Flutopedia - an Encyclopedia for the Native American Flute

Sign up for our Flute Newsletter

 


 
Previous PageNext Page
Flutopedia.com

References - F

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter F. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

References - F

[FAA 2008] Federal Aviation Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation. Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, published by the U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Flight Standards Service, 2008, 228 pages. Publication FAA-H-8083-9A. Aviation Instructor’s Handbook Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

[Fages 1937] Pedro Fages; Herbert Ingram Priestley (translation). A Historical, Political, and Natural Description of California, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1937, 83 pages. Originally published in Spanish in 1775. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fain 2007] Susan D. Fain. The Flute Music of G. Wiley Smith and its Cultural Inspiration, 2007, 12 pages. The Flute Music of G. Wiley Smith and its Cultural Inspiration Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fajardo 1977] Raoul J. Fajardo. “Cylindrical Head Joint with Acoustic Wedging for Concert Flutes”, United States Patent 4,058,046, Granted November 15, 1977, 6 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Cylindrical Head Joint with Acoustic Wedging for Concert Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Falkenhausen 1993] Lothar von Falkenhausen. Suspended Music: Chime-bells in the culture of Bronze Age China, published by the University of California Press, Berkley and Los Angeles, California, 1991, 481 pages, ISBN 0-520-07378-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Fancourt 2014] Daisy Fancourt, A. Ockelford, and A. Belai. “The Psychoneuroimmunological Effects of Music — A Systematic Review and a New Model”, Brain Behav Immun, Volume 36, February 2014, pages 15–26, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.014. Publication 24157429 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: There has been a growing interest over the past decade into the health benefits of music, in particular examining its psychological and neurological effects. Yet this is the first attempt to systematically review publications on the psychoneuroimmunology of music. Of the selected sixty-three studies published over the past 22 years, a range of effects of music on neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, lymphocytes, vital signs and immunoglobulins as well as psychological assessments are cataloged. Research so far points to the pivotal role of stress pathways in linking music to an immune response. However, several challenges to this research are noted: (1) there is very little discussion on the possible mechanisms by which music is achieving its neurological and immunological impact; (2) the studies tend to examine biomarkers in isolation, without taking into consideration the interaction of the biomarkers in question with other physiological or metabolic activities of the body, leading to an unclear understanding of the impact that music may be having; (3) terms are not being defined clearly enough, such as distinctions not being made between different kinds of stress and 'music' being used to encompass a broad spectrum of activities without determining which aspects of musical engagement are responsible for alterations in biomarkers. In light of this, a new model is presented which provides a framework for developing a taxonomy of musical and stress-related variables in research design, and tracing the broad pathways that are involved in its influence on the body.

[Fancourt 2016] Daisy Fancourt, Rosie Perkins, Sara Ascenso, Livia A. Carvalho, Andrew Steptoe, and Aaron Williamon. “Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users”, PLoS ONE, Volume 11, Number 3, e0151136, March 14, 2016, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151136 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11) and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78), and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24) alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19) and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04). All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.

[Farland 2011] Michael Guy Farland. Under Pressure: Generic and Individual Intra-oral Pressure Profiles in Liquid Swallows, Doctoral dissertation – University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, August 12, 2011, 209 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farmer 1929] Henry George Farmer. A History of Arabian Music, published by Luzac & Co., London, 1929. Publication historyofarabian030364mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1901] Arthur Farwell (1872–1952). American Indian Melodies, published by The Wa-Wan Press, 1901, 29 pages. See the Library of Congress, Performing Arts Encyclopedia web site. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1902] Arthur Farwell. Dawn, Opus 12, published by The Wa-Wan Press, 1902. See the Library of Congress, Performing Arts Encyclopedia web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1908] Arthur Farwell. Three Indian Songs — For Chorus, Opus 32, published by G. Schirmer, 1908. See the Library of Congress, Performing Arts Encyclopedia web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1937] Arthur Farwell. Four Songs for A Capella Chorus, Opus 102, published by G. Schirmer, 1937. See the Library of Congress, Performing Arts Encyclopedia web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1937a] Arthur Farwell. The Mother's Vow — For Eight-part Chorus of Mixed Voices with Soprano Solo a cappella, Opus 102, Number 4, 1937. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1944] Arthur Farwell. Indian Suite, Opus 110, 1944. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Farwell 1977] A. G. Farwell, P. W. Orem, and C. W. Cadman (composers). Farwell, Orem, and Cadman, Recorded Anthology of American Music, New York, New World Records, NW 213, 1977, total time 39 minutes. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fastl 2007] Hugo Fastl and Eberhard Zwicker. Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models, Third Edition, Springer Series in Information Sciences, Volume 22, published by Springer, 2007, 462 pages, ISBN 3-540-23159-5 (978-3-540-23159-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This book offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Acoustic demonstrations on a CD included with this edition further illustrate and amplify basic and applied psychoacoustic phenomena.

[Fastl 2013] Hugo Fastl. “Basics and Applications of Psychoacoustics”, ICA 2013, Montreal, Canada, June 2–7, 2013, Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, Volume 19, 2013, 23 pages, doi:10.1121/1.4800482 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The field of psychoacoustics studies relations between acoustic stimuli, defined in the physical domain, and the hearing sensations elicited by these stimuli. The lecture will address questions of stimulus generation and presentation. Both traditional methods and more recent methods like wave field synthesis will be touched. Concerning hearing sensations, basic magnitudes as for example absolute thresholds or loudness, but also advanced topics like pitch strength will be covered. Applications of psychoacoustics will include rather different fields such as music, noise evaluation or audiology, and address also cognitive effects as well as audio-visual interactions.

[Faulds 1997] Danna Faulds. Poems from the Heart of Yoga, published by Morris Press, 1997, ISBN-13 978-0-9744106-0-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

[Faulds 2009] Danna Faulds. Limitless — New Poems and other Writings, published by Peaceable Kingdom Books, Greenville, VT, 2009, 120 pages, ISBN 0-9744106-6-7 (978-0-9744106-6-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Poetry for the Native American Flute

Description by the publisher: Limitless is Danna Faulds' fifth book of poetry. A long-term practitioner of Kripalu Yoga, for the past seven years her writing has inspired and delighted a broad audience interested in the opportunities life provides for healing, growth, and transformation. Danna writes: Some days, the first line of a poem interrupts me and insists on being written down - NOW! Other days, I write the words 'This is what I have to say to you' at the top of the page and see what comes. Like a faucet dispensing water from a hidden reservoir below the earth, this kind of writing allows the formless mystery to flow into my conscious life. What I tap into when I write from the quiet of my meditation cushion feels limitless. Each morning finds me at the edge of my current experience, writing about where I am stuck, where I am learning to let go, and what is calling me forward right now. Words on the page, both poetry and prose, are the bread crumbs left behind as I move beyond my comfort zone and into the unknown. Danna is the author of four previous books of poetry: Go In and In; One Soul; Prayers to the Infinite; and From Root to Bloom. She is currently finishing a memoir about her experiences with yoga and writing titled Into the Heart of Yoga.

[Faulkner 1997] Charles H. Faulkner. “Four Thousand Years of Native American Cave Art in the Southern Appalachians”, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Volume 59, Number 3, published by the National Speleological Society, December 1997, pages 148–153. ISSN 1090-6924. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The seminal work of archaeologists in Mammoth and Salts caves, Kentucky, in the 1960s, revealed that prehistoric Native Americans not only buried their dead in these caverns, but also intensively explored and mined the “dark zones” beginning 4,000 years ago. When the glyph caves of Tennessee and Virginia were studied in the 1980s, research revealed these underground sanctuaries were also sacred areas of non-mortuary ritual. It was concluded at that time that Native American cave use during the past 4,000 years probably shifted from exploration to intensive mining of cave minerals. At about the beginning of the common era, the increasing use of caves as burial places eventually led to their abandonment as sources for minerals. By circa 1,000 years ago only a few of these caves continued to be used for ceremonial purposes. The recent discoveries of two additional glyph caves in Tennessee, one in Virginia, and two in Kentucky, have resulted in a reassessment of this chronological sequence of prehistoric cave use, and have also underscored the fact that southern Appalachian caves still contain important undiscovered archaeological remains.

[Faulkner-M 1984] Maurice Faulkner and Suzanne Faulkner. “The Drone Sound — A Basis for Cult and Emotional Activities in Primitive Societies: A Possibility for the Use of the Bronze Lur”, Issue 53, Volume 2, of Kungl. Musikaliska akademiens skriftserie, Cajsa S. Lund (editor), Second Conference of the International Council for Tradition Music (ICTM) Study Group on Music Archaeology, Stockholm, Sweden, November 19–23, 1984, published by Kungl. Musikaliska akademien, 1984, pages 217–223. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by Frances Palmer: This paper suggests that the lur may have had a similar function to that of the didjeridu in providing a drone accompaniment to ceremonial functions and songs.

[Fauntleroy 2006] Gussi Fauntleroy. “Flutes & Flutemakers: Timeless Native American Instruments”, Native Peoples, Volume 19, Number 6, November/December 2006, pages 28–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Favaro 2003] John Favaro. Slightly Out of Tune: The Story of Musical Temperament, April 12, 2003, 10 pages. See the John Favaro's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[FCPS 1981] Federal Cylinder Project Staff. Inventory of Instantaneous Cylinder Recordings Documenting Folk Culture in the Collections of Federal Agencies — Unpublished document circulated by the American Folklife Center, May 15, 1981, 71 pages, manuscript (typewritten). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Feaster 2007] Patrick Feaster. "The Following Record": Making Sense of Phonographic Performance, 1877–1908, Doctoral dissertation – Indiana University, April 2007, 722 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Feder 1964] Norman Feder; Nathan Sturges Jarvis (collection) (1801–1862). Art of the Eastern Plains Indians: The Nathan Sturges Jarvis Collection, published by the Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, 1964, 67 pages, ASIN B0055P39GC, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fehmi 2004] Jeffrey S. Fehmi, Shelley Danzer, and Joanne Roberts. Agave palmeri Inflorescence Production on Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Convervation Assistance Program, published by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), September 2004, 34 pages. ERDC/CERL TR-04-16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Agave (Agave palmeri) is important to Fort Huachuca because of its status as a critical resource for the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae). The bat depends on agave flower nectar as a primary food source in late summer and early fall. Fort Huachuca contains some of the few remaining roosting sites for this bat in the southwestern United States, and also has abundant agave stands, which are distributed throughout the grasslands. Plant density data were obtained from 29 randomly chosen flowering plants. Density ranged from 700 to 2200 plants per hectare with approximately 10 percent flowering stalks. Analysis of the density data indicated that agave plants were significantly and substantially clustered around flowering plants. Individual plants seem to flower based on several criteria including basal diameter and presence of neighbors. The closer and larger the neighboring agave were, the more likely a particular plant was to flower. Ungulate herbivory affected 50 percent of the agave inflorescences. Given the lack of predators and minimal hunting, herbivore numbers seem likely to increase, putting greater pressure on inflorescence numbers especially in years when fewer plants flower. Other than the loss of inflorescences, the agave population at Fort Huachuca appears robust and self-sustaining.

[Feng 1991] Zhao Feng (chief editor). The Universe of Music — A History (UMH), China Supplementary Volume 1: Instruments, Beijing: Xian dai chu ban she, 1991, 169 pages. A UNESCO / IMC Project. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Fensli 2005] Rune Fensli, Einar Gunnarson, and Torstein Gundersen. “A Wearable ECG-recording System for Continuous Arrhythmia Monitoring in a Wireless Tele-Home-Care Situation”, Computer-Based Medical Systems, Dublin, Ireland, June 23–24, 2005, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: New wireless technology for tele-home-care purposes gives new possibilities for monitoring of vital parameters with wearable biomedical sensors, and will give the patient the freedom to be mobile and still be under continuously monitoring and thereby to better quality of patient care. This paper describes a new concept for wireless and wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor transmitting signals to a diagnostic station at the hospital, and this concept is intended for detecting rarely occurrences of cardiac arrhythmias and to follow up critical patients from their home while they are carrying out daily activities.

[Fenton 1936] William N. Fenton (1908–2005). An Outline of Seneca Ceremonies at Coldspring Longhouse, Yale University Publications in Anthropology, Number 9, published by Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, 1936, 23 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1937] William N. Fenton. The Seneca Eagle Dance, M.S. dissertation – Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 1937. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1940] William N. Fenton. “Masked Medicine Societies of the Iroquois”, Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1940, pages 397–429. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1941] William N. Fenton. “Tonawanda Longhouse Ceremonies: Ninety Years After Lewis Henry Morgan”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 128, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1941, pages 139–165 + plates. Anthropological paper number 15. Publication bulletin1281941smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1942] William N. Fenton. Songs from the Iroquois Longhouse, Folk Music of the United States, Music of the American Indian Series, Volume 6, Album 6, published by the Library of Congress, AFS L6, 1942. Accompanying booklet published in [Fenton 1942a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1942a] William N. Fenton. Songs from the Iroquois Longhouse: Program notes for an Album of American Indian Music from the Eastern Woodlands, Smithsonian Institution, Publication 3691, September 11, 1942, 50 pages. Accompanying audio recording is [Fenton 1942]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1948] William N. Fenton. Seneca Songs from Coldspring Longhouse, Folk Music of the United States, Music of the American Indian Series, Volume 17, published by the Library of Congress, AFS L17, 1948. Accompanying booklet published in [John 1947]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1951] William N. Fenton and Gertrude P. Kurath (1903–1992). “The Feast of the Dead, or Ghost Dance, at Six Nations Reserve, Canada”, Symposium on Local Diversity in Iroquois Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 149, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1951, pages 139–165. Paper Number 7. Publication bulletin1491951smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 9 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fenton 1953] William N. Fenton. “The Iroquois Eagle Dance, An Offshoot of the Calumet Dance”, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 156, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1953, pages 1–222 + plates. Publication bulletin1561953smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fergusson 1873] James Fergusson (1808–1886). Tree and Serpent Worship: Illustrations of Mythology and Art in Indian in the First and Fourth Centuries after Christ, published by W. H. Allen, 1873, 247 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Fernando 2007] Nathalie Fernando-Marandola. “Study of African Scales: A New Experimental Approach for Cognitive Aspects”, Revista Transcultural de Música Transcultural Music Review, Number 11, 2007, 9 pages. Study of African Scales Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ferreri 2014] Laura Ferreri, Emmanuel Bigand, Stephane Perrey, Makii Muthalib, Patrick Bard, and Aurélia Bugaiska. “Less Effort, Better Results: How Does Music Act on Prefrontal Cortex in Older Adults During Verbal Encoding? — An fNIRS study”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 8, Article 301, May 2014, 11 pages, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00301 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Several neuroimaging studies of cognitive aging revealed deficits in episodic memory abilities as a result of prefrontal cortex (PFC) limitations. Improving episodic memory performance despite PFC deficits is thus a critical issue in aging research. Listening to music stimulates cognitive performance in several non-purely musical activities (e.g., language and memory). Thus, music could represent a rich and helpful source during verbal encoding and therefore help subsequent retrieval. Furthermore, such benefit could be reflected in less demand of PFC, which is known to be crucial for encoding processes. This study aimed to investigate whether music may improve episodic memory in older adults while decreasing the PFC activity. Sixteen healthy older adults (μ = 64.5 years) encoded lists of words presented with or without a musical background while their dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity was monitored using a eight-channel continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system (Oxymon Mk III, Artinis, The Netherlands). Behavioral results indicated a better source-memory performance for words encoded with music compared to words encoded with silence (p < 0.05). Functional NIRS data revealed bilateral decrease of oxyhemoglobin values in the music encoding condition compared to the silence condition (p < 0.05), suggesting that music modulates the activity of the DLPFC during encoding in a less-demanding direction. Taken together, our results indicate that music can help older adults in memory performances by decreasing their PFC activity. These findings open new perspectives about music as tool for episodic memory rehabilitation on special populations with memory deficits due to frontal lobe damage such as Alzheimer’s patients.

[Ferron 1985] Errnest J. Ferron. “Obturator for Flute Designed to Improve the Emission of Certain Notes”, United States Patent 4,499,810, Granted February 19, 1985, 6 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Obturator for Flute Designed to Improve the Emission of Certain Notes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Fewkes 1890] J. Walter Fewkes (1850–1930). “The Use of the Phonograph in the Study of the Language of the American Indians”, The American Naturalist, Volume 24, published by the Essex Institute, The American Society of Naturalists, May 1890, pages 495–496. Contains 3 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fewkes 1890a] J. Walter Fewkes. “On the Use of the Phonograph among the Zuñi Indians”, The American Naturalist, Volume 24, published by the Essex Institute, The American Society of Naturalists, July 1890, pages 687–691. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fewkes 1890b] J. Walter Fewkes. “Additional Studies of Zuñi Songs and Rituals with the Phonograph”, The American Naturalist, Volume 24, published by the Essex Institute, The American Society of Naturalists, November 1890, pages 1094–1098. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fewkes 1890c] J. Walter Fewkes. A Contribution to Passamaquoddy Folk-lore, Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition series, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 3, Number 11, October–December 1890, pages 257–280. Reissued in [Fewkes 2006]. Publication journalofamefolk03ameruoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

[Fewkes 1891] J. Walter Fewkes. “A Few Summer Ceremonials at Zuñi Pueblo”, A Journal of American Ethnology and Archaeology, Volume 1, published by The Riverside Press, Massachusetts, 1891, pages 1–62. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fewkes 1894] Jesse Walter Fewkes. “The Walpi Flute Observance: A Study of Primitive Dramatization”, Journal of American Folk-Lore, Volume 7, Number 27, October–December 1894, pages 265–288, doi:10.2307/532720. Publication 532720 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Fewkes 1895] Jesse Walter Fewkes. “The Oraibi Flute Altar”, Journal of American Folk-Lore, Volume 8, Number 31, October–December 1895, pages 265–284, doi:10.2307/532742. Publication 532742 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Fewkes 1896] J. Walter Fewkes. “A Contribution to Ethnobotany”, American Anthropologist, Volume 9, Number 1, January 1896, pages 14–21. Publication 658267 on JSTOR (subscription access). A Contribution to Ethnobotany Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Fewkes 1896a] Jesse Walter Fewkes. “The Micoñinovi Flute Altars”, Journal of American Folk-Lore, Volume 7, Number 27, October–December 1896, pages 241–256, doi:10.2307/534112. Publication 534112 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2)

[Fewkes 1900] Jesse Walter Fewkes. “Tusayan Flute and Snake Ceremonies”, Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1897-98, Part 2, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1900, pages 957–1011, retrieved March 15, 2010. Director: J. W. Powell. Publication annualreportofbu192smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fewkes 1911] Jesse Walter Fewkes. Preliminary Report on a Visit to the Navaho National Monument Arizona, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 50, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1911, 35 pages. Publication bulletin501911smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: On the completion of the work of excavation and repair of Cliff Palace, in the Mesa Verde National Park, in southern Colorado, in charge of the writer, under the Secretary of the Interior, he was instructed by Mr. W. H. Holmes, then Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, to make an archeologic reconnaissance of the northern part of Arizona, where a tract of land containing important prehistoric ruins had been reserved by the President under the name Navaho National Monument. In the following pages are considered some of the results of that trip, a more detailed account of the ruins being deferred to a future report, after a more extended examination shall have been made. Mention is made of a few objects collected, and recommendations are submitted for future excavation and repair work on these remarkable ruins to preserve them for examination by students and tourists. As will appear later, a scientific study of them is important, for they are connected with Hopi pueblos still inhabited, in which are preserved traditions concerning the ruins and their ancient inhabitants.

[Fewkes 2006] J. Walter Fewkes. Contribution to Passamaquoddy Folk-lore, published by Project Gutenberg, March 15, 2006, retrieved Febuary 7, 2010. Reissue of [Fewkes 1890]. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #17997 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fichter 1978] George S. Fichter; Marie and Nils Ostberg (drawings). American Indian Music and Musical Instruments: With Instructions for Making the Instruments, published by David McKay Co., New York, 1978, 115 pages, ISBN 0-679-20443-1 (978-0-679-20443-5), hardcover. Reading Level: ages 9-12. Met Museum Nolan Library call number M1669.F44 1978 Juv. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Describes every category of Indian music from war chants to music for curing illnesses. Includes instructions and diagrams for making Indian musical instruments, as well as the music and words for a number of Indian songs.

[Fiedel 2000] Stuart J. Fiedel. “The Peopling of the New World: Present Evidence, New Theories, and Future Directions”, Journal of Archaeological Research, Volume 8, Number 1, 2000, pages 39–103, doi:10.1023/A:1009400309773 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The prevailing archaeological consensus on Paleoindian origins and colonization of the Americas has been shaken by recent wide acknowledgment of pre-Clovis occupation at Monte Verde, Chile, and by claims that ostensibly non-Mongoloid skeletal remains might represent a precursor population. Recent mitochondrial DNA studies have been interpreted by some as indicating an earlier and more complex peopling of the continent. This paper reviews the current archaeological and biological evidence, in America and northern Asia, for the origins of Native Americans, assesses models of the colonization process in the light of new data and a revised chronology, and suggests avenues for future research.

[Fields 1993] Gary S. Fields. “American Indian Music Traditions and Contributions, Version: 1995-07-14”, American Indian Baseline Essays, Geocultural Baseline Essay Series, published by Portland Public Schools, 1993, 51 pages. See the Portland Public Schools Multicultural/Multiethnic Education Office web site. American Indian Music Traditions and Contributions Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Figulla 1912] H. H. Figulla. “Ishtar's Descent”, Memnon, Volume 6, 1912, pages 177–190. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Figulla discusses the difficult lines 51-58 on the obverse of the tablet that described Ishtar's descent to the underworld, and holds that they belong between lines 25 and 29 on the obverse. On this interpretation Ereshkigal, the queen of the underworld, at first refuses to let Ishtar go, but subsequently, influenced by the flute of Tammuz, grants the request.

[Fillmore 1893] J. C. Fillmore (1843–1898). “Scale and Harmonies of Indian Songs”, Music, Volume 4, 1893, pages 478–489. Contains 6 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 1893a] J. C. Fillmore. “Music of the Vancouver Indians”, Music, Volume 4, 1893, pages 490–491, retrieved December 25, 2009. Music of the Vancouver Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Fillmore 1893b] J. C. Fillmore. “A Study of Omaha Indian Music”, Archaeological and Ethnological Papers, published by Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1893. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 1894] John Comfort Fillmore. “A Study of Indian Music”, Century Magazine, Volume 47, Number 4, February 1894, pages 616–623. Reissued in [Fillmore 2006] A Study of Indian Music. Contains 11 songs. A Study of Indian Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Fillmore 1894a] John Comfort Fillmore. “Primitive Scales and Rhythms”, contained in [Wake 1894], 1894, pages 158–175. Contains 12 songs. Primitive Scales and Rhythms Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Fillmore 1894b] John Comfort Fillmore. “A Woman's Song of the Kwakiutl Indians”, Jourunal of American Folk-lore, Volume 6, Boston and New York, 1894, pages 285–290. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 1896] J. C. Fillmore and Washington Matthews (1843–1905). Songs of the Navajos, Land of Sunshine, Volume 7, 1896. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 1897] John Comfort Fillmore. “Navaho Music”, contained in [Matthews 1897], 1897, pages 254–257. Contains 12 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 1899] John Comfort Fillmore. “The Harmonic Structure of Indian Music”, American Anthropoligist, New Series, Volume 1, Number 2, published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, April 1899, pages 297–318. Publication americananthropo02ameruoft on Archive.org (open access). Contains 22 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fillmore 2006] John Comfort Fillmore. “A Study of Indian Music”, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 9, 2006, 48 pages, ISBN 1-4286-3642-0 (978-1-4286-3642-2). Reissue of [Fillmore 1894] A Study of Indian Music. A Study of Indian Music (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 1970] Robert Fink. The Universality of Music, published by Robert Martin Fink, 1970. Reissued in [Fink 1981]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 1981] Robert Fink. The Origin of Music: A Theory of the Universal Development of Music, published by Greenwich-Meridian, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1981, 293 pages, ISBN 0-912424-06-0 (978-0-912424-06-4). Reissue of [Fink 1970]. Library of Congress call number 81-670095. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 1985] Robert Fink. The Origin of Music: An Essay, revised, published by Greenwich-Meridian, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1985, 75 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 1997] Robert Fink. “Neanderthal Flute: Musicological Analysis”, Crosscurrents, Number 183, published by Greenwich Publishing, Canada, February 1997, 33 pages, ISBN 0-912424-12-5 (978-0-912424-12-5). ISSN 0704-6588. Reissued in [Fink 2004] Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale, updated 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 2003] Robert Fink. Selected Essays & Readings: On the Origin of Music, published by Greenwich Publishing, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 2004] Robert Fink. “Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale, updated 2004”, 2004, retrieved December 30, 2009. Reissue of [Fink 1997]. See the Bob Fink web site. Neanderthal Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Measurements of the Divje Babe Cave Bear Artifact, Flutopedia Image Detail: Proposed alignment of the Divje Babe Cave Bear Artifact, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, About Flutopedia.com

[Finkel 1982] Irving L. Finkel and M. Civil (editors). Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon, Volume 16, SIG 7 ALAN, published by Pontificium Institute Biblicum, Rome, 1982, 348 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Finnegan 1989] Ruth Finnegan. The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town, published by Cambridge University Press, 1989, 378 pages, ISBN 0-521-36066-8 (978-0-521-36066-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: A landmark in the study of music and culture, this acclaimed volume documents the remarkable scope of amateur music-making in the English town of Milton Keynes. It presents in vivid detail the contrasting yet overlapping worlds of classical orchestras, church choirs, brass bands, amateur operatic societies, and amateur bands playing jazz, rock, folk, and country. Notable for its contribution to wider theoretical debates and its influential challenge to long-held assumptions about music and how to study it, the book focuses on the practices rather than the texts or theory of music, rejecting the idea that only selected musical traditions, “great names,” or professional musicians are worth studying. This opens the door to the invisible work put in by thousands of local people of diverse backgrounds, and how the pathways creatively trodden by amateur musicians have something to tell us about both urban living and what it is to be human. Now with a new preface by the author, this long-awaited reissue of The Hidden Musicians will bring its insights and innovations to a new generation of students and scholars.

[Finson 1997] Jon W. Finson. The Voices That Are Gone: Themes in 19th-century American Popular Song, published by Oxford University Press, 1997, 368 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[FirstRider 1973] George First Rider (1904–1990). Blood Musical Instruments and Flutes, AT-180, George First Rider Oral History Project Collection, archives of the Glenbow Museum, Calgary, Alberta, in Blackfoot, 1973. See the Glenbow Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

Description from the Glenbow Museum: Consists of an interview about musical instruments and flutes of the Blood tribe (part of the Blackfoot Nation) of Southern Alberta. Original is in Blackfoot. No audio cassette is available.

[Fischer 1981] Henry G. Fischer. “Notes on Two Tomb Chapels at Gîza”, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 67, published by The Egyptian Exploration Society, London, 1981, pages 166–168. Notes on Two Tomb Chapels at Gîza Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fischer 1989] Henry G. Fischer. “Organology and Iconography of Ancient Egypt and the Renaissance”, Metropolitan Museum Journal, Volume 249, Number 6, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1989, pages 47–52. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fishbein 1988] Martin Fishbein, Susan E. Middlestadt, Victor Ottati, Susan Straus, and Alan Ellis. “Medical Problems Among ICSOM Musicians: Overview of a National Survey”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1988, pages 1–8. ICSOM = International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A national survey of professional orchestra musicians reveals a high prevalence of medical problems: 82% reported experiencing a medical problem, and 76% listed at least one problem severe enough to affect performance.

[Fisher 2001] Douglas Fisher. “Early Language Learning With and Without Music”, Reading Horizons, Volume 42, Issue 1, 2001, pages 39–49. Early Language Learning With and Without Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Eighty students who spoke Spanish at home were randomly assigned one of four teachers. Two of the teachers used a great deal of music in their classrooms while the other two did not. The students and their teachers remained together for two years - kindergarten and first grade. Literacy achievement data suggests that music had a positive effect on oral language and reading scores. Differences focused on the use of music for morning opening, music and signing while working with words, and the use of music during listening stations.

[Fitch 2005] W. Tecumseh Fitch. “The Evolution of Music in Comparative Perspective”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Number 1060, 2005, pages 1–21, doi: 10.1196/annals.1360.004 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper, I briefly review some comparative data that provide an empirical basis for research on the evolution of music making in humans. First, a brief comparison of music and language leads to discussion of design features of music, suggesting a deep connection between the biology of music and language. I then selectively review data on animal “music.” Examining sound production in animals, we find examples of repeated convergent evolution or analogy (the evolution of vocal learning of complex songs in birds, whales, and seals). A fascinating but overlooked potential homology to instrumental music is provided by manual percussion in African apes. Such comparative behavioral data, combined with neuroscientific and developmental data, provide an important starting point for any hypothesis about how or why human music evolved. Regarding these functional and phylogenetic questions, I discuss some previously proposed functions of music, including Pinker’s “cheesecake” hypothesis; Darwin’s and others’ sexual selection model; Dunbar’s group “grooming” hypothesis; and Trehub’s caregiving model. I conclude that only the last hypothesis receives strong support from currently available data. I end with a brief synopsis of Darwin’s model of a songlike musical “protolanguage,” concluding that Darwin’s model is consistent with much of the available evidence concerning the evolution of both music and language. There is a rich future for empirical investigations of the evolution of music, both in investigations of individual differences among humans, and in interspecific investigations of musical abilities in other animals, especially those of our ape cousins, about which we know little.

[Fitch 2006] W. Tecumseh Fitch. “The Biology and Evolution of Music: A comparative perspective”, Cognition, Volume 100, 2006, pages 173–215. See the Elsiver web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Studies of the biology of music (as of language) are highly interdisciplinary and demand the integration of diverse strands of evidence. In this paper, I present a comparative perspective on the biology and evolution of music, stressing the value of comparisons both with human language, and with those animal communication systems traditionally termed ‘‘song’’. A comparison of the ‘‘design features’’ of music with those of language reveals substantial overlap, along with some important differences. Most of these differences appear to stem from semantic, rather than structural, factors, suggesting a shared formal core of music and language. I next review various animal communication systems that appear related to human music, either by analogy (bird and whale ‘‘song’’) or potential homology (great ape bimanual drumming). A crucial comparative distinction is between learned, complex signals (like language, music and birdsong) and unlearned signals (like laughter, ape calls, or bird calls). While human vocalizations clearly build upon an acoustic and emotional foundation shared with other primates and mammals, vocal learning has evolved independently in our species since our divergence with chimpanzees. The convergent evolution of vocal learning in other species offers a powerful window into psychological and neural constraints influencing the evolution of complex signaling systems (including both song and speech), while ape drumming presents a fascinating potential homology with human instrumental music. I next discuss the archeological data relevant to music evolution, concluding on the basis of prehistoric bone flutes that instrumental music is at least 40,000 years old, and perhaps much older. I end with a brief review of adaptive functions proposed for music, concluding that no one selective force (e.g., sexual selection) is adequate to explaining all aspects of human music. I suggest that questions about the past function of music are unlikely to be answered definitively and are thus a poor choice as a research focus for biomusicology. In contrast, a comparative approach to music promises rich dividends for our future understanding of the biology and evolution of music.

[Fitch 2006a] W. Tecumseh Fitch. “On the Biology and Evolution of Music”, Music Perception, Volume 24, Issue 1, 2006, pages 85–88. ISSN 0730-7829; EISSN 1533-8312. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: I suggest that the question of whether music is an adaptation has been overemphasized in recent discussions of the biology and evolution of music, because the subtleties of this question combine with our poor fossil record for musical abilities of extinct hominids to render many of the key necessary facts empirically inaccessible, for now and perhaps forever. Thus the “adaptation question” seems a poor choice as a defining issue for the new but rapidly growing field of biomusicology. This field will be better served if we treat this and similar evolutionary questions as “intuition pumps” to help generate testable hypotheses that spur further experimental work on living animals (in both laboratory and field) and humans. In addition to work on music perception, studies of production in animals such as songbirds and humpback whales will play an important role. Finally, I suggest that the distinction between culture and biology made by many in the field creates a false dichotomy: like birdsong learning, human musical ability is better treated as an “instinct to learn”with biological and cultural aspects intimately intertwined.

[Fitch-JM 1990] James Marston Fitch. Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World, Reprint Edition, published by the University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, North Carolina, 1990, 433 pages, ISBN 0-8139-1272-5 (978-0-8139-1272-1). Originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1982. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Review: This book outlines a complete programme for the restoration and preservation of historic structures and historic sites throughout the world. It is a basic text for both the novice entering the field and the specialist. Dr Fitch covers the many disciplines, concepts and technologies needed by the preservationist. He also includes discussions of the economic, legal and legislative forces acting upon historic district planning. He provides useful information on how old buildings can be moved (either intact or disassembled) to new sites via truck, rail or barge; how to heat, cool and light old buildings and still maintain the aesthetic integrity of their interiors; and how a country can develop a comprehensive policy for the care of its artistic and historic heritage.

[Fitzgibbon 1914] Henry Macaulay Fitzgibbon (1855–1942). The Story of the Flute, published by The Walter Scott Publishing Co, Ltd., Felling-On-Tyne, 1914, 292 pages, retrieved June 9, 2010. Publication storyofflute1914fitz on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fitzgibbon 1928] Henry Macaulay Fitzgibbon. The Story of the Flute Being a History of the Flute and Everything Connected With It, Second Edition, published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1928. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fitzgibbon-SP 2013] Sean P. Fitzgibbon, Trent W. Lewis, David M. W. Powers, Emma W. Whitham, John O. Willoughby, and Kenneth J. Pope. “Surface Laplacian of Central Scalp Electrical Signals is Insensitive to Muscle Contamination”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Volume 60, Number 1, 2013, pages 4–9, doi:10.1109/TBME.2012.2195662 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of surface Laplacian processing on gross and persistent electromyographic (EMG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in electrical scalp recordings.Wemade scalp recordings during passive and active tasks, on awake subjects in the absence and in the presence of complete neuromuscular blockade. Three scalp surface Laplacian estimators were compared to left ear and common average reference (CAR). Contamination was quantified by comparing power after paralysis (brain signal, B) with power before paralysis (brain plus muscle signal, B+M). Brain:Muscle (B:M) ratios for the methods were calculated using B and differences in power after paralysis to represent muscle (M). There were very small power differences after paralysis up to 600 Hz using surface Laplacian transforms (B:M > 6 above 30 Hz in central scalp leads). Scalp surface Laplacian transforms reduce muscle power in central and pericentral leads to less than one sixth of the brain signal, two to three times better signal detection than CAR. Scalp surface Laplacian transformations provide robust estimates for detecting high-frequency (gamma) activity, for assessing electrophysiological correlates of disease, and also for providing a measure of brain electrical activity for use as a standard in the development of brain/muscle signal separation methods.

[Fiz 1993] José Fiz, J. Aguilar, Ana Carreras, Ana Teixido, Manuel Haro, Daniel O. Rodenstein, and José Morera. “Maximum Respiratory Pressures in Trumpet Players”, Chest, Volume 104, Number 4, October 1993, pages 1203–1204. Publication 8404193 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We studied whether experienced trumpet players can develop higher pressures with their inspiratory and expiratory muscles than untrained subjects. Twelve male trumpet players (mean age, 22.4 +/- 3.3 years) participated in the study. All of them had played the trumpet for at least 4 years and were nonsmokers. Twelve healthy male subjects (mean age, 23.3 +/- 3.1 years) participated as a control group. There were no differences in spirometric parameters between both groups. Maximum respiratory pressures were higher in the trumpet player group (trumpet players: Pmax 151.3 +/- 19.8 cm H2O; Pemax, 234.6 +/- 53.9 cm H2O; control group: Pemax, 106.7 +/- 10.4 cm H2O; Pemax, 189.6 +/- 14.6 cm H2O). We concluded that in young trumpet players, maximum respiratory pressures are higher than in young people who do not play wind instruments. This is most probably a consequence of respiratory muscle training with a wind instrument.

[Fletcher 1873] Alice C. Fletcher (1838–1923). “Feminine Idleness”, Woman's Journal, Volume 4, September 13, 1873, page 291. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Fletcher 1888] Alice C. Fletcher. “Glimpses of Child-Life among the Omaha Tribe of Indians”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 2, July–September 1888, pages 115–123. Contains 7 songs. Glimpses of Child-Life among the Omaha Tribe of Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Fletcher 1889] Alice C. Fletcher. “Leaves from my Omaha Note-Book”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 2, Number 6, July–September 1889, pages 219–226. Contains 1 song. Leaves from my Omaha Note-Book Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Fletcher 1892] Alice C. Fletcher. “Hae-thu-ska Society of the Omaha Tribe”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 5, 1892, pages 135–144. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1893] Alice C. Fletcher, aided by Francis La Flesche (1857–1932). “A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore”, Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Volume 1, Number 5, published by the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Published by the Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1893, pages 233–382. Reissued in [Fletcher 1967], [Fletcher 2001], and [Fletcher 2004]. Publication AStudyOfOmahaIndianMusic on Archive.org (open access). Contains 93 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3)

[Fletcher 1893a] Alice C. Fletcher. “How Indian Songs are Borrowed”, The American Anthropoligist, Volume 6, published by Judd and Detweiler, Washington, D.C., 1893, page 376. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1893b] Alice C. Fletcher. “Music as Found in Certain North American Indian Tribes”, Music, Volume 4, 1893, pages 457–467. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1893c] Alice C. Fletcher. “The Wa-Wan or Pipe Dance of the Omahas”, Music, Volume 4, 1893, pages 468–477. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1894] Alice C. Fletcher. “Indian Music — An Address delivered in Washington, D.C. April, 1894 by Miss Alice C. Fletcher”, Music, Volume 6, published by The Music Magazine Publishing Company, Chicago, May–October 1894, pages 188–199. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia.com - an Encyclopedia for the Native American Flute

[Fletcher 1894a] Alice C. Fletcher. “Indian Songs — Personal Studies of Indian Life”, Century Magazine, Volume 47, January 1894, pages 421–431, retrieved December 25, 2009. Contains 2 songs. Indian Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Fletcher 1894b] Alice C. Fletcher. “Love Songs Among the Omaha Indians”, contained in [Wake 1894], 1894, pages 153–157. Love Songs Among the Omaha Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Fletcher 1897] Alice C. Fletcher. “Notes on Certain Early Forms of Ceremonial Expression”, Science, Volume 5, Number 110, published by The MacMillan Company, New York, February 5, 1897, page 215. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1898] Alice C. Fletcher. “Indian Songs and Music”, The American Folk-lore Society series, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 11, Number 41, published by Houghton, Mifflin and Company, London and Leipzig, April–June 1898, pages 85–104. Publication 533214 on JSTOR (subscription access). Contains 9 songs. Indian Songs and Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Fletcher 1900] Alice C. Fletcher. Indian Story and Song from North America, published by Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, Massachusetts, 1900, xiv + 126 pages, hardcover. Contains 31 songs. Indian Story and Song from North America Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Native American Flute - Song Book, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, The Development of Flutes in North America, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Abstract: The present book, Indian Story and Song from North America (1900), was inspired by enthusiasm for Native American music generated at the Congress of Musicians held in connection with the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, Omaha, July 1898.

[Fletcher 1904] Alice C. Fletcher; James R. Murie (assistance); Edwin S. Tracy (music transcriptions). “The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony”, Twenty-Second Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1900-1901, Part 2, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1904, pages 1–372, retrieved March 15, 2010. Director: J. W. Powell. Publication annualreportofbu222smithso on Archive.org (open access). Contains 104 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1911] Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. The Omaha Tribe, Twenty-Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1905-1906, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1911, retrieved March 15, 2010. Chapters I-VII reissued in [Fletcher 1992a] The Omaha Tribe, Volume 1, Bison Book Edition. Chapters VIII - XVI, the appendix, and the index reissued in [Fletcher 1992b] The Omaha Tribe, Volume 2, Bison Book Edition. Publication annualreportofbu27smithso on Archive.org (open access). Contains 139 songs. The Omaha Tribe Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Thirteen citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (3), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2), Anatomy of the Native American Flute, The Warble (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (3), Names of the Native American Flute

[Fletcher 1915] Alice C. Fletcher. Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs — Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports, published by C. C. Birchard and Company, Boston, 1915, 139 pages. also printed in 1917. Reissued in [Fletcher 1994]. Contains 30 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1915a] Alice C. Fletcher. “The Study of Indian Music”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 1, Number 4, Washington, D.C., April 15, 1915, pages 231–235. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1915b] Alice C. Fletcher. “The Indian and Nature”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 1, Number 9, Washington, D.C., September 15, 1915, pages 467–473. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1916] Alice C. Fletcher. “A Birthday Wish from Native America”, Extract from the Holmes Anniversary Volume, 1916, pags 118–122. Publication birthdaywishfrom00flet on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1934] Alice C. Fletcher. “A Study of Indian Music”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 36, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1934, pages 487–488. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1967] Alice C. Fletcher, aided by Francis La Flesche. “A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore”, published by Kraus Reprint Corporation, New York, 1967. Reissue of [Fletcher 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 1992a] Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. The Omaha Tribe, Volume 1, Bison Book Edition, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 1992, 395 pages, ISBN 0-8032-6876-9 (978-0-8032-6876-0). Reissue of [Fletcher 1911] The Omaha Tribe Chapters I - VII. The Omaha Tribe (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Fletcher 1992b] Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche. The Omaha Tribe, Volume 2, Bison Book Edition, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 1992, 384 pages, ISBN 0-8032-6877-7 (978-0-8032-6877-7). Reissue of [Fletcher 1911] The Omaha Tribe Chapters VIII - XVI, the appendix, and the index, without the list of original owners of allotments on Omaha Reservation and the accompanying map. The Omaha Tribe (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Fletcher 1994] Alice C. Fletcher; Helen Myers (introduction). Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs — Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports, Bison Books Edition, published by the University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1994, xxiv + 139 pages, ISBN 0-8032-6886-6, softcover. Reissue of [Fletcher 1915]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 2001] Alice C. Fletcher, aided by Francis La Flesche. “A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore”, published by Adamant Media Corporation, July 3, 2001, 154 pages, ISBN 0-543-95937-6 (978-0-543-95937-9). Reissue of [Fletcher 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher 2004] Alice C. Fletcher, aided by Francis La Flesche. “A Study of Omaha Indian Music — With a Report on the Structural Peculiarities of the Music by John Comfort Fillmore”, published by Kessinger Publishing, March 30, 2004, 156 pages, ISBN 0-7661-8963-5 (978-0-7661-8963-8). Reissue of [Fletcher 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-F 1943] Harvey Fletcher. “Biographical Memoir of Dayton Clarence Miller 1866-1941”, Biographical Memoirs, Volume 23, Number 3, published by the National Academy of Sciences, Autumn 1943, pages 60–74. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1974] Neville H. Fletcher. “Some Acoustical Principles of Flute Technique”, The Instrumentalist, Volume 28, Number 7, February 1974, pages 57–61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1975] Neville H. Fletcher. “Acoustical Correlates of Flute Performance Technique”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 57, Issue 1, 1975, pages 233–237, doi:10.1121/1.380430 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

Abstract: Measurements of physical parameters of performance technique for a group of experienced flute players are reported. Blowing pressure is found to be consistent among the players and intermediate between previous measurements by Bouhuys [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 453−456 (1965)] and by Coltman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 40, 99−107 (1966); 44, 983−992 (1968)]. Jet−length measurements agree with those of Coltman. Blowing pressure and jet length come near to satisfying the expected relationship but with some discrepancy which may be significant. Harmonic analysis of flute tone shows that amplitude variations from piano to forte are largely confined to the upper partials, particularly for notes in the low octave. A study of vibrato shows that this normally consists of an amplitude modulation of the upper partials of the tone with little change in the fundamental. The vibrato frequency is consistently about 5 Hz and is associated with a 10% variation in blowing pressure at that frequency. Physiological vibrato mechanisms are discussed and the acoustical nature of the vibrato is shown to be determined by the nonlinear jet excitation mechanism and the stabilizing effect of the narrow fundamental pipe resonance.

[Fletcher-NH 1991] Neville Horner Fletcher and Thomas Dean Rossing. The Physics of Musical Instruments, published by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991, 620 pages. reprinted 1991, 1994, and 1996. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1994] Neville H. Fletcher. “Acoustic and Aerodynamic Determinants of the Sound Quality of Flutes”, Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Cambridge, Massachussets, June 6–10, 1994, 1994, 23 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A theoretical description of the interaction of a plane jet with an acoustic flow field is presented, along with a discussion of the interaction of this jet with the lip of a tube resonator to produce a self-sustained oscillation. This description is related to the sound production mechanism in flutes of various families, and the factors controlling pitch, overblowing, and harmonic development of the sound are discussed. Performance techniques are also briefly described. Despite the reasonable success of this description, it is pointed out that the concept of a mixing region conceals our ignorance of the aerodynamic processes taking place, and in particular the role of vorticity. It is surmised that invocation of these processes will prove necessary to a proper understanding of details of the art of embouchure-hole and head-joint design.

[Fletcher-NH 1998] Neville Horner Fletcher and Thomas Dean Rossing. The Physics of Musical Instruments, Second Edition, published by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998, 756 pages, ISBN 0-387-98374-0 (978-0-387-98374-5). reprinted 1999 and 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1999] Neville H. Fletcher and A. Tarnopolsky. “Blowing Pressure, Power, and Spectrum in Trumpet Playing”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 105, Number 2, Part 1, February 1999, pages 874–881. Publication 9972572 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Measurements of sound output as a function of blowing pressure are reported for a group of experienced trumpet players. The study identifies several common features, namely (1) a threshold blowing pressure approximately proportional to the frequency of the note being played, (2) an extended region in which the sound output rises by about 15 dB for each doubling of blowing pressure, and (3) a saturation region in which sound output rises by only about 3 dB for a doubling of blowing pressure. Some players are able to blow with maximum pressures as high as 25 kPa, which is significantly greater than normal systolic blood pressure. A simple theory is presented that provides a physical explanation for the acoustical behavior, but a detailed treatment requires solution of the nonlinear coupled equations both for the lip-valve mechanism and for nonlinear wave propagation in the instrument tube. Frequency analysis of the sound shows a basic spectral envelope determined by the resonance properties of the mouthpiece cup and the radiation behavior of the bell, supplemented by an extension to increasingly high frequencies as the blowing pressure is increased. This high-frequency behavior can be attributed to nonlinear wavefront steepening during sound propagation along the cylindrical bore of the instrument.

[Fletcher-NH 1999a] Neville H. Fletcher. “The Nonlinear Physics of Musical Instruments”, Rep. Prog. Phys, Volume 62, 1999, pages 723–764. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Musical instruments are often thought of as linear harmonic systems, and a first-order description of their operation can indeed be given on this basis, once we recognise a few inharmonic exceptions such as drums and bells. A closer examination, however, shows that the reality is very different from this. Sustained-tone instruments, such as violins, flutes and trumpets, have resonators that are only approximately harmonic, and their operation and harmonic sound spectrum both rely upon the extreme nonlinearity of their driving mechanisms. Such instruments might be described as ‘essentially nonlinear’. In impulsively excited instruments, such as pianos, guitars, gongs and cymbals, however, the nonlinearity is ‘incidental’, although it may produce striking aural results, including transitions to chaotic behaviour. This paper reviews the basic physics of a wide variety of musical instruments and investigates the role of nonlinearity in their operation.

[Fletcher-NH 2000] Neville H. Fletcher. “The Physiological Demands of Wind Instrument Performance”, Acoustics Australia, Volume 28, Number 1, 2000, pages 53–56. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Requirements on blowing pressure and lip tension in the playing of woodwind and brass instruments are examined and related to the sound-producing mechanism in each case. Loud playing of high notes on brass instruments is found to be the most physIologIcally demanding situation, but all instruments have particular requirements for precise physiological control.

[Flintoff 2004] Brian Flintoff. Taonga Pūoro / Singing Treasures — The Musical Instruments of the Māori, published by Craig Potton, Nelson, New Zealand, 2004, 132 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-877333-14-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Taonga Puoro: Singing Treasures is the first book to be published that comprehensively covers the world of Maori musical instruments, a fascinating and little-known area of traditional Maori culture.

Written by master carver and Maori instrument-maker Brian Flintoff, Taonga Puoro includes a background to the tunes played on these instruments and the families of natural sounds with which they are associated. There are sections covering the varous types of instruments, such as flutes, gourds, wood and shell trumpets and bullroarers; but what really breathes life into this book is the way that the technical information about each instrument is interwoven with the mythological and cultural context to which it belongs.

In addition, instructions are given for making and playing these singing treasures, as well as an explanation to help understand Maori art forms. Taonga Puoro is illustrated with colour photographs of exquisite contemporary instruments as well as ancient taonga held in museums around the world.

Taonga Puoro comes with a CD sampler, compiled from a selection of recent releases and featuring tracks of contemporary Maori music and the natural sounds which inspire it.

[Floyd 2009] Chris Floyd. A Flock of Magpies — Celtic and Folk Songs for Native American Flute (song book), published by Egregious Grebe Press, 2009, 36 pages, spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, CD included. See the Egregious Grebe Press web site. Contains 23 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 23 original and traditional airs, waltzes, jigs, and reels, arranged and transcribed for six-hole Native American Flute.

This professionally printed 36-page book was designed with musicians in mind, with a lay-flat spiral binding and stiff heavy-weight cover. An enclosed CD includes performances of all tunes in the book.

[Flynn 1992] Patrick Flynn. Native Spirit Song Book — For the Native American Flute with Odell Borg, Volume 1 (song book), 1992, ASIN B001GIM10M. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams, CD included. Contains 20 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2)

[Flynn 2005] Patrick Flynn. Folk Spirit Song Book — For the Native American Flute with Odell Borg (song book), published by High Spirits Music, 2005. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams, CD included. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Flynn B] Patrick Flynn. Native Spirit Song Book — For the Native American Flute with Odell Borg, Volume 2 (song book). Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams, CD included. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fogelson 2004] Raymond D. Fogelson (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 14: Southeast, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 2004, 1042 pages, ISBN 0-16-072300-0 (978-0-16-072300-1). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 64 chapters on Indians from Florida and the southern Appalachians and the Carolina Piedmont to the southern Mississippi River Valley.

[Foley 2009] Karma Foley. Guide to the John Marshall Ju/’hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000, published by Human Studies Film Archives, Smithsonian Institution, April 2009, 65 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Footprint 2011] Footprint. Indigenous Peoples, Footprint Travel Guides, 2011, retrieved September 28, 2011. Indigenous Peoples Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Tribal Identification (6)

[Ford-JA 1963] James A. Ford. “Hopewell Culture Burial Mounds near Helena, Arkansas”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 50, Part 1, New York, 1963, 55 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawings of the Helena Crossing Hopewell panpipe

[Forinash 2015] K. Forinash. An Interactive eBook on the Physics of Sound, published by Indiana University Southeast, 2015, retrieved January 28, 2015. See the Physics of Sound Indiana University Southeast web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Forster 2010] Cris Forster. Musical Mathematics — On the Art and Science of Acoustic Instruments, published by Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California, 2010, 952 pages, ISBN 0-8118-7407-9 (978-0-8118-7407-6). See the Chrysalis Foundation web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Musical Mathematics is the definitive tome for the adventurous musician. Integrating mathematics, music history, and hands-on experience, this volume serves as a comprehensive guide to the tunings and scales of acoustic instruments from around the world. Author, composer, and builder Cris Forster illuminates the mathematical principles of acoustic music, offering practical information and new discoveries about both traditional and innovative instruments. With this knowledge readers can improve, or begin to build, their own instruments inspired by Forster's creations shown in 16 color plates. For those ready to step outside musical conventions and those whose curiosity about the science of sound is never satisfied, Musical Mathematics is the map to a new musical world.

[Forsyth 1912] Thomas Forsyth. “An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Sauk and Fox Nations Indians Tradition”, 1912. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Foucher 1917] Alfred Foucher (1865–1952) and Frederick William Thomas (1867–1956). The Beginnings of Buddhist Art, And other Essays in Indian and Central-Asian Archæology, 1917. Publication cu31924009002308 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: Inner Wall of the Eastern Gate of The Great Stupa at Sanchi

[Fourier 1888] Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768–1830); Gaston Darboux (editor) (1842–1917). Œuvres de Fourier, Volumes 1 and 2, published by Gauthier-Villars et fils, Paris, in French, 1888, 613 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Intervals

[Fowke 1973] Edith Fowke. “A Reference List on Canadian Folk Music”, Canadian Journal for Traditional Music, Volume 1, 1973, retrieved April 13, 2010. See the Canadian Journal for Traditional Music web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fowke 1978] Edith Fowke. “A Reference List on Canadian Folk Music”, Canadian Journal for Traditional Music, Volume 6, 1978, retrieved April 13, 2010. See the Canadian Journal for Traditional Music web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fowler 1990] Ilania H. Fowler and J. Charles Hind. “Pentatonic Ocarina”, United States Patent 4,893,541, Granted January 16, 1990, 7 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Pentatonic Ocarina Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Fowler-DD 1971] Don D. Fowler and Catherine S. Fowler (editors). Anthropology of the Numa: John Wesley Powell's Manuscripts on the Numic Peoples of Western North America 1868-1880, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Number 14, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, City of Washington, 1971, 307 pages. Library of Congress call number 70-606841. See the Smithsonian Institution Libraries web page. Anthropology of the Numa Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Narratives of the Native American Flute, Flutopedia Image Detail: John Wesley Powell and Tau-gu, Names of the Native American Flute (2)

Abstract: Between 1868 and 1880, John Wesley Powell conducted intermittent linguistic, ethnographic, and folklore studies among the Numic-speaking Indians of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau areas of western North America. The data from these studies were recorded in over seventy unpublished manuscripts, deposited in the Bureau of American Ethnology manuscript collection of the Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives. Although Powell intended to write a general "Report on the Numa," his increasing administrative duties after 1879 precluded completion of the project. The Powell manuscripts relating to the "Numa" have been collated, edited and annotated, and presented herein. The materials include general ethnographic data, a variety of myths and tales, and extensive vocabulary lists of various Numic languages and dialects.

[Fowler-Hawkins 2004] Sanford Elliot Fowler-Hawkins. “Device and Method for Inducing Sputum”, United States Patent 6,702,769 B1, Granted March 9, 2004, 24 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Device and Method for Inducing Sputum Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction, Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

[Fowler-Hawkins 2006] Sanford Elliot Fowler-Hawkins. “Device and Method for Inducing Sputum and Collecting Samples”, United States Patent 6,984,214 B2, Granted January 10, 2006, 27 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Device and Method for Inducing Sputum and Collecting Samples Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction, Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Fowler-MK 1957] Melvin K. Fowler. “Rutherford Mound, Hardin County, Illinois”, Scientific Papers of the Illinois State Museum, Volume 7, Springfield, Illinois, 1957. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Francis 2013] Norbert Francis. “Music Contact and Language Contact: A Proposal for Comparative Research”, The Linguistic Review, Volume 30, Number 1, 2013, pages 1–24, doi:10.1515/tlr-2013-0001 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The concept of convergence, from the study of language contact, provides a model for better understanding interactions between cognitive systems of the same type (for example, in bilingualism, subsystem instantiations of the same kind of knowledge representation and its associated processing mechanisms). For a number of reasons, musical ability is the domain that allows for the most interesting comparisons and contrasts with language in this area of research. Both crosslanguage and crossmusical idiom interactions show a vast array of diferent kinds of mutual inluence, all of which are highly productive, ranging from socalled transfer efects to total replacement (attrition of the replaced subsystem). The study of music contact should also help investigators conceptualize potential structural parallels between separate mental faculties, most importantly, it would seem, between those that appear to share component competence and processing modules in common. The irst part of the proposal is to determine if the comparison between the two kinds of convergence (in language and in music) is a useful way of thinking about how properties of each system are similar, analogous, diferent and so forth. This leads to a more general discussion about the design features of mental faculties, what might deine them “narrowly,” for example.

[Franklin 2002] John Curtis Franklin. “Musical Syncretism in the Greek Orientalizing Period”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in German and English, 2002, pages 441–451. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2002a] John Curtis Franklin. Terpander: The Invention of Music in the Orientalizing Period, Doctoral dissertation – University College, London, England, 2002. See the Thesis on John Franklin's KingMixders web site. Terpander Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Franklin 2002b] John Curtis Franklin. Diatonic Music in Greece: A Reassessment of its Antiquity, Mnemosyne, Volume 55, Fasc 6, 2002, pages 669–702. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2003] John Curtis Franklin. The Language of Musical Technique in Greek Epic Diction, contained in Gaia. Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaïque 7, 2003, pages 295–307. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2004] John Curtis Franklin. Structural Sympathies in Ancient Greek and South-Slavic Heroic Song, contained in [Hickmann-E 2004], 2004, 11 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2006] John Curtis Franklin. “Lyre Gods of the Bronze Age Musical Koine”, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: That the Late Bronze Age cultural koine included a musical dimension is suggested by the Mesopotamian and Hurrian/Ugaritic musical tablets. This paper presents a selective survey and analysis of evidence for a parallel phenomenon, the deification of lyres/harps, which seemingly originated in late third millennium Mesopotamia and spread abroad in the second. Deified lyres are considered as both a ritual reality and an inducement to poetic elaboration by the same poetpriests who used them; much of the textual evidence thus represents remnants of a professional repertoire. At the same time, the motif also commonly centers on kingship, which is explained in terms of the dual office of priest-kingship; as such, there is some involvement of the deified lyre with the ritual of sacred marriage (hieros gamos). Relevant material comes from Ugarit and Cyprus, especially in the figure of Kinyras. In Greek evidence, ‘lyre heroes’ like Orpheus, Amphion, Cadmus and Linus are seen as late mythological derivatives of the pattern, Archaic survivals of Mycenaean ritual-poetics. Finally, Old Testament evidence for musical prophecy is considered in light of the foregoing.

[Franklin 2006a] John Curtis Franklin. “The Wisdom of the Lyre: Soundings in Ancient Greece, Cyprus and the Near East”, in English and German, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2006c] John Curtis Franklin. ‘Songbenders of Circular Choruses’: Dithyramb and the ‘Demise of Music’, 2006, 22 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2007] John Curtis Franklin. “A Feast of Music”: The Greco-Lydian Musical Movement on the Assyrian Periphery, 2007, 12 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2009] John Curtis Franklin. Kinyras: The Divine Lyre, 2009, 207 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Franklin 2010] John Curtis Franklin. Kinyras and the Musical Stratigraphy of Early Cyprus, 2010, 34 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin-M 2008] Michael S. Franklin, Katie Rattray, Katherine Sledge Moore, Jeff Moher, Chun-Yu Yip, and John Jonides. “The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory”, Psychology of Music, Volume 36, Number 3, July 2008, pages 258–263, doi:10.1177/0305735607086044 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present article, we review this line of research and present newly collected data comparing trained musicians to non-musicians on a number of tasks that recruit verbal memory. The results showed an advantage for musicians' long-term verbal memory that disappeared when articulatory suppression was introduced. In addition, we found evidence for a greater verbal working memory span in musicians. Together, these results show that musical training may influence verbal working memory and long-term memory, and they suggest that these improved abilities are due to enhanced verbal rehearsal mechanisms in musicians.

[Frantzius 1945] Peter von Frantzius. “Design for a Whistle”, United States Design Patent D141,400, Granted May 29, 1945, 2 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Design for a Whistle Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Frazee 1987] Jane Frazee. Discovering Orff, Schott, 1987, 224 pages, ISBN 0-930448-99-5, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Frazer 2001] Peter A. Frazer. The Development of Musical Tuning Systems, April 2001, 44 pages. The Development of Musical Tuning Systems Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Frederick 2005] Jon A. Frederick, DeAnna L. Timmermann, Harold L. Russell, and Joel F. Lubar. “EEG Coherence Effects of Audio-visual Stimulation (AVS) at Dominant and Twice Dominant Alpha Frequency”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 8, Number 4, 2005, pages 25–42, doi:10.1300/J184v08n04_03 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effects of a single session of audio-visual stimulation (AVS) at the dominant alpha rhythm and twice-dominant alpha frequency on EEG coherence were studied in 23 subjects. An eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subject's dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at their dominant alpha frequency or at twice dominant alpha frequency for twenty minutes, while EEG was recorded in 5-minute intervals. A post-session baseline was recorded 30 minutes after each session. AVS decreased coherence in the intrahemispheric projections from the occipital region and the parietal midline, and generally increased coherence, with few exceptions, among all other longitudinal pairs. Interhemispheric coherence increased posteriorily and high frequencies, and tended to decrease frontally and low frequencies. Alpha AVS was more effective than twice-alpha AVS at producing interhemispheric synchronization, and tended to produce more effects overall. Although main effects of frequency and time were observed, when individual coherence pairs changed, they almost always changed in only one direction. Overall coherence was greater during the first ten minutes than the last ten minutes, and greatest in the beta 1 and delta 2 bands, and lowest in the alpha and delta 1 bands. Few, if any, significant effects persisted into the post-stimulation baseline. A new method of assessing the effects of multiple comparisons on experimentwise error, based on randomization theory, is proposed and implemented.

[Freedman 1962] Sam Freedman. Māori Melodies — 33 Recorded Songs from the Polynesians of New Zealand, published by Criterion Music, 1962, 36 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Freeman 1992] James A. Freeman. Ishi's Journey: From the Center to the Edge of the World, published by Naturegraph Publishers, California, 1992, 224 pages, ISBN 0-87961-231-2 (978-0-87961-231-3), softcover. See the Naturegraph web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Freeman-LC 1956] Linton C. Freeman and Alan P. Merriam. “Statistical Classification in Anthropology: An Application to Ethnomusicology”, American Anthropologist, Volume 58, Number 3, June 1956, pages 464–472. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Freeman-W 1995] Walter J. Freeman. Societies of Brains — A Study in the Neuroscience of Love and Hate, INNS Series of Texts, Monographs, and Proceedings Series, published by Psychology Press, 1995, 216 pages, ISBN 0-8058-2017-5 (978-0-8058-2017-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[French 2007] Michael P. French (editor). A Collection of Literature Reviews Written by the MED Students from EDU 612, Volume 1, published by Lourdes College, Spring 2007, 150 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Friedman 1998] Bruce H. Friedman and Julian F. Thayer. “Anxiety and Autonomic Flexibility: A cardiovascular approach”, Biological Psychology, Volume 49, Number 3, November 1998, pages 303–323, doi:10.1016/S0301-0511(97)00027-6. Publication 9858059 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Autonomic characteristics of panickers, blood phobics, and nonanxious controls were compared with a variety of cardiovascular measures, including spectral analysis of the cardiac inter-beat interval time series (derived from the electrocardiogram). Responses to laboratory stressors (shock avoidance and cold face stress) of 16 participants who reported recent occurrences of frequent severe panic attacks, 15 participants who reported strong somatic reactions and fainting to the sight of blood, and 15 controls, were recorded. Results suggested distinct autonomic patterns among the three groups. Across conditions, panickers displayed the highest heart rates (HR) coupled with the least HR variability, which indicates low levels of cardiac vagal tone. Blood phobics showed more vagally mediated HR variability than panickers, with a significant association between cardiac rate and mean arterial pressure. Controls generally showed the most HR variability and 'spectral reserve' (a quality that indicates flexible responsivity). Results are discussed in the context of traditional models of anxiety and autonomic activity in contrast to contemporary notions of stability and change in biological systems.

[Friedman 2007] Bruce H. Friedman. “An Autonomic Flexibility-neurovisceral Integration Model of Anxiety and Cardiac Vagal Tone”, Biological Psychology, Volume 74, Number 2, February 2007, pages 185–199, doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.009. Publication 17069959 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Research on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac vagal tone, and their relationship to anxiety is reviewed in the context of the autonomic flexibility and neurovisceral integration models of adaptive functioning. These perspectives address the qualities of response flexibility and inhibition across multiple levels, incorporating central and autonomic nervous system mechanisms of environmental engagement, as well as principles derived from non-linear dynamics. These models predict reduced HRV and vagal tone in anxiety, and the literature has generally supported this prediction, with exceptions as are noted. State, trait, and clinical expressions of anxiety are considered, along with the clinical, methodological, and theoretical implications of this research. A portrayal of anxiety as a restricted response range across biological and behavioral realms of functioning is drawn from the literature on anxiety and HRV.

[Friendly X] Ray Friendly (1912–1997). Prelude to Silence — for Solo Native American Flute, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Zalo / JP-Publications. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Inspired by the composer’s sung-recitation of the 23rd Psalm; meditative, reflective, in the form of a soliloquy; appropriate for performance in secular or religious settings.

[Friml 1924] Rudolf Friml and Herbert Stothart (music); Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein 2nd (lyrics). Indian Love Call, published by Harms Inc., New York, 1924, 6 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute

Description from the Glenbow Museum: Part of Arthur Hammerstein's musical play, "Rose-Marie". This popular American operetta was partially responsible for the commonly held image of Canada as a land of snow, mountains and Mounties. Four movie versions were made, the most popular being the 1936 version with Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald.

[Frisbie 1971] Charlotte J. Frisbie. “Anthropological and Ethnomusicological Implications of a Comparative Analysis of Bushmen and African Pygmy Music”, Ethnology, Volume 10, Number 3, July 1971, pages 265–290. Publication 3772917 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fuks 1996] Leonardo Fuks and Johan Sundberg. “Blowing Pressures in Reed Woodwind Instruments”, Department for Speech, Music and Hearing. Quarterly Progress and Status Reports (TMH-QPSR), Volume 37, Number 3, 1996, pages 41–56. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

Abstract: The blowing pressures during wind instruments playing has not been systematically measured in previous research, leaving the dependences of pitch and dynamic level as open questions. In the present investigation, we recorded blowing pressures in the mouth cavity of two professional players of each of four reed woodwinds (Bb clarinet, alto saxophone, oboe, bassoon). The players performed three different tasks: (1) a series of isolated tones at four dynamic levels, (2) the same series with a crescendo-diminuendo tones and (3) ascendingdescending musical arpeggio played legato at different dynamic levels (pp, mp, mf, ff). The results show that, within instruments, the players' pressures exhibit similar dependencies of pitch and dynamic levels. Between instruments, clear differences were found with regard to the dependence on pitch.

[Fuks 2002] Leonardo Fuks and Heinz Fadle. “Wind Instruments”, contained in [Parncutt 2002]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Anatomy of the Native American Flute, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (3)

[Fukuta 2003] Hidekatsu Fukuta, Junichiro Hayano, Shinji Ishihara, Seiichiro Sakata, Seiji Mukai, Nobuyuki Ohte, Kazuhito Ojika, Keiko Yagi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Sinken Sohmiya, and Genjiro Kimura. “Prognostic Value of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease on Chronic Haemodialysis”, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 18, 2003, pages 318–325. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fullekrug 2010] Martin Füllekrug. Magnetic Activity and Schumann Resonance, published by the Northern California Earthquake Data Center, September 23, 2010, retrieved December 15, 2010. Magnetic Activity and Schumann Resonance Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Pitch-to-Frequency Calculator (2)

[Fuller 1843] Margaret Fuller. Summer on the Lakes, in 1843, published by Charles C. Little and James Brown, Charles S. Francis and Company, Boston and New York, 1844, 256 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Poetry for the Native American Flute, Readings and Quotations on Music

[Furgusson 1931] Erna Ferfusson. Dancing Gods: Indian Ceremonials of New Mexico and Arizona, published by Knopf, New York, 1931, 405 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Furniss 2009] Ingrid Furniss. “Unearthing China's Informal Musicans: An Archaeological and Textual Study of the Shang to Tang Periods”, Yearbook for Traditional Music, Volume 41, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 2009, pages 23–41. Publication 25735477 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Furuya 2006] Shinichi Furuya, Hidehiro Nakahara, Tomoko Aoki, and Hiroshi Kinoshita. “Prevalence and Causal Factors of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremity and Trunk among Japanese Pianists and Piano students”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 21, Number 3, 2006, pages 112–117. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) among Japanese female classical pianists of different age groups. The causal factors for PRMDs also were examined. A group of 203 senior pianists, including piano teachers and students with piano majors at high schools and colleges, were surveyed using questionnaires. Results showed that 77% of these pianists suffered from PRMDs in at least one of their body portions. This value was larger than those reported in Western countries. Forty-four percent of these were serious enough to warrant medical treatment, which was a lower rate than reported in Western countries. The difference in these numbers may reflect the current state of understanding of PRMDs among Japanese pianists and their educators. The prevalence of PRMDs was found to be age-dependent. In the student groups, the finger/hand had the highest rate of PRMDs, followed by the forearm and shoulder. The senior group, on the other hand, had the highest PRMD incidence at the neck/trunk, followed by the forearm and hand/finger. Care may need to be exercised for these differences. The results also indicated that prolonged daily practice (>4 hours), playing chords forcefully, eagerness about practice, and nervous traits were found to contribute to the development of PRMDs in these pianists. Hand size was, on the other hand, not a significant risk factor of PRMDs.

 
Previous PageNext Page

   
 

To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2017_references_f"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title= References for the Native American Flute - F |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/references_f.htm |date=3 February 2017 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>