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Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa

This page provides a listing of ethnographic and reference recordings from Africa that are related to world flutes. They are sorted chronologically.

Please refer to the Ethnographic Flute Recordings Overview Page for background on these listings.

For an interesting take on parallels and possible connections abetween North American and African melodies, see [Herzog 1944] African Influences in North American Indian Music.

Ethnographic Flute Recordings from Africa

These entries are sorted by the date (sometimes approximate) of the recording.

The term “collector” is used to indicate the researcher who oversaw the effort to record the material. In many cases, this person also serves as the recording engineer, although this role is typically not specified.

In the case of the publication of multiple editions of the audio material on different media (for example, LP, cassette, and compact disc), only the most recent edition is cited. However, the text of liner notes from earlier editiions is sometimes provided. Click on the citation tag to see the listing of all published editions.

Ganda musician playing
the notched flute
"endere”. Photo: J. F.
Cunningham, 1905

Ganda musician playing
the notched flute
"endere”. Photo: J. F.
Cunningham, 1905 Larger image

[Stanley-K 1902] Kadu Stanley (performer); Carl Meinhof (collector) (1857–1944). Praise Song to the Ganda kings Mutesa, Mwanga and Chwa. Solo flute (endere), Ganda culture. Recorded 1902, Kingasi, Zanzibar, Length: 1:38.
» Recording published in MusikWeltKarte — Der Edison-Phonograph und die musikalische Kartographie der Erde «The World Map of Music - The Edison Phonograph and the Musical Cartography of the Earth»1 (CD-ROM [Wegner 2007]).
» Background on Kadu Stanley The Kilima-Njaro Expedition — A Record of Scientific Exploration in Eastern Equatorial Africa. And a General Description of the Natural History, Languages, and Commerce of the Kilima-Njaro District ([Johnston-HH 1886]).
» Recording also listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»2 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 566, item 83 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin3, Berlin, Germany.

1Wegner's notes: Praise song to the Ganda kings Mutesa, Mwanga and Chwa, played on the notched flute "endere" by Kadu Stanley from Buganda
Cylinder recording: Carl Meinhof
Collection "Meinhof Ostafrika", cylinder 83 a
Kingasi, Zanzibar, 1902
The area in East Africa between Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Albert was the home of several kingdoms. The King of Buganda reigned over the largest and most powerful kingdom. Historians can follow the history of Buganda back into the 14th century.
The first European visitors in 1862 were in for a surprise: Buganda was a highly organized state that knew separation of powers and made use of a strictly organized administration. They had their own architecture, and the people dressed in a manner that was appealing to European eyes. In short: The popular view of the “primitive Negro race” had to be thoroughly revised.
The Ganda were generally known as excellent flute players. Young Ganda had a flute with them when they tended the livestock grazing in the fields. Travelers took the small, light instrument with them on their foot journeys. The flute was also good enough for ceremonies at the royal court.
“Then a group of musicians passed me by. They wore two long-haired goatskins on their back, and they danced like bears at the fair as they passed me. They played on cane flutes. These were studded with beautiful pearls in various patterns. Leopardskins hung down from them. Hands beat the rhythm on long drums.” Such reported Jan Hanning Speke in 1862. The “flutists of the King,” the “abalere gwa Kabaka”, had just danced past him. His host, King Mutesa I, as it turned out later, was an excellent flute player himself.

2Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Meinhof Ostafrika
Vorliegende Dokumentation nach einer maschinenschriftlichen Version. Wichtige handschriftliche
Zusätze sind kursiv wiedergegeben. Liste vollständig.
Ostafrikanische Phonogramme, augen. v. Prof. C. Meinhof 1902/03
83) a) Ganda Flöte. Lied auf die Kondje Mtesa, Mwanga, Chua,
Mwanya, Mtesa. Gespielt v. Kadu Stanley aus Uganda in
Kinngasi. Aufg. Sansibar Aug. 02.

Meinhof East Africa
This documentation is for a typed version. Important handwritten
Additions are shown in italics. List completely.
East African phonograms, eyes. by Prof. C. Meinhof 1902/03
83) a) Ganda flute. Song on the Kondje Mtesa, Mwanga, Chua,
Mwanya, Mtesa. Played Kadu v. Stanley from Uganda
Kinngasi. Exer. Zanzibar Aug. 02

³SMB-digital database record: Meinhof Ostafrika; Walzensammlung
Carl Meinhof (23.7.1857 - 10.2.1944), Sammler
Aufnahmejahr: 1902-1903
Aufnahmeort: Bumbuli, Daressalam, Kinngasi (auf Sansibar), Lutindi, Magila, Tanga
Kontinent: Afrika; Region: Ostafrika
Ethnie: Araber, Bondei, Chosa, Digo, Dschagga, Ganda, Gujarathi, Hehe, Jao, Kamba, Komoro, Kwavi, Lundi, Makua, Nanyema, Massai, Mbugu, Mbulunge, Ndengereko, Ndorabbo, Ngoni, Nyamwezi, Nyanja, Nyatulu, Schambala, Segedju, Suaheli, Taita, Zalamo, Zigua
Ident.Nr. VII WS 219
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description: Beschriftung der Galvanos ist Meinhof Ostafrika. Die Walzen wurden dem PHA 1909 übergeben (Brief Meinhofs an Hornbostel v. 7.8.1909). Galvanisiert wurden nur die Musikaufnahmen (insgesamt 44 Walzen). Es liegt eine ausführliche handschriftliche Dokumentation vor, worin die Walzennummern nicht der Reihenfolge nach aufeinander folgen. W. 17 wurde als Nr. 114 in die Dem.coll. übernommen. Korrespondenz vorhanden. Keine (?) Transkriptionen. Weitere Unterlagen wurden bisher nicht gefunden. W. 17 ist veröffentlicht auf der CD 100 Jahre (1/29), Kommentar Gerhard Kubik.

Meinhof East Africa; roll collection
Carl Meinhof (23.7.1857 - 10.2.1944), collector
Recording year: 1902-1903
Location: Bumbuli, Dar es Salaam, Kinngasi (Zanzibar), Lutindi, Magila, Tanga
Continent: Africa, Region: East Africa
Ethnicity: Arab, Bondei, Khosa, Digo Dschagga, Ganda, Gujarathi, Hehe, Jao, Kamba Comoro, Kwavi, Mardi, Makua, Nanyema, Masai, Mbugu, Mbulunge, Ndengereko, Ndorabbo, Ngoni, Nyamwezi, Nyanja, Nyatulu, Shambhala, Segedju, Swahili, Taita, Zalamo, Zigua
Ident.Nr. VII WS 219
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: Marking the masters is Meinhof East Africa. The rolls were handed over to the PHA 1909 (Meinhof's letter to von Hornbostel 07/08/1909). Galvanized were only the music recordings (a total of 44 rolls). There is a detailed hand-written documentation, wherein the rolling numbers do not follow each other in sequence. W. was 17 as No. 114 in the Dem.coll. adopted. Correspondence exists. No (?) Transcriptions. Other documents have not been found. W. 17 is released on CD 100 years (1/29), Gerhard Kubik comment.


Wax cylinder recording
Photo W. Lentz
Shuk, Nuristan, Afganistan

Wax cylinder recording
Photo W. Lentz
Shuk, Nuristan, Afganistan Larger image

[Salah 1903-01] Salah (performer); Paul Träger (collector) (1867–1933). Bauchtanzlied «Belly Dance Song». Fhal solo, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1903, Tunis, Tunisia, Length: 2:09.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 845, item 7 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Transcription and analysis in Phonographierte tunesische Melodien «Recorded Tunisian Melodies» ([Hornbostel 1907]), page 18-19, transcription 12b.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin2, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Traeger Tunesien
Vorliegende Dokumentation nach der im Haus verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste.
[This documentation is in the house after the typewritten list.]
Tunesische Phonogramme aufgenommen von Dr. Paul Traeger Tunis 1903.
[Tunisian sound recordings taken by Dr. Paul Traeger Tunis 1903]
(vgl. E.M. von Hornbostel. Phonographierte tunesische Melodien, Sammelbände der internationalen Musikgesellschaft 8. 1906-07.)
[(see EM von Hornbostel. Phonographierte Tunisian melodies, collections of international Music Society 8th 1906-07.)]
7. Bauchtanzlied: „ho, ho, sokrana, hoho, sie ist betrunken“. Refrain: cjúm chramamek ja pnéja, heute lieb ich Dich, Mädchen.“ Auf der Fhal gespielt von Sála. vgl.H.S.18-19.
[7. Belly dance song: "ho, ho, sokrana, hoho, it is drunk". Refrain: cjúm chramamek pnéja yes, today I love you, Girl." On the Fhal played by Sala. see H.S.18-19.]

²SMB-digital database record: Traeger Tunesien; Walzensammlung
Dr. Paul Traeger (1867-1933), Sammler
Aufnahmejahr: 1903; Aufnahmeort: Tunis
Kontinent: Afrika; Region: Tunesien; Ethnie: Araber, Berber
Ident.Nr. VII WS 313
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description : Die W. 7, 4, 13 wurden als Nr. 98 - 100 in die Dem. coll. übernommen. Fotos u. Transkriptionen in Hornbostel 1906. Liste der Instrumente (und Instrumente selbst ?) im Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin.

Traeger Tunisia; roll collection
Dr. Paul Traeger (1867-1933), collector
Year of recording: 1903, Place: Tunis
Continent: Africa, Region: Tunisia; Ethnicity: Arab, Berber
Ident.Nr. VII WS 313
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: The W. 7, 4, 13 were identified as No. 98 - coll over 100 in the Dem. Photos and transcriptions Hornbostel in 1906. List of instruments (and instruments?) In the Museum of Ethnology in Berlin.

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel Larger image


[Salah 1903-02] Salah (performer); Paul Träger (collector) (1867–1933). Benabé ja má, liebe Mutter, sag’s dem Vater, ich will nicht einen alten Mann heiraten «Dear Mother, We Tell the Father, I will not Marry an Old Man». Fhal solo, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1903, Tunis, Tunisia, Length: 2:02.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 845, item 8 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Transcription and analysis in Phonographierte tunesische Melodien «Recorded Tunisian Melodies» ([Hornbostel 1907]), page 21-22, transcription 14b.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Hornbostel notes that the description of this track on the original cylinders and as listed in __XREF__[Ziegler 2006]__END_XREF__ is incorrect. Only part (b) of the track is included on the audio recording.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Same general information as [Salah 1903a].

8. b) Melodie des Liedes: „benabé ja má, liebe Mutter, sag’s dem Vater, ich will nicht einen alten Mann heiraten.“ Auf der Fhal gespielt von Sála vgl. H.S.21-22.
[8. b) melody of the song: "Benabes má yes, dear mother, We Tell the Father, I will not marry an old man." On the Fhal played Sala see H.S.21-22.]

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel Larger image


[Salah 1903-03] Salah (performer); Paul Träger (collector) (1867–1933). Altes Tanzlied: schéni el marsul, gekommen ist der Brautwerber «Old Dance Song: The Matchmaker Comes». Fhal solo, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1903, Tunis, Tunisia, Length: 1:53.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 845-846, item 11 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Transcription and analysis in Phonographierte tunesische Melodien «Recorded Tunisian Melodies» ([Hornbostel 1907]), page 12, transcription 7.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Same general information as [Salah 1903a].

11. Altes Tanzlied: „schéni el marsul, gekommen ist der Brautwerber“. Auf der Fhal gespielt von Sala. vgl.H.S.12.
[11. Is "come Sheni el marsul that: Old dance song Suitor. On the Fhal played by Sala. see H.S.12.]

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel Larger image


[Salah 1903-04] Salah (performer); Paul Träger (collector) (1867–1933). Efarrasch el badel schebuni, seht das Unrecht, das mir geschehen «See the Injustice that Happens to Me». Fhal solo, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1903, Tunis, Tunisia, Length: 1:57.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 845-846, item 12 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Transcription and analysis in Phonographierte tunesische Melodien «Recorded Tunisian Melodies» ([Hornbostel 1907]), page 9-10, transcription 4.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Same general information as [Salah 1903a].

12. Lied: „Efarrasch el badel schebuni, seht das Unrecht, das mir geschehen“; auf der Fhal gespielt von Sala. vgl.H.S.9-10.
[12. Song: "Efarrasch el schebuni Badel, see the injustice that happen to me "; on the Fhal played by Sala. vgl.H.S.9-10.]

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel Larger image


[Salah 1903-05] Salah and Mohamed (performers); Paul Träger (collector). Altes Berberlied: ja tir vrisch, du Vogel kommst zu mir? ich schicke dich zu meiner Freundin «Old Berber song: You Come to Me Bird? I Send You My Friend». Fhal solo, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1903, Tunis, Tunisia, Length: 1:59.
» Recording listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 845-846, item 14 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Transcription and analysis in Phonographierte tunesische Melodien «Recorded Tunisian Melodies» ([Hornbostel 1907]), page 31-32, transcription 20b.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Same general information as [Salah 1903a].

14. Altes Berberlied: „ja tir vrisch, du Vogel kommst zu mir? ich schicke dich zu meiner Freundin“. Auf der Gesba gspielt von Mohamed. vgl. H.S. 31-32.
[14. Berber old song: "yes tir vrisch, you come to bird me? I send you my friend." On the Gesba Most scholars consider to Mohamed. see H.S. 31-32.]

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel

Transcription by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel Larger image


Four dignitaries playing the “lela”
flutes at the “lela” celebration in Bali.
Photo: Bernhard Ankermann,
1907–1909

Four dignitaries playing the “lela”
flutes at the “lela” celebration in Bali.
Photo: Bernhard Ankermann,
1907–1909 Larger image

[Bali 1909-01] Unknown Bali performers; Bernhard Ankermann (collector) (1859–1943). Flutes playing during the "lela" celebration in the kingdom of Bali. Flute ensemble (lela flutes), Bali culture. Recorded 1909, Bali, Cameroon grassland, Length: 2:04.
» Recording published in MusikWeltKarte — Der Edison-Phonograph und die musikalische Kartographie der Erde «The World Map of Music - The Edison Phonograph and the Musical Cartography of the Earth»1 (CD-ROM [Wegner 2007]).
» Recording also listed in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»2 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), pages 2-3, item 35 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin3, Berlin, Germany.

1Wegner's notes: Flutes playing during the "lela" celebration in the kingdom of Bali
Cylinder recording: Bernhard Ankermann
Collection "Ankermann Kamerun", cylinder 35
Bali, Cameroon grassland, 1907-1909
The grassland lies in the highlands of central Cameroon. It was populated two or three centuries ago by groups from east Cameroon, who set up small kingdoms. In the hot and humid rain forests of the south, people organized themselves into small communities without a distinct political ruling body.
The “lela” of the Bali is one of the most important celebrations in the Cameroon grasslands. It lasts four days and is named after the four holy “lela” flutes that are played on this occasion by high dignitaries of the Bali community.
Even the king himself joins in making music: On the last day of the celebration, it is reported, “The king stepped forward, spoke a few words and went to the heap of stones where a few drummers were sitting. The king himself and three dignitaries played the flutes. One woman danced alone across from him, and another woman carried the train of his robe. Around them, all the warriors and women danced and sang. The soldiers stood at the other end of the square and shot their rifles [into the air]. That was the end” (Bernhard Ankermann, diaries).

2Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Ankermann Kamerun
Vorliegende Dokumentation nach der im Hause verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste. Liste vollständig.
Dr. Ankermann, Kamerun, 1909
Wörtliche Abschrift aus dem handschriftlichen Phonographen-Register von Dr. Ankermann
35. Lela, 4 Flöten und Gesang.

Ankermann Cameroon
This documentation is written in-house by the typewritten list. Complete list.
Dr. Ankermann, Cameroon, 1909
Verbatim transcript of the handwritten phonograph-register by Dr. Ankermann
35. Lela, 4 flutes and singing.

³SMB-digital database record: Ankermann Kamerun; Walzensammlung
Bernhard Ankermann (14.02.1859 - 26.10.1943), Sammler
Aufnahmejahr: 1908-1909
Aufnahmeort: Bagam, Bali, Bamenda
Kontinent: Afrika: Region: Kamerun; Ethnie: Bafotsio, Bali, Bamessong, Bamum, Bapinyi, Wadmea
Ident.Nr. VII WS 2
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description:W. 54 ist als 53 beschriftet, W. 53 fehlt lt. Orig.dok. Die Walzen 51, 22, 39 wurden als Nr. 80 - 82 in die Demonstrationssammlung aufgenommen. Weitere Unterlagen (Aktenstücke, Korrespondenz) und Ethnographica im Hause. W. 39 ist auf LP FE 4175 veröffentlicht, W. 35 ist veröffentlicht auf der CD 100 Jahre (1/23).

Ankermann Cameroon; roll collection
Bernhard Ankermann (14.02.1859 - 26.10.1943), collector
Recording year: 1908-1909
Location: bagam, Bali, Bamenda
Continent: Africa: Region: Cameroon; Ethnicity: Bafotsio, Bali, Bamessong, Bamum, Bapinyi, Wadmea
Ident.Nr. VII WS 2
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: W. 54 is labeled as 53, 53 W. lacks according Orig.dok. The rollers 51, 22, 39 were identified as No. 80 - added to the collection demonstration 82nd Supporting documents (documents in the file, correspondence) and ethnographic in-house. W. 39 is released on LP FE 4175, W. 35 is released on CD 100 years (1/23).


[Bali 1909-02] Unknown Bali performers; Bernhard Ankermann (collector) (1859–1943). Flutes playing during the "lela" celebration in the kingdom of Bali. Flute ensemble (lela flutes), Bali culture. Recorded 1909, Bali, Cameroon grassland, Length: 1:21.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), pages 2-3, item 35 of the PDF on the CD-ROM; file Ankermann_39.wav on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Ankermann Kamerun
Vorliegende Dokumentation nach der im Hause verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Liste. Liste vollständig.
Dr. Ankermann, Kamerun, 1909
Wörtliche Abschrift aus dem handschriftlichen Phonographen-Register von Dr. Ankermann
38. 9 Flöten, Rasseln, 1 Trommel. "nza".
39. desgl.

Ankermann Cameroon
This documentation is written in-house by the typewritten list. Complete list.
Dr. Ankermann, Cameroon, 1909
Verbatim transcript of the handwritten phonograph-register by Dr. Ankermann
38. 9 flutes, rattles, 1 drum. "nza".
39. identically


[Nigeria 1909] Unknown Edo region Nigeria performer; Northcote Whitridge Thomas (collector) (1838–1936). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Edo-speaking people culture. Recorded September 25, 1909, Edo region, Nigeria, Length: 2:57.
» Background description in Anthropological Report on the Edo-speaking Peoples of Nigeria ([Thomas-NW 1910]).
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1914.80.40.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: A flute solo recorded in an Edo region of Nigeria by Northcote Thomas on 25th September 1909.
Northcote Whitridge Thomas (1868–1936) was a British government anthropologist who conducted field research in Nigeria and Sierra Leone between 1909 and 1915, recording songs, music and the spoken word onto hundreds of wax cylinders. The Pitt Rivers Museum holds a collection of 448 wax cylinder recordings of Edo and Igbo peoples recorded by Thomas, donated in 1914. The British Library Sound Archive holds an even larger selection of over 700 of Thomas's recordings. The set in Oxford duplicates that at the British Library and is of a similar quality. The Pitt Rivers Museum also curates 37 objects donated by Northcote Thomas.


[Nigeria 1910] Unknown Awka Ibo-speaking region Nigeria performer; Northcote Whitridge Thomas (collector) (1838–1936). Flute and Percussion. Flute and percussion, Awka culture. Recorded December 15, 1910, Awka, Anambra region, Nigeria, Length: 2:02.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1914.80.105.

Originally cited as "Ibo-speaking region", which may refer to the Igbo language spoken by an ethnic group of SouthEastern Nigeria.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Flute & percussion (Awka, Ibo-speaking region, Nigeria, 1910) [1914.80.105]
Flute & percussion, followed by a flute solo, recorded at Awka, an Ibo-speaking region, Nigeria, by Northcote Thomas on 15th December 1910.
Northcote Whitridge Thomas (1868–1936) was a British government anthropologist who conducted field research in Nigeria and Sierra Leone between 1909 and 1915, recording songs, music and the spoken word onto hundreds of wax cylinders. The Pitt Rivers Museum holds a collection of 448 wax cylinder recordings of Edo and Igbo peoples recorded by Thomas, donated in 1914. The British Library Sound Archive holds an even larger selection of over 700 of Thomas's recordings. The set in Oxford duplicates that at the British Library and is of a similar quality. The Pitt Rivers Museum also curates 37 objects donated by Northcote Thomas.


Photo of the Ennejma
Ezzahra Centre of Arab
and Mediterranean Music

Photo of the Ennejma
Ezzahra Centre of Arab
and Mediterranean Music Larger image

[Kiilaan 1929] Abdel‘ati Ko‘ilan (Abd el Ati Kiilaan) (performer); Robert Lachmann (collector) (1892–1939). Targ el-aguz u Kennetha / Schwiegermutter u. -tochter «Mother and Daughter». Solo flute, Ma'lūf culture. Recorded 1929, Zarzis (Jarjis), Tunisia, Length: 2:07.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 455, item 11 of the PDF on the CD-ROM.
» General description of Ma'lūf music Ma'lūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia «مالوف‎» (hardcover [Davis-RF 2005]).
» Recording archived at Dar Ennejma Ezzahra Centre of Arab and Mediterranean Music, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin2, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Lachmann Tunesien - Vorliegende Dokumentation nach der von Lachmann verfassten maschinenschriftlichen Version. Liste vollständig.
[Lachmann Tunisia - This documentation written by the typewritten version of Lachmann. List is complete.]
PhonographischeAufnahmen (Lachmann), Tunesien 1929.
[Phonographic recordings (Lachmann), Tunisia 1929]
V. Zerzis ... 11. Targ el-aguz u kennetha (Schwiegermutter u. -tochter)
[V. Zarzis ... 11th Targ el-aguz Kennetha u (?mother?-in-law and daughter)]

²SMB-digital database record: Lachmann Tunesien; Walzensammlung
Robert Lachmann (28.11.1892 - 8.5.1939), Sammler; Aufnahmejahr: 1929
Aufnahmeort: Bäga, Djerba, Gäbes, Medenine, Muknin, Nefta, Tatawin, Testour, Zerzis
Kontinent: Afrika; Region: Tunesien; Ethnie: Araber, Beduinen
Juden (Glaubensgemeinschaft)
Ident.Nr. VII WS 174
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description: Die Walzen sind nicht fortlaufend numeriert, sondern die Zählung beginnt in jedem neuen Aufnahmeort wieder mit 1. Die Beschriftung der Walzen variiert stark: Lachmann + Aufnahmeort + Walzennummer (beispielsweise Lachmann Medenine 5) oder: Lachmann Tun. 29 (Tunesien 29) + Aufnahmeort + Walzennummer (beispielsweise Lachmann Tun.29 Nefta 10). Teilweise wurden die Walzen falsch beschriftet: Aeg[ypten] statt Tun[esien], betrifft vor allem Djerba, Muknin, Nefta und Zerzis. Die unterschiedliche Beschriftung der Walzen geht darauf zurück, daß sie zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten galvanisiert wurden. Lachmann nahm 1935 nach Jerusalem Kopien der bis dahin galvanisierten Walzen mit, diese wurden später auch auf Aluminiumplatten übertragen. Die Materialien befinden sich heute im PHA Jerusalem und wurden inzwischen digitalisiert. Ein Vergleich der Bestände im Jahr 1998 ergab, daß in Jerusalem weniger Walzenaufnahmen als in Berlin vorhanden sind, da offensichtlich einige Walzen erst nach Lachmanns Fortgang galvanisiert wurden (vgl. Rechnung der Fa. Quadfasel v. 24.3.1941). Die in Berlin vorhandenen vollständigen Sammlungen von Lachmann wurden während des 2. Weltkriegs auseinandergerissen, offensichtlich gingen viele Galvanos verloren. Eine vollständige Rekonstruktion (bis auf eine Walze - Testur 12) ist aufgrund der vorhandenen Kopien möglich. Im PHA Jerusalem sind von dieser Sammlung 97 Walzenkopien vorhanden: Nefta 11 W., Gäbes 8 W., Medenine 14 W., Zerzis 5 W., Djerba 24 W., Muknin 19 W., Testur 9 W., Bäga 7 W. In Jerusalem sind weitere Unterlagen zu der Sammlung vorhanden (Tagebücher, Korrespondenz, Transkriptionen, Texte, Photos), einige davon bereits posthum veröffentlicht (Lachmann 1974, 1978). Darin Transkriptionen und Photos.

Lachmann Tunisia; roll collection
Robert Lachmann (28/11/1892 - 05/08/1939), collectors, intake year: 1929
Location: Bäga, Djerba, Gäbes, medenine, Muknin, Nefta Tatawin, Testour, Zerzis
Continent: Africa, Region: Tunisia; ethnicity: Arabs, Bedouins
Jews (religious community)
Ident.Nr. VII WS 174
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: The rollers are not numbered consecutively, but the count starts at 1 again for each new shooting The labeling of the rolls varies greatly: Lachmann + Location + roll number (for example, Lachmann medenine 5) or: Lachmann doing 29 (Tunisia 29) + Location + roll number (for example, Lachmann Tun.29 Nefta 10). Some of the rolls were mislabeled: Aeg [ypten] was doing [Esien] primarily affects Djerba, Muknin, Nefta and Zerzis. The labeling of the different rolls goes back to the fact that they were plated at different times. Lachmann in 1935 to Jerusalem copies of previously galvanized rollers, these were later transferred to aluminum plates. The materials are now in Jerusalem and PHA have now been digitized. A comparison of the stocks in 1998 showed that less than rolling shots in Berlin are present in Jerusalem, because obviously some rolls were galvanized after Lachmann's progress (see the account of the company Quadfasel v. 24.3.1941). The existing collections in Berlin full of Lachmann were during the 2nd World War torn apart, obviously many masters were lost. A complete reconstruction (up to a roll - Testur 12) is possible because of the existing copies. PHA in Jerusalem are from this collection roll 97 copies available: Nefta 11 W., Gäbes 8 W., 14 W. medenine, Zerzis 5 W., 24 W. Djerba, Muknin 19 W., W. Testur 9, Bäga 7 W. in Jerusalem are further documentation on the collection available (diaries, correspondence, transcriptions, texts, pictures), some of them already published posthumously (Lachmann 1974, 1978). This transcriptions and pictures.


[Atutu 1935] Unknown Atutu performers; Hans Himmelheber (collector) (1908–2003). Vocal and Flute Ensemble. Vocal and flute ensemble, Atutu culture. Recorded January 28, 1935, Abigui, Ivory Coast, Length: 0:51.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), page 278-280, item 25 of the PDF on the CD-ROM; file Himmelheber_25.wav on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin2, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Himmelheber Elfenbeinküste
Dokumentation ist eine gekürzte Version der originalen Dokumentation, Texte und Übersetzungen sind vorhanden. Liste unvollständig.
Walze Nr. 25
Nr. 15 aus Abigui
Bestimmung wie bei W.23. [Stamm: Atutu Ort: Abigui Datum: 28.1.35]
Musikanten: 10 Sänger, 1 Frau, die 3 Flötenspieler.
(...)
Bemerkung: Bau ist ein Tanz ohne Maske. Es wird dies nicht am Anfang des Tanzes gesungen, sondern wann man will, auch mitten im Tanz.

Himmelheber Ivory Coast
Documentation is an abridged version of the original documentation, texts and translations are available. Incomplete list.
Roll No. 25
# 15 of Abigui
Determination as w23. [Tribe: Atutu Location: Abigui Date: 28/01/35]
Musicians: 10 singers, 1 woman, 3 the flute player.
(...)
Note: Construction is a dance without a mask. It is this not sung at the beginning of the dance, but whenever you want, even in the middle of dance.

²SMB-digital database record: Himmelheber Elfenbeinküste; Walzensammlung
Hans Himmelheber (1908 - 2003), Sammler
Aufnahmejahr: 1935
Aufnahmeort: Abigui, Abobakro, Adeo, Aissiessu, Bayakro, Djedukuassikro, Konango
Kontinent: Afrika; Region: Elfenbeinküste; Ethnie: Atutu (?), Baule
Ident.Nr. VII WS 120
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description: Umfangreiche Unterlagen vorhanden. Briefwechsel liegt vor. W. 15 und 61 sind veröffentlicht auf der CD 100 Jahre (1/21), Kommentar von Eberhard Fischer. Vgl. auch Himmelhebers spätere Publikationen und Filme (im IWF).

Sky lift Ivory Coast; roll collection
Hans heaven Heber (1908 - 2003), collector
Year of recording: 1935
Location: Abigui, Abobakro, Adeo, Aissiessu, Bayakro, Djedukuassikro, Konango
Continent: Africa, Region: Ivory Coast; Ethnicity: Atutu (?), Baule
Ident.Nr. VII WS 120
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: Extensive documentation available. Correspondence exists. W. 15 and 61 are released on CD 100 years (1/21), commentary by Eberhard Fischer. See also sky lift later publications and films (in the IMF).


Isanzu Recording
Paul Berger, 1936

Isanzu Recording
Paul Berger, 1936 Larger image

[Isanzu 1935] Unknown Isanzu performers; Ludwig Kohl-Larsen (collector); Paul Berger (documentation). Isanzu Flute. Solo flute (Isanzu flute), Isanzu culture. Recorded March 1935, Isanzu area, Nkinto ward, Kongwa district, Singida region, Tanzania, Length: 1:09.
» Recording published in Die Wachszylinder des Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs «The Wax Cylinders of the Berlin Phonogram Archive»1 (hardcover [Ziegler 2006]), pages 347-349, item 73 of the PDF on the CD-ROM; file Kohl-Larsen_73.wav on the CD-ROM.
» Recording archived at Das Ethnologisches Museum, Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin2, Berlin, Germany.

1Berliner Phonogramm-Archivs documentation: Kohl-Larsen Ostafrika
Die vorliegende Dokumentation ist eine aus den handschriftlichen Aufzeichnungen Paul Bergers gekürzte Version. Ausführliche Texte und Inhaltsangaben liegen teilweise vor. Liste unvollständig.
die Phonogramme 36-88 wurden in Nkinto im Bantu-Lande aufgenommen in der Zeit vom 16.3.-3.4.1935
Die Abkürzung „Iss“ steht für „Issansu-Land“, „Ir“ für „Iramba“
70 Iss. Flötenspiel eines alten Mannes (der im Land als ein Sonderling gilt)
73 Iss. der Flötenspieler von Walze 70 u. 71

Kohl-Larsen East Africa
This document is an abridged from the handwritten notes Paul Berger Version. Full text and content of information are partially. Incomplete list.
The phonograms 36-88 were included in Nkinto in Bantu land during the period 16.3.-4.3.1935
The abbreviation "Iss" stands for "Issansu-country", "Ir" for "Iramba"
70 Iss. Flute playing of an old man (who is in the country as an eccentric)
73 Iss. The Flute Player of roller 70 and 71

²SMB-digital database record: Kohl-Larsen Ostafrika; Walzensammlung
Paul Berger (1909 - 1986), Sammler
Ludwig Kohl-Larsen (05.04.1884-12.11.1969), Sammler
Aufnahmejahr: 1934-1936
Aufnahmeort: Matetefluß
Kontinent: Afrika; Region: Ostafrika; Ethnie: Kindiga, Mbulu, Sukuma
Ident.Nr. VII WS 143
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ethnologisches Museum
Sammlung: Ethnologisches Museum | Phonogramm-Archiv
Description: Beschriftung: Kohl-Larsen Ostafrika. An der Expedition nahm auch der Linguist Paul Berger teil. Unter den Walzen finden sich mehrere Sprachaufnahmen, die Berger von dortigen Dialekten gemacht hat. Gelegentlich wird die Sammlung Berger als separate Sammlung erwähnt, sie gehört jedoch zu den fortlaufend numerierten Walzen der Sammlung Kohl-Larsen. Die Walzen 1 - 35 wurden von Paul Berger aufgenommen, von ihm stammt auch die Dokumentation. Lt. Dok. gingen die Walzen 122 - 129 in den Besitz des Phonetischen Laboratoriums Hamburg über. Eine ausführliche Dokumentation (mit Angabe der Umdrehungsgeschwindigkeit) liegt vor. Korrespondenz ist vorhanden. Weitere Unterlagen wo?

Kohl-Larsen East Africa; roll collection
Paul Berger (1909 - 1986), collector
Ludwig Kohl-Larsen (05.04.1884-12.11.1969), collector
Recording year: 1934-1936
Location: Matetefluß
Continent: Africa, Region: Eastern Africa; Ethnicity: Kindiga, Mbulu, Sukuma
Ident.Nr. VII WS 143
State Museums of Berlin, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Museum of Ethnology
Collection: Museum of Ethnology | Phonogram Archive
Description: Caption: Kohl-Larsen East Africa. Also took part in the expedition of the linguist Paul Berger. Among the rollers there are several voice recordings that Berger has made ​​of local dialects. Occasionally, the collection Berger is mentioned as a separate collection, but it is one of the consecutively numbered rolls of the Kohl-Larsen collection. The rolls 1-35 were taken by Paul Berger, from him comes the documentation. Lt. Doc walked the rollers 122-129 into the possession of the Phonetic Laboratory Hamburg. A detailed documentation (with the rotation speed) is available. Correspondence exists. Other documents where?


[San 1951-01] Unknown San performer; Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Gut pluriarc with 3 men's voices, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 2:36.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 1.

1Liner notes: Music is on the sound track of "The Hunters." Recorded in Namibia by Nicholas England, 1951-55.


[San 1951-05] Uxone (San culture); Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Gut hunting bow with resonator and one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 2:42.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 5.


[San 1951-08] Unknown San performer; Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Tin can bow solo, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 1:44.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 8.


[San 1951-10] Gau (San culture); Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Sitengena (mbira) with one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 2:20.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 10.


[San 1951-11] Unknown San performer; Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Gut pluriarc with one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 3:51.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 11.

1Liner notes: Recorded in Namibia by Nicholas England, 1951-55. Music is on sound track of "The Hunters."


[San 1951-13] Unknown San performer; Nicholas England (collector) (1923–2003). No title. Gut hunting bow with one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1951-1955, Namibia, Length: 2:38.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 13.

1Liner notes: Band #7. Gut hunting bow with one man's voice. Recorded in Namibia by Nicholas England, 1951-55. Music is on the sound track of "Bitter Melons."


[Hororo 1957] Unknown Hororo performer; Alan P. Merriam (collector) (1923–1980). Rwatyokori. Solo flute, Hororo culture. Recorded 1957, Length: 1:33.
» Published in Africa South of the Sahara1 (FW04503 [Courlander 1957]), track 15.

1Alan P. Merriam description: BAND 15. HORORO FLUTE: The name of this song is Rwatyokori, the name of a local chief, and it is played by a Hororo man to praise the leader "because he is a good man." The Hororo are a group of Bantu people who wander between Uganda and Ruanda, and who stand in the same relationship to the Hima proper as do tre Hutu to the Tutsi in Ruanda. The instrument is a four-holed flute, umukuri, made from a light reed. The holes, ubgasha, and the V-shaped notch in the blowing end of the instrument, ikinimba, are burned into the wood with any suitable piece of hot metal; the instrument heard in this recording is approximately sixteen inches long and endblown. The burred tone used by the instrumentalist is desirable, or as he put it, "to my will." In the background the feet of a dancer are heard stamping the ground.


[Mbuti 1957] Unknown Mbuti performers; Colin Turnbull and Francis S. Chapman (collectors). Flute Duet. Duet flute, Mbuti culture. Recorded 1957, Ituri Rainforest, present-day NorthEastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Length: 1:48.
» Published in Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Rainforest1 (CD SF 40401 [Turnbull 1992]), track 8.

1Original notes by Colin Turnbull: The only kind of instrumental music one might hear among the Mbuti is either the flute or the lukembi. The flute is made out of one of several different kinds of reed or cane. Sometimes it is played singly, sometimes two flutes are played together. They are seldom used for long, though, thrown away and forgotten almost as soon as they are made.


[Pakasi 1958] Pakasi (performer); Colin Turnbull and Francis S. Chapman (collectors). Flute Solo. Solo flute, Mbuti culture. Recorded 1958, Ituri Rainforest, present-day NorthEastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Length: 2:03.
» Published in Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Rainforest1 (CD SF 40401 [Turnbull 1992]), track 9.

1Original notes by Colin Turnbull: This Mbuti man, Pakasi, cut a piece of cane, burned four stop-holes at the lower end, plugged that end with a rolled leaf, and then notched the top end. All in a few minutes. After playing a while he seemed to lose all interest in the flute.


[Mogbolo 1966] Mogbolo; Gerard Kubik (collector) (born 1934). Biyo (notched flute) Solo. Solo Flute, Ngombe culture. Recorded May 1966, Mpie-Nyoyo, near Linjombo, Central African Republic, Length: 1:22.
» Recording published in Theory of African Music, Volume 2 (softcover [Kubik 2010b]), Track 16.


[Kachamba 1967-25] Daniel J. Kachamba, Donald Kachamba, and Josefe Bulahamu; Gerard Kubik (collector). Sinjonjo «Rock Three». Guitar, Flute, Rattle, Nyanja culture. Recorded March 1967, Blantyre city, Malawi, Length: 1:58.
» Recording published in Theory of African Music, Volume 2 (softcover [Kubik 2010b]), Track 25.


[Kachamba 1967-27] Daniel J. Kachamba, Donald Kachamba, and Moya A. Malamusi; Gerard Kubik (collector). We ka na get Emery «Where Can I Get Emery». Guitar, Flute, Rattle, Nyanja culture. Recorded September 1967, Nkata village, Blantyre District, Malawi, Length: 3:55.
» Recording published in Theory of African Music, Volume 2 (softcover [Kubik 2010b]), Track 27.


[Beduin 1968] Unknown Beduin male performer; Amnon Shiloah (collector). Tune on Pipe-flute. Solo flute, Beduin culture. Recorded August 28, 1968, Wadi Firan (Wadi Feiran), Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Length: 1:48.
» Recording published in Beduin Music of Southern Sinai1 (FE 4204 [Shiloah 1978]), track 4.

1Liner notes: Band 4. Tune on pipe-flute, Wadi Firan, 28.8.68
The flute, formerly manufactured from reed, is now made of a length of water pipe pierced by five or six holes. It is mainly played by women and young shepherdesses. The basic motifs and melodies move within a narrow range not exceeding a fourth. It is said to be a carrier of messages in cases of emergency. The tune is here played by a man.


[San 1970-06] /Ti!kay (aka "Jimmy" from /Xai/xai, San culture); Marjorie Shostak (collector). No title. Sitengena (mbira) with one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1970, Botswana, Length: 7:00.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 6.


[San 1971-03] ≠Tuma /We from Dobe (San culture); Marjorie Shostak (collector). No title. Gut hunting bow, San culture. Recorded 1971, Botswana, Length: 2:00.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 3.


[San 1971-04] /"Tashay!Kumsi from !Xabi (San culture); Marjorie Shostak (collector). No title. Gut hunting bow with one man's voice, San culture. Recorded 1971, Botswana, Length: 3:08.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 4.


[Kachamba 1972-28] Daniel J. Kachamba, Donald Kachamba, Luca Khumuwa, and Ronol Kaufa; Gerard Kubik (collector). Maliro aKachamba «The Funeral of Kachamba». Guitar, Flute, Rattle, and Bass, Nyanja culture. Recorded January 16, 1972, Mr. Rice's Bar, Chirimba, Blantyre District, Malawi, Length: 2:46.
» Recording published in Theory of African Music, Volume 2 (softcover [Kubik 2010b]), Track 28.


[San 1972-02] Hwan//a of !Xabe (San culture); Megan Biesele (collector). No title. Metal pluriarc with one woman's voice, San culture. Recorded 1972, Botswana, Length: 3:31.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 2.


[San 1972-07] Unknown San performer; Megan Biesele (collector). No title. Te bow with two women's voices, San culture. Recorded 1972, Kauri, Botswana, Length: 3:02.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 7.

1Liner notes: Recorded in Kauri, Botswana by Megan Biese1e, 1972 .


[San 1972-09] Unknown San performer; Megan Biesele (collector). Rain Song. Solo sitengena (mbira), San culture. Recorded 1972, Kauri, Botswana, Length: 1:15.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San1 (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 9.

1Liner notes: San instrumental music is not generally performed before an audience with all the tension that isolation of the performer implies. Instead the people play for themselves, when the mood strikes them. Others nearby may go on with what they are doing, stop and listen, or join in.


[San 1972-12] Hwan//a of !Xabe (San culture); Megan Biesele (collector). No title. Metal pluriarc with one woman's voice, San culture. Recorded 1972, Botswana, Length: 2:05.
» Published in Instrumental Music of the Kalahari San (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4315 [Shostak 1982]), track 12.


Four dignitaries playing the “lela” flutes
at the “lela” celebration in Bali, 1975.
Photo: Hans-Joachim Koloß

Four dignitaries playing the “lela” flutes
at the “lela” celebration in Bali, 1975.
Photo: Hans-Joachim Koloß Larger image

[Bali 1975] Unknown Bali performers; Hans-Joachim Koloß (collector) (born 1938). Appearance of the flute players, drummers, and a choir during the “lela” celebration. Flute ensemble (lela flutes), Bali culture. Recorded 1975, Bali, Cameroon grassland, Length: 2:11.
» Recording published in MusikWeltKarte — Der Edison-Phonograph und die musikalische Kartographie der Erde «The World Map of Music - The Edison Phonograph and the Musical Cartography of the Earth»1 (CD-ROM [Wegner 2007]).

1Wegner's notes: Appearance of the flute players, drummers, and a choir during the “lela” celebration in Bali, 1975 (Recording: Hans-Joachim Koloß)


[Gambia 1976-01] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Bengsimbe. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:08.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 1.


[Gambia 1976-02] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Yergo. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 4:39.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 2.


[Gambia 1976-03] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Prodition. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 2:53.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 3.


[Gambia 1976-04] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Sarsang. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:25.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 4.


[Gambia 1976-05] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Sereba. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 4:40.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 5.


[Gambia 1976-06] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Dung n Kaheng. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:31.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 6.


[Gambia 1976-07] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Sembelu. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 4:23.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 7.


[Gambia 1976-08] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Sandali. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:54.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 8.


[Gambia 1976-09] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Sokhadange. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:40.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 9.


[Gambia 1976-10] Unknown Gambian performer; Samuel Charters (collector. Tama Jung Jung. flute (Fula), Gambia culture. Recorded November, 1976, Basse and Diabugu Tenda in the Upper Gambia Basin, Length: 3:40.
» Published in African Flutes (Gambia) (33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc, FE-4230 [Charters 1978]), track 10.


[Ongur 1977] Oŋur, other women, and Karap; Gerard Kubik (collector). Bal (reed pipe) Dance. One-note reed pipes (bal), Ingassana culture. Recorded January 26, 1977, Rumeilik, Tabi Mountains, Southeast of El Damazin, Sudan, Length: 0:53.
» Recording published in Theory of African Music, Volume 2 (softcover [Kubik 2010b]), Track 5.


Evaristo Muyinda

Evaristo Muyinda Larger image

[Muyinda 1983] Evaristo Muyinda (performer); Artur Simon and Francis Bisasso (film). W’oyogerera, ka wuwo «Wherever you speak, that is where you are at home». Solo flute (endere), Ganda culture. Recorded 1983, Uganda, Length: 0:53.
» Video published in MusikWeltKarte — Der Edison-Phonograph und die musikalische Kartographie der Erde «The World Map of Music - The Edison Phonograph and the Musical Cartography of the Earth»1 (CD-ROM [Wegner 2007]).

1Wegner's notes: Evaristo Muyinda, once a musician at the royal court in Buganda, plays “W’oyogerera, ka wuwo” (“Wherever you speak, that is where you are at home”) on the notched flute “endere”.
A film by Artur Simon and Francis Bisasso, 1983.


[Bayaka 1989-12] Mindumi (died 1989) (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Mindumi playing mbyo with others singing. Flute and Vocal (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded August 15, 1989, Kenyé camp, Central African Republic, Length: 1:27.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 341 (edited).

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Mbyo played by Mindumi, who was accompanied by singing by his sister, Poli, wife Andé, female cousins Etu and Aoka, and sister-in-law Owoosa. Mindumi died in a honey-gathering accident at the end of 1989. Session included songs with no flute as well. Recorded by Louis Sarno during an Mbyo night on the 15th August 1989 at Kenyé in the Central African Republic


[Bayaka 1992-02] Momboli (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli playing mbyo. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded September 3, 1992, Yandoumbé camp, Central African Republic, Length: 8:12.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 54 B 1.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Moboli playing the mbyo (Bayaka flute) and recorded by Louis Sarno at night on the 3rd September 1992 at Yandoumbé. In this recording, which is part of a more extended set of recordings, Momboli stops and starts variations and occasionally sings.


[Bayaka 1992-05] Mobila and Momboli (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Mobila and Momboli playing mbyo and whistling. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded March 5, 1992, Yandoumbé camp, Central African Republic, Length: 3:52.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 236 A.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Mobila playing the mbyo (Bayaka flute) whilst Momboli whistles. Recorded by Louis Sarno at night on the 5th March 1992 at Yandoumbé, Central African Republic.


[Bayaka 1992-10] Momboli and Gonge (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli and Gongé Playing Mbyo Duets [1/2]. Flute duet (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded December 22, 1992, Central African Republic, Length: 3:50.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 72 A 10.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Momboli & Gongé playing mbyo duets. Recorded by Louis Sarno at night on 22nd December 1992 in the (Central African Republic. Two flutes are very rarely heard together, and in this recording both Momboli and Gongé can be heard playing in the distance.


[Bayaka 1992-11] Momboli and Gonge (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli and Gongé Playing Mbyo Duets [2/2]. Flute duet (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded December 22, 1992, Central African Republic, Length: 9:46.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 72 B 4.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Momboli & Gongé playing mbyo duets. Recorded by Louis Sarno at night on 22nd December 1992 in the (Central African Republic. Two flutes are very rarely heard together, and in this recording both Momboli and Gongé have been recorded playing close up.


[Bayaka 1993-06] Gongé (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Gongé plays mbyo while the rain falls. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded May 3, 1993, Central African Republic, Length: 7:17.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 79 A 3.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Gongé playing mbyo while the rain falls. Recorded by Louis Sarno in the Central African Republic at night on 3rd May 1993.


[Bayaka 1993-07] Momboli and Balonyona (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli and Balonyona duel on Mbyo and Geedal [1/3]. Flute and Geedal (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded April 23, 1993, Central African Republic, Length: 0:47.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 78 A 1.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Momboli & Balonyona duel on mbyo & geedal. In this recording, both instruments can be heard together amongst the sounds of camp life. Recorded by Louis Sarno at dawn on 23rd April 1993 in the (Central African Republic.


[Bayaka 1993-08] Momboli and Balonyona (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli and Balonyona duel on Mbyo and Geedal [2/3]. Flute and Geedal (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded April 23, 1993, Central African Republic, Length: 2:56.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 78 A 3.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Momboli & Balonyona duel on mbyo & geedal. Recorded by Louis Sarno at dawn on 23rd April 1993 in the (Central African Republic. In this recording Momboli is joined by some other men who sing and add percussion.


[Bayaka 1993-09] Momboli and Balonyona (performers); Louis Sarno (collector). Momboli and Balonyona duel on Mbyo and Geedal [3/3]. Flute and Geedal (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded April 23, 1993, Central African Republic, Length: 1:25.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 78 A 4.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Momboli & Balonyona duel on mbyo & geedal. Recorded by Louis Sarno at dawn on 23rd April 1993 in the (Central African Republic. In this recording Balonyona plays a geedal piece in response to an Momboli who has just finished a piece on mbyo.


[Bayaka 1994-01] Gongé (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Gongé playing mbyo. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded July 23, 1994, Boungingi second camp, Republic of Congo, Length: 6:06.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 135 B 8.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Gongé playing the mbyo (Bayaka flute) and recorded by Louis Sarno at night late at night on the 23rd July 1994 at Boungingi second camp, Republic of Congo. In this recording, Gongé stops and starts variations and includes occasional sung notes.


[Bayaka 1994-03] Gongé (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Gongé playing mbyo. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded July 23, 1994, Boungingi second camp, Republic of Congo, Length: 5:40.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 135 B 8.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Gongé playing the mbyo (Bayaka flute) and recorded by Louis Sarno at night late at night on the 23rd July 1994 at Boungingi second camp, Republic of Congo. In this recording, Gongé stops and starts variations and includes occasional sung notes.


[Bayaka 1995-04] Mobila (performer); Louis Sarno (collector). Mobila playing the mbyo. Solo flute (mbyo), Bayaka culture. Recorded February 21, 1995, Yandoumbé camp, Central African Republic, Length: 7:26.
» Recording archived at The Pitt Rivers Museum1, Oxford, England. Recording 1997 21 2 153 B 2.

¹Pitt Rivers documentation: Mobila playing the mbyo (Bayaka flute) and recorded by Louis Sarno at night at night on the 21st February 1995 at Yandoumbé in the Central African Republic. In this recording, general sounds of the camp at night can be heard as Gongé plays.


[Idafabera 1996-01] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Zavan. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:18.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 1.


[Idafabera 1996-02] Mofou du village de Zob. Walay Douroum. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:45.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 2.


[Idafabera 1996-03] Mofou du village de Zob. Walay Mépli Sla. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:18.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 3.


[Idafabera 1996-04] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Adémèch I Hembo / Chèk I Dafabera. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 5:45.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 4.


[Idafabera 1996-05] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Ambelem Gwara. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 3:04.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 5.


[Idafabera 1996-06] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Chèk I Massakal. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:29.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 6.


[Idafabera 1996-07] Mouyang du village de Mouyengué. Gar Sla. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 3:08.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 7.


[Idafabera 1996-08] Moundang du village de Gambour. Dah Win Gou. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:34.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 8.


[Idafabera 1996-09] Toupouri du village de Saouringwa. Siili Day. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:44.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 9.


[Idafabera 1996-10] Guiziga du village de Bololo Midjivin. Ambaka. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 1:28.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 10.


[Idafabera 1996-11] Guiziga du village de Bololo Midjivin. Louguéré. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 1:26.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 11.


[Idafabera 1996-12] Guiziga du village de Bololo Midjivin. Bangou. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 1:43.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 12.


[Idafabera 1996-13] Toupouri du village de Golompoui. Léélé. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 2:13.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 13.


[Idafabera 1996-14] Mofou-Goudour du village de Ngwadama. Méwoudey-Iem. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:14.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 14.


[Idafabera 1996-15] Mouyang du village de Mouyengué. Tchitchèk Ma Baz Hay. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 1:56.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 15.


[Idafabera 1996-16] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Chèk I Dafabera I Dibon. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:47.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 16.


[Idafabera 1996-17] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Chèk I Andera. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 1:19.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 17.


[Idafabera 1996-18] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Chèk I Vendelar. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 2:14.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 18.


[Idafabera 1996-19] Ouldémé du village de Dibon. Mebaga Andjégué. flute, Cameroon culture, Length: 4:17.
» Published in Cameroun: Flûtes des Monts Mandara «Cameroon: Flutes of Mandara Mountains» (560110 [Idafabera 1996]), Track 19.


[Tshotetsi 2006-24] Tebogo Tshotetsi (performer); Peter Thwaites (recording engineer); Diz Heller (mastering); Robin Hogarth (liner notes). Eaga «Calls between Settlements». Drums, voice, and flute (bamboo flute), San culture. Recorded before 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa, Length: 2:15.
» Published in Bushmen of the Kalahari1 (EUCD1995 [ARC 2006]), track 24.

1ARC Music general album description: The Bushmen featured in these recordings come from two main groups: the G-WI KHOE (Qwii Qwii) and the G-ANA KHOE (Xana Qwii). These people were originally from the North West Cape of South Africa - the Molopo River. Many years ago they were forced to flee to Kang in Botswana. From there they fled to Xade [Ghanzi District, Botswana] in the central Kalahari where they are today - a community of around 7,000 people.
TEBOGO TSHOTETSI - singer, percussion, setinkane, bamboo flute, bushman bow (nkokwane), marimba


[Tshotetsi 2006-26] Tebogo Tshotetsi (performer); Peter Thwaites (recording engineer); Diz Heller (mastering); Robin Hogarth (liner notes). Qwii. Solo flute (bamboo flute), San culture. Recorded before 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa, Length: 1:10.
» Published in Bushmen of the Kalahari1 (EUCD1995 [ARC 2006]), track 26.

1ARC Music general album description: A bush bamboo flute piece dedicated to the Qwii people.


 
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To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2017_ethrec_aft"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title=Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/ethrec_aft.htm |date=15 April 2017 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>