by The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia, August 1913, pages 451–454. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1914] Thurlow Lieurance. By the Waters of Minnetonka — An Indian Love Song, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1914, 8 pages. Publication bywatersofminnet00lieu on Archive.org (open access). See the Historic American Sheet Music, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University web site. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: By the Waters of Minnetonka - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Lieurance 1914a] Thurlow Lieurance. Indian Flute Call and Love Song, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1914. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1915] Thurlow Lieurance. The Sacrifice — An Indian Mourning Song [in E Minor], published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1915, 5 pages. No. 12154. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1917] Thurlow Lieurance. Hymn to the Sun God: Indian Song, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1917, ASIN B0000CYWRN. for voice and piano. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1918] Thurlow Lieurance (composer, piano); Princess Watahwaso (vocal); Hubert Small (flute). By the Waters of Minnetonka, Victor 18431, 2 tracks, August 1918, 78 rpm 10" audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1920] Thurlow Lieurance. Songs of the North American Indian: With Preface and Explanatory Notes, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1920, 38 pages. for piano, voice, and Native American Flute. Reissued in [Lieurance 2001]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1920a] Thurlow Lieurance. “The Musical Soul of the American Indian”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, pages 655–656. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1920b] Thurlow Lieurance, Edna Wooley Lieurance, and Hubert E. Small. Dramatized songs of the North American Indian: Thurlow Lieurance, Composer-Pianist, Edna Woolley Lieurance, Soprano, and Hubert E. Small, Flutist, 1920, 4 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1921] Thurlow Lieurance. Songs, Stories and Legends of the American Indian, 1921, 6 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1922] Thurlow Lieurance, Mrs. Thurlow Lieurance, and George B. Tack. Songs, Stories, and Legends of the American Indian: Thurlow Lieurance, Composer-Pianist, Mrs. Thurlow Lieurance, Soprano and Interpreter, and George B. Tack, Flutist, 1922, 6 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1923] Thurlow Lieurance. Ghost Pipes, published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1923, 4 pages. for voice and piano and ?ukulele?. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 1929] Thurlow Lieurance and Clement Barone. By the Waters of Minnetonka, Victor 21972, 6 tracks, June 1929, 78 rpm 10" audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (6), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (6)

[Lieurance 1943] Thurlow Lieurance. Singing Children of the Sun: A Book of Indian Songs for Unison Singing (song book), published by Theodore Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1943, 47 pages. for voice and piano. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lieurance 2001] Thurlow Lieurance. Songs of the North American Indian (song book), published by Best Books / Library Reprints, 2001, 38 pages, ISBN 0-7222-5074-6 (978-0-7222-5074-7), hardcover. Reissue of [Lieurance 1920]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Light 1993] Ken Light. “The Renaissance of the Native American Flute”, The Woodwind Quarterly, Issue 2, August 1993, pages 54–66. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Light 2000] Ken Light. “Flute”, United States Design Patent D427,228, Granted June 27, 2000, 2 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Light 2013] Ken Light. The Voice of the Wind, published by the Renaissance of the North American Flute Foundation, March 2013. See the RNAFF web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

[Lin-DC 2004] Der Chyan Lin. “Discrete Scale Invariance in the Cascade Heart Rate Variability Of Healthy Humans”, November 4, 2004, 22 pages, arXiv:physics/0411039. Publication arxiv-physics0411039 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Evidence of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in daytime healthy heart rate variability (HRV) is presented based on the log-periodic power law scaling of the heart beat interval increment. Our analysis suggests multiple DSI groups and a dynamic cascading process. A cascade model is presented to simulate such a property.

[Lin-GH 2005] Geng Hong Lin, Yuh Huu Chang, and Kang Ping Lin. “Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Measured by ECG in Different Signal Lengths”, Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Volume 25, Number 2, 2005, pages 67–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The measurement of heart rate variability, HRV, provides a noninvasive measurement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. HRV can be measured with the variation of RR intervals exhibited in a sequence of ECG sample. For a short-term HRV, the measuring time is usually five minutes. However, there are still many expectations of shortening the measuring time to evaluate the ANS. In this paper we analyzed and compared three minute HRV measurement to five minute standard short-term HRV. In order to evaluate the measurement results based on three minute and five minute HRVs, four major measurements were calculated in this study. The first is the standard deviation of normal-beat to normal-beat intervals (SDNN). The second is the square root of the mean squared differences of successive difference normal-beat to normal-beat intervals (RMSSD). The third is the proportion of interval differences of successive normal-beat to normal-beat intervals greater than 50 ms (pNN50). The fourth is the ratio of low frequency energy to high frequency energy (LF/HF) based on Fourier analysis method. Results show that the HRV presented by both SDNN and LF/HF using the three-minute measuring data differs significantly from that using the five-minute measuring data. In addition, the characteristics of HRV under different heart rate conditions shows that faster heart rate will come out smaller HRV. In conclusion, the HRV analyzed based on three minutes measuring data would not be equaled to that of five minutes measuring data. At the same time, the conditions of heart rate need to be considered when heart rate variability was analyzed.

[Lindh 2009] W. Lindh, M. Pooler, C. Tamparo, and B. M. Dahl. Delmar's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, Fourth edition, published by Cengage Learning, Clifton Park, New Jersey, 2009, ISBN 1-4354-1914-6 (978-1-4354-1914-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lindquist 1961] Emory Lindquist. “Kansas: A Centennial Portrait”, Kansas Historical Collections, Volume 44, The Kansas Historical Quarterly, Volume 27, Number 1, published by the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas, Spring 1961, pages 22–66. Publication kansashistorical27kansrich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lipford 2010] Jonny Lipford. Learning to Flute Outside the Box, Volume 1 - Practical Guide to Practicing, 2010, 28 pages. See the Jonny Lipford web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[List 1959] George List. “The Indiana University Archives of Folk and Primitive Music, Part 1”, The Folklore and Folk Music Archivist, Volume 2, Number 4, published by Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, Winter 1959, pages 1–2. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute, A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[List 1959a] George List. “The Indiana University Archives of Folk and Primitive Music, Part 2”, The Folklore and Folk Music Archivist, Volume 3, Number 1, published by Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, Spring 1960, pages 1–3. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[List 1962] George List. “Song in Hopi Culture, Past and Present”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 14, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1962, pages 30–35. Publication 835555 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lister-FC 1993] Florence Cline Lister and Robert Hill Lister. Earl Morris & Southwestern Archaeology, published by the Western National Parks Association, 1993, 204 pages, ISBN 1-877856-30-4 (978-1-877856-30-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Listmann 2000] Klaus Listmann. Studien zur traditionellen Musik der Lakota «Studies on the Traditional Music of the Lakota», in two volumes, in German, 2000, 823 and 216 pages, ISBN 3-927636-78-9 (978-3-927636-78-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Littlecreek 1994] Hollis Littlecreek (1924–1999). Northern Woodland Flute, 1994. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Liu 2010] Yang Liu and Godfried T. Toussaint. “Mathematical Notation, Representation, and Visualization of Musical Rhythm: A Comparative Perspective”, 2010 International Conference on Computer and Computational Intelligence (ICCCI 2010), Volume 1, 2010, pages 28–32, ISBN-13 978-1-4244-8950-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Several methods for the mathematical notation, representation, and visualization of musical rhythm at the symbolic level are illustrated and compared in terms of their advantages and drawbacks, as well as their suitability for particular applications.

[Lizarralde 1995] Manuel Lizarralde. “Primitive Flutes Made of Bone”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995, pages 20–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lloyd-LS 1946] Ll. S. Lloyd. “The Myth of Equal-Stepped Scales in Primitive Music”, Music & Letters, Volume 27, Number 2, April 1946, pages 73–79. Publication 727434 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LOC 2002] Library of Congress, Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division. Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry, published by the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., April 30, 2002, retrieved December 1, 2010. Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

Lead paragraph: Emile Berliner and the Birth of the Recording Industry is a selection of more than 400 items from the Emile Berliner Papers and 108 Berliner sound recordings from the Library of Congress's Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division. Berliner (1851-1929), an immigrant and a largely self-educated man, was responsible for the development of the microphone and the flat recording disc and gramophone player. Although the focus of this online collection is on the gramophone and its recordings, it includes much evidence of Berliner's other interests, such as information on his businesses, his crusades for the pasteurization of milk and other public-health issues, his philanthropy, his musical composition, and even his poetry. Spanning the years 1870 to 1956, the collection comprises correspondence, articles, lectures, speeches, scrapbooks, photographs, catalogs, clippings, experiment notes, and rare sound recordings.

[LOC 2004] Library of Congress. Dayton C. Miller Flute Collection, Guides to Special Collections in the Music Division at the Library of Congress, published by the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 2004, 590 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LOC 2010] Library of Congress, Music Division. Illustrated Timeline with Musical Examples: Amazing Grace and the Chasanoff / Elozua Collection, The Performing Arts Encyclopedia, 2010, retrieved November 8, 2010. See the Library of Congress web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Locke 1983] Kevin Locke (born 1954). Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Brookings, South Dakota, Featherstone, FS-4001-C, 1983, audio cassette. Notes by Kevin Locke, 2 pages, photo. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twenty citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (10), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (10)

[Locke 1983a] Kevin Locke; Tony Isaacs (producer, recording engineer). Love Songs of the Lakota — Performed on Flute by Kevin Locke, India House, IH 4315, 1983, total time 27:17, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12)

Publisher's description: 12 traditional Lakota love songs performed on flute by Kevin Locke. Recorded at Storm Mountain, Black Hills, South Dakota, September 1-2, 1982.

[Locke 1986] Kevin Locke. Lakota Wiikijo Olowan: Lakota Flute Music, Volume 2, Brookings, South Dakota, Featherstone, FS-4004-C, 1986, audio cassette. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

22 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (11), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (11)

[Locke 1990] Kevin Locke. Lakota Love Songs and Stories, 6 tracks, 1990. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

30 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (15), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (15)

Description by Drumbeat Indian Arts: A Lakota of the Standing Rock Reservation in South Dakota, Kevin Locke is a renowned traditional flute player and hoop dancer. Locke is considered by many to be one of the foremost Lakota Sioux musicians of today. He travels widely performing both as a flutist and as a traditional Lakota singer, storyteller and dancer. Lakota Love Songs and Stories is a very pleasing mixture of stories about the flute, flute melodies and vocal songs. Two selections with stories, flute and vocals and four selections presented both as a flute solo and as a vocal song. The six flute solos presented here are also included on the cassette.

[Locke 2015] Kevin Locke and Douglas Good Feather. Lightning & Wind, Lakota Language Consortium, 9 tracks, Spetember 7, 2015. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eighteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (9), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (9)

[Lodha 1988] Suresh Lodha and Om P. Sharma. “Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Saxophone Player”, Chest, Volume 93, Number 6, June 1988, page 1322, doi:10.1378/chest.93.6.1322. Publication 3371127 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Loether 1993] Christopher Loether. “Niimina Ahubiya: Western Mono Song Genres”, Journal of Claifornia and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 15, Number 1, 1993, pages 48–57, retrieved September 7, 2010. See the eScholarship web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Although Native American communities may lose their ancestral language or other aspects of their traditional culture, music seems to be more resistant to the continual onslaught of the dominant Euro-American culture. Even today, traditional music remains a vital part of Native American communities throughout the United States. In this article I examine one aspect of the musical' traditions of the Western Mono, specifically the different types of songs, and their functions within Western Mono society. First, I give a short synopsis of aboriginal Mono culture and society. Next, I discuss what little data have been published dealing with Mono music in the ethnographic literature. And finally, I present the data that I have collected.

[Lomax 2010] Alan Lomax, Anna Lomax, and Shirley Collins (recording); Nathan Salsburg (liner notes). Wave the Ocean, Wave the Sea: Alan Lomax's ''Southern Journey'' 1959-1960, Mississippi Records, MR-057, 2010, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Lomax 2012] Alan Lomax (author); William R. Ferris (introduction); Tom Piazza (contributor). The Southern Journey of Alan Lomax: Words, Photographs, and Music, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: More than fifty years ago, on a trip dubbed “the Southern Journey,” Alan Lomax visited Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee, uncovering the little-known southern backcountry and blues music that we now consider uniquely American. Lomax’s camera was a constant companion, and his images of both legendary and anonymous folk musicians complement his famous field recordings.

[London 2004] Justin London. Hearing in Time: Psychological Aspects of Musical Meter, published by the Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 2004, 206 pages, ISBN 0-19-516081-9 (978-0-19-516081-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Long 2008] Derle Ray Long. Coincidence Theory: Seeking a Perceptual Preference for Just Intonation, Equal Temperament, and Pythagorean Intonation in Excerpts for Wind Instruments, Ph.D. dissertation – The University of Southern Mississippi, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Coincidence theory states that when the components of harmony are in enhanced alignment the sound will be more consonant to the human auditory system. An objective method of examining the components of harmony is by investigating alignment of the mathematics of a particular sound or harmony. The study examined preference responses to excerpts tuned in just intonation, Pythagorean intonation, and equal temperament. Musical excerpts were presented in pairs and study subjects simply picked one version from the pair that they perceived as the most consonant. Results of the study revealed an overall preference for equal temperament in contradiction to coincidence theory. Several additional areas for research are suggested to further investigate the results of this study.

[Longfellow 1855] Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The Song of Hiawatha, published by Ticknor and Fields, Boston, November 10, 1855, 316 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

[Lonsdale 2011] Karen Anne Lonsdale. Understanding Contributing Factors and Optimizing Prevention and Management of Flute Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, D.M.A. dissertation – Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, August 2011, xxvii + 304 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

[Lonsdale 2013] Karen Anne Lonsdale. “Peak Performance: Understanding and Managing the Physical Challenges of Flute Playing”, NFA Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 2013, 43 pages. Peak Performance: Understanding and Managing the Physical Challenges of Flute Playing Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

[Lonsdale 2014] Karen Anne Lonsdale, E-Liisa Laakso, and V. Tomlinson. “Contributing Factors, Prevention, and Management of Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Flute Players Internationally”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 29, Number 3, September 2014, pages 155–162. Publication 25194113 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

Abstract: Major studies have shown that flutists report playing-related pain in the neck, middle/upper back, shoulders, wrists, and hands. The current survey was designed to establish the injury concerns of flute players and teachers of all backgrounds, as well as their knowledge and awareness of injury prevention and management. Questions addressed a range of issues including education, history of injuries, preventative and management strategies, lifestyle factors, and teaching methods. At the time of the survey, 26.7% of all respondents were suffering from flute playing-related discomfort or pain; 49.7% had experienced flute playing-related discomfort or pain that was severe enough to distract while performing; and 25.8% had taken an extended period of time off playing because of discomfort or pain. Consistent with earlier studies, the most common pain sites were the fingers, hands, arms, neck, middle/upper back, and shoulders. Further research is needed to establish possible links between sex, instrument types, and ergonomic set up. Further investigation is recommended to ascertain whether certain types of physical training, education, and practice approaches may be more suitable than current methods. A longitudinal study researching the relationship between early education, playing position, ergonomic set-up, and prevalence of injury is recommended.

[Lonsdale 2014a] Karen Anne Lonsdale and E-Liisa Laakso. “Preventing Flute Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Applying Ergonomic Principles in Individual and Ensemble Settings”, Malaysian Music Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, 2014. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

Abstract: Concerning levels of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) among flute players have been reported over a number of decades. However, recent research indicates that many flute players do not receive sufficient training in injury prevention during their studies. Identifying risks and preventing injuries is central to occupational, health and safety, yet there is little emphasis on this topic in instructional flute books and methods. Improving the ergonomic set-up of musicians is one way of minimising the risk of playing-related injuries occurring. This article recommends six injury prevention strategies based on ergonomic principles that flute teachers and band directors can apply in individual and ensemble teaching settings.

[Loo-FY 2007] Loo Fung Ying. “Taijiquan: Chinese Philosophies and Kinetic Movements in Piano Pedagogy”, Proceedings of the Redesigning Pedagogy: Culture, Knowledge and Understanding Conference, Singapore, May 2007, 2007, 20 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Vigorous debate over issues of traditional and modern methods of piano playing has occurred among researchers, pedagogues and performers during the past 100 years. In addition, due to the intensely competitive environment within which upper-level professional pianism occurs, there has been an increase in the attention educators have paid to injuries among pianists. Many researchers have argued over issues of performance-related movement, whether from psychological or anatomical perspectives. Nevertheless, there is an overall paucity of research that combines both approaches, embracing both internal and external sources of strength and movement in piano playing. In a spirit of cross-disciplinary study, I address this lacuna by suggesting the application of elements from taijiquan, as a concept for efficient use of strength input and injury prevention. I will discuss the principles of: stances, total body involvement for fingers, and body coordination in piano playing, along with the theory of yin and yang. Ethnomusicologists and music educators regularly analyse present practice to devise new means of improved application, and this research is no different, aiming to discover what Chinese classical theories offer to pianist and other instrumentalists. This present study reflects on my own five-year participation in taijiquan by focusing on two elements in the Chen style of taijiquan – the horse stance and total body involvement – and assesses their application within the field of piano pedagogy.

[Loo-FY 2011] Loo Fung Ying and Loo Fung Chiat. “Chinese Science in Relaxation: Piano Playing Technique Redefined”, Australian Journal of Basic Sciences, Volume 5, Number 12, 2011, pages 1241–1248. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study first explores the issue of muscular contraction and relaxation in piano playing from a Chinese science perspective. The main aim of this article is to examine the classic Chinese concepts of yin and yang and how it forms the movement principle of taijiquan, then goes on to investigate this further as applied to the concept of relaxation in piano playing. Relaxation itself can be contentious especially when it is employed as a technique of movement which contradict its original character of passivity. In this paper, views about relaxation from piano pedagogues will be discussed. The research took on a practice-led approach. THis article highlights motion analysis in a philosophical perspective. The character of relaxation is redefined using the concept of yin and yang as an analytical tool.

[Loo-FY 2013] Loo Fung Ying and Loo Fung Chiat. “Taichi Qi Flow in the Kinematic Process of Piano Playing: An Application of Chinese Science”, World Applied Sciences Journal, Volume 21, Number 1, 2013, pages 98–104, doi:10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.1.1578 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Loon 1975] Morley Loon (1948–1986) (vocal); R. Daignault (flute); J. Kelly (percussion). Cree Songs Composed and Sung by Morley Loon, Toronto, Canada, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Northern Service, QCS-1302, 6 tracks, in Cree and English, 1975, 33⅓ rpm 7" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

[Loon 1981] Morley Loon (vocal); R. Daignault (flute); J. Kelly (percussion). O Du Mein Land Im Norden «Cette Terre du Nord Qui Est Mienne / The Northern Land That Is Mine / Oh, My Country in the North», Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, Gold Records, 11-143, 11 tracks, in Cree and English, 1981, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

[Loose 2002] Richard Loose. “Computer Analysis of Sound Recordings from Two Anasazi Sites in Northwestern New Mexico”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 112, Issue 5, 2002, page 2285. ISSN 0001-4966 (print). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Sound recordings were made at a natural outdoor amphitheater in Chaco Canyon and in a reconstructed great kiva at Aztec Ruins. Recordings included computer-generated tones and swept sine waves, classical concert flute, Native American flute, conch shell trumpet, and prerecorded music. Recording equipment included analog tape deck, digital minidisk recorder, and direct digital recording to a laptop computer disk. Microphones and geophones were used as transducers. The natural amphitheater lies between the ruins of Pueblo Bonito and Chetro Ketl. It is a semicircular arc in a sandstone cliff measuring 500 ft. wide and 75 ft. high. The radius of the arc was verified with aerial photography, and an acoustic ray trace was generated using cad software. The arc is in an overhanging cliff face and brings distant sounds to a line focus. Along this line, there are unusual acoustic effects at conjugate foci. Time history analysis of recordings from both sites showed that a 60-dB reverb decay lasted from 1.8 to 2.0 s, nearly ideal for public performances of music. Echoes from the amphitheater were perceived to be upshifted in pitch, but this was not seen in FFT analysis. Geophones placed on the floor of the great kiva showed a resonance at 95 Hz.

[Loose 2008] Richard W. Loose. “Tse'Biinaholts'a Yalti (Curved Rock That Speaks)”, Time and Mind: The Journal of Archaeology, Consciousness and Culture, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2008, pages 31–50, doi:10.2752/175169608783489080 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A large performance space attached to a natural amphitheater in a cliff face has recently been identified at the geometric center of the precolumbian (“Anasazi”) architectural complex in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The Amphitheater is a semicircular arc of sandstone measuring approximately 167m wide by 30m high. Sound recordings of computer-generated tones and swept sine waves, classical flute, Native American flute, conch shell trumpet, and prerecorded music were made in the amphitheater. Recording equipment included an analog tape deck, digital minidisk, and direct digital recording to a laptop computer hard drive utilizing stage-performance-quality microphones. The arc is in an overhanging cliff face and brings distant sounds to a line focus. Along this line there are unusual acoustic effects at conjugate foci. Time history analysis showed that a 60 dB reverberation decay lasted from 1.8 to 2 seconds, nearly ideal for the public performance of music. The acoustical properties of the Amphitheater are recognized by Navajo people (Diné). It has been given a special place name and is still used by Navajo ceremonial practitioners, utilizing shell trumpets, eagle bone whistles, and reed flutes.

[Loosen 1993] Franz Loosen. “Intonation of Solo Violin Performance with Reference to Equally Tempered, Pythagorean, and Just Intonations”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 93, Number 1, January 1993, pages 525–539, doi:10.1121/1.405632 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Determined which musical scale best modeled the solo performances of 8 25–33 yr old professional violinists, who played the diatonic scale of C major, very slowly, without vibrato, and as accurately as possible (i.e., the usual way of playing when a string teacher shows a pupil how a scale sounds). When individual scales were analyzed as a whole, violin performances fit Pythagorean and equally tempered intonations more precisely than the just intonation; performances fit the Pythagorean and the equally tempered model almost equally well. Interval size (analyzed not considering the context of the individual scales) was halfway between the interval sizes in Pythagorean and equally tempered intonations.

[Loosen 1995] Franz Loosen. “The Effect of Musical Experience on the Conception of Accurate Tuning”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 12, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Spring 1995, pages 291–306. Publication 40286185 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigates the relationship between musical experience and subjects' conception of accurate tuning. In a paired comparisons experiment, 7 violinists, 7 pianists, and 10 nonmusicians evaluated the tuning of computer-generated, ascending and descending eight-tone diatonic scales of C major. Subjects were required to indicate which member of the pair was "most accurately tuned." The subjects were unaware that all scales were perfectly tuned in the Pythagorean, just, or equal-tempered intonation, respectively. Results showed that (1) violinists, as a group, preferred Pythagorean to equal-tempered scales more frequently than vice versa (p< .01), (2) pianists preferred equaltempered to Pythagorean scales more frequently than vice versa (p < .01), (3) violinists and pianists judged just intoned scales to be less accurately tuned than either Pythagorean or equal-tempered scales (p < .01), and (4) nonmusicians did not show any preference for any of the three intonation models. These findings confirm the claim that subjects' conception of accurate tuning is determined by musical experience rather than by characteristics of the auditory system. Relevance of the results to assessment of tonal perception is discussed.

[Lopatin 2007] Leonard E. Lopatin. “Developing the SquareONE Flute”, Pan, the journal of the British Flute Society, Volume 26, Issue 2, June 2007, page 51. See the British Flute Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Summary: The article discusses the author's experience of developing the SquareONE concert and alto flutes. He reveals that since childhood, he has been examining ways to improve flute design. He continued with his flute studies with Harold Bennett at the Manhattan School of Music and then with Arthur Lora at the Juilliard School. He discloses that the idea of square one holes occurred to him on May 26, 1978 in Detroit, Michigan. The author also describes the features of his flutes.

[Lorenzo 1992] Leonardo De Lorenzo (1875–1962). My Complete Story of The Flute — The Instruement, the Performer, the Music, Second Edition, published by the Texas Tech University Press, Lubbock, Texas, 1992, 660 pages, ISBN 0-89672-277-5, hardcover. copyright by the National Flute Association. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Loring 1906a] Harold A. Loring. “Native Music of the North American Indian — Article 1”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 3, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, January 1906, pages 9–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Loring 1906b] Harold A. Loring. “Native Music of the North American Indian — Article 2”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 4, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, February 1906, pages 11–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Loring 1906c] Harold A. Loring. “Native Music of the North American Indian — Article 3”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 5, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, March 1906, pages 11–14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Loring 1906d] Harold A. Loring. “Native Music of the North American Indian — Article 4”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 6, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, April 1906, page 20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lotufo 2012] Paulo A. Lotufo, Leandro Valiengo, Isabela M. Benseñor, and Andre R. Brunoni. “A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Epilepsy and Antiepileptic Drugs”, Epilepsia, Volume 53, Number 2, 2012, pages 272–282, doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03361.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lovaas 1996] John Lovaas. “A Cucurbit Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 12, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Fall 1996. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lovell 2012] Jeffrey L. Lovell. An Exploration of Melody, Harmony, and Improvisation in the Music of Stevie Wonder, Ph.D. dissertation – University of Oregon, December 2012, xviii + 199 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this dissertation, I examine Stevie Wonder’s compositional style from his celebrated “classic period,” (1972-1976) focusing specifically on the concentrated two-year time span from 1972-1974 marked by his unparalleled creative output that launched him into superstardom. My study operates on the premise that most melodic relationships are governed by a fundamentally pentatonic process and that harmonic relationships are largely governed by jazz-influenced tonal processes. I have transcribed dozens of examples from the time period under review in order to survey the expressive interaction between these two related but distinct systems and the resulting effect their usage has on melody and harmony. Using Schenkerian reductive analysis as my primary tool, I uncover recurring patterns that shape and shed light on his style. The final chapter of this study focuses on the ways in which Wonder’s improvised melodic lines relate to the voice-leading framework of the basic melodic ideas in his performance of “I Love Every Little Thing About You” and also the ways in which his improvisation impacts forward motion in the course of this song.

[Lowie 1909] Robert H. Lowie (1883–1957). “The Northern Shoshone”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 2, Number 2, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1909, pages 165–307. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lowie 1912] Robert H. Lowie. Social Life of the Crow Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 9, Part 2, New York, 1912, pages 179–248. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Lowie 1915] Robert H. Lowie. “American Indian Dances”, The American Museum Journal, Volume 15, Number 3, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, March 1915, pages 95–102. Publication americanmuseumjo15amer on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Indian Dance, often a prayer by the tribe to the gods of the harvest, of war, or the chase - usually in contrast with the pleasure-seeking, sensual dancing as known among civilized races.

[Lowie 1917] Robert H. Lowie. Notes on the Social Organization and Customs of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Crow Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 21, Part 1, New York, 1917, 99 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lowie 1924] Robert H. Lowie. “Notes on Shoshonean Ethnography”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 20, Part 3, published by the American Museum Press, New York, 1924, pages 185–315. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Lowie 1935] Robert H. Lowie. The Crow Indians, published by Farrar and Rinehart, 1935, 350 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2), The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

Publisher's description: The Crow Indians offers a concise and accessible introduction to the nineteenth-century world of the Crow Indians. Drawing on interviews with Crow elders in the early twentieth century, Robert H. Lowie showcases many facets of Crow life, including ceremonies, religious beliefs, a rich storytelling tradition, everyday life, the ties of kinship and the practice of war, and the relations between men and women. Lowie also tells of memorable individuals, including Gray-bull, the great visionary Medicine-crow, and Yellow-brow, the gifted storyteller.

[Lubar 1976] J. F. Lubar and M. N. Shouse. “EEG and Behavioral Changes in a Hyperkinetic Child Concurrent with Training of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) — A Preliminary Report”, Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Volume 1, Number 3, 1976, pages 293–306. Publication 990355 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Reduced seizure incidence coupled with voluntary motor inhibition accompanied conditioned increases in the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), a 12- 14 Hz rhythm appearing over rolandic cortex. Although SMR biofeedback training has been successfully applied to various forms of epilepsy in humans, its potential use in decreasing hyperactivity has been limited to a few cases in which a seizure history was also a significant feature. The present study represents a first attempt to explore the technique's applicability to the problem of hyperkinesis independent of the epilepsy issue. The results of several months of EEG biofeedback training in a hyperkinetic child tend to corroborate and extend previous findings. Feedback presentations for SMR were contingent on the production of 12- 14-Hz activity in the absence of 4- 7-Hz slow-wave activity. A substantial increase in SMR motor inhibition, as gauged by laboratory measures of muscular tone (chin EMG) and by a global behavioral assessment in the classroom. Opposite trends in motor inhibition occurred when the training procedure was reversed and feedback presentations were contingent on the production of 4- 7 Hz in the absence of 12- 14-Hz activity. Although the preliminary nature of these results is stressed, the subject population has recently been increased to establish the validity and generality of the findings and will include the use of SMR biofeedback training after medication has been withdrawn.

[Lucia 1994] R. Lucia. “Effects of Playing a Musical Wind Instrument in Asthmatic Teenagers”, Journal of Asthma, Volume 31, Number 5, 1994, pages 375–385, doi:10.3109/02770909409061317. Publication 7928933 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

Abstract: This study examines whether teenage asthmatic wind instrumentalists exhibit fewer bronchocon-strictive symptoms, panic-fear responses, changes of mood, and fatigue symptoms than non-wind instrument players. Eight teenage asthmatic wind instrument players and 10 asthmatic non-wind instrument players kept a diary of asthma symptoms. Panic-fear responses and mood changes were significantly higher in the non-wind players. A general health profile suggested that the wind instrumentalists present a significantly better “asthma health” picture, perceiving themselves better able to cope with the disease. Playing a musical wind instrument has the potential of being a long-term therapeutic agent for asthmatics.

[Lucking 1970] C. H. Lücking, O. D. Creutzfeldt, and U. Heinemann. “Visual Evoked Potentials of Patients with Epilepsy and of a Control Group”, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 29, 1970, pages 557–566, doi:10.1016/0013-4694(70)90098-2 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lufti 2011] Mohamed Faisal Lutfi and Mohamed Yosif Sukkar. “The Effect of Gender on Heart Rate Variability in Asthmatic and Normal Healthy Adults”, International Journal of Health Sciences, Qassim University, Vol. 5, No. 2 (July 2011/Rajab 1432H), July 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Luley 2009] Christopher J. Luley, David J. Nowak, and Eric J. Greenfield. “Frequency and Severity of Trunk Decay in Street Tree Maples in Four New York Cities”, Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, Volume 35, Number 2, 2009, pages 94–99. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

Abstract: A proportional random selection of street tree Norway, silver, and sugar maples, and other species among four diameter classes were surveyed in the U.S.’ New York cities of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse for decay incidence and severity. Decay was determined by drilling sampled trees with a Resistograph and calculating the ratio of sound wood to radius. Overall, 58.3% of the sampled trees had some amount of decay and incidence was highest in sugar maples and in the largest size class trees. However, decay incidence was high (53.2%) even in the smallest diameter tree size class (30.5–45.7cm (12–18 in). Decay severity was greatest in silver maple and in the largest diameter trees, although only 3.2% of the trees sampled had serious decay. The study shows that decay is common in street trees but is seldom severe. It also suggests that decay becomes established early in the life of street trees but is most severe in larger diameter trees and in trees that compartmentalize decay poorly such as silver maple. The frequency and severity of decay in the cities studied indicates that they need to continue to identify and manage trees with decay.

[Lumholtz 1900] Carl Lumholtz (1851–1922). Symbolism of the Huichol Indians, Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 3; Anthropology 2, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, May 1900, 228 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lumholtz 1902] Carl Lumholtz. Unknown Mexico, in two volumes, published by MacMillan & Company Ltd., London, 1902. Reprinted by Rio Grande Press, 1973. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America

[Lund 1985] Cajsa S. Lund. “Bone Flutes in Västergötland, Sweden — Finds and Traditions. A Music-Archaeological Study”, Acta Musicologica, Volume 57, Fasc. 1, published by the International Musicological Society, January–June 1985, pages 9–25. Publication 932685 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lund-C 1981] Cajsa Lund. “The Archaeomusicology of Scandinavia”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., February 1981, pages 246–265. Publication 124236 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Studies of Scandinavian music (Broholm et al. 1949) - most of them dealing with the so-called bronze lurs (Holmes and Coles this journal) - have occurred occasionally since the middle of the nineteenth century. At the beginning of the 1970s, however, more comprehensive and systematic research on prehistoric Scandinavian music was started by the author under the term archaeomusicology. To date, this new discipline has concerned itself chiefly with the task of securing a basic corpus of potential musical instruments, sufficiently comprehensive as to provide a basis for further studies into the nature, practice and purposes of music within the behavioural patterns and ideologies of prehistoric Scandinavian cultures. The present article surveys the methods, problems and results that work with archaeomusicological finds in Scandinavia has disclosed so far.

[Lurker 1987] Manfred Lurker. The Routledge Dictionary of Gods, Goddesses, Devils & Demons, 1987, 272 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lush 2008] Paige Clark Lush. “The All American Other: Native American Music and Musicians on the Circuit Chautauqua”, Americana - The Journal of American Popular Culture 1900 to Present, Volume 7, Issue 2, published by The Institute for the Study of American Popular Culture, Fall 2008. See the Article on the American Popular Culture web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[LynnSherow 2001] Bonnie Lynn-Sherow and Susannah Ural Bruce. “"How Cola" from Camp Funston — American Indians and the Great War”, Kansas History, Volume 24, Number 2, Summer 2001, pages 84–97. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Warble

Summary: The authors of this interesting article examine the Lakota Sioux experience at Camp Funston, Fort Riley, Kansas, and conclude it "supports earlier historians' contentions that there was no characteristic response to service in the Great War." Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, government policy regarding the recruitment and assignment of American Indians here and elsewhere was driven by 'persistent stereotypes' and the desire to foster great assimilation into American society. "What is commonly overlooked is that Indian soldiers used their military experiences to satisfy their own cultural goals and made good use of their training after the war for the advancement of their communities.

[Lyon 1996] William S. Lyon. Encyclopedia of Native American Healing, published by W. W. Norton & Company, 1996, 373 pages, ISBN 0-393-31735-8 (978-0-393-31735-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: With more than 1,200 entries, the Encyclopedia of Native American Healing introduces readers to renowned Native American healers throughout history; societies and divisions into which healers were categorized; sacred objects used in healing rituals and how each was used; types of healing ceremonies conducted; plants used to increase healing powers; symbolic motifs used in healing rituals; major concepts that formed Native American healing traditions; and major scholars of Native American healing, complete with first-hand accounts of their experiences. The alphabetical entries are cross-referenced, enabling the reader to thoroughly explore a particular concept or the evolution and relationship of ideas, practices, customs, ceremonies, and peoples. Each entry cites tribal origin and corresponding geographic location. These regions, in turn, are keyed to tribal territorial maps that pinpoint exact tribe locations. A bibliography and a subject index complete this work, making it a fundamental resource for students and scholars alike.

[Lyon 2000] William H. Lyon. “Americans and Other Aliens in the Navajo Historical Imagination in the Nineteenth Century”, American Indian Quarterly, Volume 24, Number 1, Winter 2000, pages 142–161. Americans and Other Aliens in the Navajo Historical Imagination in the Nineteenth Century Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

 
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