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Flutopedia Symposium

Indigenous North American Flutes

When I first began to look at classifying flutes that originated in North America, I quickly got the sense of dealving into a rabbit-hole topic. Rather than trying to craft flutes to a generally accepted, ideal model, makers of ethnic flutes seeks to define their own style and take the instrument in their own direction. And so, the types of flutes described on this page are mostly general classes into which a particular flute can be placed.

While this page lists flutes that I believe originated in North America, little is really known at how those designs were influenced by outside cultures. The topic of outside influences and orignality in the context of indigenous flute design is often debated - another rabbit-hole topic.

This page mostly looks at flutes in the present-day context, and from the perspective of flute makers and players. For a historical perspective on these instruments, see The Development of Flutes in North America.

One fascinating area that is outside the scope of Flutopedia deals with the possibility that an instrument can be a window of understanding the culture that developed or uses the instrument. The concept that the instrument or its primary scale can affect the culture in the same way that the language developed by a culture in turn affects the continued development of that culture.

Overview

This roster of Indigenous North American flutes is broken into two main categories:

North American Rim-blown Flutes. Flutes with a single tube, completely open from one end to the other where player forms an embouchure and blows against the rim of one end of the tube. The tube is typically formed either by boring a hole in a solid material, by removing soft matter such as the pith inside a branch or the nodes inside a stalk of cane or bamboo, or by commercial fabriacation methods (such a commercially available PVC tubing).

North American Duct Flutes. Flutes where a narrow duct directs the stream of air to the splitting edge at the sound hole. The player may blow directly into the duct, or may blow into a chamber that is then designed to feed air into the duct.

North American Rim-blown Flutes

The Anasazi Flute

Present-day Anasazi Flutes were inspired from the Broken Flute Cave flutes excavated by a team led by Earl Morris in the summer and fall of 1931. Measurements that I took of the original artifacts were published online in late 2002. Shortly afterward, makers began producing replicas and variations based on these artifacts.

Dr. Richard Payne, Coyote Oldman (Michael Graham Allen), and Ken Light were early experimenters with contemporary rim-blown flute designs, and Coyote Oldman (Michael Graham Allen) was the first maker to make these instruments available to a wider audiences of flute players.

For details of the early development of contemporary rim-blown flutes, see Contemporary Rim-Blown Flutes.

Here are some instruments currently being offered by several makers:

Anasazi Flute by Butch Hall
Anasazi Flute by Michael Graham Allen
Anasazi Flute by Geoffrey Ellis
Anasazi Flute by Vance Pennington
Anasazi Flute by Mark Purtill

Five present-day Anasazi Flutes - top to bottom: Butch Hall of Butch Hall Flutes,
Michael Graham Allen of Coyote Oldman Flutes, Geoffrey Ellis of Earthtone Flutes,
Vance Pennington of Walking Spirit Flutes, and Mark Purtill of Anasazi Dream Flutes

One thing to note is the alignment of the finger holes. The top flute has finger holes in a stright line, while the other makers rotate finger holes 3 and 6 for easier reach by the player. Also notice that the third flute from the top has the finger holes rotated for a left-handed player (who uses the right hand for the top holes).

And here are a few samples of music:

Audio Player disabled - visit Troubleshooting.

Excerpts from Entrance and Clouds- Michael Graham Allen - tracks 1 and 4 on the CD Rainbird - [Allen 2004] Rainbird.

These two tracks appear on the first commercial recordings using Michael's newly created Anasazi Flute replicas. The first track uses a flute made with measurements very close to the flutes excavated at the Broken Flute Cave. The second track is a more experimental design with is much longer and can be played much more as an overtone flute.

Rainbird - Coyote Oldman

The typical primary scale for Anasazi flutes is very different from the primary scale on Native American flutes. It is also very unusual in that there is no interval of a perfect fourth from the root note. The notes shown are typical for present-day Anasazi style flutes of about 29"-30" (74-76 cm) in length:

Primary Scale for Anasazi Flutes
Fingering Alternate
Fingering
Note Interval
Finger diagram second octave open closed closed closed closed closed Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed closed closed Ab4 octave
Finger diagram open open open open open open Finger diagram open open open open open closed G4 major 7th
Finger diagram closed open open open open open Finger diagram closed open open open open closed F4 major 6th
Finger diagram closed closed open open open open   Eb4 5th
Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open   C4 major 3rd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open   B3 minor 3rd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open   Bb3 major 2nd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed   Ab3 root

The fingerings for the Anasazi flute on this page are a combination of fingerings shown in ([Purtill 2008] A Beginner’s Guide to the Anasazi Dream Flute) and my own experimentation on the instrument. The alternate fingerings of Finger diagram open open open open open closed and Finger diagram closed open open open open closed might provide a better tuning on the top two notes (a suggestion of Michael Graham Allen). Here is an extended scale that includes some cross-fingered notes and some of the upper register notes. These fingerings work on many, but not all, of the Anasazi flute:

Extended Scale for Anasazi Flutes
Fingering Alternate
Fingering
Note Interval
Finger diagram open closed closed closed closed closed   Ab5 second octave
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed   Eb5 12th
(octave + 5th)
Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed open open open   C5 major 10th
(octave + major 3rd)
Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed open open   B4 minor 10th
(octave + minor 3rd)
Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed closed open   Bb4 major 9th
(octave + major 2nd)
Finger diagram second octave open closed closed closed closed closed Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed closed closed Ab4 octave
Finger diagram open open open open open open Finger diagram open open open open open closed G4 major 7th
Finger diagram closed open open open open open Finger diagram closed open open open open closed F4 major 6th
Finger diagram closed open closed open open open Finger diagram closed open closed closed open closed D4 minor 6th
Finger diagram closed closed open open open open   Eb4 5th
Finger diagram closed closed open closed closed closed Finger diagram closed closed open closed closed open D4 diminished 5th
Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open   C4 major 3rd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open   B3 minor 3rd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open   Bb3 major 2nd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed   Ab3 root

 

For a detailed fingering chart on these instruments, see the Anasazi Fingering Chart page.

The Hopi Flute

Once the world of rim-blown flutes was re-opened with the Anasazi flutes, makers began creating variations. Some are patterend after traditional instruments and designs, and some are entirely recent inventions.

The Hopi Flute is similar to the Anasazi flute in design, but is shorter and drops hole 5 from the Anasazi Flute. (I'm using “Flute Player Numbering” from Numbering the Holes on a Native American Flute.) It is patterned after a long tradition of flutes in the Hopi culture ([Payne 1993]).

Here are some instruments currently being offered by several makers:

Hopi Flute by Michael Graham Allen
Hopi Flute by Willow Freeman

Present-day Hopi Flutes - top to bottom: Michael Graham Allen of Coyote Oldman Flutes and
Willow Freeman of Sounds Profound in England

Because these instruments are a bit shorter — about 25" (63.5 cm) in length - they are tuned higher than the Anasazi Flute. However they have a similar primary scale:

Primary Scale for Hopi Flutes
Fingering Alternate
Fingering
Note Interval
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed Hopi five hole finger diagram open closed closed closed closed B4 octave
Hopi five hole finger diagram open open open open open Hopi five hole finger diagram open open open open closed Bb4 major 7th
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed open open open open   G#4 major 6th
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed closed open open open   F#4 5th
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed closed closed open open   Eb4 major 3rd
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed open   C#4 major 2nd
Hopi five hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed   B3 root

 

The Mojave Flute

This rim-blown flute is a present-day flute inspired by traditional flutes of the Mojave [moh-hah-vee] (also spelled “Mohave”, known as “Aha macave”, literally “People alongside water”, also pronounced [moh-hahv]). See The Development of Flutes in North America for a description of the artifacts on which the Mojave Flute is based.

Michael Graham Allen began making the present-day Mojave flutes in 2007. Here are some instruments currently being offered by several makers:

Mojave Flute by Michael Graham Allen
Mojave Flute by Barry Higgins

Present-day Mohave Flutes - top to bottom: Michael Graham Allen of Coyote Oldman Flutes and
Barry Higgins of White Crow Flutes

The listing for the Coyote Oldman flute says that it is 24.7" (62.7 cm) in length and has a low note of B4. Here is the primary scale:

Primary Scale for Mohave Flutes
Fingering Note Interval
Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed B4 octave
Mojave four hole finger diagram open open open open F#4 perfect 5th
Mojave four hole finger diagram closed open open open E4 perfect 4th
Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed open open D4 minor 3rd
Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed closed open C#4 major 2nd
Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed B3 root

The equivalent notes to the Mohave Flute Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed closed open Mojave four hole finger diagram closed closed open open Mojave four hole finger diagram closed open open open Mojave four hole finger diagram open open open open can be played on most contemporary Native American flutes with the fingerings Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open Finger diagram closed closed open closed open open Finger diagram closed open closed open open open Finger diagram open open closed open open open.

A Native American flute in F# minor will produce the same pitches as shown for the primary scale of the Mojave Flute, but most contemporary Native American flutes in any key will give a scale with the same relative notes.

The Mojave Six Flute

A recent variation on the Mojave fute concept came from the limited scale of the classic Mojave Flute. The highest note in the low register of the Mojave Flute a perfect fifth interval from the root note, and then there was a huge leap to the octave note in the second register.

Getting more notes on a flute typically means making more finger holes, and Geoffrey Ellis of Earth Tone Flutes developed the “Mojave Six” design in 2009:

Mojave Flute by Michael Graham Allen
Mojave Flute by Barry Higgins

Two versions of the Mohave Six Flute by Geoffrey Ellis of Earthtone Flutes

Here is the primary scale for the Mohave Six flute, based on the article by Scott August on his CedarMesa.com web site ([August-S 2009] The Mojave-6 Flute):

Primary Scale for the
Mohave Six Flutes
Fingering Note Interval
Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed closed closed B4 octave
Finger diagram open open open open open open    
Finger diagram closed open open open open open G4 major 6th
Finger diagram closed closed open open open open F#4 5th
Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open E4 4th
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open D4 minor 3rd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open C#4 major 2nd
Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed B3 root

The equivalent notes to the Mohave Six Flute Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open Finger diagram closed closed open open open open Finger diagram closed open open open open open Finger diagram open open open open open open Finger diagram second octave closed closed closed closed closed closed can be played on most contemporary Native American flutes, but they require half-holing on the bottom hole, and the fingerings vary from maker to maker. Here are two sets of fingerings you might try: Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed half-closed Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open Finger diagram closed closed open open open open Finger diagram open closed closed open open open Finger diagram open open closed open open open and : Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed closed Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed half-closed Finger diagram closed closed closed closed closed open Finger diagram closed closed closed closed open open Finger diagram closed closed closed open open open Finger diagram closed open closed closed open open Finger diagram open open closed closed open open Finger diagram open open closed open open open .

A Native American flute in B minor will produce the same pitches as shown for the primary scale of the Mojave Six Flute, but most contemporary Native American flutes in any key will give a scale with the same relative notes.

The Yuma Flute

The next style of rim-blown flute we will look at is inspired by historical Yuma flutes. See The Development of Flutes in North America for the historical articacts.

The Yuma flute provides us with some mysteries - We have very few authentic examples of historical instruments, probably due to the past Yuma (Quechan, Yuman, Kwtsan, Kwtsaan) tradition of burning all possessions of the deceased during the funeral ceremony ([Halpern 1997]).

Michael Graham Allen calls this instrument an “Ancient Southern California flute replica”, but to my eyes it looks like the inspiration was drawn from the historical Yuma flutes:

Mojave Flute by Michael Graham Allen

Ancient Southern California flute replica, by Michael Graham Allen of Coyote Oldman Flutes

The listing for the Coyote Oldman flute says that it is 19" (48.3 cm) in length and can be played from either end.

The Maidu Flute

This description of a Maidu rim-blown flute is provided by Roland Burrage Dixon, from the Huntington California Expeditions of 1899-1904. It was published in [Dixon 1905], page 221, together with Figure 57, shown below. The figure has been rotated counter-clockwise from the original publication, so that figure 57(a) is the lower flute and figure 57(b) is the upper pair of tied whistles:

Maidu rim-blown flute

Maidu Flute from [Dixon 1905], figure 57 Larger image

The flute (Fig. 57, a) is a simple elder-wood tube, about forty centimetres in length. It has four holes; and in playing, the end of the flute is placed in the mouth, and blown partly across and partly into. There were many songs played on these flutes; but all were, so far as is known, love-songs, or songs played purely for the amusement of the player, and the flute was not in use ceremonially at all.

The whistle (Fig. 57, b) was usually made of bird-bones, eagle or goose being preferred. It was generally double, two being tied together, one longer than the other. The ends were closed with pitch. The whistle, as contrasted with the flute, was a ceremonial instrument, and was used by the doctor or shaman, and by dancers on certain occasions.

North American Duct Flutes

This category of flutes includes any design where a duct directs the stream of air to the splitting edge at the sound hole. No embouchure is needed to play these flutes - you just breathe into the end of the instrument.

The order that I am showing for these flutes begins with the simplest form of duct flute - one where the player breathes directly into the duct - and ends with the Native American flute - where the player's breath enters a second chamber that in turn delives the air to the duct. However, I'm not implying anything about the development of the Native American flute by this ordering of flute styles. It might be that the simpler designs inspired the later Native American flute design, but that is only a conjecture.

Cipriano Garcia playing a Papago flute, 1919

Cipriano Garcia, Papago flute, 1919 More information

The Papago Flute

Present-day Papago Flutes were inspired from the historic artifacts in the collection of Dr. Richard W. Payne. See The Development of Flutes in North America for the historical artifacts. (Also, please see Tribal Identification for issues relating to the name “Papago”).

I know of two flute makers that are crafting these flutes:

Papago Flute by Pat Partridge
Papago Flute by Michael Graham Allen

Present-day Papago Flutes - top to bottom: Pat Partridge of Good Medicine Flutes Larger image
and Michael Graham Allen of Coyote Oldman Flutes

The upper flute by Pat Partidge is in my collection, and actually has an addition thumb hole on the back of the instrument. The lower flute by Michael Graham Allen is listed by him as “Ancient Arizona flute”. The length is listed as 29.7″ (75.4 cm), although more than half of that length is taken by the slow air chamber.

As with the Papago flute artefacts, the player uses a finger (typically their index finger) to form a flute by partially cover the SAC exit hole and the sound hole. It take a bit of practice, but works nicely after a few minutes. The Pat Partridge Papago flute has ridges on three sides of the nest area to make this easier.

Here is an improvisation on my Pat Partridge Papago flute:

Audio Player disabled - visit Troubleshooting.

This table shows the scale of the circa 1880 Papago flute from [Payne 1989], page 21 (the flute that Michael Graham Allen used as the model for his version of this flute) as well as the notes produced by the Pat Partridge flute in my collection:

Scales for Papago Flutes
Circa 1880 Papago Flute Pat Partridge
Papago Style Flute
Fingering Note Interval Fingering Note Interval
Papago three hole finger diagram closed closed closed F5 octave Papago four hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed G5 octave
      Papago four hole finger diagram open open open open D#5 minor 6th
      Papago four hole finger diagram closed open open open D5 5th
Papago three hole finger diagram open open open B4 diminished 5th Papago four hole finger diagram closed open closed closed C#5 diminished 5th
Papago three hole finger diagram closed open open A#4 4th Papago four hole finger diagram closed closed open open C5 4th
Papago three hole finger diagram closed closed open G#4 minor 3rd Papago four hole finger diagram closed closed closed open A#4 minor 3rd
Papago three hole finger diagram closed closed closed F4 root Papago four hole finger diagram closed closed closed closed G4 root

 

The Papago Flute is a wonderful instrument for flute instructors who are teaching beginning players:

  • It demonstrates the construction of a two-chambered flute without having to remove the block.
  • It allows the player to experiment with trying to use their finger as a block and get a sound from the flute — really demonstrating the function of the block on a Native American flute.
  • It lets the player deal with only three holes, and small ones at that … much more straightforward than trying to get six larger holes covered.

The Pima Flute

From [Russell 1908], page 166:

The Pima or Maricopa flute is of cane cut of such a length that it includes two entire sections and about 4 cm. (1.6″) of each of the two adjoining. It therefore contains three diaphragms, of which the two end ones are perforated, while the middle one is so arranged that the air may pass over its edge from one section into the other. This is done by burning a hole through the shell of the cane on each side of the diaphragm and joining them by a furrow. With such an opening in the upper section the instrument can not be played unless a piece of bark or similar material be wrapped over all but the lower portion of the furrow to direct the air into the lower section. The forefinger of the left hand is usually employed as a stop if no permanent wrapping directs the current of air so that it may impinge upon the sharp margin of the opening into the second section. As there are but three finger holes the range of notes is not great and they are very low and plaintive.

These instruments are usually ornamented with geometric designs having no symbolic significance at the present time among the Pimas. A bit of cloth or ribbon is sometimes attached to the middle of the flute, as in specimen c, figure 80.

“Specimen c” refers to the lowest flute in this image:

Pima flutes from [Russell 1908], figure 80

Pima Flutes from [Russell 1908], figure 80 More information

Russel notes that the bottom-most flute “has an old pale yellow necktie tied around the middle as an ornament and to direct the air past the diaphragm.” He also lists the measurements of these flutes in a footnote of page 167:

Measurement of Pima Flutes
Flute Length Diameter
Flute a (uppermost flute) 364 mm (14.33″) 22 mm (0.87″)
Flute b (middle flute) 518 mm (20.39″) 23 mm (0.91″)
Flute c (bottom flute) 512 mm (20.16″) 22 mm (0.87″)

 

o"The prinoiplo of its construction is lielieved to lie diltorent from any knomi among other trilies or nations. These instruments are common vdth the Coco-Maricopas, and Yumas or Cuchiians, and among the tril>es on the Colorado. Young men serenade their female friends with them." A\'hlpple, Pae. n. R. Rep., n, .52.

From [USWD 1855], volume 3, part 3, page 123: PacRR 03, Part 3, page 123:

Of the Pimas, Papagos, and Coco-Maricopas

1. On the hither side of the Gila, and over the territory which extends to the boundary that is considered to limit the province of Sonora, are established the Pimas Gileños, also called Pimas Altos. The nation consists of twenty-five hundred souls, who live in the towns of San Juan Capistrano, Sutaquison, Atison, Tubuscabor, and San Seferino de Napgub. They are social and much united. Their weapons are those common to Indians, and they are generally at war with the Apaches, and some nation or other of the Colorado. They cover themselves with cotton and woolen blankets of their own manufacture. They cultivate the earth, and each proprietor lives near his field. They raise wheat, maize, cotton, and other crops, for the irrigation of which they have well-constructed canals (acequias). They have farms for the breeding of horses, sheep, and poultry.

2. The Papagos, a nation of four thousand persons, inhabit the country from the farthest limit of Sonora, along the sea, nearly to the mouth of the river Colorado. They speak the same language as the Pimas, and dress after the same manner. They are made up of several hordes; their customs are alike; and in their friendships, as in their enmities, they ever accord with their neighbors.

3. The Opa, or Coco-Maricopa Indians, as they are commonly called, live on the further side of the river Gila, near the river Ascención. Their number is more than three thousand, and they are divided into several hordes. Their language is that of the Yumas; they are of the same character as the Pimas, and dress themselves like them. Without the necessity of irrigation, they gather two crops of grain from their fields in the year. In all other matters they differ but little from the Papagos and Pimas, with whom they live in great harmony.

The Tarahumara Flute

The style of flutes from the Tarahumara culture is described in [Payne 1989], page 29-30:

The Tarahumara, in the vast Barranca del Cobre east of the Yaqui, play a small beaked tabor pipe made of the cane (Arundinaria) that grows in the valleys of their vast canyon country. These flutes, usually played as tabor pipes accompanied by a large tambour (a manner attributed to Spanish influence), resemble in some respect the clay flutes of the prehistoric Mayan and Aztec civilizations. Similar flutes are currently widespread among the native cultures of Mexico.

Here are some photos and an improvisation on the Tarahumara flute in my collection, from the collection of Dr. Richard W. Payne, recorded January 14, 2012. The improvisation does not use the style suggested in the quotation above by Doc Payne, but is a solo more in the style of nature imitation:

Audio Player disabled - visit Troubleshooting.

Model of the Breckenridge flute crafted by Devin Pettigrew and Jim Rees

Tarahumara flute, collection of Clint Goss, collected by Richard W. Payne More information

For background on the Tarahumara culture, and in particular the role of music in their society, see [Wheeler-R 1993]. Here is an excerpt:

Music sanctifies the moment in the life of all the Tarahumaras. Our dances permeate our daily lives with joy, courage and trust in Our Creator. Our songs and dances are like prayers of thanks to bless the sick, our fields and our crops. Even the most common tasks have a higher meaning when music is in the air. When Onorúame God -created the world, He did so singing and dancing. The heartbeat of Mother Earth was the drum that accompanied Him. When we rest in the bosom of the earth we feel Her heartbeat and when the Yúmari (the sowing dance) is played we hear the pulse of life drumming to the chanting prayer of the sewer. All of our actions have musical meaning. …

The Choctaw Overtone Flute

The flute of the Choctaw culture, of which I know a single example: a flute in my collection originally from the collection of Dr. Richard W. Payne. The cultural context of the flute was provided by Dr. Payne (personal communication, November 2002) with additional information from Vern Berry (personal communication, September 25, 2005).

Choctaw Overtone Flute, collection of Clint Goss, collected by Dr. Richard W. Payne

Choctaw Overtone Flute, collection of Clint Goss, collected by Dr. Richard W. Payne Larger image

The flute has no finger holes. It measures 17.25″ (43.85 cm) long, with the physical length of the sound chamber from the plug to the foot end of the instrument of 16.50″ (41.91 cm) and the diameter of the cylindrical sound chamber of about 7/16″ (0.44 cm). Because this is a relatively long sound chamber in relation to the diameter of the sound chamber, it plays easily into the upper registers. This puts it in a class of flutes known as overtone flutes.

Choctaw Overtone Flute, collection of Clint Goss, collected by Dr. Richard W. Payne
Choctaw Overtone Flute, collection of Clint Goss, collected by Dr. Richard W. Payne

Choctaw Overtone Flute detail Larger image Larger image

However, a word of caution on my assumptions of how this flute was actually played: It has been pointed out that I may be over-reaching in my conjecture that this flute was played as an melodic overtone flute. Barry Higgins of White Crow Flutes (personal communication, January 13, 2012) cautioned that, regardless of how the flute can be played today (and how a person familiar with other world overtone flutes might play it), little can be said about how it was actually played in the culture. For example, the instrument may have been used simply for signaling, and not played melodically.

Audio Player disabled - visit Troubleshooting.

And here are the measured pitched — basically the overtone series:

Choctaw Overtone Flute - Measured Pitches
Register Foot Open Foot Closed
First register G4 -20 cents D5 +10 cents (weak)
Second register G5 -20 cents B5 +10 cents
Third register D6 -10 cents F6 -20 cents
Fourth register G6 -0 cents A6 +30 cents
Fifth register B6 -10 cents C#7 -30 cents
Sixth register D7 -0 cents  

The Native American Flute

And finally, we get to the focus of this web site, the Native American flute. There are many other pages on this site that explore the development, anatomy, and keys available for the Native American flute.

In terms of variations on the instrument, there are far too many to survey or keep track of. One newsgroup on Yahoo dedicated to makers of the instrument had 3,549 members as of September 17, 2010, and many of those makers create their own variation or style of instrument.

 
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