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References - V

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter V. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - V

[Vaca 1528] Alvar Nuñez Cabeca de Vaca; Frederick W. Hodge (editor). “The Narrative of Alvar Nuñez Cabeca de Vaca”, contained in [Jameson 1907], 1528. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vaca 1922] Alvar Nuñez Cabeca de Vaca; Ad. F. Bandelier (editor). The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeca de Vaca and his Companions from Florida to the Pacific 1528–1536, published by the Allerton Book Co., New York, 1922, xxii + 231 pages. Copyright 1904, William-Barker Co. Original publication in 1542. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2003] John Vames. The Native American Flute: Understanding the Gift, First Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2003, 94 pages, ISBN 0-9740486-0-7, comb binding. Nakai tablature notation, no finger diagrams, CD included. Contains 25 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2005] John Vames. The Native American Flute: Understanding the Gift, Second Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2005, ISBN 0-9740486-2-3, comb binding. Same as First Edition, except for the cover and price. Contains 25 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2005a] John Vames. Song for Koko: Jazz for Native American Flute, First Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2005, 65 pages, ISBN 0-9740486-1-5, spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, no finger diagrams, CD included. Contains 14 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2006] John Vames. The Native American Flute: Understanding the Gift, Third Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2006, ISBN-13 978-0-9740486-3-5, comb binding. Same as First Edition, except for the cover and price. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2007] John Vames. The Native American Flute: Understanding the Gift, Fourth Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2007, ISBN 0-9740486-3-1 (978-0-9740486-3-5), comb binding. Same as First Edition, except for the cover and price. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2007a] John Vames. Song for Koko: Jazz for Native American Flute, Second Edition, published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2007, 65 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-9740486-1-1, spiral binding. Same as First Edition, except for the cover and price. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vames 2010] John Vames; Sherry Vames (producer); Auggie Mendoza (musical transcriptions and arrangements). Remembrance — Songs from a Journey, First Edition (song book), published by Molly Moon Arts & Publishing, Scottsdale, Arizona, 2010, 47 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-9740486-6-6. Thirteen original songs written in Nakai Tab Traditional & Jazz. See the John Vames web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description: A collection of John Vames' music celebrating the beauty and versitility of the Native American Flute.

[VanAlstyne 1903] Egbert Van Alstyne (1882–1951). Navajo Indian Characteristic March and Two-Step, published by Shapiro, Bernstein and Co., Chicago and New York, 1903, 6 pages. See the Historic American Sheet Music, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vander 1986] Judith Vander. Ghost Dance Songs and Religion of a Wind River Shoshone Woman, Monograph Series in Ethnomusicology, Number 4, published by the, Department of Music, University of California, Los Angeles, 1986, 102 pages, ISBN 0-88287-021-1. Library of Congress call number 86-50726. See the Judith Vander's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the preface: The Ghost Dance songs and beliefs of one elderly woman, Emily Hill, express personal religious faith and in a broader context reveal Wind River Shoshone interpretation of the Ghost Dance religion. In this monography I will use 17 Shoshone Ghost Dance songs as a focus, analyzing music and text in order to define musical and poetic style. Beyond poetic style, song texts provide insights into Shoshone Ghost Dance concerns and bliefs. Although Wind River Shoshone were active participants in Plains culture, their Ghost Dance beliefs and song texts suggest an erosion of Plains influence and a closer relationship to Great Basin culture, cradle of the Ghost Dance religion and Shoshone culture itself. In more recent times one sees a parallel erosion of Plains influence on other Shoshone ceremonies as well.

[Vander 1995] Judith Vander. “The Shoshone Ghost Dance and Numic Myth: Common Heritage, Common Themes”, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 17, Number 2, 1995, pages 174–190. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The outer form and inner meaning of Wind River Shoshone Ghost Dance are shaped by conceptions of nature and the relationship of people to the natural world. This paper examines Numic conceptions and images of nature in myth, shamanism, the Round Dance, and the Shoshone Ghost Dance, noting their close correspondence. Topics include the circle of nature and power, the power of song, dance, and language, nature and metaphor, and death and resurrection. Underlying concerns for food, weather, and health in myth, shamanism, the Round Dance, and Shoshone Ghost Dance songs further attest to the Numic nature of Wovoka 's Ghost Dance religion and its performance by Wind River Shoshone in this century

[Vander 1996] Judith Vander. Songprints: The Musical Experience of Five Shoshone Women, published by the, University of Illinois Press, 1996, 317 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by the author: Songprints, the first book-length exploration of the musical lives of Native American women, describes a century of cultural change and constancy among the Shoshone of Wyoming’s Wind River Reservation. Through my conversations with Emily, Angelina, Alberta, Helene, and Lenore, I try to capture the distinct personalities and perspectives of five generations of Shoshone women as they tell their thoughts, feelings, and attitudes toward their music. These women, who range in age from seventy to twenty, provide a unique historical perspective on many aspects of twentieth-century Wind River Shoshone life.

In addition to documenting these oral histories, I transcribe and analyze seventy-five songs that the women sing—a microcosm of Northern Plains Indian music. I show how each woman possesses her own songprint—a song repertoire distinctive to her culture, age, and personality, as unique in its configuartion as a fingerprint or footprint.

[Vanderburgh 1908] Frederick Augustus Vanderburgh (1847–1923). Sumerian Hymns from Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, published by Columbia University Press, 1908. Publication sumerianhymnsfro00vandiala on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Vandermeersch 2007] Bernard Vandermeersch and Bruno Maureille (editors); Yves Coppens (preface). “Les Néandertaliens.: Biologie et Cultures «The Neanderthals - Biology and Culture»”, Documents préhistoriques, volume 23, Éditions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques (CTHS), Paris, in French, 2007, 342 pages, ISBN 2-7355-0638-X (978-2-7355-0638-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[vanDeursen 2008] J. A. van Deursen, E. F. P. M. Vuurman, F. R. J. Verhey, V. H. J. M. van Kranen-Mastenbroek, and W. J. Riedel. “Increased EEG Gamma Band Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment”, Journal of Neural Transmission, Volume 115, Number 9, September 2008, pages 1301–1311, doi:10.1007/s00702-008-0083-y. Publication 18607528 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: High frequency (30–70 Hz) gamma band oscillations in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG) are thought to reflect perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore interesting to study these measures in cognitive impairment and dementia. To evaluate gamma band oscillations as a diagnostic biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 15 psychoactive drug naïve AD patients, 20 MCI patients and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. Gamma band power (GBP) was measured in four conditions viz. resting state, music listening, story listening and visual stimulation. To evaluate test–retest reliability (TRR), subjects underwent a similar assessment one week after the first. The overall TRR was high. Elevated GBP was observed in AD when compared to MCI and control subjects in all conditions. The results suggest that elevated GBP is a reproducible and sensitive measure for cognitive dysfunction in AD in comparison with MCI and controls.

[VanMiddlesworth 1978] Jane L. Van Middlesworth. An Analysis of Selected Respiratory and Cardiovascular Characteristics of Wind Instrument Performers, Masters dissertation – Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, March 22, 1978, 56 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Little objective information on wind instrument performance physiology is available or accessible to musicians. Research on wind instrument performance physiology includes: measurements of specific airflow pressures while playing wind instruments, measurements of lung volumes and capacities, and electrocardiograms taken during wind instrument performance.

The purpose of this study was to examine selected respiratory and cardiovascular responses of wind instrumentalists and non-wind instrumentalists at the Eastman School of Music. Lung volumes, breathing patterns at rest, maximal airway pressures, peak flow rates, and pulse rate responses to thirty-second breath holds at increased airway pressures were determined. Equipment included a Wright Peak Flow Meter, a six-liter fast-recording spirometer, a six-liter recording respirometer, a photoelectric finger plethysmograph, a water manometer, and a polygraph.

The data indicated that: 1) Wind instrumentalists do not have greater vital capacities than predicted for their sex, height, and age; therefore, assumptions that wind instrumentalists need large vital capacities, and that wind instrument performance changes vital capacity are irrelevant to successful wind instrument performance. 2) At rest, some wind instrumentalists may breathe slightly slower, but not deeper, than controls. These results support results of earlier studies. 3) Male and female wind instrumentalists are able to produce significantly greater maximal airway pressures than controls, indicating a possible adaptation in the strength of respiratory muscles. This strength may be related to the demands of wind instrument performance. 4) Pulse rate responses of wind players and controls do not differ from each other significantly before, during, and after a thirty-second breath hold producing airway pressure of 40 cm H20. However, there is a significant difference in pulse rate responses of males when compared with those of females. Pulse rate of the female does not vary as greatly as the pulse rate of the male.

[vanSchaik 2010] Wilhelm van Schaik, Mart Grooten, Twan Wernaart, and Cees van der Geld. “High Accuracy Acoustic Relative Humidity Measurement in Duct Flow with Air”, Sensors, Volume 10, August 9, 2010, pages 7421–7433, doi:10.3390/s100807421. sensors ISSN 1424-8220 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors. High Accuracy Acoustic Relative Humidity Measurement in Duct Flow with Air Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0–12 m=s with an error of 0.13 m=s, temperature 0–100 C with an error of 0.07 C and relative humidity 0–100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

[Vargyas 1964] Lajos Vargyas. “Bartók's Melodies in the Style of Folk Songs”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 16, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1964, pages 30–34. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Indianist Movement

[Vaschillo-E 2006] Evgeny G. Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, and Paul M. Lehrer. “Characteristics of Resonance in Heart Rate Variability Stimulated by Biofeedback”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 31, Number 2, June 2006, pages 129–142, doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9009-3. Publication 16838124 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: As we previously reported, resonant frequency heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow in healthy individuals and has positive effects in treatment of asthma patients. Biofeedback readily produces large oscillations in heart rate, blood pressure, vascular tone, and pulse amplitude via paced breathing at the specific natural resonant frequency of the cardiovascular system for each individual. This paper describes how resonance properties of the cardiovascular system mediate the effects of heart rate variability biofeedback. There is evidence that resonant oscillations can train autonomic reflexes to provide therapeutic effect. The paper is based on studies described in previous papers. Here, we discuss the origin of the resonance phenomenon, describe our procedure for determining an individual's resonant frequency, and report data from 32 adult asthma patients and 24 healthy adult subjects, showing a negative relationship between resonant frequency and height, and a lower resonant frequency in men than women, but no relationship between resonant frequency and age, weight, or presence of asthma. Resonant frequency remains constant across 10 sessions of biofeedback training. It appears to be related to blood volume.

[Vasquez 2007] Carlos M. Mansilla Vásquez. “El Sonido de Otros Tiempos — Las antaras de cerámica de la tumba S-III-CQT-5 de Las Trancas, Nasca «The Sound of Another Time - The Ceramic Antaras Tomb S-III-5 CQT of Las Trancas, Nasca», Part 2”, Arariwa, Year 3, Number 7, in Spanish, February 2007, pages 23–27. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vaughn 2013] Kevin J. Vaughn, Hendrik Van Gijseghem, Verity H. Whalen, Jelmer W. Eerkens, and Moises Linares Grados. “The Organization of Mining in Nasca During the Early Intermediate Period: Recent Evidence from Mina Primavera”, contained in [Tripcevich 2013], 2013, pages 157–182. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Veblen 2007] Kari K. Veblen. “The Many Ways of Community Music”, International Journal of Community Music, Volume 1, Number 1, August 2007, pages 5–22, doi:10.1386/ijcm.1.1.5/1 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article examines the concept of community music (CM) from a variety of perspectives and in relation to a wide array of ‘living examples’ of CM around the world. The author does not seek a definition of CM; she is not aiming for closure. The point of her essay is to emphasize the inherent diversity of CM programmes, their situated natures and the fluidity of this global phenomenon.

[Veenhoven 2008] R. Veenhoven. “Healthy Happiness: Effects of Happiness on Physical Health and the Consequences for Preventive Health Care”, Journal of Happiness Studies, Volume 9, Issue 3, September 2008, pages 449–469, doi:10.1007/s10902-006-9042-1 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Is happiness good for your health? This common notion is tested in a synthetic analysis of 30 follow-up studies on happiness and longevity. It appears that happiness does not predict longevity in sick populations, but that it does predict longevity among healthy populations So, happiness does not cure illness but it does protect against becoming ill. The effect of happiness on longevity in healthy populations is remarkably strong. The size of the effect is comparable to that of smoking or not.
If so, public health can also be promoted by policies that aim at greater happiness of a greater number. That can be done by strengthening individual life-abilities and by improving the livability of the social environment. Some policies are proposed. Both ways of promoting health through happiness require more research on conditions for happiness.

[Veenstra 1958] A. J. F. Veenstra. “The Begu Zulu Vertical Flute”, African Music, Volume 2, Number 1, published by the International Library of African Music, 1958, pages 40–45. Publication 30249473 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vega 2012] María Alejandra Vega. Una Aproximación a la Música de las Bandas de Sikus en Tilcara y Buenos Aires «An Approach to the Music of Sikus Bands in Tilcara and Buenos Aires», Novena Jornada de la Música y la Musicología, published by the Biblioteca Digital de la Universidad Católica Argentina, in Spanish, 2012, 20 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The siku (Andean panpipes) is a pre-Hispanic instrument which is played collectively during the dry season, and, traditionally, only by men. Performed in rural areas mainly in traditional Catholic celebrations, the siku has become a musical reference and symbol of the South-American indianist movements due to its indigenous origin and its performing mode. In our country, the sikus’ bands are a recent phenomenon in large cities such as Buenos Aires, but, in northwestern Argentina, they have a long tradition associated with Catholic festivities. In this article, I will intend to make a comparison between the sikus’ bands from Tilcara, in Jujuy province, and those from Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, with regard to the features of their repertoires, their organizational procedures and structure, the name of the bands, their organological aspects, the semiotic use of their garments, and their relationship with the religious community. I will also explore the narratives related to the complementary performing mode and its correlation with the beliefs system which has been being reformulated in the framework of the reetnization processes.

[Vega-G 1609] Garcilaso de la Vega (1539–1616). Los Comentarios Reales de los Incas «Royal Commentaries of the Incas», In Two Volumes, published by Pedro Crasbeeck, Lisbon, Portugal, in Spanish, 1609. Los Comentarios Reales de los Incas (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Vega-G 1688] Garcilaso de la Vega; Paul Rycaut (translation) (1629–1700). Royal Commentaries of the Incas, In Two Parts, published by Miles Flescher for Jacob Tonson, London, England, 1688, 1072 pages. Publication royalcommentarie00vega on Archive.org (open access). Royal Commentaries of the Incas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Vega-G 1918] Garcilaso de la Vega; James Cook Bardin (editor) (born 1887). El Reino de los Incas del Perú — Arranged from the Text of "Los Comentarios Reales de los Incas", published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Massachussets, in Spanish and English, 1918, 248 pages. Publication elreinodelosinc00vegagoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vega-G 1966] Garcilaso de la Vega; Harold V. Livermore (translation). Royal Commentaries of the Incas, And General History of Peru, Volume 1, published by the University of Texas Press, 1966, 1530 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Veldhuis 1999+A2936] Niek Veldhuis. “Continuity and Change in the Mesopotamian Lexical Tradition”, contained in [Roest 1999], 1999, pages 101–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vennum 1982] Thomas Vennum, Jr. The Ojibwa Dance Drum, Smithsonian Folklife Studies, Number 2, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1982, 320 pages. The Ojibwa Dance Drum Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vennum A] T. Vennum, Jr. Ojibway Music from Minnesota: A Century of Song for Voice and Drum, published by the Minnesota Historical Society Press, audio CD and book. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vernon 2005] David J. Vernon. “Can Neurofeedback Training Enhance Performance? — An Evaluation of the Evidence with Implications for Future Research”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 30, Number 4, December 2005, pages 347–364, doi:10.1007/s10484-005-8421-4. Publication 16385423 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: There have been many claims regarding the possibilities of performance enhancement training. The aim of such training is for an individual to complete a specific function or task with fewer errors and greater efficiency, resulting in a more positive outcome. The present review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies to enhance performance in a particular area. Previous research has documented associations between specific cortical states and optimum levels of performance in a range of tasks. This information provides a plausible rationale for the use of neurofeedback to train individuals to enhance their performance. An examination of the literature revealed that neurofeedback training has been utilised to enhance performance from three main areas; sport, cognitive and artistic performance. The review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies within each of these three areas. Some suggestive findings have been reported with regard to the use of neurofeedback training to enhance performance. However, due to a range of methodological limitations and a general failure to elicit unambiguous changes in baseline EEG activity, a clear association between neurofeedback training and enhanced performance has yet to be established. Throughout, the review highlights a number of recommendations to aid and stimulate future research.

[Vey 2010] G. Le Vey. “Optimal Control Theory: A Method for the Design of Wind Instruments”, January 19, 2012, 14 pages, arXiv:1001.3217 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It has been asserted previously by the author that optimal control theory can be a valuable framework for theoretical studies about the shape that a wind instrument should have in order to satisfy some optimization criterion, inside a fairly general class. The purpose of the present work is to develop this new approach with a look at a specific criterion to be optimized. In this setting, the Webster horn equation is regarded as a controlled dynamical equation in the space variable. Pressure is the state, the control being made of two parts : one variable part, the inside diameter of the duct and one constant part, the weights of the elementary time-harmonic components of the velocity potential. Then one looks for a control that optimizes a criterion related to the definition of an oscillation regime as the cooperation of several natural modes of vibration with the excitation, the playing frequency being the one that maximizes the total generation of energy, as exposed by A.H. Benade, following H. Bouasse. At the same time the relevance of this criterion is questionned with the simulation results.

[Vianello 2004] Andrea Vianello. “Gestures and Rituals: The archaeological evidence”, published by the author, 2004, 17 pages. See the Bronze Age site of Andrea Vianello. Gestures and Rituals Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: This paper deals with the archaeological perspective of gestures and rituals. It is evidenced the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach that includes neurological studies and the contribution of archaeology to such approach. A few case studies from Mediterranean cultures and the Maya provide examples of current interpretations of the archaeological record and evidence the general features that have been identified. It is concluded that gestures and rituals were powerful vehicles of communication that have been intentionally used as niche languages. The meaningful use of gestures in particular contexts may have produced new forms of gestures, such as music and dance, which constrained the expressivity of the body to predetermined moments of total or partial loss of consciousness and agreed practices. The conscious use of gestures has also shifted away the possible messages from the body. In particular, rituals have been employed in various social strategies, and often had significant roles in the definition of social structures.

[Victor 2006] S. Victor. “Bell Rocks”, Imvubu, Volume 18, Number 3, published by the Amathole Museum, King William's Town, South Africa, 2006, page 6. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Villalva 2015] Daniela La Chioma Silvestre Villalva. “The Social Roles of Musicians in the Moche world: An Iconographic Analysis of their Attributes in Middle Moche Period’s Ritual Pottery”, Representations of musicians in the coroplastic art of the ancient world: iconography, ritual contexts and functions, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, New York, March 2015, March 7, 2015, 16 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Moche inhabited the north coast of Peru during the Andean Early Intermediate Period (0-700 CE). One of the most distinctive features of Moche ritual pottery is the depiction of highly ranked individuals usually described as priests, warriors, deities, and supernatural beings. They are mainly present upon Middle Moche period vessels (100-400 C.E), which were probably produced in the context of deep social and political transformation. Supposedly, this was a time marked by the rise in social standing of some of the southern Moche valley’s elites. It was precisely during this period that a large number of musicians, playing a great variety of sound instruments, were recurrently depicted in artifacts such as figurines, whistles, stirrup spout bottles and jars. Interestingly, in many cases, they appear carrying similar attributes of high status individuals or garments of important supernatural beings. The similarity of the attributes carried by musicians and empowered individuals are easily recognized in the iconography of the ceramic archaeological vessels or in funerary contexts.

Detailed iconographic analysis shows us that the musicians are present in most of the important ritual and political thematic scenes of the Moche iconography. They seem to maintain a very close relationship with the protagonists of the Moche world’s visual narratives, such as the Presentation Theme, the Bycephalus Arch Theme, the Burial Theme, and others. The focus of this presentation is depictions of musicians who play panpipes: these images will be compared with high-ranking characters depicted in Moche art, in order to identify the instrument players’ respective social roles in Moche society.

[Villanueva 2011] Jari Villanueva. Twenty-Four Notes That Tap Deep Emotions: The Story of America’s Most Famous Bugle Call, Revised Edition, 60 pages. initially published in 2001. See the Taps Bugler web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Taps - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Viola 2008] Antoine U. Viola, Lynette M. James, Simon N. Archer, and Derk-Jan Dijk. “PER3 Polymorphism and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Effects of Sleep Debt and Circadian Phase”, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Volume 295, Number 5, November 1, 2008, pages H2156–H2163, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00662.2008 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the circadian clock PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been shown to affect sleep. Because circadian rhythms and sleep are known to modulate sympathovagal balance, we investigated whether homozygosity for this PER3 polymorphism is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during sleep and wakefulness at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Twenty-two healthy participants were selected according to their PER3 genotype. ANS activity, evaluated by heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) indexes, was quantified during baseline sleep, a 40-h period of wakefulness, and recovery sleep. Sleep deprivation induced an increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS), a decrease in the global variability, and an unbalance of the ANS with a loss of parasympathetic predominance and an increase in sympathetic activity. Individuals homozygous for the longer allele (PER35/5) had more SWS, an elevated sympathetic predominance, and a reduction of parasympathetic activity compared with PER34/4, in particular during baseline sleep. The effects of genotype were strongest during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and absent or much smaller during REM sleep. The NREM-REM cycle-dependent modulation of the low frequency-to-(low frequency + high frequency) ratio was diminished in PER35/5 individuals. Circadian phase modulated HR and HRV, but no interaction with genotype was observed. In conclusion, the PER3 polymorphism affects the sympathovagal balance in cardiac control in NREM sleep similar to the effect of sleep deprivation.

[Virk 2014] Zakaria Virk. Religious Beliefs of North American Indians, May 5, 2014, 26 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: There is no one religious expression common to the 250 distinct Native American peoples still surviving in the US and Canada. Few Native American people today can say for sure how their ancestors worshipped before the onslaught of Europeans. Too much death lies between the present and pre-Columbian America, too much cultural devastation, and too many forced conversions to Christianity. For Native Americans the struggle to survive and to maintain some sense of identity is an on-going concern. Life on the reserves is marred by gambling, alcohol and without purpose.

[Vitale 1982] R{aoul}. Vitale. “La Musique sumero-accadienne: gamme et notation musicale «Sumero-Akkadian Music - Range and Musical Notation»”, Ugarit-Forschungen, Volume 14, in French, 1982, pages 241–263. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Vivian 1978] R. Gwinn Vivian, Dulce N. Dodgen, and Gayle H. Hartmann. Wooden Ritual Artifacts from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: The Chetro Ketl Collection, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, Number 32, published by the University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1978, viii + 152 pages. See the University of Arizona Campus Repository web site. Wooden Ritual Artifacts from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Voegelin 1942] Erminie W. Voegelin. “Shawnee Musical Instruments”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 44, Number 3, published by Blackwell Publishing, on behalf of the American Anthropological Association, July–September 1942, pages 462–475, doi:10.1525/aa.1942.44.3.02a00110 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Voegelin 1942a] Erminie W. Voegelin. Culture Element Distributions: XX - Northeast California, Anthropological Records, Volume 7, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1942, pages 47–251. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[vonMuggenthaler 1992] Elizabeth K. von Muggenthaler, John W. Stoughton, and Joseph C. Daniel, Jr. “Infrasound from the Rhinocerotidae”, Proceedings from the International Conference of Rhinoceros Biology and Conservation, 1992, pages 136–140. authors from Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A number of papers report studies of the auditory vocalizations of rhinoceros (e.g.Tembrock, 1963; Frame and Goddard, 1970; Spellmire, 1991). These note the existence of low frequency sounds in the animals' repertoire but none present data regarding vocalizations in the infrasonic range. This paper presents preliminary evidence that, in addition to auditory vocalizations, rhinoceroses also produce infrasounds.

[vonMuggenthaler 2006] Elizabeth K. von Muggenthaler. “The Felid Purr: A Biomechanical Healing Mechanism”, Proceedings from he 12th International Low Frequency Noise and Vibration Conference, 2006, pages 189–208. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vurma 2006] Allan Vurma and Jaan Ross. “Production and Perception of Musical Intervals”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 23, Number 4, published by the University of California Press, April 2006, pages 331–344. Publication 10.1525/mp.2006.23.4.331 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This Article Reports Two Experiments. In the first experiment, 13 professional singers performed a vocal exercise consisting of three ascending and descending melodic intervals: minor second, tritone, and perfect fifth. Seconds were sung more narrowly but fifths more widely in both directions, as compared to their equally tempered counterparts. In the second experiment, intonation accuracy in performances recorded from the first experiment was evaluated in a listening test. Tritones and fifths were more frequently classified as out of tune than seconds. Good correspondence was found between interval tuning and the listeners responses. The performers themselves evaluated their performance almost randomly in the immediate post-performance situation but acted comparably to the independent group after listening to their own recording. The data suggest that melodic intervals may be, on an average, 20 to 25 cents out of tune and still be estimated as correctly tuned by expert listeners.

[Vyse 1840] Howard Vyse. The Pyramids of Gizeh in 1837, Three Volumes, published by James Fraser, London, 1840. Publications operationscarrie01howa, operationscarrie02howa, operationscarri00vysegoog, operationscarri01vysegoog, operationscarri02vysegoog, and operationscarri03vysegoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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