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References - A

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter A. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - A

[Abate 2009] Ezra Abate. “Ethiopian Kiñit (scales) — Analysis of the Formation and Structure of the Ethiopian Scale System”, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, editors: Svein Ege, Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele, Trondheim, Germany, 2009, pages 1213–1224. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze and categorize the different scales (Kiñits), which are found in Ethiopia, because the point has been and is controversial. This study will divide the entire country in to three zones, and will try to analyze their musical structures, and then come up with clear (accurate) ideas about the Ethiopian scale structures. The study finding might resolve some of the controversial points. For the purpose of analysis different representative musical materials are recorded from different areas of the country, and sample materials were selected and analyzed.

[Abbott 2006] Clifford Abbott. Oneida Language Tools, published by the University of Wisconsin Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin, 2006, retrieved October 28, 2012. See the Oneida Language Tools web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Abdo-J 1976] Joe Abdo, Sr., Quentin Bruguier, Lorenzo Dion, Asa Primeaux, Sr., Francis Primeaux, Duane Shields, Joseph Shields, Sr., and Philomene Dion; Joseph Shields, Sr. and Joe Abdo, Sr. (program notes and translations of songs). Yankton Sioux Peyote Songs, Taos, New Mexico, Indian Records, IH 4371-4374, 1976, four 12" 33 1/3 RPM discs, monophonic. Recorded at Lake Andes, South Dakota, July 6, 1976. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Abraham 1906] Otto Abraham (1872–1926) and Erich Moritz von Hornbostel. “Phonographierte Indianermelodien aus Britisch-Columbia «Indian Melodies from British Columbia Recorded on the Phonograph»”, Anthropological Papers, Written in Honor of Franz Boas, published by Stechert, New York, in German, 1906, pages 447–474. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Abraham 1975] Otto Abraham and Erich Moritz von Hornbostel; Bruno Nettl (translation). “Phonographierte Indianermelodien aus Britisch-Columbia «Indian Melodies from British Columbia Recorded on the Phonograph»”, contained in [Wachsmann 1975], Volume 1, 1975, pages 299–322. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Abraham-RH 2006] Ralph H. Abraham and William Irwin Thompson. “The Canon of Lespugue”, The Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers (ESOP), Volume 24, 2006, pages 170–175. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Venus of Lespugue (2)

Abstract: Linear measurements taken from the Venus of Lespugue, a 25,000 year old sculpture, closely match the diatonic scale of the Vedic Aryans, also known as the Dorian mode of the ancient Greeks.

[Accord 2005] Accord Song. Indian Legend — Last Frontier, published by Blue Music SRL, Accord Song, 528, 10 tracks, 2005, EAN 5-901448-275287. See the Accord Song web site. Contains 10 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Acharya 2006] U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, Choo Min Lim, and Jasjit S. Suri. “Heart Rate Variability: A Review”, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, Volume 44, 2006, pages 1031–1051, doi:10.1007/s11517-006-0119-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions. Heart rate (HR) is a nonstationary signal; its variation may contain indicators of current disease, or warnings about impending cardiac diseases. The indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random—during certain intervals of the day. It is strenuous and time consuming to study and pinpoint abnormalities in voluminous data collected over several hours. Hence, HR variation analysis (instantaneous HR against time axis) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system. Computer based analytical tools for in-depth study of data over daylong intervals can be very useful in diagnostics. Therefore, the HRV signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. In this paper, we have discussed the various applications of HRV and different linear, frequency domain, wavelet domain, nonlinear techniques used for the analysis of the HRV.

[Adams 2001] Cecil Adams. Does "Indian" Derive from Columbus's Description of Native Americans as "Una Gente in Dios"?, October 25, 2001, retrieved March 15, 2012. Does "Indian" Derive from Columbus's Description of Native Americans as "Una Gente in Dios"? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Adamson 1934] T. Adamson. Folk Tales of the Coast Salish, Philadelphia, 1933. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Adduci 2011] Michael Douglas Adduci. Dynamic Measurement of Intraoral Pressure and Sound Pressure with Laryngoscopic Characterization during Oboe Performance, Doctoral Dissertation – University of North Texas, December 2011, 105 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Measurements of intraoral pressure (IOP) and sound pressure level (SPL) were taken of four oboists as they performed two sets of musical exercises: (1) crescendo-decrescendo from pp to ff and back to pp on the pitches D4, G4, C5 and A5, and (2) straight and vibrato performances of the same four pitches at mf. Video images of the vocal tract were also made using flexible fiberoptic nasoendoscopy (FFN). IOP and SPL data were captured in real time by the WinDaq®/Lite software package, with the dB meter located 8-9 inches in directly front of the oboe bell.

The study yielded minimum and maximum values from 21.04 to 57.81 mm Hg and from 65.53 to 100.89 dB across all pitches examined. Discussion is included for the following topics: (1) the oboe’s sound envelope, or functional range of IOP and SPL values at different pitch levels, including the nonlinearity in the relationship between IOP and SPL on the oboe, (2) the static activation and kinetic maintenance thresholds for reed vibration, (3) the effect of vibrato on IOP/SPL, (4) the utilization of the vocal tract during execution of dynamic changes and vibrato, and (5) the impact of player experience on control of physical variables.

[ADHCP 2007] Agency for the Development of Heritage and Cultural Promotion (editor); Abderrazak Khechine (layout); Mohamed Ayeb and Gilles Mermet (photographs); Annemarie Driss (translation). The Splendours of Tunisian Mosaics, published by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage Conservation, June 2007, ISBN-13 978-9973-954-15-2, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Adler 2009] Daniel S. Adler. “Archaeology: The earliest musical tradition”, Nature, Number 460, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., August 6, 2009, pages 695–696, doi:10.1038/460695a. See the article abstract on the Nature web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Music is a ubiquitous element in our daily lives, and was probably just as important to our early ancestors. Fragments of ancient flutes reveal that music was well established in Europe by about 40,000 years ago.

[Adler-MA 1999] Michael A. Adler and Herbert W. Dick (editors). Picuris Pueblo Through Time: Eight Centuries of Change at a Northern Rio Grande Pueblo, published by the William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Southern Methodist University, 1999, 253 pages, ISBN 1-929531-00-1 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[AFC 1966] American Folk Life, Archive of Folk Culture Staff. A Brief List of Composers Utilizing American Indian Music, retrieved Feburary 6, 2010. See the Library of Congress, Folklife web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Afflighemensis 1100] Johannes Afflighemensis. De Musica, in Latin, 1100, 64 pages. publication date is approximate. De Musica Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: A page from De Musica, Solo-Drone Song Form, Flutopedia Image Detail: A page from De Musica

[AFLC 1982] American Folk Life Center. Ethnic Recordings in America: A Neglected Heritage, published by the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center, Washington, D.C., 1982, 269 pages, ISBN 0-8444-0339-3 (978-0-8444-0339-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Aftanas 2002] L. I. Aftanas and S. A. Golocheikine. “Non-linear Dynamic Complexity of the Human EEG During Meditation”, Neuroscience Letters, Volume 330, Number 2, September 20, 2002, pages 143–146. Publication 12231432 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We used non-linear analysis to investigate the dynamical properties underlying the EEG in the model of Sahaja Yoga meditation. Non-linear dimensional complexity (DCx) estimates, indicating complexity of neuronal computations, were analyzed in 20 experienced meditators during rest and meditation using 62-channel EEG. When compared to rest, the meditation was accompanied by a focused decrease of DCx estimates over midline frontal and central regions. By contrast, additionally computed linear measures exhibited the opposite direction of changes: power in the theta-1 (4–6 Hz), theta-2 (6–8 Hz) and alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) frequency bands was increased over these regions. The DCx estimates negatively correlated with theta-2 and alpha-1 and positively with beta-3 (22–30 Hz) band power. It is suggested that meditative experience, characterized by less complex dynamics of the EEG, involves ‘switching off’ irrelevant networks for the maintenance of focused internalized attention and inhibition of inappropriate information. Overall, the results point to the idea that dynamically changing inner experience during meditation is better indexed by a combination of non-linear and linear EEG variables.

[Agelink 2001] M. W. Agelink, R. Malessa, B. Baumann, T. Majewski, F. Akila, T. Seit, and D. Ziegler. “Standardized Tests of Heart Rate Variability: Normal Ranges Obtained from 309 Healty Humans, and Effects of Age, Gender, and Heart Rate”, Clinical Autonomic Research, Volume 11, Number 2, April 2001, pages 99–108. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The authors undertook this study to determine the effects of age, gender, and heart rate (HR) on the results of cardiac autonomic function tests for measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 309). Conventional tests (deep breathing, maximum/minimum 30:15 ratio), and a standardized 5-minute resting study, including spectral analysis of HR, were used. The main findings included (1) the indices of all tests, except for the ratio of the low- (LF) to high-frequency (HF) spectral power (LF/HF ratio) and HR itself, are inversely related to age in both sexes; (2) the 5-minute spectral bands (except for the LF/HF ratio), the variation coefficient, expiratory-inspiratory ratio during deep breathing, and the maximum/minimum 30:15 ratio are independent of HR; (3) women up to the age of 55 years have a higher resting HR compared with men; (4) young and middle-aged women show a significantly lower LF power and LF/HF ratio compared with age-matched men, whereas no significant gender differences are observed in the absolute HF power. The authors computed age- and gender-dependent normal values for each of the HRV indices studied here and discuss the clinical consequences arising from gender differences in HRV.

[Agelink 2002] M. W. Agelink, C. Boz, H. Ullrich, and J. Andrich. “Relationship Between Major Depression and Heart Rate Variability. Clinical Consequences and Implications for Antidepressive Treatment”, Psychiatry Research, Volume 113, Number 1–2, December 15, 2002, pages 139–149. Publication 12467953 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A high sympathetic and/or a low cardiovagal activity in patients with major depression (MD) may contribute to the higher cardiac morbidity and mortality of MD patients. Standardized tests of heart rate variability (HRV) allow a quantitative estimation of autonomic nervous system function. However, previous studies on the relationship between HRV and MD have revealed conflicting results. Our study compared time and frequency domain HRV indices (5-min resting study, deep breathing test, Valsalva test) between 32 patients with MD (DSM-III-R) and 64 non-depressed controls. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D); patients were divided into subgroups with moderate (M-HAM-D<25) or severe depressive symptoms (S-HAM-D>or=25). After controlling for age, gender and smoking, S-HAM-D patients showed a higher heart rate and a significantly lower modulation of cardiovagal activity compared to controls. Although some of the HRV indices of the M-HAM-D group did not differ significantly from controls, they were in the expected direction. There was a significantly negative correlation between the HAM-D scores and the vagal HRV indices, suggesting a direct association between the severity of depressive symptoms and the modulation of cardiovagal activity. Clinical consequences arising from these findings and possible implications for treatment are discussed.

[Agrell 2008] Jeffrey Agrell. Improvisation Games for Classical Musicians, published by GIA Publications, Chicago, Illinois, 2008, 354 pages, ISBN 1-57999-682-5 (978-1-57999-682-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ahrens 2005] Karl P. Ahrens. “Ocarinas with an Inner Liner and an Outer Shell”, United States Patent 6,872,876 B2, Granted March 29, 2005, 6 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Ocarinas with an Inner Liner and an Outer Shell Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Fipple Designs for Native American Flutes, Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction, Flutopedia Image Detail: Figure 4 of U.S. Patent 6,872,876 B2

[Aiello 1995] Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler. “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis: The Brain and the Digestive System in Human and Primate Evolution”, Current Anthropology, Volume 36, Number 2, published by the, University of Chicago Press, April 1995, pages 199–221, doi:10.1086/204350. Publication 2744104 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Brain tissue is metabolically expensive, but there is no significant correlation between relative basal metabolic rate and relative brain size in human an other encephalized mammals. The expensive-tissue hypothesis suggests that the metabolic requirements and relatively large brain are offset by a corresponding reduction of the gut. The splanchnic organs (liver and gastrointestinal tract) are as metabolically expensive as brains and the gut is the only one of the metabolically expensive organs in the human body that is markedly small in relation to body size. Gut size is highly correlated with diet, and relatively small guts are compatible only with high-quiality, easy-to digest food. The often-cited relationship between diet and relative brain size is more properly viewed as a relationship between relative brain size and relative gut size, the latter begin determined by dietary quiality. No matter what is selecting for relatively large brains in a humans and other primates, they cannot achieved without a shift to high-quiality diet unless there is a rise in the metabolic rate. Therefore the incorporation of increasingly greater amounts of animal products into the diet was essential in the evolution of the large human brain.

[Ainsworth 1975] Maryan Ainsworth. “A Flute in the Olsen Collection: Its Place in Pre-Columbian Music and Art”, Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin, Volume 35, Number 2, published by Yale University Press, Spring 1975, pages 26–33. Publication 40514174 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Akgun 1967] N. Akgün and H. Ozgönül. “Lung Volumes in Wind Instrument (Zurna) Players”, The American Review of Respiratory Disease, Volume 96, Number 5, 1967, pages 946–951. Publication 6059203 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Akikazu 1999] Nakamura Akikazu. Saji — The World of Zen Music, Denon, COCJ-30465, 1999, Audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (3)

[al-Farabi 1967] Abū Naṣr al-Fārābī (872–950); G.A. Khashab and M.A. al-Hafni (editors). Kitab al-Musiqa al-Kabir (The Great Book of Music) «The Great Book of Music», published by Dar al-Katib al-'Arabi, Cairo, Egypt, 1967. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Perfect Intervals

[Albrecht 2001] Gerd Albrecht, Claus-Stephan Holdermann, and Jordi Serangeli. “Towards an Archaeological Appraisal of Specimen No 652 from Middle-Palaeolithic Level D / (Layer 8) of the Divje Babe I”, Arheološki vestnik, Volume 52, 2001, pages 11–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: All examples of bones with holes from the period of the Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic that have been classified as flutes are discussed in this article. Evidence is offered suggesting that in fact they are not flutes. The suggested pipe from Divje babe I is also discussed, which would belong to the same group of pseudo-artifacts. It is probably not a flute but rather a bone that was pierced by some animal.

[Alden 1882] William L. Alden. “Sailor Songs”, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Volume 65, Number 286, July 1882, page 283. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Shenandoah - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, Flutopedia Image Detail: Earliest Appearance of Shenandoah Sheet Music

[Allen 2004] Michael Graham Allen. Rainbird, Coyote Oldman Recordings, 2 CD set, 17 tracks, 2004, ASIN B0002235DK. Rainbird Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Indigenous North American Flutes

[Allen-J 2007] John Allen. “Photoplethysmography and its Application in Clinical Physiological Measurement”, Physiological Measurement, Volume 28, Number 3, 2007, pages R1–R39, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/3/R01 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. It is often used non-invasively to make measurements at the skin surface. The PPG waveform comprises a pulsatile ('AC') physiological waveform attributed to cardiac synchronous changes in the blood volume with each heart beat, and is superimposed on a slowly varying ('DC') baseline with various lower frequency components attributed to respiration, sympathetic nervous system activity and thermoregulation. Although the origins of the components of the PPG signal are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that they can provide valuable information about the cardiovascular system. There has been a resurgence of interest in the technique in recent years, driven by the demand for low cost, simple and portable technology for the primary care and community based clinical settings, the wide availability of low cost and small semiconductor components, and the advancement of computer-based pulse wave analysis techniques. The PPG technology has been used in a wide range of commercially available medical devices for measuring oxygen saturation, blood pressure and cardiac output, assessing autonomic function and also detecting peripheral vascular disease. The introductory sections of the topical review describe the basic principle of operation and interaction of light with tissue, early and recent history of PPG, instrumentation, measurement protocol, and pulse wave analysis. The review then focuses on the applications of PPG in clinical physiological measurements, including clinical physiological monitoring, vascular assessment and autonomic function.

[Allen-JJB 2007] John J.B. Allen, Andrea S. Chambers, David N. Towers. “The Many Metrics of Cardiac Chronotropy — A Pragmatic Primer and a Brief Comparison of Metrics”, Biological Psychology, Volume 74, Number 2, February 2007, pages 243–262. Publication 17070982 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper focuses on pragmatic issues in obtaining measures of cardiac vagal control, and overviews a set of freely available software tools for obtaining several widely used metrics that putatively reflect sympathetic and/or parasympathetic contributions to cardiac chronotropy. After an overview of those metrics, and a discussion of potential confounds and extraneous influences, an empirical examination of the relationships amongst these metrics is provided. This study examined 10 metrics in 96 unselected college students under conditions of resting baseline and serial paced arithmetic. Intercorrelations between metrics were very high. Factor analyses were conducted on the metrics reflecting variability in cardiac rate, once at baseline and again during mental arithmetic. Factor structure was highly stable across tasks, and included a factor that had high loadings of all variables except Toichi’s ‘‘cardiac sympathetic index’’ (CSI), and a second factor that was defined predominantly by the CSI. Although generally highly correlated, the various metrics responded differently under challenge.

[Allen-NJ 1976] Nicholas J. Allen. Studies in the Myths and Oral Traditions of the Thulung Rai of East Nepal, Doctoral dissertation – University of Oxford, England, 1976, 762 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia

[Allen-SA 1916] Herbert Stanley Allen and Harry Moore. A Text-book of Practical Physics, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., 1916, 622 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Octave Notation

[Allpress 2012] Rita Bento Allpress, Stephen Clift, and Lucy Legg. “Effects of Group Singing on Psychological States and Cortisol”, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition and the 8th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Thessaloniki, Greece, July 23–28, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Group singing has several psychological, physical, and social components that can interact and contribute to feelings of well-being. Due to the relative infancy of this field of research, understanding on what these beneficial and positive effects of group singing are and how they interact is still limited. In order to investigate how group singing may benefit our well-being and health, previous research has looked at effects of singing on psychological states and cortisol, a hormone related to well-being (Beck et al., 2000, Kreutz et al., 2004, Ryff et al., 2004). One major limitation of previous research to this date is a lack of experimental designs, participant randomization and an active control. However, without such research we are, in fact, unable to determine the main effects of group singing on our wellbeing and health.

[Ambrose 2001] Stanley H. Ambrose. “Paleolithic Technology and Human Evolution”, Science, Volume 291, Number 5509, March 2, 2001, pages 1748–1753, doi:10.1126/science.1059487. See the Science Magazine web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Human biological and cultural evolution are closely linked to technological innovations. Direct evidence for tool manufacture and use is absent before 2.5 million years ago (Ma), so reconstructions of australopithecine technology are based mainly on the behavior and anatomy of chimpanzees. Stone tool technology, robust australopithecines, and the genus Homo appeared almost simultaneously 2.5 Ma. Once this adaptive threshold was crossed, technological evolution was accompanied by increased brain size, population size, and geographical range. Aspects of behavior, economy, mental capacities, neurological functions, the origin of grammatical language, and social and symbolic systems have been inferred from the archaeological record of Paleolithic technology.

[Ames 2003] Eric Ames. “The Sound of Evolution”, Modernism / Modernity, Volume 10, Number 2, published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, April 2003, pages 297–325, doi:10.1353/mod.2003.0030. E-ISSN: 1080-6601, Print ISSN: 1071-6068. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This essay tracks the emergence of comparative musicology in Germany circa 1900, concentrating on the use of the phonograph by Carl Stumpf and Erich Moritz von Hornbostel, founders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive. The phonograph served as a scientific instrument for charting the evolution of music, based on recordings of "exotic melodies" performed at ethnographic exhibitions and other urban venues. Situating the discipline in the context of historical debates about evolution, colonialism, modernity, and mass culture, this essay argues that comparative musicology took shape and assumed resonance as a mode of phonographic discourse that aimed to make evolution audible.

[Amirkhanian 1972] Charles Amirkhanian. Early American Music, KPFA-FM, Broadcast date November 30, 1972. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Amjad 2007] Fazel Asadi Amjad. “The Reed and the Aeolian Harp: Coleridge’s “The Aeolian Harp”, Rumi’s “The Song of the Reed” and Jubran’s "Al-Mawakib and Imaginal Perception"”, Mysticism Studies, Volume 5, Spring–Summer 2007, pages 13–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry by Rumi

Abstract: The language of poetry is universal, for unlike other discourses it strikes the responsive chords in the imagination rather than a particular linguistic competence. This universal appeal stems from its archetypal imagery, music and elemental philosophical and mystical notions- at we call metaphorically the language of the soul, which triggers and finds response in man’s imagination. The language of literature manifests the deep affinity between apparently different cultures and emphasises that common aesthetic appreciation that is rooted in imaginal perception. Two archetypal images in this universal language are the reed and the Aeolian harp, the wind instruments that aptly manifest the common epistemological concerns of mysticism, Christian and Muslim, and the European Romanticism.

This article attempts to discuss the epistemological implications of these images as reflected in the poetry of Jalal al-Din Rumi, the great Persian Sufi master and poet, Jubran Khalil Jubran, the modern Christian Arab poet and writer, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the English Romantic poet. The works selected for this study are “The Song of the Reed” which begins the Persian poet’s monumental Mathnawi, Jubran’s finest ode, Al-Mawakib (‘Procession’), and Coleridge’s “The Aeolian Harp”. These relatively short poems indicate the shared sensibility in the three traditions and reflect the basic elements of Sufi and Romantic epistemologies, which neither threaten the existence of truth nor deny the possibility of true perception. For the Sufis and Romantics, despite some fundamental differences, truth, at least in the cases of this study, is not transcendent but is present within a system of changing signs or relations and is perceived in a frame of mind or logic that accepts and unites the opposites in contradistinction to that which is based on the principle of non-contradiction.

[Amsden 1949] Charles Avery Amsden. Prehistoric Southwesterners from Basketmaker to Pueblo, published by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 1949, 163 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderl 2006] Christoph Anderl and Halvor Eifring (editors). Studies in Chinese Language and Culture — Festschrift in Honour of Christoph Harbsmeier on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, published by Hermes Academic Publishing, Oslo, Norway, 2006, xlvi + 474 pages, including 14 colour pictures, ISBN 82-8034-051-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andersen 1933] Johannes C. Andersen. “Maori Music with its Polynesian Background: Part 6 - Polynesian Musical Instruments”, Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 43, Number 10, 1933, pages 195–252. See the Journal of the Polynesian Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson 1977] E. N. Anderson. “Review of Anderson, E. N.(1977). Hudson et al.: The Eye of the Flute: Chumash Traditional History and Ritual as Told by Fernando Librado Kitsepawit to John P. Harrington.”, Journal of California Anthropology, Volume 4, Number 1, 1977. See the web page on Escholarship.org Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson-DC 1978] Duane C. Anderson and Richard Shutler, Jr. “The Cherokee Sewer Site (13CK405): Summary and Assessment”, Plains Anthropologist, Volume 23, Number 82, Part 2, published by the Plains Anthropological Society, November 1978, pages 132–139. Publication 25667503 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson-DG 2002] David G. Anderson and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr. The Woodland Southeast, published by The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, May 10, 2002, 680 pages, ISBN 0-8173-1137-8 (978-0-8173-1137-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Breckenridge Flute

Publisher's description: The Woodland Period (ca. 1200 B.C. to A.D. 1000) has been the subject of a great deal of archaeological research over the past 25 years. Researchers have learned that in this approximately 2000-year era the peoples of the Southeast experienced increasing sedentism, population growth, and organizational complexity. At the beginning of the period, people are assumed to have been living in small groups, loosely bound by collective burial rituals. But by the first millennium A.D., some parts of the region had densely packed civic ceremonial centers ruled by hereditary elites. Maize was now the primary food crop. Perhaps most importantly, the ancient animal-focused and hunting-based religion and cosmology were being replaced by solar and warfare iconography, consistent with societies dependent on agriculture, and whose elites were increasingly in competition with one another. This volume synthesizes the research on what happened during this era and how these changes came about while analyzing the period's archaeological record.

In gathering the latest research available on the Woodland Period, the editors have included contributions from the full range of specialists working in the field, highlighted major themes, and directed readers to the proper primary sources. Of interest to archaeologists and anthropologists, both professional and amateur, this will be a valuable reference work essential to understanding the Woodland Period in the Southeast.

[Anderson-JM 1950] John M. Anderson. “Force and Form: The Shaker Intuition of Simplicity”, The Journal of Relition, Volume 30, Number 4, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, October 1950, pages 256–260. Publication 1199188 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Simple Gifts - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Anderson-L 2012] Lauren Anderson. The Use of Singing and Playing Wind Instruments to Enhance Pulmonary Function and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis, M.M.E. dissertation – University of Kansas, November 27, 2012, 68 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Although Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most fatal and devastating lung diseases in the world, treatments to enhance lung capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) are still in their infancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy, specifically singing or playing a wind instrument, on pulmonary function and QOL in children and adolescents with CF. Three participants with CF participated in this two week study, which consisted of two, thirty minute sessions a day, for a total of twenty sessions per person. The sessions for one week of the study included singing, playing the recorder or kazoo, and the other week included just talking, playing board games or playing video games. The Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) results and the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) results were used in this descriptive study as outcome variables. These data were collected three times throughout the study: pre-study, mid-study and post-study. For two participants, PFT results showed a higher increase during the music week than during the non-music week. For the third participant, he did not complete the study and only participated in the full non-music week and two days of the music week. His PFT results increased more during the non-music week. No significant trends were found when comparing the CFQ results. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

[Anderson-R 2005] Robert Anderson, Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco, and Virginia Danielson. Egypt, Ancient Music, 2005, 39 pages. Egypt, Ancient Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson-RD 1976] R. D. Anderson; Grace Huxtable (drawings). Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum, Volume 3: Musical Instruments, Illustrated Edition, published by British Museum Publications Limited, 1976, viii + 87 pages with 150 illustrations, ISBN 0-7141-0919-3 (978-0-7141-0919-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson-S 2003] Stephen Anderson. “Significance of Rock Art in the Southwest”, The Confluence, Number 27, published by Colorado Plateau River Guides, December 2003, pages 29–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andersson 2003] Rani-Henrik Andersson. The Ghost Dance Among the Lakota Indians in 1890 — A Multidimensional Interpretation, Ph.D. Dissertation – University of Tampere, Finland, in English and Finnish, 2003, 435 pages, ISBN 951-44-5689-0 (print); 951-44-5690-4 (electronic). ISSN 1455-1616. The Ghost Dance Among the Lakota Indians in 1890 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andreassi 2006] John L. Andreassi. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response, Fifth edition, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, 2006, 560 pages, ISBN 0-8058-4951-3 (978-0-8058-4951-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andreopoulou 2008] Areti Andreopoulou. Modeling the Greek Aulos, Master of Music in Music Technology – The Steinhardt School, New York University, May 14, 2008, 96 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andric 2011] Maja Andrič. “Lateglacial Vegetation at Lake Bled and Griblje Marsh (Slovenia): A Comparison of (in Last Glacial Maximum) Glaciated and Non-glaciated Landscapes”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 235–250. Lateglacial Vegetation at Lake Bled and Griblje Marsh (Slovenia) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: The results of pollen analysis suggest that at the beginning of the Lateglacial interstadial (14300 cal. BP) an open woodland (Pinus, Betula) was growing at both study sites, but an increase of mesophilous deciduous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus), Betula and Picea at ca. 13800 cal. BP indicated further climatic warming, and the differences between study sites became apparent. Whereas in warmer southestern Slovenia (Griblje) Tilia and Betula were more abundant, pollen influx for these two taxa was much lower at Lake Bled, which was located in colder northwestern Slovenia in glaciated landscape and mountains. At both study sites a decline of tree taxa and an increase of herbs (Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia) suggest colder and drier conditions in the Younger Dryas.

[Anfinson 2003] John O. Anfinson; Thomas Madigan, Drew M. Forsberg, and Patrick Nunnally (contributors). River of History — A Historic Resources Study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, printed by, St. Paul District, Corps of Engineers, 2003, 201 pages. River of History Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Beltrami Flutes - The Earliest Known Wooden Native American Flute

[Angulo 1931] Jaime de Angulo and Marguerite Béclard d'Harcourt. “La Musique des Indiens de la Californie du Nord «Music of the Indians of Northern California»”, Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, Volume 23, Number 1, in French, 1931, pages 189–228. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ansakorpi 2002] H. Ansakorpi, J. T. Korpelainen, H. V. Huikuri, U. Tolonen, V. V. Myllylä, and J. I. Isojärvi. “Heart Rate Dynamics in Refractory and Well Controlled Temporal Lobe Epilepsy”, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, Volume 72, 2002, pages 26–30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objectives: Disorders of cardiovascular and other autonomic nervous system functions are often found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cardiovascular dysregulation in TLE has previously been quantified assessing traditional time and frequency domain measures of heart rate (HR) variability from short term ECG recordings. However, new complexity and fractal measures of HR variability based on non-linear dynamics and fractals ("chaos theory") may disclose certain patterns of HR dynamics that cannot be detected using only conventional measures.
Methods: In addition to the traditional spectral and non-spectral components of HR variability, fractal correlation properties, approximate entropy (ApEn) of RR interval dynamics, and the slope of the power law relation were measured from 24 hour ambulatory ECG recordings to evaluate interictal autonomic cardiovascular regulatory function in 19 patients with refractory TLE, 25 patients with well controlled TLE, and in 34 healthy age and sex matched control subjects.
Results: The traditional time and frequency domain measures were lower in patients with TLE than in controls (p<0.05). In addition, the power law slope (p<0.005) and ApEn (p<0.05) were also reduced in TLE patients. Furthermore, ApEn was smaller in patients with refractory TLE than in patients with well-controlled TLE ( p<0.01), whereas the long term fractal correlation value alpha2 was lower in patients with well controlled TLE (p<0.05). An altered HR variation was not associated with any particular AED regimen.
Conclusions: In addition to reduced overall HR variability, the long term fractal organisation and complexity of HR dynamics seem to be altered in TLE. These abnormalities in HR behaviour may partly contribute to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events, such as life threatening arrhythmias in patients with TLE.

[Antoniadou 2012] Maria Antoniadou, Vasilios Michaelidis, and Venetia Tsara. “Lung Function in Wind Instrument Players”, Pneumon, Volume 25, Number 2, April–June 2012, pages 180–183. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Wind instrument playing requires adequate respiratory function and continuous control of air flow for the production of sound. Professional playing of a wind instrument may be considered to be continuous respiratory muscle training, with resultant improvement in lung function. Playing wind instruments, however, involves increased intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressures that may predispose to chronic respiratory, or other diseases and cerebrovascular events. This review summarizes the literature concerning the lung function of wind instrument players, the diseases related to wind instrument playing and the use of wind instruments for the prevention and therapy of chronic airway diseases such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome and asthma.

[Anzovin 2000] Steven Anzovin. Famous First Facts, International Edition, published by H. W. Wilson Company, 2000, ISBN 0-8242-0958-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Apel 1961] Willi Apel. The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900–1600., Fifth edition, Publications of the Mediaeval Academy of America, number 38, published by the Mediaeval Academy of America., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Apel 1969] Willi Apel. Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second Edition, published by Harvard University Press, 1969, 935 pages, ISBN 0-674-37501-7 (978-0-674-37501-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Death Song of the Cherokee Indians - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Applegate 2008] Darlene Applegate. “Woodland Period”, contained in Volume 1 of [Pollack 2008], 2008, pages 339–604. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

Introduction: The Woodland period (1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000) in Kentucky was a time of cultural continuities as well as cultural innovations. Food collection remained the prevailing subsistence pursuit, populations lived in mostly small communities for varying lengths of time, utilitarian tools were used for a variety of domestic tasks, and inter-regional contacts including long-distance trade continued. Overlaying these continuities, however, were technological, social, and ideological developments or intensifications, most notably the adoption or elaboration of pottery and textile industries, introduction of the bow and arrow, cultivation of indigenous plants, development of substantial housing and nucleated settlements, construction of earthworks, and elaboration of mortuary-ritual activities. The pace and impacts of these cultural changes varied widely across Kentucky.

[ARC 2006] ARC Music. Bushmen of the Kalahari, Arc Music, EUCD1995, 35 tracks, 2006, total time 72:36, ASIN B000EHSV6Y Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (2)

Publisher's description: This album documents the almost extinct Bushman culture in Southern Africa. It contains Bushmen shaman healing rituals, hunting songs, rain-making songs, tracking songs, a spoken history of the Qwii… accompanied on authentic self-built instruments by some of the last Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.

[Arce 1998] José Pérez de Arce. “Sonido Rajado: The Sacred Sound of Chilean Pifilca Flutes”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 51, published by the Galpin Society, July 1998, pages 17–50. Publication 842759 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arce 2000] José Pérez de Arce. “Sonido Rajado II”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 53, published by the Galpin Society, April 2000, pages 233–253. Publication 842326 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This is the second part of an article devoted to sonido rajado, the sound produced by certain South Andean flutes. In this second part the archaeological and historical documentation concerning this complex tube will be reviewed.

[Arce 2002] José Pérez de Arce. “Pre-Columbian Flute Tuning in the Southern Andes”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in English and German, 2002, pages 291–309. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Eine alte Art der Flötenstimmung ist in Chile bis heute erhalten. Sie basiert auf einer spezifischen Auffassung von Musik als kompositorischem, orchestralem, sozialem und rituellem Prozess, in dem alle Fragen der Tonhöhe wie auch melodische und rhythmische Merkmale der Klangfarbe untergeordnet sind. Dieser Prozess und diese Anschauung werden präkolumbischen Instrumenten gegenüber gestellt, und so soll ermöglicht werden, das Wesen dieser Instrumente besser zu verstehen, ebenso wie den möglichen Kontext, in dem diese Instrumente gespielt wurden.

An ancient type of flute style is obtained in Chile today. It is based on a specific understanding of music as a compositional, orchestral, social and ritual process in which all the questions of the pitch as well as melodic and rhythmic characteristics of the timbre are subordinate. This process and this view pre-Columbian instruments are compared, and so should be possible to understand better the nature of these instruments, as well as the possible context in which these instruments are played.

[Arce 2004] José Pérez de Arce. “Analisis de las Cualidades Sonoras de las Botellas Silbadoras Prehispanicas de los Andes «Analysis of the Sonic Qualities of Pre-Hispanic Whistling Bottles of the Andes»”, Boletin del Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino, Number 9, in Spanish, 2004, pages 9–33. ISSN 0716-1530. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We have no iconographic, historical or archaeological information that allows us to interpret the pre-Hispanic Andean whistling bottles. We do not know the reason for their great importance, duration, permanence and adaptability in the past. After studying their capacity for sound we discovered that they can produce different melodies depending on the techniques that are used to play them. The most interesting technique is to move the bottles with water inside, which produces the natural sound of liquid, filtered, amplified and modulated according to an acoustic pattern defined by the specific design of its internal structure. Contextual data suggests a funerary function. Strong psychoacoustic experiences produced when these bottles or flutes are used a certain way link them to the shamanistic world, establishing a relationship between flute, death and states of consciousness that could partly explain their importance in the great Andean cultures.

[Archabal 1977] Nina Marchetti Archabal. “Frances Densmore — Pioneer in the Study of American Indian Music”, contained in [Stuhler 1977], 1977, retrieved October 30, 2011. Frances Densmore Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arensburg 1989] B. Arensburg, A. M. Tillier, B. Vandermeersch, H. Duday, L. A. Schepartz, and Y. Rak. “A Middle Palaeolithic Human Hyoid Bone”, Nature, Volume 338, April 27, 1989, pages 758–760, doi:10.1038/338758a0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: A Brief History of the Native American Flute, The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

Abstract: The origin of human language, and in particular the question of whether or not Neanderthal man was capable of language/speech, is of major interest to anthropologists but remains an area of great controversy. Despite palaeoneurological evidence to the contrary, many researchers hold to the view that Neanderthals were incapable of language/speech, basing their arguments largely on studies of laryngeal/basicranial morphology. Studies, however, have been hampered by the absence of unambiguous fossil evidence. We now report the discovery of a well-preserved human hyoid bone from Middle Palaeolithic layers of Kebara Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel, dating from about 60,000 years BP. The bone is almost identical in size and shape to the hyoid of present-day populations, suggesting that there has been little or no change in the visceral skeleton (including the hyoid, middle ear ossicles, and inferentially the larynx) during the past 60,000 years of human evolution. We conclude that the morphological basis for human speech capability appears to have been fully developed during the Middle Palaeolithic.

[Aristotle 350BCE] Aristotle. De Anima «'On the Soul' or 'On the Life-force'» Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Aristoxenus 1902] Aristoxenus (born c. 365 BCE); Henry Stewart Macran (editor) (1967–1937). Aristoxenou Harmonika Stoicheia «The Harmonics of Aristoxenus», published by Clarendon Press, 1902, 303 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[ARP 1945] Arizona Recording Productions. Authentic Songs and Chants of American Indians, Arizona Recording Productions (Canyon Records), four 10", 78RPM vinyl discs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

[Arroyo 2003] Rafael Pérez Arroyo and Syra Bonet. Music in the Age of the Pyramids, English Edition, published by Editorial Centro de Estudios Egipcios, Madrid, Spain, 2003, 511 pages, ISBN 84-932796-1-7, hardcover. See the Rafael Pérez Arroyo web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arroyo 2006] Rafael Pérez Arroyo and Syra Bonet. Music in the Age of the Pyramids, Natural Acoustic Recordings, NAR-0010-01, with booklet in English and Spanish. NAR-0010-02, with booklet in French and German., 10 tracks, October 30, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[ARSC 1976] Association for Recorded Sound Collections. A Preliminary Directory of Sound Recordings Collections in the United States and Canada, published by the New York Public Library, New York, 1967, 157 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arsenault 2002] Joseph B. Arsenault. Quechua Worship Songs of Azángaro, Peru (song book), printed at Maryknoll, New York, 2002, 30 pages. Nakai tablature notation. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Asch 1973] Michael I. Asch (compiled and edited). An Anthology of North American Indian & Eskimo Music, Ethnic Folkways Records, FE 4541, 1973. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2)

[Ashley-CW 1944] Clifford W. Ashley. The Ashley Book of Knots, First Edition, published by Doubleday & Company, 1944, 619 pages, ISBN 0-385-04025-3 (978-0-385-04025-9), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: How to Tie the Block on a Native American Flute (4)

[Ashmore 2000] Renita Freeman Ashmore. The Native American Flute, M.A. dissertation – California State University, published by California State University, Dominguez Hills, California, Fall 2000, 53 pages. UMI Microform number 1402444. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to make evident the evolution of the Native American culture and the role which the Native American flute and the music it produces have played in shaping that evolution. This study will demonstrate Indian philosophies, past and present, and how the sacred Native American flute music influences those philosophies. The study gives a description of the principles of Native music, based upon personal observation as well as the available sources of information. The material in this subject area is scarce. Reliable historical documentation, culturally specific teachings, and knowledge about the traditions of flute-making, performance, and philosophy are largely non-existent. However I have consulted the available research materials and writings. Additionally, I will refer to the ceremonies I have attended, referencing both the events which are open to outsiders as well as those viewed by invitation only.

[ASM 2001] Arizona State Museum. Paths of Life: American Indians of the Southwest — Self-Guided Tour Teacher Materials, published by the University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, August 9, 2001, 18 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: Tribal Identification (11), Yaquis Deer Dance - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[ASM 2001a] Arizona State Museum. Paths of Life: American Indians of the Southwest — Student Activities, published by the University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, August 14, 2001, 16 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Asmussen 2001] Robert Asmussen. Periodicity of Sinusoidal Frequencies as a Basis for the Analysis of Baroque and Classical Harmony: A Computer Based Study, doctoral dissertation – School of Music, The University of Leeds, England, September 2001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The thesis of this dissertation is that tonality is derived from very precise tonal relationships involving the first three primes. It is specifically asserted that within any piece of tonal music, with tonic being given as an octave equivalent of 1/1, the relative frequency for any note can be represented in the form (2/1)ˣ * (3/2)ʸ * (5/4)ᶻ, {x,y,z} ∈ Z. A database of chord progressions is electronically created and catalogued. Within this database, a higher rate of occurrence for the simplest chords of 5-limit just intonation is demonstrated. Listening experiments based upon the most commonly occurring chord progressions lend further support to the assertion that 5-limit just intonation is in fact the origin of Baroque tonality. Finally, a rule-based system that prioritises important tonal relationships is demonstrated by tuning several entire chorales according to the principles of 5-limit just intonation.

[Atema 2004] Jelle Atema. “Old Bone Flutes”, Pan, Volume 23, Number 4, December 2004, pages 18–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Atkinson-RC 1968] R. C. Atkinson and R. M. Shiffrin. “Human Memory: A Proposed System and its Control Processes”, contained in [Spence-KW 1968], 1968, pages 89–195. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[ATML 2000] Archives of Traditional Music in Laos. Instrumental Music of Laos — Selection 1, 19 tracks, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia (2)

[Atwater 1820] Caleb Atwater (1778–1867). Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and Other Western States, Archaeologia Americana: Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, Volume 1, 1820, pages 109–251. Reissued in [Atwater 1973]. Publication transactionsand05socigoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Woodcut in 1820 depicting a Hopewell Panpipe, The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Atwater 1973] Caleb Atwater. Description of the Antiquities Discovered in the State of Ohio and Other Western States, Antiquities in the New World, published by AMS Press for the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1973, 267 pages, ISBN 0-404-57351-7 (978-0-404-57351-5). Reissue of [Atwater 1820]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Aubert 1996] A. E. Aubert, D. Ramaekers, Y. Cuche, R. Lysens, J. Ector, F. van de Werf. “Effect of Long Term Physical Training on Heart Rate Variability”, Computers in Cardiology, September 8–11, 1996, 1996, pages 17–20, doi:10.1109/CIC.1996.542462 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical training on the autonomic nervous system in healthy subjects. The authors compared 28 trained athletes and 28 sedentary subjects and divided them into two age groups: 18 to 34 and 35 to 55 years of age. ECG was recorded during 2 minutes while the subjects were breathing periodically under metronome control. RR tachograms were obtained and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated. In the younger subgroup (18-34 years of age) only the standard deviation of mean RR interval and the frequency content were significantly different. In the older subgroup (35-55 years of age), all measured parameters were significantly different. A clear peak around 0.083 Hz, in coherence with respiratory rate, was observed in athletes and was present to a much smaller amplitude in sedentary subjects. These results show that regular physical training enhances the synchronization between heart rate and respiratory frequency, with a more pronounced effect at a higher age. The fact that physical training has a distinct impact on HRV in healthy subjects, infers that exercising may be of value in the modification of cardiac autonomic activity in cardiac patients.

[August 2003] Christopher August. “Looking for Ishi: Insurgent Movements through the Yahi Landscape”, June 2003, pages 1397–1404. Looking for Ishi Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In 1911 a Yahi man wandered out of the Northern California landscape and into the twentieth century. He was immediately collected and installed at the just opened Anthropology Museum by Alfred Kroeber at the University of California's Parnassus Heights campus. Dedication invitations came from the U.C. Regents led by Phoebe Apperson Hearst. Maintaining the discretion of his indigenous culture this man would not divulge his name. Kroeber named him Ishi, the Yahi word for man.

These assembled facts introduce narrative streams that continue to unfold around us. To examine these contingent individuals, events and institutions collectively labeled Ishi myth is to examine our own position, our horizon.

Looking for Ishi is a series of interventions and appropriations of Ishi myth involving video installation, looping DVD, encrypted motion images, web work, streaming video, print objects, written and spoken word, and documentation of the author's own insurgent movements through the Yahi landscape.

[August-S 2008] Scott August. Kokopelli's Flute: The Complete Guide to the Anasazi Flute, published by Cedar Mesa Music, Los Angeles, California, 2008, 57 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[August-S 2009] Scott August. The Mojave-6 Flute, published by Cedar Mesa Music, Los Angeles, California, 2009, retrieved September 15, 2010. The Mojave-6 Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Indigenous North American Flutes, Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

[August-S 2010] Scott August. 2010 Scott August Signature Anasazi Flute — The Lost Tuning, published by Cedar Mesa Music, Los Angeles, California, 2010, retrieved October 11, 2011. 2010 Scott August Signature Anasazi Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

[August-S 2011] Scott August; Andrew Rea (illustrations). The Complete Guide to the Native American Style Flute, Level: Beginning to Intermediate, published by Cedar Mesa Music, Los Angeles, California, 2011, 101 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-615-52776-5. See the Cedar Mesa Music web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Austin 1923] Mary Hunter Austin (1868–1934). The American Rhythm, published by Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1923. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Aveni 2000] Anthony F. Aveni. Empires of Time, published by Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2000, ISBN 1-86064-602-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Azzurra 2001] Azzurra Music. American Natives, Azzura Music, TBP-11052, 11 tracks, 2001, total time 44:50, EAN 8-028980-045929. See the Azzurra Music web site. Contains 11 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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