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References - D

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter D. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

References - D

[Dale 2008] Michael Dale. What is Comprovisation?, Master of Arts dissertation – Mills College, Oakland, California, 2008, 61 pages. See the Michael Dale web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Excerpt from the introduction: I would like to begin to explore the middle ground between the poles we usually term ‘composition’ and ‘improvisation.’ While these terms themselves point at what we might say are pure or idealized polar opposites (in terms of the music-creation methodologies they describe), in actuality there is no way to ever completely separate them. Even the most ‘composed’ (i.e., written-down, through-composed, and/or predetermined) music has some elements of free and flexible interpretation; and even the most spontaneous improvised creations often have what some practitioners (and listeners) of this music would agree is a ‘compositional’ coherence, integrity, or intention.

[Dalston 1988] Rodger M. Dalston, Donald W. Warren, Kathleen E. Morr, and Lynn R. Smith. “Intraoral Pressure and Its Relationship to Velopharyngeal Inadequacy”, Cleft Palate Journal, Volume 25, Number 3, July 1988, pages 210–219. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Intraoral pressure measurements were made during multiple productions of the word "hamper" by each of 267 patients who manifested differing degrees of velopharyngeal inadequacy. The results indicate that intraoral pressure diminishes as the extent of velopharyngeal impairment increases. However, pressure remained above 3 cm H20 in the majority of subjects, even when the impairment was such that intraoral and intranasal pressures were essentially equal. Comparison of these results with model simulations suggests that speakers make adjustments to velopharyngeal impairment that tend to maintain pressures at levels thought to be necessary for obstruent consonant production. Variations in pressure as a function of gender and age parallel those observed in normal children and adults.

[Dalton 2009] Rex Dalton. “Oldest American Artefact Unearthed”, National Geographic News, November 5, 2009, retrieved December 29, 2009, doi:10.1038/news.2009.1058. See the News article on the National Geographic News web site. Oldest American Artefact Unearthed Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Damas 1984] David Damas (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 5: Arctic, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1984, 845 pages, ISBN 0-16-004580-0 (978-0-16-004580-6). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 60 chapters on Eskimo, Inuit, Aleut of U.S., Canada, Greenland, U.S.S.R.

[Damm 2000] Robert J. Damm. Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., 2000, 131 pages, ISBN 0-8153-3814-7 (978-0-8153-3814-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (12), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (12)

Publisher's description: This study provides new information regarding the instruction of American Indian music in Oklahoma, and shows the effect of demographic variables of teachers and students on pedagogical context and practice.

[Dance 1881] Chas. Daniel Dance. Chapters from a Guianese Log-book, Demerara, 1881. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dandridge 2006] Debra E. Dandridge. “Arlington Springs Woman: First Lady of the New World”, Mammoth Trumpet, Volume 21, Number 4, September 2006, pages 4–14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DAngelo 2009] Cynthia D'Angelo, Stephanie Touchman, Douglas Clark, Angela O'Donnell, Richard Mayer, David Dean, Jr., and Cindy Hmelo-Silver. Constructivism, published by The Gale Group, 2009. Constructivism Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[Danubio 2008] Maria Enrica Danubio, Gaetano Miranda, Maria Giulia Vinciguerra, Elvira Vecchi, and Fabrizio Rufo. “Comparison of Self-reported and Measured Height and Weight: Implications for Obesity Research among Young Adults”, Economics & Human Biology, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2008, pages 181–190, doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2007.04.002 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: The use of self-reported data in epidemiological surveys leads to misclassification of the prevalence of obesity as the participants overestimate or underestimate height, weight and/or both. Such misclassifications vary according to gender, age, status and ethnicity.
Objectives: To estimate on a sample of youth of both sexes (1) the difference between self-reported data and measured height and weight and (2) the extent of misclassification of BMI deriving from such differences.
Methods: Self-reporting in questionnaires and subsequent measurements of height and weight conducted by trained personnel. The mean values and the BMIs were calculated.
Results: Both sexes overestimate height (2.1 and 2.8 cm for males and females, respectively), and underestimate weight (1.5 and 1.9 kg for males and females, respectively). Consequently the BMI is underestimated (1.1 and 1.5 points for males and females, respectively). The classification of BMI from self-reported data shows underestimation of overweight in both sexes (8 percentage points) and of obese males (3.3 percentage points), an overestimation of normal weight (12.2 and 4.3 percentage points for males and females, respectively) and an excessive underweight in the girls (4.3 percentage points).
Conclusions: There is a difference between self-reported and measured data and self-reported biases are reflected in the classification of the participants in the 4 categories of BMI.

[DaoGong 2005] Wu Dao-Gong; Zhao Feng (preface). Treatise on the Hexagram — An Evolutional System of Music Notation, Definitive Edition, in English, French, Italian, and Chinese versions are available, 2005, 76 pages. See the Musical Hexagram web site. Treatise on the Hexagram Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Darling 2007] David Darling and Julie Weber. The Darling Conversations, Volume 1, Westport, Connecticut, Manifest Spirit Records, MSR-075, 3 CD set, 25 tracks, December 4, 2007, total time 3:11:49, UPC 8-37101-43075-3, audio CD. See the Darling Conversations Web Site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Darwin 1872] Charles Darwin (1809–1882). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872, 374 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Darwin 1909] Charles Darwin. The Origin of Species, The Harvard Classics, published by P. F. Collier & Son, New York, 1909, 552 pages. Previously published as "On the origin of species by means of natural selection". Publication originofspecies00darwuoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Dashper 1996] Mark Dashper. He Nguru, He Koauau: A User's Guide to Maori Flutes, 40 pages, ISBN 0-9583545-0-2 (978-0-9583545-0-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[David 2013] Susan A. David, Ilona Boniwell, and Amanda Conley Ayers (editors). “Oxford Handbook of Happiness”, Oxford Library of Psychology, published by the Oxford University Press, 2013, 1,097 pages, ISBN 0-19-955725-X (978-0-19-955725-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davids 2002] Brent Michael Davids (born 1959). The Un-covered Wagon, published by Blue Butterfly Group, 2002, 16 pages. See the Brent Michael Davids web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davids 2014] Brent Michael Davids; Joseph Bruchac (libretto). Purchase of Manhattan: For Three Solo Voices, Chorus, American Indian Singers, Orchestra and Native American Flute, 2014. See the Purchase of Manhattan web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Purchase of Manhattan is exquisitely scored for three solo voices, chorus, American Indian singers, orchestra and Native American flute, by preeminent Mohican composer, Brent Michael Davids, in collaboration with celebrated Abenaki author, Joseph Bruchac, for the libretto. The music interlaces American Indian and Western European styles in a hybrid mix that is exuberant and dazzling; it’s an amalgamated compositional style that classical music critic Bill Parker describes as “never glib or facile, but rich in resonance.” As a Mohican from a tribe once residing in lower Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx, the composer’s lyrical conjuring of early Lenape life is unique and bold. Similar to his creations for Chanticleer and Kronos Quartet, we straightaway grasp the opera’s primal earthiness amid the sparkling orchestration.

[Davidson 1997] Jill Davidson. 'Prayer Songs to Our Elder Brother': Native American Church Songs of the Otoe-Missouria and Ioway, Two volumes, Ph.D. dissertation – University of Missouri-Columbia, 1997, 546 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Avery T. Sharp and James Michael Floyd: Vol. 1 is a study of the Native American Church songs in the language of the Otoe-Missouria and Ioway commonly known as Chiwere (Siouan). Vol. 2 is a glossary of English Peyote terms, a 291-page bibliography of Native American Church song texts with interlinear notes and free translations along with an index of composers and songs, a ten-page bibliography of other Otoe-Missouria and Ioway song texts organized by genre (patriotic songs; Eroska song; church hymn), and four historical and ethnographic documents. Bibliography of approximately 120 writings.

[Davies 1998] Philip R. Davies. Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures, Library of Ancient Israel, published by Westminster John Knox Press, July 1998, 219 pages, ISBN 0-664-22077-0 (978-0-664-22077-8), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Davis 1941] Ernest W. Davis. “Nose Flute”, United States Patent 2,245,432, Granted June 10, 1941, 3 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Nose Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Davis-C 2011] Christopher Davis. Theories of Rhythm and Meter and their Pedagogical Implications for Non-Pitched Percussion Music — With an Analysis of William Kraft's French Suite, Doctoral dissertation – University of South Carolina, February 2011, 74 pages. UMI publication 3454711. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Current definitions for rhythmic and metrical terminology generally focus on the relationship of rhythm and pitch. In the world of non-pitched percussion music, these definitions become impractical by virtue of the absence of the key element of pitch. This study presents clear definitions for terms related to the theories of rhythm and meter as they combine to create phrase rhythm within a piece of music. Included are definitions of the following terms: intrinsic and extrinsic rhythmic accents, metrical accents, metrical hierarchy and the metrical grid, metrical consonance and dissonance, complex meter, irregular meter, changing meter, hypermeter, phrase expansion, metric modulation, and durational rhythm. While some of the definitions quote directly from the original sources, the author also develops his own definitions, relying on previous scholarship.

Excerpts from non-pitched percussion repertoire provide unambiguous examples of each concept. Once the concepts and terminology are familiar, they may be applied in the private studio and in the rehearsal hall. The study concludes with a pedagogical application of these terms and concepts to the analysis of all four movements of William Kraft's French Suite.

[Davis-EA 1997] Elizabeth A. Davis, Pamela Bristah, Jane Gottlieb, Kent Underwood, and William E. Anderson (editors). A Basic Music Library: Essential Scores and Sound Recordings, Third edition, published by the American Library Association, 1997, 665 pages, ISBN 0-8389-3461-7 (978-0-8389-3461-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Lists 7,000 recordings and 3,000 printed scores coded for different levels of collecting.

[Davis-JS 2011] Jennifer Davis. Medical Ethnomusicology: Take One Flute and Call Me in the Morning, November 23, 2011, 13 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davis-JS 2013] Jennifer S. Davis. Medical Ethnomusicology and its Applications within Western Music Therapy, M.Mus. Thesis – University of Oklahoma, Graduate College, Norman, Oklahoma, 2013, 160 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this study of Native American flute, West African drumming, and toning to realign chakras, I argue that these music healing practices treat the root cause of disvalued states because they include in their performance process the production and dissemination of the cultural values of connectivity to and balance between a community of people, the surrounding environment, and the self. Through participant-observation fieldwork, self-study as a performer and patient, and secondary scientific research I show that these cultural values manifest as reflections of community relationships, environmental awareness, and the whole person (body, mind, and emotions). I focus on how sound and participant’s intent affects the mind emotionally and through thought processes. These changes, called cognitive flexibility, affect the physical body producing changes such as lowered pulse, blood pressure, and pain perception; alleviation of negative feelings; increased attention span.

This thesis provides music therapists evidence to illustrate that these indigenous healing practices are valuable therapeutic tools for promoting physical, mental, and emotional health. In addition, these healing practices can demonstrate how the medical community, as a whole, can incorporate consciousness, thought processes, and emotions into their medical models. Implementing indigenous healing practices must include an understanding of the cultural values and meaning from which they originate. It is from these that the music practice’s structure, performance, and context of production elicit healing effects. By familiarizing western music therapists with terminology, ideas, and beliefs, with which specific cultures organize their own music healing practices, music therapists, can implement indigenous music therapies more effectively.

[Davis-RF 1996] Ruth F. Davis. “The Art / Popular Music Paradigm and the Tunisian Ma'lūf”, Popular Music, Volume 15, Number 3 (Middle East issue), October 1996, pages 313–323. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davis-RF 1997] Ruth F. Davis. “Traditional Arab Music Ensembles in Tunis: Modernizing Al-Turath in the Shadow of Egypt”, Asian Music, Volume 28, Number 2, Spring/Summer 1997, pages 73–108. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davis-RF 1997a] Ruth F. Davis. “Cultural Policy and the Tunisian Ma'lūf: Redefining a Tradition”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 41, Number 1, Winter 1997, pages 1–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Davis-RF 2005] Ruth F. Davis. Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎», Scarecrow Press, Inc., Lanham, Maryland, June 2005, 135 pages, ISBN 0-8108-5138-5 (978-0-8108-5138-2), hardcover. See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (6)

[Davis-V 1920] Veronica Davis. Indian Music, Bachelor of Music thesis – University of Illinois, 1920, 19 pages. Publication indianmusic00davi on Archive.org (open access). Indian Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

Introduction: To study Indian music is to study a crude but cultivated art.
"Indians who have acquired education are particularly desirous of preserving traditions and the music of their tribes and are in a position to perform their melodies in primitive style and at the same time form some conception of their value from an ethnological
point of view."
The purpose of this thesis is to arouse more interest in this art which may mean nuch to the future American music. The technical structure has been rather extensively dealt with so this thesis will dwell more upon the aid and pleasure music of the Indian may afford us.

[Dawe 2007] Thomas V. C. Dawe. Our Own Newfoundland and Labrador, 2007, 114 pages. Our Own Newfoundland and Labrador Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Tribal Identification (2)

[Dawley 1985] Robert M. Dawley. “Medical Research in Music: Foundation for a Theory of Music Instruction”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 85, published by the University of Illinois Press, Late–Fall 1985, pages 38–55. Publication 40317941 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the significant findings of medical science concerning musical learning and physiology, the rationale being that this research could form the basis for a theory of music instruction. The procedure consisted of a content analysis of the international medical literature for the years 1971-1983 by means of a computer based information search of MEDLINE (MEDLARS ONLINE), using various combinations of relevant descriptors. Reliability checks were made by reviewing Index Medicus and inspecting research journals from the medical literature.

[Dawson 2006] William J. Dawson. The Motions of Wind Instrument Performance, April 2006, 70 pages. See the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) web site. The Motions of Wind Instrument Performance Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[dAzevedo 1986] Warren L. d’Azevedo (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1986, 868 pages, ISBN 0-16-004581-9 (978-0-16-004581-3). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 45 chapters on Indians of Utah, Nevada, and portions of adjoining states.

[DEAA 1902] Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum, Part XV (50 plates), 1902. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[DEAA 1909] Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum; L. W. King (text and copies of the tablets); E. A. Wallis Bidge (editor). Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum, Part XXV (50 plates), 1909. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Dean 1979] E. A. Dean. Atmospheric Effects on the Speed of Sound, published by the US Army Electronics Research and Development Command, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, August 1979, 60 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Intervals, CrossTune - Tool for Tuning a Native American flute for a Different Environment

Abstract: The small-signal speed of sound in humid air is calculated from a model which includes the real-gas effects from the equation of state for humid air and the vibrational dispersion due to N2, O2, and CO2 relaxation. Other atmospheric effects such as dispersion due to viscothermal and rotational relaxation, heat radiation, propagation along the air-ground boundary, the density gradient, turbulance, aerosols and fogs are considered and found to be unimportant for frequencies between 1Hz and 5 HHz (at one atmosphere). The uncertainty in predicting the sound speed varies between 0.22 m/sec at -90C to 0.05 m/sec at 90C. Experimental results in humid air at 20C and 30C are in excellent agreement with the model. For the propagation frequency of 20 Hz, it is found that the presently used sound-ranging formula, c - 20.06 Ts, where Ts = .75tv + .25t + 273.2 (tv = virtual temperature), differs by up to 0.5 m/sec over the range -60C to 60C. A correction to the "sonic" temperature determination is suggested with results in deviations of less than 0.05 m/sec over the temperature range from -60C to 50C and for relative humidities from 5% to 100%.

[Deaner 2007] Robert O. Deaner, Karin Isler, Judith Burkart, and Carel van Schaik. “Overall Brain Size, and Not Encephalization Quotient, Best Predicts Cognitive Ability across Non-Human Primates”, Brain, Behavior and Evolution, Volume 70, 2007, pages 115–124, doi:10.1159/000102973. Publication 17510549 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: For over a century, various neuroanatomical measures have been employed as assays of cognitive ability in comparative studies. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive ability. A recent meta-analysis of cognitive performance of a broad set of primate species has made it possible to provide a quantitative estimate of general cognitive ability across primates. We find that this estimate is not strongly correlated with neuroanatomical measures that statistically control for a possible effect of body size, such as encephalization quotient or brain size residuals. Instead, absolute brain size measures were the best predictors of primate cognitive ability. Moreover, there was no indication that neocortex-based measures were superior to measures based on the whole brain. The results of previous comparative studies on the evolution of intelligence must be reviewed with this conclusion in mind.

[DeCesare 1988] Ruth De Cesare. Myth, Music and Dance of the American Indian — An Activity-Oriented Sourcebook of American Indian Tradition, Based upon the Music and Culture of 21 Tribes, published by Alfred Publishing, Van Nuys, California, 1988, ISBN 0-88284-371-0 (Teacher's Resource Book), 0-88284-372-9 (Student Book), 0-88284-373-7 (Student Workbook), 0-88284-383-4 (Teacher's Resource Book and Cassette). Contains 24 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[deGroot 1965] Adriaan D. de Groot (1914–2006). Thought and Choice in Chess, published by Mouton De Gruyter, The Hague, Netherlands, 1965, 479 pages, ISBN 90-279-7914-6 (978-90-279-7914-8). Originally published in 1946. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[deJongh 2005] Michael de Jongh and Rina Steyn. “Making Ancient Music — Stone Gongs, Rhythm and Trance in the Great Karoo”, South African Country Life, March 2005, pages 108–110. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DeLaLaurencie 1921] Lionel De La Laurencie. “America in the French Music of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 7, Number 2, published by the Oxford University Press, 1921, pages 284–302, doi:10.1093/mq/VII.2.284. Contains 5 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Delaney 2002] J. P. A. Delaney, S. R. Coughlin, D. A. Brodie, and J. P. H. Wilding. “The Effect of Respiration Rate on Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity”, Journal of Physiology, 2002. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of different breathing rates on cardiac autonomic tone and blood pressure control. The influence of nose and mouth-only breathing was also assessed. After obtaining ethical approval and informed consent, sixteen healthy subjects (8 males, 8 females, aged 33.9 ± 2.5 years, mean ± S.E.M.) breathed spontaneously for 5 min and then randomly at 6, 9 and 12 cycles per min (cpm) whilst having continuous measures of heart rate (MP100, BIOPAC Systems Inc., USA) and blood pressure (Portapres, TNO-Netherlands) performed. Cardiac autonomic tone was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) in the time domain and by power spectral analysis (PSA) in the frequency domain. Blood pressure control was evaluated by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) derived from a transfer function analysis of the PSA data. ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted t tests were performed. Data are given as means ± S.E.M. Time domain measures showed that compared to spontaneous breathing, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) (ms) 81.5 ± 9.3 vs. 52.2 ± 5.2 (a primary index of HRV), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) (ms) 51.2 ± 6.5 vs. 36.3 ± 4.7 and percentage of normal RR intervals greater than 50 ms from the previous beat (pNN50) (%) 17.0 ± 3.8 vs. 9.8 ± 3.0 (both measures of parasympathetic activity) were all significantly increased at 6 cpm (P < 0.01), and SDNN (ms) 63.4 ± 7.3 vs. 52.2 ± 5.2 and pNN50 (%) 14.0 ± 4.1 vs. 9.8 ± 3.0 at 9 cpm (P < 0.05). Total power (ms2) (a frequency domain measure of HRV) was increased at 6 cpm 7813.0 ± 1959.0 vs. 3045.0 ± 591.0, as was BRS (ms mmHg-1) 10.6 ± 1.1 vs. 8.7 ± 1.0 (P < 0.05). When compared with baseline, nose-only breathing demonstrated a decrease in LF/HF ratio (a measure of sympathovagal balance) 1.0 ± 0.3 vs. 3.1 ± 1.0 (P < 0.01), normalised low frequency power (nLF, an index of sympathetic activity) 42.0 ± 5.0 vs. 62.0 ± 4.6 (P < 0.05) and an increase in normalised high frequency power (nHF, a measure of parasympathetic activity) 58.0 ± 5.0 vs. 38.0 ± 4.6 (P < 0.05). Compared with mouth breathing, nose-only breathing decreased nLF 42.0 ± 5.0 vs. 50.0 ± 5.0 and increased nHF 58.0 ± 5.0 vs. 50.0 ± 5.0 (P < 0.05). These data suggest that reduced breathing frequency (particularly 6 cpm) is associated with increased parasympathetic activity, cardiac autonomic tone and blood pressure control, and that nose-only breathing is associated with altered sympathovagal balance, predominantly reflecting increased cardiac vagal activity.

[Deloria 1961] Ella Cara Deloria; Jay Brandon (translation). “The Origin of the Courting Flute: A Legend in the Santee Dakota Dialect”, Museum News of the W. H. Over Museum, Volume 22, Number 6, published by the State University of South Dakota, June 1961, pages 1–7. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Narratives of the Native American Flute, The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2), Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Demaine 2005] Erik D Demaine, Francisco Gomez-Martin, Henk Meijer, David Rappaport, Perouz Taslakian, Godfried T Toussaint, Terry Winograd, and David R Wood. “The Distance Geometry of Deep Rhythms and Scales”, 17th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry (CCCG '05), University of Windsor, Canada, August 10–12, 2005, 2005, pages 163–166. An expanded version of this paper is available in [Demaine 2008]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Demaine 2008] Erik D. Demaine, Francisco Gomez-Martin, Henk Meijer, David Rappaport, Perouz Taslakian, Godfried T. Toussaint, Terry Winograd, and David R. Wood. “The Distance Geometry of Music”, May 28, 2007, 38 pages, arXiv:0705.4085. This is a full version of [Demaine 2005]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We demonstrate relationships between the classic Euclidean algorithm and many other fields of study, particularly in the context of music and distance geometry. Specifically, we show how the structure of the Euclidean algorithm defines a family of rhythms which encompass over forty timelines (ostinatos) from traditional world music. We prove that these Euclidean rhythms have the mathematical property that their onset patterns are distributed as evenly as possible: they maximize the sum of the Euclidean distances between all pairs of onsets, viewing onsets as points on a circle. Indeed, Euclidean rhythms are the unique rhythms that maximize this notion of evenness. We also show that essentially all Euclidean rhythms are deep: each distinct distance between onsets occurs with a unique multiplicity, and these multiplicies form an interval 1, 2, ..., k-1. Finally, we characterize all deep rhythms, showing that they form a subclass of generated rhythms, which in turn proves a useful property called shelling. All of our results for musical rhythms apply equally well to musical scales. In addition, many of the problems we explore are interesting in their own right as distance geometry problems on the circle; some of the same problems were explored by Erdős in the plane.

[DeMallie 2001] Raymond J. DeMallie (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13: Plains, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 2001, 1376 pages, ISBN 0-16-050400-7 (978-0-16-050400-6). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

Publisher's description: 67 chapters on the Indians of the prairie and high plains of U.S. and Canada. Parts 1 and 2 compose the one volume.

[DeMaria 2004] Michael DeMaria (born 1962). “The Heart of Healing and the Native American Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2004, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2004, pages 5–6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DeMars 1986] James DeMars. Spirit Horses: for Cedar Flute, Percussion, Synthesizer and String Orchestra, 1986. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: A concerto for cedar flute, percussion, synthesizer and string orchestra performed by R. Carlos Nakai and the Nouveau West Chamber Orchestra.

[DeMars 1988] James DeMars. The Colors Fall: For Silver Flute and Cedar Flute, 1988. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: For silver flute and cedar flute performed by Eric Hoover and R. C. Nakai.

[DeMars 1988a] James DeMars. Tapestry V: For Cello, Alto Saxophone, Percussion, Cedar Flute and Synthesizer, 1988. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: For cello, alto sax., perc., cedar flute and synthesizer performed by the Tos ensemble.

[DeMars 1993] James DeMars. Two World Concerto: for Native American Cedar Flute and Orchestra, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: A concerto for Native American Cedar Flute and orchestra performed by R. Carlos Nakai and the Phoenix Symphony conducted by James Sedares.

[DeMars 1993a] James DeMars. Lake That Speaks: For Piano, Cello, Percussion, and Cedar Flute, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: For piano, cello, percussion, and cedar flute performed by the Tos ensemble.

[DeMars 2003] James DeMars. Crow Wing: Arranged for Oboe, English Horn and Native Flute, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: Arranged for oboe, English Horn and Native Flute.

[DeMars 2011] James DeMars. Premonitions of Christopher Columbus: For Native American Flute, Clarinet, Cello, Percussion and Piano, March 20, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: March 20, 2011 PREMONITIONS OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (15') for Native American Flute, Clarinet, Cello, Percussion and Piano. R. Carlos Nakai with the Williamson Ensemble for the Albiquiu Chamber Music Festival at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

[DeMars 2011a] James DeMars. Tarot: For Native American Flute and String Quartet, October 8, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: October 8, 2011 TAROT (34') for Native American Flute and String Quartet (world premiere.) R. Carlos Nakai with the Paul Neubauer Quartet for the Sedona Chamber Music Society concert series, Sedona Arizona.

[DeMars 2012] James DeMars. Desert Solitude: For Native American Flute and Orchestra, February 10, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Composer's description: Concerto for Native American Flute and Orchestra (world premiere.) R. Carlos Nakai with the Tucson Symphony conducted by George Hanson, Tucson Arizona.

[Deniz 2006] O. Deniz, S. Savci, E. Tozkoparan, D. I. Ince, M. Ucar, and Faruk Ciftci. “Reduced Pulmonary Function in Wind Instrument Players”, Archives of Medical Research, Volume 37, Number 4, 2006, pages 506–510, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.09.015. Publication 16624650 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract:
Background: Wind instrument playing requires a strenuous respiratory activity. Previous studies investigating effect of wind instrument playing on pulmonary function are equivocal.
Methods: In the present study, 34 male, non-smoker wind players in a military band were compared with 44 healthy non-smoker males by pulmonary function testing.
Results: All spirometric values including forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory flow in 25, 50, 75% of FVC, and during the middle half of the FVC were found significantly diminished in wind players. The class of wind instrument, brass or wood, showed no significant differences. FVC was significantly and negatively correlated with duration of practice.
Conclusions: It was concluded that pulmonary function in wind players might be diminished probably due to development of asthma or constant barotrauma during their playing. This fact should be considered in clinical evaluation of wind instrument players.

[Dennett 2013] Carrie L. Dennett and Katrina Kosyk. “Winds of Change: Ceramic Musical Instruments from Greater Nicoya”, contained in [Stockli 2013], 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we illustrate, describe, and examine the chronological development of ceramic musical instruments – especially aerophones of the ocarina family – from pre-Columbian Greater Nicoya, an archaeological region located in modern day northwest Costa Rica and Pacific Nicaragua. These instruments are subsequently compared to contemporaneous styles from surrounding archaeological regions, and followed by a brief discussion of potential functions and meanings. The overarching purpose of the present research, however, is to investigate aspects of change and continuity in the musical past of the region in order to evaluate traditional claims that periodic change in the material culture of the region was the result of sporadic “waves” of foreign migrants from central Mexico.
Translation: En el presente artículo describimos y examinamos el desarrollo cronológico de una colección de instrumentos musicales hechos de barro – especialmente de aerófonos de la familia de las ocarinas – provenientes de la Gran Nicoya precolombina, región arqueológica ubicada al noroeste de Costa Rica y la costa del Océano pacífico de Nicaragua. Luego hacemos una comparación de dichos instrumentos con estilos contemporáneos de regiones arqueológicas colindantes, seguida por una breve discusión acerca de sus posibles funciones y significados. No obstante, el objetivo principal del estudio es investigar los aspectos de cambio y continuidad en el pasado musical de la región, a fin de evaluar las afirmaciones tradicionales de que los cambios periódicos occurridos en la cultura material de la región fueron el resultado de “olas” esporádicas de migrantes extranjeros provenientes del centro de México.

[Densmore 1905] Frances Densmore (1867–1957). “The Songs of the Indian”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 5, Number 12, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, October 1905, pages 31–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1906] Frances Densmore. “"Ke-wa-kun-ah," The Homeward Way”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 7, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, May 1906, pages 18–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[Densmore 1906a] Frances Densmore. “The Song of Minagunz, the Ojibwa”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 7, Number 1, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, November 1906, pages 23–25. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1906b] Frances Densmore. “Three Indian Types”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 12, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, October 1906, pages 34–37. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Closing Summary: Three Indian types, the Grand Medicine man, who represents the best of the native life, the Indian guide who stands at the parting of the ways, and the industrious farmer, who has travelled far along the trail from the Indian Land of Yesterday, to the Land of the White Man's Tomorrow.

[Densmore 1906c] Frances Densmore. “A Plea for the Indian Harmonization of All lndian Songs”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 4, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, Feburary 1906, pages 14–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1906d] Frances Densmore. “An Ojibwa Council Fire”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 7, Number 2, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, December 1906, pages 21–24. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1906e] Frances Densmore. “Geronimo's Song”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 6, Number 6, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, April 1906, pages 30–31. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1907] Frances Densmore. “Two Dakota Songs”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 7, Number 6, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, April 1907, pages 32–34. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1907a] Frances Densmore. “An Onondaga Thanksgiving Song”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 7, Number 8, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, June 1907, pages 23–24. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1907b] Frances Densmore. “Death of Flatmouth, Chief of the Chippewas”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 8, Number 2, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, December 1907, pages 11–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1907c] Frances Densmore. “Songs of the Brown Children”, The Indian School Journal, Volume 8, Number 1, published by the United States Indian Industrial and Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, November 1907, pages 17–19. alternate title shown on back cover: Songs of the Red Children. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1909] Frances Densmore. “Scale Formation in Primitive Music”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 11, Number 1, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., January–March 1909, pages 1–12, ASIN B0008AUGJW. Scale Formation in Primitive Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Readings and Quotations on Silence

[Densmore 1910] Frances Densmore. Chippewa Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 45, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1910, 216 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 1995]. Publication chippewamusic01dens on Archive.org (open access). Contains 210 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Thirteen citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (5), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Densmore 1913] Frances Densmore. Chippewa Music II, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 53, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1913, 341 pages. Publication chippewamusic02dens on Archive.org (open access). Contains 183 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seventeen citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (6), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (5), Names of the Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (5)

[Densmore 1915] Frances Densmore. Indian Games and Dances, published by Summy Birchard Co., Austin, Texas, 1915. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1915a] Frances Densmore. “The Study of Indian Music”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 1, Number 2, April 1915, pages 187–197. Publication 737845 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication jstor-737845 on Archive.org (open access). The Study of Indian Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms, FAQ for the Native American Flute

[Densmore 1916] Frances Densmore. “Music in its Relation to the Religious Thought of the Teton Sioux, Holmes Anniversary Volume”, contained in [Hodge 1916], 1916, pages 67–79. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1918] Frances Densmore. Teton Sioux Music and Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 61, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1918, 561 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 2001] and [Densmore 2006]. Publication tetonsioux00densmore on Archive.org (open access). Contains 252 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Densmore 1920] Frances Densmore. “Recent Developments in the Study of Indian Music”, The Etude, Volume 38, Number 10, October 1920, page 670. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1922] Frances Densmore. Northern Ute Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 75, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1922, 213 pages, ASIN B001PNV1FY, hardcover. Reissued in [Densmore 2006a], [Densmore 2007], and [Densmore 2009]. Publication northernutemusic00dens on Archive.org (open access). Contains 116 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Densmore 1923] Frances Densmore. Mandan and Hidatsa Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 80, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1923, 232 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 2006b]. Publication bulletin801923smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 110 songs. Mandan and Hidatsa Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fourteen citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks, The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (3), Narratives of the Native American Flute (2), Origin of the Flageolet - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (4)

Foreward: A phase of Indian life hitherto untouched by the present writer is shown in this work. The Mandan and Hidatsa lived in houses which were grouped in permanent villages, their environment differing essentially from that of the Chippewa and Sioux in their camps or the Ute in the fastnesses of the mountains. The music of the latter tribes has been analyzed in previous works and a comparative statement of results is presented in this volume.

The songs of the Mandan and Hidatsa were recorded on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota during the summers of 1912 and 1915, an additional trip being made in 1918 to complete the material. This research was suggested by Dr. O. J. Libby, secretary of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, and the first season's work was under the auspices of that society. The subsequent work was under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

[Densmore 1925] Frances Densmore. “The Music of the American Indians”, Science, New Series, Volume 62, Number 1616, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 18, 1925, pages 565–566. Publication 1649080 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1926] Frances Densmore. The American Indians and Their Music, First Edition, published by The Woman's Press, New York, 1926, 152 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 2003]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (4), The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Densmore 1926a] Frances Densmore. “Music of the Tule Indians of Panama”, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 77, Number 11, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., April 16, 1926, 39 pages, retrieved March 24, 2011. Publication 2864. Publication smithsonianmisce771926smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America

Introduction: A remarkable opportunity for the study of primitive music was recently afforded by the presence of eight Tule Indians in Washington. These Indians were from the Isthmus of Darien in Panama and were brought to the United States by Mr. R. O. Marsh. The five adults in the group were of normal Indian color and the three children were fair, being examples of the "white Indians," whose occurrence among the Tule has caused the tribe to be known by that name. The Tule live on islands near the coast of the Caribbean Sea from San Bias Point to Armila, a distance of 120 miles. They also hold the San Bias Range of mountains on the mainland.

This study was done entirely with the adult members of the group during portions of November and December, 1924, and was made possible by the courtesy of Mr. Marsh. The work was under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.

[Densmore 1927] Frances Densmore. Handbook of the Collection of Musical Instruments in the United States National Museum, Bulletin of the United States National Museum, Volume 136, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1927, pages 1–164 + 48 plates. See the Smithsonian Institution Libraries web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1927a] Frances Densmore. “The Use of Music in the Treatment of the Sick by American Indians”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 13, Number 4, published by the Oxford University Press, October 1927, pages 555–565, doi:10.1093/mq/XIII.4.555. Reissued in [Densmore 1953b]. Publication 738291 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The human organism is like an orchestra and man, to some extent, is its conductor. There are large rhythms in which the organism acts as a whole, and small rhythms in which individual organs go through their parts. Health is the normal balance of all these rhythms, like the playing of an orchestra in which each instrument does its part and keeps its proper relation to the others. Sickness may be compared to the sound of the orchestra "tuning up" and recovery to the change when the conductor taps his baton and the instruments swing into rhythmic unity. If the conductor should fail to appear, it might happen that the players after their discordant, independent flourishes, would fold up their instruments and go away. That would be like the death of the body. One after another its organs cease to act, the rhythms cease and life's music is over. Rhythm, which has so large a part in life, is little represented in the white man's treatment of disease. To the Indian, rhythm and song are essential factors in the treatment of the sick, as will be shown in this article.

[Densmore 1927b] Frances Densmore. “The Study of Indian Music in the Nineteenth Century”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 29, Number 1, January–March 1927, pages 77–86. Publication 660782 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1929] Frances Densmore. Papago Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 90, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1929, 272 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 2006c]. Publication bulletin901929smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 169 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Flutopedia Image Detail: Yuma Flutes, The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (3)

[Densmore 1929a] Frances Densmore. Pawnee Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 93, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1929. Publication bulletin931929smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 88 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Densmore 1929b] Frances Densmore. Chippewa Customs, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 86, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1929, 204 pages. Publication bulletin861929smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 1 song. Chippewa Customs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2), Crafting Native American Flutes, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (3), Names of the Native American Flute (2), Native American Flute - Finger Hole Placement

Description by the Minnesota Historical Society Press: An authoritative source for the tribal history, customs, legends, traditions, art, music, economy, and leisure activities of the Ojibwe people.

[Densmore 1930] Frances Densmore. “Peculiarities in the Singing of American Indians”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 32, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1930, pages 651–660, doi:10.1525/aa.1930.32.4.02a00070 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Densmore 1931] Frances Densmore. “Music of the American Indians at Public Gatherings”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 17, Number 4, published by the Oxford University Press, October 1931, pages 464–479, doi:10.1093/mq/XVII.4.464. Publication 738810 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Densmore 1931a] Frances Densmore. “Music of the Winnebago, Chippewa, and Pueblo Indians”, contained in [Smithsonian 1931], 1931, pages 217–224. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1932] Frances Densmore. Yuman and Yaqui Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 110, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1932. Reissued in [Densmore 1982]. Publication bulletin1101932smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 130 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Names of the Native American Flute (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: Yuma Flutes, The Development of Flutes in North America, The Breckenridge Flute

[Densmore 1932a] Frances Densmore. Menominee Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 102, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1932. Publication bulletin1021932smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 141 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

22 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (6), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (10), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (6)

[Densmore 1932b] Frances Densmore. Songs of the Condoling and Installation Council of the League of the Iroquois — Recorded and Described by J. N. B. Hewitt. completed manuscript, unpublished. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1932c] Frances Densmore. “Recording Indian Music”, contained in [Smithsonian 1932], 1932, pages 183–190. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1933] Frances Densmore. Alibamu Music — Recorded and Described by J. N. B. Hewitt. completed manuscript, unpublished. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1933b] Frances Densmore. “Recording Seminole Songs in Florida”, contained in [Smithsonian 1933], 1933, pages 93–96. Publication explorationsfiel193032smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1934] Frances Densmore. “A Study of Indian Music in the Gulf States”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 36, Number 3, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., July–September 1934, pages 386–388. Publication 662151 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1934a] Frances Densmore. “The Songs of Indian Soldiers During the World War”, Musical Quarterly, Volume 20, Number 4, October 1934, pages 419–425, doi:10.1093/mq/XX.4.419. ISSN 0027-4631. Publication 738929 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1936] Frances Densmore. The American Indians and Their Music, Revised Edition, published by The Woman's Press, New York, 1936. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1936a] Frances Densmore. “Cheyenne and Arapaho Music”, Southwest Museum Papers, Number 10, Los Angeles, 1936. Reissued in [Densmore 2008]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1937] Frances Densmore. “The Alabama Indians and their Music”, Straight Texas, Number 13, published by the Texas Folk-lore Society, 1937, pages 270–293. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Densmore 1938] Frances Densmore. “Music of the Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico”, Southwest Museum Papers, Number 12, Los Angeles, 1938. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1939] Frances Densmore. Nootka and Quileute Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 124, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1939. Publication bulletin1241939smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 212 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1939a] Frances Densmore. “Musical Instruments of the Maidu Indians”, American Anthropologist, Volume 41, Number 1, January–March 1939, pages 113–118, doi:10.1525/aa.1939.41.1.02a00090 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Densmore 1940] Frances Densmore. Winnebago Music, Field Bureau American Ethnology. completed manuscript, unpublished; Manuscript 3261, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution description: Material includes manuscript "Winnebago Music," 362 typed pages, 50 illustrations (filed separately in original prints file, Bureau of American Ethnology File, Number 3261 part), transcriptions of 205 Winnebago songs, and 2 flute melodies (ca. 116 pages) marked "ready for publication" and submitted November 28, 1939; and original copies of 205 Winnebago songs received from the Densmore estate, ca. 1962. This manuscript was compiled from various Winnebago manuscripts submitted by the author to the Bureau of American Ethnology at intervals, 1927-1940.

[Densmore 1941] Frances Densmore. “Native Songs of Two Hybrid Ceremonies among the American Indians”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 43, Number 1, January–March 1941, pages 77–82. Publication 662989 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1942] Frances Densmore. “A Search for Songs Among the Chitimacha Indians in Louisiana”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 133, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1942, pages 1–16 + plates. Anthropological paper number 19. Publication bulletin1331943smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Densmore 1942a] Frances Densmore. “The Study of Indian Music”, The Smithsonian Report, Year 1941, 1942, pages 527–550. Publication 3671. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1943] Frances Densmore. “Music of the Indians of British Columbia”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 136, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1943, pages 1–100 + plates. Anthropological paper number 27. Publication bulletin1361943smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 98 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1943a] Frances Densmore. “Choctaw Music”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 136, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1943, pages 101–188 + plates. Anthropological paper number 28. Reissued in [Densmore 2007a] Choctaw Music. Publication bulletin1361943smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 69 songs. Choctaw Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Densmore 1943b] Frances Densmore. “Use of Meaningless Syllables in Indian Songs”, American Anthropologist, Volume 45, 1943, pages 160–162. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1944] Frances Densmore. “The Survival of Omaha Songs”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 46, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1944, pages 418–420. See the Omaha Tribe web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1944a] Frances Densmore. Omaha Music. completed manuscript, unpublished. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1944b] Frances Densmore. “Traces of Foreign Influences in the Music of the American Indians”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 46, Number 1, January–March 1944, pages 106–112. Publication 662930 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1948] Frances Densmore. “The Use of Music in the Treatment of the Sick by American Indians”, contained in [Schullian 1948], 1948, pages 25–46. Reissue of [Densmore 1927a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1950] Frances Densmore (recording, editor). Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Division of Music, Recording Laboratory, AFS L22, 1950, 78 rpm audio disc. Reissued in [Densmore 1982a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fourteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (7), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (7)

[Densmore 1952] Frances Densmore (recordings, editor); Duncan Emrich (liner notes). Songs of the Menominee, Mandan and Hidatsa, Folk Music of the United States, Issued from the Collections of the Archive of American Folk Song, The Library of Congress, Music Division Recording Laboratory, Long-playing record L33 (AFS L33), 30 tracks, 1952, ASIN B003UN55T0, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc with booklet. Field recordings made on wax cylinder and later transfered to 16'' acetate audio discs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

Description by Brian Wright-McLeod: Recorded by Frances Densmore between 1915 and 1929, with twenty-three Menominee songs, three Hidatsa songs, and three Mandan songs of societal and medicine lodges. From the Smithsonian-Densmore Wax Cylinder Collection 1910-1930.

[Densmore 1952a] Frances Densmore (recordings, editor); Duncan Emrich (liner notes). Songs of the Papago, Folk Music of the United States, Issued from the Collections of the Archive of American Folk Song, The Library of Congress, Music Division Recording Laboratory, Long-playing record L31 (AFS L31), 25 tracks, 1952, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc with booklet. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

[Densmore 1953] Frances Densmore. “Technique in the Music of the American Indian”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 151, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, pages 213–216. Anthropological paper number 36. Publication bulletin1511953smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1953a] Frances Densmore. “The Belief of the Indian in a Connection between Song and the Supernatural”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 151, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, pages 217–223. Anthropological paper number 37. Publication bulletin1511953smit on Archive.org (open access). The Belief of the Indian in a Connection between Song and the Supernatural Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

Introduction: An important phase of Indian music is known as the dream song, which is common to many tribes. These songs are not composed but are said to come to the mind of the Indian when he has placed himself in a receptive attitude. To this extent the source of the song is not unlike the inspiration sometimes experienced by composers of our own race, but the use of the song is entirely different. Our composer regards the song as a possible source of applause or wealth while the Indian connects it with mysterious power. An old Indian said to the writer, "If a man is to do something beyond human power he must have more than human strength." Song is a means through which that strength is believed to come to him.

[Densmore 1953b] Frances Densmore. “The Use of Music in the Treatment of the Sick by American Indians”, Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, Year Ending June 30, 1952, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, with 4 plates from photographs, pages 439–454, ASIN B0007G4AT4. Publication 4111. Reissue of [Densmore 1927a]. Publication annualreportofbo1952smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Two methods of treating the sick were used by the American Indians in early days and are continued to some extent at the present time. One method involves the private ministrations of a doctor or medicine man and the other a public ceremony, conducted by a number of doctors, attended by many people, and often continued for several days. Music is an important phase of each method and consists of singing by the doctor or his assitants and the shaking of a rattle or beating of a drum. The songs used in these treatments are said to come from supernatural sources in "dreams" or visions, and with them come directions for procedure and a knowledge of the herbs to be used.

[Densmore 1956] Frances Densmore. Seminole Music, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 161, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1956, 223 pages. Reissued in [Densmore 1995a]. Publication bulletin1611956smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 248 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1957] Frances Densmore. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 165, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1957, 117 pages, retrieved March 16, 2010. Reissued in [Densmore 1972] Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos, Music Reprint Series. Publication bulletin1651957smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 82 songs. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: About Flutopedia.com

[Densmore 1958] Frances Densmore. Music of the Maidu Indians of California, Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Fund Series, Publication Number 7, published by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, California, 1958, 67 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1965] Frances Densmore (field recording); Charles Hofmann (producer, liner notes). Healing Songs of the American Indians, Ethnic Folkways Library Series, Folkways Records and Service Corp., FE 4251, 19 tracks, 1965, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissued in [Densmore 2007b]. Library of Congress call number RA-67-26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Cover description: From the Smithsonian-Densmore Collection of the Archive of Folksong, Library of Congress. 19 songs with descriptive notes from 7 tribes Edited by Charles Hofmann. Recorded on location by Dr. Frances Densmore for the Bureau of American Ethnololgy, Smithsonian Institution.

[Densmore 1972] Frances Densmore. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos, Music Reprint Series, published by Da Capo Press, 1972. Reissue of [Densmore 1957] Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos. Music of Acoma, Isleta, Cochiti, and Zuñi Pueblos (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1982] Frances Densmore. Yuman and Yaqui Music, published by Scholarly Press, Incorporated, 1982, ISBN 0-403-03737-9 (978-0-403-03737-7). Reissue of [Densmore 1932]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1982a] Frances Densmore (recording, editor). Songs of the Chippewa: From the Archive of Folk Song, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress, Division of Music, Recording Laboratory, AFS L22, 1982, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissue of [Densmore 1950]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1995] Frances Densmore. Chippewa Music, published by Reprint Services Corp, September 1995, ISBN 0-7812-4045-X (978-0-7812-4045-1). Reissue of [Densmore 1910]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 1995a] Frances Densmore. Seminole Music, published by Reprint Services Corp., September 1995, 223 pages, ISBN 0-7812-4161-8 (978-0-7812-4161-8). Reissue of [Densmore 1956]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2001] Frances Densmore. Teton Sioux Music and Culture, published by the University of Nebraska Press, March 1, 2001, 589 pages, ISBN 0-8032-6631-6 (978-0-8032-6631-5). Reissue of [Densmore 1918]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2003] Frances Densmore. American Indians and Their Music, First Edition, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 26, 2003, 152 pages, ISBN 0-7661-7285-6 (978-0-7661-7285-2). Reissue of [Densmore 1926]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Music is closely intertwined with the life of every race. We understand the people better if we know their music, and we appreciate the music better if we understand the people themselves. A portion of this book is devoted to the history and customs of the Indians, and a portion to their music in its various phases.

[Densmore 2006] Frances Densmore. Teton Sioux Music and Culture, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, June 8, 2006, 728 pages, ISBN 1-4286-2912-2 (978-1-4286-2912-7). Reissue of [Densmore 1918]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2006a] Frances Densmore. Northern Ute Music, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 25, 2006, 240 pages, ISBN 1-4286-4767-8 (978-1-4286-4767-1), softcover. Reissue of [Densmore 1922]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2006b] Frances Densmore. Mandan and Hidatsa Music, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 9, 2006, 232 pages, ISBN 1-4286-3716-8 (978-1-4286-3716-0). Reissue of [Densmore 1923] Mandan and Hidatsa Music. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2006c] Frances Densmore. Papago Music, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 9, 2006, 272 pages, ISBN 1-4286-3715-X (978-1-4286-3715-3). Reissue of [Densmore 1929]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2007] Frances Densmore. Northern Ute Music, published by Library Reprints, August 15, 2007, 213 pages, ISBN 0-7222-4494-0 (978-0-7222-4494-4), library binding. Reissue of [Densmore 1922]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2007a] Frances Densmore. Choctaw Music, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, March 1, 2007, 104 pages, ISBN 1-4325-9668-3 (978-1-4325-9668-2), softcover. Anthropological Paper Number 28. Reissue of [Densmore 1943a] Choctaw Music. Choctaw Music (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

[Densmore 2007b] Frances Densmore (field recording); Charles Hofmann (producer, liner notes). Healing Songs of the American Indians, Smithsonian / Folkways Archival Series, Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings, FE 4251, 19 tracks, 2007, UPC 0-93070-42512-5, ASIN B00242VZVK, audio CD. Source archive: Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. Reissue of [Densmore 1965]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: When some American Indian medicine men and women were called upon to heal an ailing tribesmember, they would fast in order to receive a song in dream or vision instructing them in how to carry out the treatment of their patient. This is one of the many insights on American Indian healing practices reported by Dr. Frances Densmore. Over the course of 50 years, Dr. Densmore collected more than 2000 recordings of American Indian customs and traditions in song. Compiled in this CD are recordings of medicine men from a diverse representation of tribes singing and chanting those songs, delivered to them in dream by external powers and spirits, that they used to heal the sick.

[Densmore 2008] Frances Densmore. Cyeyenne and Arapaho Music, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, June 13, 2008, 116 pages, ISBN 1-4366-9457-4 (978-1-4366-9457-5), hardcover. Reissue of [Densmore 1936a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Densmore 2009] Frances Densmore. Northern Ute Music, published by the University of Michigan Library, April 27, 2009, 244 pages. Reissue of [Densmore 1922]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[Denton 1997] Christine Denton. The History of Musical Tuning and Temperament during the Classical and Romantic Periods, April 28, 1997, 8 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[dErrico 2003] Francesco d’Errico, Christopher Henshilwood, Graeme Lawson, Marian Vanhaeren, Anne-Marie Tillier, Marie Soressi, Frédérique Bresson, Bruno Maureille, April Nowell, Joseba Lakarra, Lucinda Backwell, and Michèle Julien. “Archaeological Evidence for the Emergence of Language, Symbolism, and Music — An Alternative Multidisciplinary Perspective”, Journal of World Prehistory, Volume 17, Number 1, published by Plenum Publishing Corporation, March 2003, pages 1–70. Publisher reference number: 0892-7537/03/0300-0001/0; ISSN: 0892-7537; EISSN: 1573-7802. Publication 25801199 on JSTOR (subscription access). See the Journal of World Prehistory web page. Archaeological Evidence for the Emergence of Language, Symbolism, and Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Gravettian culture flute (B) from Isturitz, Flutopedia Image Detail: Tracing of Gravettian culture flute (B) from Isturitz, Flutopedia Image Detail: Aurignacian culture flute from Isturitz, Flutopedia Image Detail: Gravettian culture flute (A) from Isturitz, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (3)

Abstract: In recent years, there has been a tendency to correlate the origin of modern culture and language with that of anatomically modern humans. Here we discuss this correlation in the light of results provided by our first hand analysis of ancient and recently discovered relevant archaeological and paleontological material from Africa and Europe. We focus in particular on the evolutionary significance of lithic and bone technology, the emergence of symbolism, Neandertal behavioral patterns, the identification of early mortuary practices, the anatomical evidence for the acquisition of language, the development of conscious symbolic storage, the emergence of musical traditions, and the archaeological evidence for the diversification of languages during the Upper Paleolithic. This critical reappraisal contradicts the hypothesis of a symbolic revolution coinciding with the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Europe some 40,000 years ago, but also highlights inconsistencies in the anatomically–culturally modern equation and the potential contribution of anatomically “pre-modern” human populations to the emergence of these abilities. No firm evidence of conscious symbolic storage and musical traditions are found before the Upper Paleolithic. However, the oldest known European objects that testify to these practices already show a high degree of complexity and geographic variability suggestive of possible earlier, and still unrecorded, phases of development.

[dErrico 2005] Francesco d’Errico, Christopher Henshilwood, Marian Vanhaeren, and Karen van Niekerk. “Nassarius kraussianus Shell Beads from Blombos Cave: Evidence for Symbolic Behaviour in the Middle Stone Age”, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 45, 2005, pages 3–24, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.09.002 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Since 1991, excavations at Blombos Cave have yielded a well-preserved sample of faunal and cultural material in Middle Stone Age (MSA) levels. The uppermost MSA phase, M1, is dated to c. 75 ka by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence, and the middle M2 phase to a provisional c. 78 ka. Artefacts unusual in a MSA context from these phases include bifacial points, bone tools, engraved ochre and engraved bone. In this paper, we describe forty-one marine tick shell beads recovered from these MSA phases and tick shell beads from Later Stone Age (LSA) levels at Blombos Cave and the Die Kelders site. Thirty-nine shell beads come from the upper M1 phase and two from M2. Morphometric, taphonomic and microscopic analysis of modern assemblages of living and dead tick shell demonstrate that the presence of perforated Nassarius kraussianus shells in the Blombos MSA levels cannot be due to natural processes or accidental transport by humans. The types of perforation seen on the MSA shells are absent on modern accumulations of dead shells and not attributable to post-depositional damage. Their location, size, and microscopic features are similar to those obtained experimentally by piercing the shell wall, through the aperture, with a sharp bone point. Use-wear, recorded on the perforation edge, the outer lip, and the parietal wall of the aperture indicates the shells having being strung and worn. MSA shell beads differ significantly in size, perforation type, wear pattern and shade compared to LSA beads and this eliminates the possibility of mixing across respective levels.

[DeRuby 1998] Stephen DeRuby. Rhythms to Accompany the Native Flute, SD52, 14 tracks, 1998, total time 47:00. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Getting Out of a RUT on the Native American Flute

[deSchauensee 1998] Maude de Schauensee. “The "Boat-Shaped" Lyre — Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur”, Expedition, Volume 40, Number 2, 1998, pages 20–8. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[deSchauensee 2002] Maude de Schauensee. Two Lyres from Ur, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2002, 125 pages, ISBN 0-924171-88-X (978-0-924171-88-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: During the 1928-29 season at Ur, in the Great Death Pit of the Royal Cemetery, C. Leonard Woolley discovered two spectacular musical instruments—a silver Boat-shaped Lyre and a magnificent lyre with the head of a bull made of gold sheet and a lapis lazuli beard. This book chronicles their history, conservation, and reconservation. While little was known about mid-third millennium Mesopotamian archaeology early last century, it was clear that the Sumerians had developed a vigorous trade in luxury goods, with an economy that necessitated a highly structured government whose leaders could command rich and elaborate graves that included a full panoply of musical instruments.

In meticulous detail, using both traditional methods and new X-ray and electronic imaging investigative techniques, Maude de Schauensee probes and analyzes the construction of the two lyres held by the University Museum while providing an economic, historical, and sociological context in which to better understand them. She examines the decorative motifs along with the materials and the techniques of the builders of these instruments. The illustrations—10 pieces of line art, 25 photographs, 6 CAT-scans, 5 X-rays, and 24 color plates—supply additional details. This book presents new information and conservation descriptions for the first time. Musicologists, art historians, Near East scholars and archaeologists, and general readers will find this book's new analysis of the instruments of an ancient culture of significant interest.

[deSousa 2012] Alexandra de Sousa and Eugénia Cunha. “Hominins and the Emergence of the Modern Human Brain”, Progress in Brain Research, Volume 195, 2012, pages 293–322, doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53860-4.00014-3. Publication 22230633 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Evidence used to reconstruct the morphology and function of the brain (and the rest of the central nervous system) in fossil hominin species comes from the fossil and archeological records. Although the details provided about human brain evolution are scarce, they benefit from interpretations informed by interspecific comparative studies and, in particular, human pathology studies. In recent years, new information has come to light about fossil DNA and ontogenetic trajectories, for which pathology research has significant implications. We briefly describe and summarize data from the paleoarcheological and paleoneurological records about the evolution of fossil hominin brains, including behavioral data most relevant to brain research. These findings are brought together to characterize fossil hominin taxa in terms of brain structure and function and to summarize brain evolution in the human lineage.

[Dessy-R 1996] Raymond Dessy, Lee Dessy; Nicholas S. Lander (HTML version). Wood, Oil and Water, March 18, 1996, retrieved December 22, 2010. Wood, Oil and Water Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deuel 1958] Thorne Deuel (1890–1984). American Indian Ways of Life — An Interpretation of the Archaeology of Illinois and Adjoining Areas, Story of Illinois Series, Number 9, Springfield, Illinois, 1958, 76 pages. Publication americanindianwa09deue on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 1975] Diana Deutsch. “Two-channel Listening to Musical Scales”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 57, Number 5, published by the Acoustical Society of America, May 1975, pages 1156–1160, doi:10.1121/1.380573 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 1999] Diana Deutsch (editor). Psychology of Music, Second Edition, published by the University of California, San Diego, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 2006] Diana Deutsch. “The Enigma of Absolute Pitch”, Acoustics Today, Volume 2, Number 4, 2006, pages 11–18, doi:10.1121/1.2961141 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 2008] Diana Deutsch, Kevin Dooley, and Trevor Henthorn. “Pitch Circularity from Tones Comprising Full Harmonic Series”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 124, Number 1, published by the Acoustical Society of America, July 2008, pages 589–597, doi:10.1121/1.2931957 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 2010] Diana Deutsch. “The Paradox of Pitch Circularity”, Acoustics Today, Volume 6, Number 3, July 2010, pages 8–15, doi:10.1121/1.3488670 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deutsch 2013] Diana Deutsch (editor). The Psychology of Music, Third Edition, published by Academic Press, 2013, 786 pages, ISBN 0-12-381460-X (978-0-12-381460-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The Psychology of Music serves as an introduction to an interdisciplinary field in psychology, which focuses on the interpretation of music through mental function. This interpretation leads to the characterization of music through perceiving, remembering, creating, performing, and responding to music.
In particular, the book provides an overview of the perception of musical tones by discussing different sound characteristics, like loudness, pitch and timbre, together with interaction between these attributes. It also discusses the effect of computer resources on the psychological study of music through computational modeling. In this way, models of pitch perception, grouping and voice separation, and harmonic analysis were developed. The book further discusses musical development in social and emotional contexts, and it presents ways that music training can enhance the singing ability of an individual.
The book can be used as a reference source for perceptual and cognitive psychologists, neuroscientists, and musicians. It can also serve as a textbook for advanced courses in the psychological study of music.

[Deutsch 2013a] Diana Deutsch. “Absolute Pitch”, Contained in [Deutsch 2013], 2013, pages 141–182, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-381460-9.00005-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

Summary: Absolute pitch (or perfect pitch) is the rare ability to name or produce a note of given pitch in the absence of a reference note. Its study has contributed to the understanding of critical periods in perceptual and cognitive development, relationships between language and music, the influence of language on perception, the brain substrates of specialized abilities, and the role of genetic factors in perception and cognition. This chapter discusses research on absolute pitch drawn from a wide variety of disciplines, including music, psychology, neuroscience, and genetics. The high prevalence of absolute pitch among tone language speakers is discussed, and it is argued that if infants were given the opportunity to associate pitches with meaningful words in infancy, they might readily develop the neural circuitry underlying absolute pitch at the time. Other sections concern the neuroanatomical substrates of absolute pitch, and the relationship between this ability and other abilities.

[Deva 1978] B. Chaitanya Deva. Musical Instruments of India, published by Firma KLM Private Limited, Calcutta, India, 1978, xiii + 306 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Diamond 1994] Beverley Diamond, M. Sam Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen. Visions of Sound: Musical Instruments of First Nation Communities in Northeastern America, published by the Wilfred Laurier University Press, Waterloo, 1994, xviii + 222 pages, ISBN 0-88920-228-1 (hardcover), 0-88920-242-7 (softcover). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Diamond 1994a] Beverley Diamond, M. Sam Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen. Visions of Sound: Musical Instruments of First Nation Communities in Northeastern America, Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology series, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1994, 240 pages, ISBN 0-226-14476-3 (978-0-226-14476-4), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Names of the Native American Flute (3)

Publisher's description: The most comprehensive study ever undertaken of the musical instruments of native people in Northeastern North America, Visions of Sound focuses on interpretations by elders and consultants from Iroquois, Wabanati, Innuat, and Anishnabek communities. Beverley Diamond, M. Sam Cronk, and Franziska von Rosen present these instruments in a theoretically innovative setting organized around such abstract themes as complementarity, twinness, and relationship. As sources of metaphor—in both sound and image—instruments are interpreted within a framework that regards meaning as "emergent" and that challenges a number of previous ethnographic descriptions. Finally, the association between sound and "motion"—an association that illuminates the unity of music and dance and the life cycles of individual musical instruments—is explored. Featuring over two hundred photographs of instruments, dialogues among the coauthors, numerous interviews with individual music makers, and an appended catalogue of over seven hundred instrument descriptions, this is an important book for all ethnomusicologists and students of Native American culture as well as general readers interested in Native American mythology and religious life.

[Diamond 2008] Beverley Diamond. Native American Music in Eastern North America: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture, published by Oxford University Press, 2008, 186 pages, ISBN 0-19-530104-8 (978-0-19-530104-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Native American Music in Eastern North America is one of many case-study volumes that can be used along with Thinking Musically, the core book in the Global Music Series. Thinking Musically incorporates music from many diverse cultures and establishes the framework for exploring the practice of music around the world. It sets the stage for an array of case-study volumes, each of which focuses on a single area of the world. Each case study uses the contemporary musical situation as a point of departure, covering historical information and traditions as they relate to the present. Visit www.oup.com/us/globalmusic for a list of case studies in the Global Music Series. The website also includes instructional materials to accompany each study.

Native American Music in Eastern North America is one of the first books to explore the contemporary musical landscape of indigenous North Americans in the north and east. It shows how performance traditions of Native North Americans have been influenced by traditional social values and cultural histories, as well as by encounters and exchanges with other indigenous groups and with newcomers from Europe and Africa. Drawing on her extensive fieldwork and on case studies from several communities—including the Iroquois, the Algonquian-speaking nations of the Atlantic seaboard, and the Inuit of the far north—author Beverley Diamond discusses intertribal celebrations, popular music projects, dance, art, and film. She also considers how technology has mediated present-day cultural communication and how traditional ideas about social roles and gender identities have been negotiated through music.

Enhanced by accounts of local performances, interviews with tribal elders and First Nations performers, vivid illustrations, and hands-on listening activities, Native American Music in Eastern North America provides a captivating introduction to this under-examined topic. It is packaged with an 80-minute audio CD containing twenty-six examples of the music discussed in the book, including several rare recordings. The author has also provided a list of eighteen songs representing a wide variety of styles—from traditional Native American chants to an Inuit collaboration with Bjork—that are referenced in the book and available as an iMix at www.oup.com/us/globalmusic.

[Diamond-J 1992] Jared Diamond. The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal, published by Harper Collins, 1992, 407 pages, ISBN 0-06-018307-1 (978-0-06-018307-3), ASIN 0060183071, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

From The Library Journal, by H. James Birx: Research biologist (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands) Diamond argues that the human being is just a third species of chimpanzee but nevertheless a unique animal essentially due to its capacity for innovation, which caused a great leap forward in hominoid evolution. After stressing the significance of spoken language, along with art and technology, Diamond focuses on the self-destructive propensities of our species to kill each other (genocide and drug abuse) and to destroy the environment (mass extinctions). He also discusses human sexuality, geographic variability, and ramifications of agriculture (metallurgy, cultivated plants, and domesticated animals). Absent from Diamond's work is the role religion plays in causing both war and the population explosion as well as long-range speculations on the future of our species. This informative, most fascinating, and very readable book is highly recommended for all libraries.

[Dibbell 1979] D. G. Dibbell, S. Ewanowski, W. L. Carter. “Successful Correction of Velopharyngeal Stress Incompetence in Musicians Playing Wind Instruments”, Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Volume 64, Number 5, November 1979, pages 662–664. Publication 504488 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Two professional musicians who played wind instruments developed velopharyngeal stress incompetence which prevented them from generating the high intraoral pressures required to play their instruments. In both cases, we did a V-Y pushback with a superiorly-based pharyngeal flap. At 1 1/2 and two years postoperatively, both patients remain free of velopharyngeal incompetence and are actively engaged in their musical careers.

[DiCarlo 2007] Nicole Scotto Di Carlo. “Effect of Multifactorial Constraints on Intelligibility of Opera Singing (I)”, Journal of Singing, Volume 63, Number 4, March/April 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The criticism most often made of opera singers is that they are difficult to understand. Is the lack of intelligibility in lyric art due to the singer’s poor diction, as generally believed, or to other causes? What happens when the frequency, intensity, and duration of the sound are considerably greater as they are in singing as opposed to speech? Are the acoustic structures of vowels and consonants preserved? Is syllabic isochrony maintained? How much can phonemes be lengthened without losing their identity? What happens when a singer pays particular attention to diction in order to improve the intelligibility of the words being sung? Are linguistic factors the only ones that alter intelligibility?

To answer each of these questions, let us first examine the linguistic factors that lessen the intelligibility of sung vowels, consonants, and syllables, before looking at the extralinguistic factors.

[DiCarlo 2007a] Nicole Scotto Di Carlo. “Effect of Multifactorial Constraints on Intelligibility of Opera Singing (II)”, Journal of Singing, Volume 63, Number 5, May/June 2007, pages 559–567. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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One citation: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

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[Diedrich 2015] Cajus G. Diedrich. “‘Neanderthal Bone Flutes’: Simply Products of Ice Age Spotted Hyena Scavenging Activities on Cave Bear Cubs in European Cave Bear Dens”, Royal Soceity Open Science, Volume 2, Article 140022, April 1, 2015, doi:10.1098/rsos.140022 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den.

[Diemer 1959] Emma Lou Diemer. Symphony No. 2 on American Indian Themes, 1959, total time 15 minutes. Premiered on March 23, 1959 by the Eastman-Rochester Symphony Orchestra, Howard Hanson conducting. The second movement, under the title "Night Song", won the Arthur Benjamin award for "tranquil music", 1959. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dietrich 1975] Manfried Dietrich and Oswald Loretz. “Kollationen zum Musiktext aus Ugarit «Collations to Music Text from Ugarit»”, Ugarit-Forschungen, Volume 7, in German, 1975, pages 521–522. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Diller 1992] Anthony V. N. Diller. “On the History of Tone-Marking in Asian Languages”, in The Third International Symposium on Language and Linguistics, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 628-638. Chulalongkorn University., 1992, pages 628–638. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dimitroff 1969] Lillian Dimitroff. An Annotated Bibliography of Audiovisual Materials Related to Understanding and Teaching the Culturally Disadvantaged, published by the National Education Association, Division of Educational Technology, Washington, D.C., 1969, 44 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This annotated bibliography lists films, filmstrips, and records concerning the appreciation, understanding, and teaching of the culturally disadvantaged. Its major emphasis is the inner city population. The materials cover a wide scope of subject matter, and no effort has been made to evaluate or select material. However, the description of each item makes the document a reference tool for many school and community groups. A major portion of the items are
designed to sensitize adults rather than to instruct children.

[Dimsdale 1995] Joel E. Dimsdale and Richard A. Nelesen. French-Horn Hypertension, New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 333, August 3, 1995, pages 326–327, doi:10.1056/NEJM199508033330522 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Dixon 1902] Roland Burrage Dixon (1875–1934). “Maidu Myths”, The Huntington California Expedition, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 17, Article 2, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, June 30, 1902, pages 33–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Narratives of the Native American Flute, Names of the Native American Flute

[Dixon 1905] Roland B. Dixon. “The Northern Maidu”, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 17, Part 3, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, May 1905, pages 119–346. The Northern Maidu Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Indigenous North American Flutes (2)

[Dodge 1878] Richard Irving Dodge. The Hunting Grounds of the Great West — A Description of the Plains, Game, and Indians of the Great North American Desert, Second Edition, published by Chatto & Windus, Piccadilly, London, 1878, 448 pages, retrieved January 9, 2010. The Hunting Grounds of the Great West Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Dodge-ES 1945] Ernest S. Dodge. “The Acoustics of Three Maori Flutes”, Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 54, Number 1, published by the Polynesian Society, March 1945, pages 39–61. Publication 20702995 on JSTOR (subscription access). The Acoustics of Three Maori Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DOE 2008] U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service, U.S. Department of Defense, and U.S. Department of the Interior - Fish and Wildlife Service. West-wide Energy Corridor Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Volumes 1-4, pubished by the West-side Energy Corridor Programatic Information Center, November 2008, 1640 pages. DOE/EIS-0386. See the West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic EIS Information Center. West-wide Energy Corridor Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Tribal Identification, A Timeline of Flute Development

[DOI 1839] U.S. Department of the Interior. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, printed by J. Gideon, Jr., Washington, D.C., 1839, 208 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DOI 1846] U.S. Department of the Interior. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, printed by T. Barnard, Washington, D.C., 1846, 196 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DOI 1879] U.S. Department of the Interior. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1879, 392 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DOI 1899] U.S. Department of the Interior. Statistics of Indian Tribes, Indian Agencies, and Indian Schools of Every Character, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1899, 172 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DOI 1914] U.S. Department of the Interior. Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior — For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30 1914, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1914, 201 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dolmetsch 2001] Dolmetsch Musical Instruments. Baroque / English Recorder Fingering Chart, published by the Dolmetsch Musical Instruments, Haslemere, Surrey, England, 2001, 3 pages, retrieved October 11, 2011. PDF file indicates the author as Brian Blood@MESH. See the Dolmetsch web site. Baroque / English Recorder Fingering Chart Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings, Native American Flute Finger Diagram Fonts and Images (2)

[Domenech 1860] Emanuel Henri Diendonné Domenech (1825–1886). Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America;Illustr. with 58 Woodcuts by A. Joliet, 3 Plates of Ancient Indian music, and a Map Showing the Actual Situation of the Indian Tribes and the Country Described by the Author, in Two Volumes, published by Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1860. Reissued in [Domenech 2009]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Domenech 2009] Abbe Em Domenech. Seven Years' Residence in the Great Deserts of North America, published by Bertrams Print On Demand, 2009, ISBN 1-116-64166-6 (978-1-116-64166-0). Reissue of [Domenech 1860]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dore 1962] Madeline Doré. “Bibliographie Américaniste — Anthropologie, Physiologie, Pathologie”, Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Volume 51, 1962, pages 167–265. See the JSA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dorrell 2005] Philip Dorrell. What is Music?, March 22, 2005, 324 pages, ISBN 1-4116-2117-4. What is Music? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dorsey 1888] J. Owen Dorsey (1848–1895). “Songs of the Hecucka Society”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 1, Boston and New York, 1888, pages 65–68. Contains 3 songs. Songs of the Hecucka Society Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Revision History (2)

[Dorsey 1888a] James Owen Dorsey. “Abstracts of Omaha and Ponka Myths”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 3, 1888, pages 204–208. Contains 2 songs. Abstracts of Omaha and Ponka Myths Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Dorsey 1888b] James Owen Dorsey. “Omaha Songs — Songs of the Inkugci Society, as given by Fred Merrick”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 3, 1888, pages 209–213. Omaha Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Dorsey 1889] J. Owen Dorsey. “Teton Folk-lore Notes”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 2, Number 5, April–June 1889, pages 133–139. Contains 3 songs. Teton Folk-lore Notes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Dorsey 1889a] J. Owen Dorsey. “Ponka and Omaha Songs”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 2, Number 6, October–December 1889, pages 271–276. Contains 11 songs. Ponka and Omaha Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Dorsey 1896] J. Owen Dorsey. Omaha Dwellings, Furniture, and Implements, Thirteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1891-'92, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1896, pages 263–288, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu1318911892smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Dougherty 1992] Cynthia M. Dougherty and Robert L. Burr. “Comparison of heart rate variability in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 70, Number 4, 1992, pages 441–448, doi:10.1016/0002-9149(92)91187-9. Publication 1642181 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Imbalances in autonomic nervous system function have been posed as a possible mechanism that produces ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest in patients with cardiovascular disease. Heart rate (HR) variability is described in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest within 48 hours after resuscitation using time and frequency domain analytic approaches. HR data were collected using 24-hour ambulatory electro-cardiograms in 16 survivors and 5 nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest, and 5 control subjects. Survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were followed for 1 year, with recurrent cardiac events occurring in 4 patients who died within that year. Analysis of 24-hour electrocardiograms demonstrated that control subjects had the highest HR variability (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 155.2 +/- 54 ms), with nonsurvivors demonstrating the lowest HR variability (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 52.3 +/- 6.1 ms) and survivors of sudden cardiac arrest falling between the other 2 groups (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 78 +/- 25.5 ms, p less than or equal to 0.0000). Two other indexes of HR variability (mean number of beat to beat differences in RR intervals greater than 50 ms/hour and root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals) did not demonstrate the expected pattern in this sample, indicating that perhaps patterns of HR variability differ between groups of patients with cardiovascular disorders. Spectral analytic methods demonstrated that survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had reduced low- and high-frequency spectral power, whereas nonsurvivors demonstrated a loss of both low- and high-frequency spectral power. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly correlated with standard deviation of all RR intervals and standard deviation of the mean of RR intervals for 5-minute segments. One-year mortality in the survivor group of cardiac arrest was inversely related to several variables including age, standard deviation of all RR intervals, and low frequency power.

[Douglass 1896] Andrew Ellicott Douglass (1867–1962). “A Table of the Geographical Distribution of American Indian Relics in a Collection Exhibited in the American Museum of Natural History, New York: With Explanatory Text”, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 8, Article 10, published by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1896, pages 199–220. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Douglass 1935] A. E. Douglass. Dating Pueblo Bonito and Other Ruins of the Southwest, published by the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 1935, 74 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito

[Douglass 1936] A. E. Douglas. “The Central Pueblo Chronology”, Tree Ring Bulletin, Volume 2, Number 4, April 1936, pages 29–34. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dowley 2011] Tim Dowley. Christian Music: A Global History, published by Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2011, 264 pages, ISBN 0-8006-9841-X (978-0-8006-9841-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Tim Dowley's popular history of Christian music is the first to encompass all eras, regions, and varieties of this rich and vast treasure. From its Jewish origins, through medieval chant and hymns, to gospel and rock, Christian music around the world is harmonized beautifully in this colorfully illustrated survey. Dowley travels beneath the plurality of forms and styles to pose questions about the meaning of diverse traditions. His skillful narrative and fascinating insights from specialists combine for a truly global history of Christianity's musical culture.

[Downes 1998] Andrew Downes (born 1950). Concerto for Native American Flute and Strings, 1998. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Andrew Downes' Concert for Native American Flute and Strings, the first concerto ever composed for this exquisite instrument of the North American Indians, was conceived during and after the composer made several visits to New Mexico in the mid to late 1990s to hear performances of some of his other works.

[Doyle 2000] Kevin Doyle. Lenape Dictionary, October 2000, 76 pages. Version 1.1. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Dreamer 1999] Oriah Mountain Dreamer. The Invitation, First Edition, published by HarperOne, 1999, 136 pages, ISBN 0-06-251584-5 (978-0-06-251584-1), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

[Drelinger 1992] Sanford Drelinger. “Flute Headjoint”, United States Patent 5,105,705, Granted April 21, 1992, 12 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Flute Headjoint Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Driver 1937] Harold E. Driver. Culture Element Distributions: VI - Southern Sierra Nevada, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1937, pages 53–154. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Driver 1938] Harold E. Driver. Culture Element Distributions: VIII - The Reliability of Culture Element Data, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 4, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1938, pages 205–219. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Driver 1939] Harold E. Driver. Culture Element Distributions: X - Northwest California, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 6, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1939, pages 297–433. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Driver 1941] Harold E. Driver. Culture Element Distributions: XVI - Girls' Puberty Rites in Western North America, Anthropological Records, Volume 6, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1941, pages 21–90. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Driver 1969] Harold Driver. “Indians of North America”, 1969. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Drucker 1937] Philip A. Drucker. Culture Element Distributions: V - Southern California, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 1, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1937, pages 1–51. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Drucker 1941] Philip A. Drucker. Culture Element Distributions: XVII - Yuman-Piman, Anthropological Records, Volume 6, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1941, pages 91–230. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Drucker 1950] Philip A. Drucker. Culture Element Distributions: XXVI - Northwest Coast, Anthropological Records, Volume 9, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1950, pages 157–294. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dube 2004] Richard Alain Dubé. “Making and Playing PVC Replicas of the Native American Flute with Your Students”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2004, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2004, pages 9–11. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dube 2007] Richard Alain Dubé. Songs of the Spirit — Attending to Aboriginal Students’ Emotional and Spiritual Needs Through a Native American Flute Curriculum, M.Ed. dissertation – University of Saskatchewan, Canada, Saskatoon, April 2007, 184 pages. Reissued in [Dube 2008]. Songs of the Spirit Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This narrative inquiry explores how the “Songs of the Spirit” Native American Flute curriculum, a culturally-responsive curriculum which involves learning to make and play a PVC version of the Native American Flute while learning the cultures and histories of this First Nations instrument, impacted spiritual and emotional aspects of the learning and lives of Aboriginal students, their families, their parents, and their school community. My research took place at an urban Aboriginal high school in Saskatchewan from January to March, 2006. I conducted recorded conversations with three students, two parents, two teachers, two administrators, two Elders, a former principal, a former school caretaker, an artistic director, and the young woman who inspired the Heart of the City Piano Program, a volunteer driven community piano program, in the fall of 1995. Aboriginal individuals, who have too often been silenced in education and in society (Giroux, 1997; Freire, 1989; Fine, 1987; Greene, 1995 & 1998; Grumet, 1999), were provided with a voice in this research.

Because of the voices of my research participants, I chose to use the Medicine Wheel and Tipi Teachings (Lee, 2006; Kind, Irwin, Grauer, & de Cosson, 2005) as a lens (Greene, 1995) rather than situating my research in a traditional Eurocentric body of literature. Along this journey, I reflected inwards and outwards, backwards and forwards on how my past storied experiences (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) shaped my teaching practices and way of being in the world today. To better understand the hurt I observed and which was described by research participants as present in the lived lives and circumstances of many Aboriginal people, I moved backward in time as I reviewed the literature on the Residential School experience and gained a deeper sense of the impact of colonialism on generations of Aboriginal people. This inquiry foregrounded how hearing and playing the Northern Spirit Flute impacted the emotional and spiritual aspects of students’ being, and contributed to a process of healing. When participants heard the music, “it [sounded] so eloquent and so spiritual. It [was] almost like the flute [was] weeping,” (Onawa Gaho, Recorded conversation, March 17, 2006, p. 5) bringing about “a calmness to the anger that some [Aboriginal students] have” (Sakima Qaletaqa, Recorded conversation, March 15, 2006, pp. 25-26).

The research findings indicate that the “Songs of the Spirit” curriculum, in honoring the holistic nature of traditional First Nations cultures and teachings, invites Aboriginal students functioning in “vigilance mode” to attend to their emotional and spiritual needs. They speak to a need for rethinking curricula in culturally-responsive ways, for attending to the importance of the arts in education, and for reforming teacher education. Sound files of the Northern Spirit Flute and selected research conversations have been embedded within the electronic version of this thesis to allow the reader to walk alongside me and share in my research journey.

[Dube 2008] Richard Alain Dubé. Songs of the Spirit — Attending to Aboriginal Students’ Emotional and Spiritual Needs Through a Native American Flute Curriculum, published by VDM Verlag, 2008, 132 pages, ISBN 3-639-09987-7 (978-3-639-09987-4). Reissue of [Dube 2007] Songs of the Spirit — Attending to Aboriginal Students’ Emotional and Spiritual Needs Through a Native American Flute Curriculum. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dube 2009] Richard Alain Dubé. Songs of the Spirit — Student Booklet, June 2009, 20 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dube 2012] Richard Alain Dubé. “The Story of the One-Handed Northern Spirit Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2012, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DuBois 1905] Constance Goddard DuBois (1869–1934) (collector); José Trinidad, Laguna Jim, Ha-ta-kek, and other unidentified musicians (performers). Diegueño Indians Circa 1905 Sound Recording, 1905, audio cylinder. 15 cylinders: 170 rpm, coarse groove; 2 1/8″ x 4 1/4″. Recorded by DuBois ca. 1905 at Warner's Ranch in San Jose [?] and at other unidentified locations in California during the Ethnological and Archeological survey of California conducted by University of California, Berkeley; sound quality fair to good. Indiana University, Bloomington - Archives of Traditional Music (B-ATM) call number 54-113-F ATL 8790 and ATL 8790. Diegueño Indians Circa 1905 Sound Recording Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1963] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin (1907–1997). “Découverte d'une Gamme Babylonienne «Discovery of a Babylonian Scale»”, Revue de Musicologie, Volume 49, Number 126, published by the Société Française de Musicologie, in French, July 1963, pages 3–17. Publication 927207 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1981] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. “Music in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3 (Archaeology and Musical Instruments), published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., February 1981, pages 287–297, doi:10.1080/00438243.1981.9979803. Publication 124240 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Abstract: Almost all categories of instruments were represented in Mesopotamia and Egypt, from clappers and scrapers to rattles, sistra, flutes, clarinets, oboes, trumpets, harps, lyres, lutes, etc. As early as 2600 B.C. harps and lyres are attested at Ur. In the New Kingdom, Egypt borrowed several instruments from Mesopotamia: the angular vertical harp, square drum, etc. The organ, invented in Ptolemaic Egypt, is first attested in its new, non-hydraulic form in the third century A.D. Hama mosaic. Musical theory, based on the heptatonic system with seven scales and modes is found in Mesopotamia as early as the eighteenth century B.C. This theory is reflected in a musical score written beneath a Hurrite hymn of the fourteenth century B.C.

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. A Hurrian Musical Score from Ugarit: The Discovery of Mesopotamian Music, Sources from the Ancient Near East, Volume 2, Number 2, published by Undena Publications, Malibu, California, 1984, 32 pages, ISBN 0-89003-158-4 (978-0-89003-158-2), ASIN B0006YMP3U, monograph and audio cassette. ISSN 0732-6424. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Abstract: The discovery of a Babylonian musical theory, published by the author in 1963, has repeatedly been confirmed by further discoveries, notably by that of a Hurrian tablet containing a musical notation. Of this notation, three interpretations have been offered so far. This is a fourth one.

Nothing was known about Babylonian music, apart from instruments, until a Babylonian tablet (in The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania) was published by Ann Kilmer in 1960 and interpreted by the present author in 1963. It revealed the existence of a theory of the scale. This discovery created quite a stir among scholars and made it possible for an asyriologist, 0. Gurney, and a musicologist, D. Wulstan, to interpret an unknown fragment in the British Museum which gives a method for passing from one mode to another, thus proving the existence of seven modes as far back as the 18th century B.C - The next step was the publication, in 1970, of a Hurrian tablet of the 14th century B.C. found at Ugarit (Syria) containing a musical score the interpretation of which is very difficult. Three attempts have been made so far. A fourth one is offered here with a recording made at Lihge in 1975 by a talented group of amateur singers specialized in ancient music. This theory is based on the assumption that polyphony never existed in the Middle East, and confirmed by a comparison with traditional Jewish psalm-songs and ancient Syro-Chaldean Christian liturgical melodies.

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984a] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. “Déchiffrement de la musique babylonienne «Decryption of Babylonian Music»”, Accademia dei Lincei, Quaderno, Volume 236, Rome, Italy, in French, 1977. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Duffin 2008] Ross W. Duffin. How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony (and Why You Should Care), published by W. W. Norton, 2008, 208 pages, ISBN 0-393-33420-1 (978-0-393-33420-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997a] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. Götterzahlen and Scale Structure, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997b] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. The Uruk Lute: Elements of Metrology, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997c] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. The Morphology of the Babylonian Scale, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1998] Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill. The Musicology and Organology of the Ancient Near East, ANE Series, published by Tadema Press, London, 1998, 670 pages, ISBN 0-9533633-0-9 (978-0-9533633-0-8), hardcover. Reissued in [Dumbrill 2005]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2005] Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill; Yumiko Higano (illustrations). The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East, Second Edition, published by Trafford Publishing, 2005, 530 pages, ISBN 1-4120-5538-5 (978-1-4120-5538-3). Reissue of [Dumbrill 1998]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nineteen citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (17), Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets (2)

[Dumbrill 2008a] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Four Tables from the Temple Library of Nippur: A Source for 'Plato's Number' in Relation to the Quantification of Babylonian Tone Numbers”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 27–38. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The four cuneiform texts discussed here were originally published by Hilprecht in his twentieth volume of the Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1906. They came from the temple library of Nippur and were part of some 7000 texts and fragments Hilprecht catalogued. The volume lists the texts as numbers 20, Rev.; 21, Rev.; 22, Obv. and 24, Rev. They are dated about 2200 BC. (Tables I-IV).

Hilprecht refers to the texts as tables of multiplication and division. However, the purpose for these peculiar operations was not fully understood, mainly for the reason that in the early twentieth century, texts of theory, specifically UET VII 74 and 126; CBS 1766 and 10996, had not yet been satisfactorily interpreted. Although Hilprecht saw similarities with 'Plato's number' as laid out in Republic, Book VIII, He did not perceive that the lacunae of certain numbers, in addition to other mathematical purposes, were also the consequence of their relation to music theory.

The thesis is constructed from the premise that these omissions, in our present knowledge of Babylonian mathematics, cannot suit, in practice, any other systems such are enunciated, principally, in UET VII 74; UET VII 126; CBS 1766 and CBS 10996.

[Dumbrill 2008b] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Is the Heptagram in CBS 1766 a Dial?”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 47–50. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Introduction: The heptagram on the tablet is inscribed within two concentric circles. The sevenpoints of the heptagram are labelled with the names of musical strings and with numbers. This paper will argue that this was the representation of a dial showing the construction of the heptatonic scale and the location of the seven modes originating from each of its degrees.

[Dumbrill 2008c] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “The Earliest Evidence of Heptatonism in a Late Old Babylonian Text: CBS 1766”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 1–18. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Dumbrill 2008d] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Evidence and Inference in Texts of Theory in the Ancient Near East”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 105–116. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Dumbrill 2009] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Babylonian Quantification of Pitches and its Influence on Music Theory of the Abbasids and the Renaissance”, Musical Traditions in the Middle East: Reminiscences of a Distant Past, Conference on Ancient Near East Musicology, Leiden University, December 10-12, 2009, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2010] Richard Dumbrill. “Mesopotamian Origins of Heptatonism”, Music and Numbers, May 14–15, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2010a] Richard Dumbrill. “Music Theorism in the Ancient World”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 107–132, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: Music was born with mankind as one of his essential functions and developed with his evolution. The psychogenesis of writing and its later voicing was the cause of theoricism. Musical instruments developed as extension therefore replication of the voice and became tools for the quantification of the ethereal nature of sound. This thesis exposes that the production of just or natural intervals was the reason for the usage of sexagesimalism and why it became a major system for the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians.

[Dunham 1974] Dows Dunham and William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III — G 7530-7540, Giza Mastabas, Volume 1, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1974. See the Giza Digital Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dunning 2006] Charles Yona Galohisdi Dunning and Phil Penne. 50 Hymns & Carols Arranged for the Native American Flute (song book), self-published, 2006, ASIN B002AD2IV4, spiral binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Duran 1990] Cheryl Metoyer-Duran. Checklist, Meeting Ground, Biannual Newsletter of the D'Arcy McNickle Center, Issue 23, published by The Newberry Library, 60 West Walton Street, Chicago, Illinois 60610-3380, Summer 1990. "Checklist" was based on criteria provided by Center advisor, Cheryl Metoyer-Duran, UCLA School of Library and Information Sciences. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Cultural Considerations for Facilitators

[Duthu 2008] Bruce N. Duthu and Colin G. Calloway. American Indians and the Law, published by Viking, New York, 2008, 304 pages, ISBN 0-670-01857-0, hardcover. Reissued in [Duthu 2009]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

From Publishers Weekly: Hundreds of Native American tribes are classified as sovereign governments, a murky legal status that this study (part of the Penguin Library of American Indian History) struggles to clarify. Duthu, a law professor and member of the Houma tribe, reviews statute and case law on tribal sovereignty, especially recent Supreme Court decisions that are at odds with Congress's modern friendliness toward tribal self-determination. His dense, dry survey explores such topics as tribal jurisdiction over non-Indians living on reservations, tribal natural resources and environmental policy, adoption law for Indian children and the perennial wrangling between tribal and state governments over taxes, regulation and gambling. Roiling these issues are two conflicts: the clash between tribal sovereignty and congressional power to legislate on Indian affairs, and the tension between tribal group rights and individual rights. Duthu's sympathies are clear: he dismisses critics of special tribal rights as ignorant and castigates infringements of tribal sovereignty as motivated by neocolonialist views of Indians as a dying race; but his focus on legal precedent and convention regarding tribal sovereignty rather than its concrete benefits fails to make a compelling case for the necessity of such sovereignty.

[Duthu 2009] Bruce N. Duthu and Colin G. Calloway. American Indians and the Law, Penguin Reprint Edition, The Penguin Library of American Indian History, published by Penguin, New York, 2009, 304 pages, ISBN 0-14-311478-6 (978-0-14-311478-9), softcover. Reissue of [Duthu 2008]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dutton 1999] Lee S. Dutton. Anthropological Resources: A Guide to Archival, Library, and Museum Collections, published by Taylor & Francis, 1999, 517 pages, ISBN 0-8153-1188-5 (978-0-8153-1188-1), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings (2)

Publisher's description: This work provides access to information on the rich and often little known legacy of anthropological scholarship preserved in a diversity of archives, libraries and museums. Selected anthropological manuscripts, papers, fieldnotes, site reports, photographs and sound recordings in more than 150 repositories are described. Coverage of resources in North American repositories is extensive while Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Australia and certain other countries are more selectively represented. Entries are arranged by repository location and most contributors draw upon a special knowledge of the resources described. Contributors include James R. Glenn (National Anthropological Archives), Elizabeth Edwards and Veronica Lawrence (Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford), Francisco Demetrio, S.J. (Museum and Archives, Xavier University, Philippines) and many others. The guide covers selected documentation in social and cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology and folklore. Somemajor area studies collections (such as the Asia Collections, Cornell University Libraries, and the Melanesian Archive at the University of California, San Diego) are also represented. Web URLs have been cited when available and personal, and ethnic name indexes are provided.

[Dworsky 2000] Alan L. Dworsky and Betsy Sansby. How to Play Djembe — West African Rhythms for Beginners, published by Dancing Hands Music, 2000, 96 pages, ISBN 0-9638801-4-4 (978-0-9638801-4-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This book is a complete, step-by-step, user friendly course on how to play djembe. Right from the start, in addition to learning how to make all the basic strokes, you'll be learning interlocking parts for some of the most popular West African rhythms; Kuku, Djole, Kassa, Madan, Suku, Sunguru Bani and Thiba. After working through only a few lessons, you'll be able to put the parts together and start playing these irresistible rhythms with your friends. The rhythms are written in simple charts, so no music reading is required. The CD that comes with the book gives you a chance to hear how each part sounds separately and how the parts for each rhythm fit together. It was recorded by John Camara, a master drummer from Bamako, Mali. Each rhythm lasts at least five minutes, so you'll have plenty of time to play along. And when John solos during the final three minutes of each track, you'll feel the thrill of playing your part along with an ensemble and lead drummer.

 
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