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References - E

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter E. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - E

[Eagle 1997] Douglas Spotted Eagle. Voices of Native America: Native American Instruments and Music, published by Eagle's View Publishing, Liberty, UT, 1997, 120 pages, ISBN 0-943604-56-7, softcover. Library of Congress call number 97-60768. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eagle 2003] Douglas Spotted Eagle. First Breath, 2003, video DVD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eastman 1911] Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa). Soul of the Indian, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 1911, 171 pages, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eastman-MH 1853] Mary H. Eastman (born 1818). The Romance of Indian Life — With other tales, Selections from the Iris, An Illuminated Souvenir, published by Lippincott, Grambo & Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1853. Reissued in [Eastman-MH 1970]. Publication cihm_14455 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Indian Courtship Painting, Names of the Native American Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Eastman-MH 1970] Mary H. Eastman. The Romance of Indian Life — With other tales, Selections from the Iris, An Illuminated Souvenir, published by the University of Michigan Library, 1853, 320 pages, ASIN B0032JS9BS. Reissue of [Eastman-MH 1853]. See the University of Michigan Library's digital collections Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ebeling 1919] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts «Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 1, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 28, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Ebeling 1923] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts «Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 2, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 34, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1923, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Ebeling 1927] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts «Legal Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 50, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1927, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Eckels 2000] Steven Eckels. Music of the North American Indians for Acoustic Guitar (song book), published by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., 2000, 48 pages, 10 songs, ISBN 0-7866-8081-4 (978-0-7866-8081-8). MP3 performances of each song by Steven Eckels available from the Mel Bay web site. See the Mel Bay web site. Contains 10 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Edfors 1996] John Edfors. Woodwind Instruments from PVC — Guidelines for Constructing Experimental Woodwind Instruments from PVC Pipe & Related Materials, First Edition, 1996, 80 pages, ASIN B0006QPAHG Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Edfors A] John Edfors. Woodwind Instruments from PVC — Guidelines for Constructing Experimental Woodwind Instruments from PVC Pipe & Related Materials, Updated and Expanded Edition, 122 pages. Catalog number CM-15. See the Shakuhachi.com web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Here are a host of techniques and solutions applicable to the challenging endeavor of building woodwind instruments from over-the-counter PVC plumbing products and other readily available materials. They originate from the author's workshop notes based on actual instruments he has made, historical artifacts created by him, hand sketches and CAD drawings. This work involves various types and sizes of flutes, both with and without keys. These are proven techniques which are very practical to the maker of conventional and experimental musical instruments.

Chapters in this volume cover a wide variety of techniques used in the flute making process, shop requirements, work shop safety, designing the instrument, joint design, bending PVC pipe, tapered and enlarged bores, outside finish, drilling holes, press fits, hand shearing metals, fitting-up and regulating key mechanisms, marking and layout, tuning hints and an evaluation of different plastics for use in construction.

Six sample projects are presented complete with diagrams and specifications. They include the Renaissance Flute in G, Bb Military Fife, Three-Way Instrument, Irish Flute, Native North American Indian Love Flute and the 4-Keyed Flute. Richly illustrated with drawing, photos and CAD layouts complete with specifications. Appendices provide a list of suppliers, description of common pipe materials and bibliography. New updated and expanded edition.

[Edfors B] John Edfors. Folk Woodwinds from PVC, 37 pages. Catalog number CM-27. See the Shakuhachi.com web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This is second in a new series by the author on making instruments from PVC plumbing products and other commonly available materials. It is dedicated to guiding the individual with enthusiasm and some handiness with tools but only a minimally equipped workshop. It helps the reader set up a shop in practically any environment and selects the necessary tools and materials.

The text, richly supported by photos and clear, three-dimensional illustrations, takes the reader through the basic techniques, then through a series of plans for high quality, well-playing, folk woodwinds. The techniques include shop safety, marking and layout, drilling, finishing of tone holes, fine tuning, outside finishing operations, and many others. These proven plans are for highly popular folk instruments, such as renaissance flutes, kena, military fife, "backpack flute", pennywhistles, panpipe, folk clarinet, and renaissance cornemuse. Interspersed with the technical data are tutorials on how to play the various instruments. Included with this are the fingering charts and sample tunes.

Spiral bound with durable clear plastic covers to lay flat and withstand workshop wear and tear.

[Edfors C] John Edfors. Vintage Flutes from PVC, 39 pages. Catalog number CM-27. See the Shakuhachi.com web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Make great flutes with minimal workshop and entry level skills. Here is a comprehensive and detailed approach to making simple flutes from PVC plumbing products and other readily available materials.

The focus is on hand methods where a complete workshop is not available to the builder. The book helps the beginner in the craft set up the minimum workshop. It then takes her or him through all the steps necessary to complete a project, including key making. Besides a host of techniques, the many plans enable the enthusiast to progress from a simple one-section flute to multi-keyed flutes in two or three sections.

In addition, there is reference material and instruction that enable the reader to design and build flutes with many features not covered in the plans, including flutes of different sizes. The author provides both photos and clear, three-dimensional illustrations to demonstrate the techniques. These computer-generated drawings derive from actual models proven out in the author's workshop.

Intermingled with the technical presentation, there is a tutorial on how to play the flutes created by the enthusiast. This includes fingering charts and sample tunes. Spiral bound with durable clear plastic covers to lay flat and withstand workshop wear and tear.

[Edgar A] Bob Edgar. The Native American Flute Book, 43 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Edge-Partington 1903] J. Edge-Partington. “A New Zealand Flageolet”, Man - A Monthly Record of Anthropological Science, Volume 3, Number 106, published by Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1903, page 186. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Edwards 1971] Charles Edwards, Mark Merrick, and Rudolph Clark of Macy. Songs of the Omaha Tribe, February 26, 1971, total time 15:25, Audio stream. Publication AM_1971_02_26 on Archive.org (open access). See the web page on Archive.org Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description on Archive.org: Laura Reichek of the Alcatraz Solidarity Committee introduces three elderly members of the Omaha Tribe who visited the KPFA studios on November 24, 1970, to record a short program of Omaha songs. The performers are Charles Edwards, Mark Merrick and Rudolph Clark of Macy, Nebraska, who came to Berkeley to help celebrate the first anniversary of the Indian landing of Alcatraz Island. The drum used in these songs is made of a wooden frame covered with cowhide. It weighs about 35 pounds and has a wooden bottom. The sticks used are covered on the hitting end with leather and lamb’s wool on the other end. One single drum was used with two players hitting it from different angles. The drum is usually held from handles on its side by four men while it is being played. In this recording it sat on the floor.

[Edwards-KL 1998] Kay L. Edwards. “Multicultural Music Instruction in the Elementary School: What Can Be Achieved?”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 138, published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of the Council for Research in Music Education, Fall 1998, pages 62–82. Publication 40318939 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Increased interest in multicultural music education raises questions regarding student outcomes and learning. No qualitative studies were found that addressed achievement resulting from instruction in multicultural music. This study sought an answer to the following question: What is the nature of musical or nonmusical achievement acquired from each of four instructional approaches in American Indian music? Instructional approaches utilized a social studies/music approach that consisted of large-group lessons with authentic (native) instruments, an American Indian guest artist, and the use of nonauthentic or authentic instruments in small-group learning centers. An additional fourth-grade music class was taught traditional curriculum (music listen- ing/analysis, singing, recorder, and an Israeli folk dance) with no American Indian music. I observed the classes and trained the school's music teacher in the American Indian music components.

Qualitative data in the form of student-written paragraphs (achievement writing samples) were gathered following the 6-week (12-lesson) instructional period. Coded analyses revealed distinct differences in breadth and depth (amount written and content richness) between the groups receiving Indian music instruction and the traditional curriculum group. Each of the groups expressed unique learnings related to their particular instruction. Although student writings from the Indian music classes most often mentioned the acquisition of Indian culture- based content and skills, additional prominent categories included instructional attitudes, cul- tural awareness/sensitivity and valuing. Subcategories such as cultural similarities/dissimilari- ties and self-acknowledgment of growth also emerged. An instructional theory was formulated, stating that fourth-grade students are capable of four levels of responses from multicultural music instruction: knowledge/skills/attitudes, cultural awareness, sensitivity, and valuing.

If such responses are desired outcomes, the results suggest implications for instruction with American Indian music regarding instructional approach, authenticity of materials, learning from a native guest artist, teacher preparation, and curricular time. Results from the study suggest that multicultural "achievement " can include many forms of musical and extramusical learning, but that in-depth experiences can facilitate unique learning and depth of understanding about another culture. The nature of achievement from experiences in multicultural music needs further research.

[Eells 1879] Myron Eells. “Indian Music”, American Antiquarian, Volume 1, Chicago, 1878–1879, pages 249–253. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Effat 1996] Mahmoud Effat, Robert Cribbs, and Fathi Saleh. “On the Discovery of the Ancient Egyptian Musical Scales”, Informatica ed Egittologia all’inizio degli anni’ 90, in English and French versions available, 1996, pages 119–140. On the Discovery of the Ancient Egyptian Musical Scales Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ehlers 2007] J. Ehlers and P. L. Gibbard. “The Extent and Chronology of Cenozoic Global Glaciation”, Quaternary International, Volumes 164–165, April 2007, pages 6–20, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2006.10.008 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Eichmann 2010] Ricardo Eichmann, Ellen Hickmann, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Musical Perceptions - Past and Present — On Ethnographic Analogy in Music Archaeology, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 7, Papers from the 6th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Ethnological Museum, State Museums, Berlin, September 9–13, 2008, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 25, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2010, 332 pages, 203 illustrations, 24 tables, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-655-0 (978-3-89646-655-6), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eichmann 2012] Ricardo Eichmann, Fang Jianjun, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Sound from the Past — The Interpretation of Musical Artifacts in an Archaeological Context, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 8, Papers from the 7th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Tianjin Conservatory of Music, Tianjin, China, September 20–25, 2010, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 27, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2012, 462 pages, 338 illustrations, 36 tables, 1 disk, ISBN 3-89646-657-7 (978-3-89646-657-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eilenstein 2009] Harry Eilenstein. Schwitzhütten — Ursprung Aufbau Rituale Lieder «Sweat Lodges - Source, Construction, Rituals, Songs» (song book), published by Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany, in German, 2009, 523 pages, ISBN 3-8423-4074-5 (978-3-8423-4074-9). Contains 3 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eldamaty 2002] Mamdouh Eldamaty and Mai Trad (editors). Egyptian Museum Collections Around the World, Volume 1, Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, published by The Supreme Council of Antiquities, Cairo, 2002, 1377 pages, ISBN 977-424-777-9 (978-977-424-777-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eley 2008] Robert Eley and Don Gorman. “Music Therapy to Manage Asthma”, Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, Volume 32, Number 1, published by the Centre for Rural and Remote Area Health, University of Southern Queensland, January/Februay 2008, pages 9–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study looked at whether a programme of teaching didgeridoo playing and singing to Aboriginal people would be effective in helping to manage their asthma. Whilst there were difficulties with retention of some participants the overall results were positive and participants enjoyed the programme.

[Elisberg 1951] Edward I Elisberg, Harry Goldberg, and Gordon L. Snider. “Value of Intraoral Pressure as a Measure of Intrapleural Pressure”, Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 4, Number 3, September 1951, pages 171–176. Publication 14897780 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellermeier 1970] Friedrich Ellermeier. Sibyllen, Musikanten, Haremsfrauen: Aufsätze «Sibyls, Musicians, Harem Women: Essays», Volume 2 of Theologische und orientalistische Arbeiten, published by Jungfer, in German, 1970, 30 pages, ISBN 3-921747-05-8 (978-3-921747-05-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Elliot-AJ 2011] Andrew J. Elliot, Vincent Payen, Jeanick Brisswalter, Francois Curry, and Julian F. Thayer. “A Subtle Threat Cue, Heart Rate Variability, and Cognitive Performance”, Psychophysiology, Volume 48, published by Wiley Periodicals, 2011, pages 1340–1345, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01216.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This research was designed to extend the literature on heart rate variability (HRV) in cognitive performance contexts by examining whether a subtle threat cue (the color red) in a test environment influences HRVreactivity and whether HRV reactivity is associated with change in cognitive performance. Thirty-three participants took an IQ test, briefly viewed red or a chromatic or achromatic control color, and then took a parallel form of the IQ test. High frequency (HF)-HRV (often referred to as respiratory sinus arrhythmia), was assessed before and after the color manipulation. Results indicated that participants who viewed red (relative to a control color) exhibited a decrease in HF-HRVand that decreased HF-HRV was associated with worse IQ performance. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of HRV as an index of effective and efficient emotion regulation in an achievement context.

[Elliot-S 2006] S. Elliot and D. Edmonson. The New Science of Breath, Second Edition, Coherence Press, Allen, Texas, 2006, 158 pages, ISBN 0-9786399-0-1 (978-0-9786399-0-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Elliot-WJ 2004] W. J. Elliot, J. L. Izzo, Jr., W. B. White, D. R. Rosing, C. S. Snyder, A. Alter, B. Gavish, and H. R. Black. “Graded Blood Pressure Reduction in Hypertensive Outpatients Associated with Use of a Device to Assist with Slow Breathing”, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Volume 6, 2004, pages 553–559. Publication 15470284 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To study the effects of device-guided breathing on office systolic blood pressure (SBP), five centers randomized 149 untrained hypertensives (50% male, age 59+/-10 years, baseline blood pressure 150+/-9/86+/-9 mm Hg, 77% taking drug therapy). One half received a device to guide slow breathing; all received a home blood pressure monitor and only simple, written instructions. The changes in office SBP (adjusted for office-to-home difference in baseline SBP and accumulated time spent in slow breathing, guided and measured by the device) were significantly (p<0.001 for trend) correlated with accumulated time spent in slow breathing. Greater decreases in SBP (-15.0+/-1.8 vs. -7.3+/-1.9 mm Hg) were observed for those who spent more (vs. less) than 180 minutes over 8 weeks in slow breathing, as well as those who just monitored their blood pressure at home (-9.2+/-1.6 mm Hg). Thus, even without training, hypertensive patients who receive a device to guide slow breathing significantly lowered their office SBP if the total time spent in slow breathing over 8 weeks exceeded a "threshold" value of 180 minutes.

[Ellis 1880] Alexander John Ellis (1814–1890). On the History of Musical Pitch, Journal of the Society of Arts, published by F. A. M. Knuf, March 5, 1880, pages 293–336. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellis 1884] Alexander J. Ellis and Alfred J. Hipkins. “Tonometrical Observations on Some Existing Non-Harmonic Musical Scales”, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Volume 37, Number 232–234, 1884, pages 368–385, doi:10.1098/rspl.1884.0041. Publication 114325 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellis 1885] Alexander John Ellis. “On the Musical Scales of Various Nations”, Journal of the Society of Arts, Number 1688, Volume 33, March 27, 1885, pages 485–527. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Scales for the Native American Flute, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms

[Ellis-J 2012] John Ellis. A Song a Week — For the Native American Flute & Accompanying Guitar (song book), published by Turtle Mound Publishing, Melbourne, Florida, 162 tracks, 2012, iv + 128 pages, softcover. book and two audio CDs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellis-RJ 2005] Robert J. Ellis and Robert F. Simons. “The Impact of Music on Subjective and Physiological Indices of Emotion while Viewing Films”, Psychomusicology, Volume 19, Number 1, 2005, pages 15–40. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite continued acknowledgment ofthc importance of music in viewing films, empirical studies investigating the interaction of music with film are conspicuously absent. Evidence from a few isolated cognitive studies suggests that the relationship between music and film is additive. Little is known, however, about the physiology of emotional response to viewing filmmusic stimuli. The present study utilized both selfreport as well as physiological indices to investigate the nature ofthe film and music relationship. Six-second films (having either negative orpositive valence and low- or high-arousal) were paired with excerpts from instrumental classical music (pretested for valence and arousal). Results indicate a fairly straight-forward, additive relationship in terms of emotion self report. The modulating role of music on physiological reactions to film, however, was more complex. This study corroborates previous evidence regarding the subjective experience ofviewing images with music. Physiological evidence. however, suggests that the interactions between music and film not always are predictable.

[Ellis-RJ 2008] Robert J. Ellis, John J. Sollers III, Eve A. Edelstein, and Julian F. Thayer. “Data Transforms for Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability”, Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium & International ISA Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium, Copper Mountain, Colorado, April 4–6, 2008, 2008, pages 392–397. Publication 19141947 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Autoregressive and fast Fourier transform spectral analyses of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) result in exponentially-distributed values that make standard parametric statistical analyses problematic. In this paper, we evaluate three transforms of raw HF-HRV spectral power. Two occur commonly in the literature (a natural log [ln] transform and a reactivity transform); a third is novel (a “percent deviation from the mean” transform). A single data set was used, with each subject providing two data points and for which we predicted a significant difference in HF-HRV power. We quantified the effect size of each transform by noting the percentage of (non)overlap between the ± 1 standard errors surrounding the two period means, with less overlap indicating a stronger effect. Overlap was 19.2% in the raw data (Fig 1b.), 3.7% in the ln transform (Fig. 2b), –57.1% in the reactivity transform (Fig. 3b), and –70.2% in the percent deviation transform (Fig. 4b). The percent deviation transform resulted in more normally-distributed data than the reactivity transform and more tightlydistributed data than the ln transform, making it a favorable choice for investigators.

[Ellis-RJ 2010] Robert J. Ellis and Julian F. Thayer. “Music and Autonomic Nervous System (Dys)function”, Music Perception, Volume 27, Number 4, April 2010, pages 317–326, doi:10.1525/mp.2010.27.4.317. Publication 21197136 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite a wealth of evidence for the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in health and disease and the ability of music to affect ANS activity, few studies have systematically explored the therapeutic effects of music on ANS dysfunction. Furthermore, when ANS activity is quantified and analyzed, it is usually from a point of convenience rather than from an understanding of its physiological basis. After a review of the experimental and therapeutic literatures exploring music and the ANS, a “Neurovisceral Integration” perspective on the interplay between the central and autonomic nervous systems is introduced, and the associated implications for physiological, emotional, and cognitive health are explored. The construct of heart rate variability is discussed both as an example of this complex interplay and as a useful metric for exploring the sometimes subtle effect of music on autonomic response. Suggestions for future investigations using musical interventions are offered based on this integrative account.

[Ellis-RJ 2011] Robert J. Ellis. Music at the Heart of the Matter, contained in In J. P. Finley (Ed.), Teaching heart auscultation to health professionals (pp. 82–95). Toronto: Hospital for Sick Children., 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellis-RJ 2012] Robert J. Ellis, Julian Koenig, and Julian F. Thayer. “Getting to the Heart: Autonomic Nervous System Function in the Context of Evidence-Based Music Therapy”, Music and Medicine, Volume 4, Number 2, 2012, pages 90–99, doi:10.1177/1943862112437766 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: As evidence-based music therapy turns its attention to physiological responses, it will need outcome measures that are grounded in an understanding of mechanisms which drive physiological activity. Despite strong indications for the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in health and disease and its response to music, few studies have systematically explored the therapeutic or interventional effects of music on ANS dysfunction. After reviewing the experimental and interventional literatures on music and ANS response, a ‘‘neurovisceral integration’’ perspective on the interplay between the central nervous system and ANS is introduced, and the associated implications for physiological, emotional, and cognitive health are explored. The construct of heart rate variability is discussed both as an example of this complex interplay and as a useful metric for exploring the sometimes subtle effect of music on autonomic response. Suggestions for future investigations using musical interventions are offered based on this integrative account.

[Ellis-RJ 2013] Robert J. Ellis, Bente Bruijn, Andrea C. Norton, Ellen Winner, Gottfried Schlaug. “Training-Mediated Leftward Asymmetries During Music Processing: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal fMRI Analysis”, NeuroImage, Volume 75, July 15, 2013, pages 97–107. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Practicing a musical instrument has a profound impact on the structure and function of the human brain. The present fMRI study explored how relative hemispheric asymmetries in task-related activity during music processing (same/different discrimination) are shaped by musical training (quantified as cumulative hours of instrument practice), using both a large (N = 84) cross-sectional data set of children and adults, and a smaller (N = 20) two time-point longitudinal data set of children tracked over 3 to 5 years. The cross-sectional analysis revealed a significant leftward asymmetry in task-related activation, with peaks in Heschl's gyrus and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The SMG peak was further characterized by a leftward asymmetry in the partial correlation strength with subjects' cumulative hours of practice, controlling for subjects' age and task performance. This SMG peak was found to exhibit a similar pattern of response in the longitudinal data set (in this case, with subjects' cumulative hours of practice over the course of the study), controlling for age, scan interval, and amount of instrument practice prior to the first scan. This study presents novel insights into the ways musical instrument training shapes task-related asymmetries in neural activity during music processing.

[Elson 1880] Louis C. Elson. Curiosities of Music — A Collection of Facts not Generally Known, Regarding the Music of Ancient and Savage Nations, published by Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, 1880, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Elvas 1539] The Gentleman of Elvas; Theodore H. Lewis (editor). The Narrative of the Expedition of Hernando de Soto by the Gentleman of Elvas, contained in [Jameson 1907], 1539, pages 127–272. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Emerson 1909] Nathaniel B. Emerson (1839–1915). Unwritten Literature of Hawaii — The Sacred Songs of the Hula, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 38, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1909, 288 pages, retrieved March 17, 2010. Publication bulletin381909smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 14 songs. Unwritten Literature of Hawaii Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: World Flutes, Names of the Native American Flute

[Emerson-TE 2009] Thomas E. Emerson. Archaic Societies: Diversity and Complexity Across the Midcontinent, published by SUNY Press, 2009, 867 pages, ISBN 1-4384-2701-8 (978-1-4384-2701-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Sweeping and detailed, this long-awaited volume is an indispensable guide to the Archaic period across the midcontinent. Archaeologists throughout the region share the latest excavation results and analytical perspectives to reveal and reinterpret the worlds of those Native peoples who lived there for some 9,000 years (up to about 3,000 years ago). Of particular concern is the establishment of relative and absolute chronologies for the Archaic period, the relationships between the artifacts left behind and the peoples who made and used them, and the changing interactions between cultures, climate, and landscape. Archaeologists offer useful, up-to-date overviews of Archaic societies, assessment of stratigraphic sequences, and detailed discussions of finds and interpretations from the Mississippi and Ohio river regions and the Great Lakes. Comprehensive and accessible, this landmark book is a must for anyone wanting to understand a crucial but little-understood period in North America's prehistory.

[Emsheimer 1947] Ernst Emsheimer (1904–1989). “A Lapp Musical Instrument”, Ethnos, Volume 12, Numbers 1–2, published by The Ethnographical Museum of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden, 1947, pages 86–92, doi:10.1080/00141844.1947.9980661 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Emsheimer 1966] Ernst Emsheimer. “A Finno-Ugric Flute Type?”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 18, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1966, pages 29–35. Publication 834638 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Emsheimer 1981] Ernst Emsheimer. “Tongue Duct Flutes Corrections of an Error”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 34, published by the Galpin Society, March 1981, pages 98–105. Publication 841473 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ench 2002] Rick Ench and Jay Cravath. North American Indian Music, published by Children's Press, Connecticut, September 2002, 63 pages, ISBN 0-531-16230-3 (978-0-531-16230-9), softcover. Reading level: Ages 9-12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Enflo 2009] Laura Enflo and Johan Sundberg. “Vocal Fold Collision Threshold Pressure: An Alternative to Phonation Threshold Pressure?”, Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, Volume 34, Number 4, 2009, pages 210–217. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), frequently used for characterizing vocal fold properties, is often diffi cult to measure. This investigation analyses the lowest pressure initiating vocal fold collision (CTP). Microphone, electroglottograph (EGG), and oral pressure signals were recorded, before and after vocal warm-up, in 15 amateur singers, repeating the syllable /pa:/ at several fundamental frequencies with gradually decreasing vocal loudness. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion, using the audio and the EGG amplitudes as criteria for PTP and CTP. The coeffi cient of variation was mostly lower for CTP than for PTP. Both CTP and PTP tended to be higher before than after the warm-up. The results support the conclusion that CTP is a promising parameter in investigations of vocal fold characteristics.

[Enflo 2009a] Laura Enflo, Johan Sundberg, and Friedemann Pabst. “Collision Threshold Pressure Before and After Vocal Loading”, Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study we compare PTP and collision threshold pressure (CTP) before and after vocal loading in singer and non-singer voices. Seven subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a,e,i,o,u/ at an SPL of at least 80 dB @ 0.3 m for 20 min. Before and after this loading the subjects’ voices were recorded while they produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa/. Oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion was used as a measure of subglottal pressure. Both CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading.

[Enflo 2010] Laura Enflo. Alternative Measures of Phonation: Collision Threshold Pressure & Electroglottographic Spectral Tilt, Licentiate dissertation – KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010, 92 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Engel 1864] Carl Engel. The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt, First Edition, published by J. Murray, London, 1864, 379 pages. Publication musicofmostancie00enge on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

[Engel 1870] Carl Engel. The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt, Second edition, published by J. Murray, London, 1870, 379 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[England 1964] Nicholas M. Engl (1923–2003) and; Robert Garfias, Mieczyslaw Kolinski, George List, and Willard Rhodes (contributors); Charles Seeger (moderator). “Symposium on Transcription and Analysis: A Hukwe Song with Musical Bow”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 8, Number 3, September 1964, pages 223–277. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[England 1967] Nicholas M. England. “Bushman Counterpoint”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 19, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1967, pages 58–66, doi:10.2307/942188. Publication 942188 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[England 1968] Nicholas M. England. Music Among the Z̄ũ''wa-si of South West Africa and Botswana, Two volumes, Doctoral dissertation – Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachussets, 1968, 775 pages. some sources list the title as "Music in the Societies of Certain Bushman Groups in Southern Africa". Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[England 1995] Nicholas M. England. Music Among the Z̳ũ'/wã-si and Related Peoples of Namibia, Botswana, and Angola, Harvard Dissertations in Folklore and Oral Literature, published by Garland, New York, 1995, xvii + 434 pages, ISBN 0-8240-2986-0 (978-0-8240-2986-9), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Editorial review / Book News (Portland, OR): Based on original fieldwork in the 1960s and drawing on studies from the 1950s, examines the social, cultural, and religious function of traditional music among the African peoples long known as Bushmen. Covers the instrumental music of hunting and other musical bows, the linguiphone, and the pluriarc. The vocal music includes medicine songs, and men's and women's songs. Includes scores of motifs, photographs, and many transcriptions of entire songs. Corrected but not updated from a 1968 doctoral dissertation for Harvard University.

[Enrenberg 2010] Rachel Enrenberg and Cary Wolinsky. “Music of the Hemispheres: Playing Instruments Gives Brains a Boost”, Science News, Volume 178, Number 4, published by the Society for Science and the Public, August 14, 2010, pages 30–33. Publication 27862617 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Enrico 1996] John Enrico and Wendy Bross Stuart. Northern Haida Songs, Illustrated Edition, Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 1996, xiv + 519 pages, ISBN 0-8032-1816-8 (978-0-8032-1816-1), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Abe Books Description and Editorial Reivew: Provides a comprehensive analysis of the musical culture of the Northern Haida Indians, representing the entire range of the Haida musical tradition, integrating the two facets of songmusic and language. Includes an extensive section on ethnographic background, music scores and lyrics. Illustrated.

This book describes the musical culture of the Northern Haida Indians, who speak two closely related dialects. One dialect group lives on Graham Island, British Columbia, the other on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. The recordings on which the book is based were compiled over a period of more than a decade from a wide variety of historical and contemporary sources. Representing the entire range of the Haida musical tradition - a tradition that nearly died out and is currently being revived - this volume documents its changes over more than a century. Part 1 is a lengthy ethnographic description of musical genres that situates Haida music in the context of the Northwest Coast. Part 2 presents 128 songs, fully transcribed and analyzed, and representing some twenty types, ranging from traditional genres such as peace-making and mourning songs to songs of personal expression composed during the modern period. Part 3 is a detailed musical and linguistic analysis of the songs presented in the second part. The integration of descriptions of these two facets of song - music and language - is the particular goal of the book. The volume is a substantive contribution to the ethnomusicology of native North America and will be of special interest to scholars concerned with vocables in Native American music. John Enrico has been engaged in linguistic research on the Haida language since 1975. His publications include "The Lexical Phonology of Masset Haida" and articles on aspects of Haida grammar. Wendy Bross Stuart's first ethnomusicological publication was "Gambling Music of the Coast Salish Indians". In 1980 she began collaborating with John Enrico in the transcription and analysis of Haida songs.

[Erdoes 1976] Richard Erdoes (translator, editor); Lame Deer, Jenny Leading Cloud, and Leonard Crow Dog. The Sound of Flutes and Other Indian Legends, published by Pantheon Books, New York, 1976, 129 pages, ISBN 0-394-83181-0 (978-0-394-83181-7), ASIN 0394831810, ASIN B000J3VWBE, ASIN B002HAKP7O, hardcover. American Museum of Natural History call number E78.G73 S69 1976. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Narratives of the Native American Flute, Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2), Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Erdoes 1984] Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz. American Indian Myths and Legends, published by Pantheon Books, New York, 1984, 527 pages, ISBN 0-394-74018-1, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Names of the Native American Flute, Narratives of the Native American Flute, Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks

[Erguner 1995] Kudsi Erguner. La Flûte Sacrée des Derviches Tourneurs «The Sacred Flute of the Whirling Dervishes», 7 tracks, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of the Middle East

[Erkvanidze 2005] Malkhaz Erkvanidze, Davit Shugliashvili, and Lela Makarashvili (music transcription). სიმღერები მეგრული «Megruli Simgerebi - Megrelian Songs», Teach Yourself Gregorian Folk Songs, published by Sakartvelos Matsne for the International Centre of Gregorian Folk Song, Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia, in Georgian and English, 2005, 134 pages, ISBN 99940-43-00-5, hardcover book and four audio CDs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Erman 1907] Adolf Erman (1854–1937); A. S. Griffith (translation). A Handbook of Egyptian Religion, published by Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1907, 277 pages. English translation of the original German edition, published by the General Verwaltung of the Berlin Imperial Museums. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Essayweb 2008] EssayWeb. Human Prehistory, 2008, retrieved May 18, 2014. Human Prehistory Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Essene 1942] Frank Essene. Culture Element Distributions: XXI - Round Valley, Anthropological Records, Volume 8, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1942, pages 1–98. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Evans 2005] E. Raymond Evans. Prehistoric Metal Workers in the Eastern United States, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Evans-A 2009] Alison Evans, Bronwen Ackermann, and Tim Driscoll. “The Role of the Soft Palate in Woodwind and Brass Playing”, International Symposium on Performance Science (ISPS), New Zealand, 2009, pages 267–272, ISBN-13 978-94-90306-01-4. See the Performance Science web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Expired air provides the basis for sound production for musicians playing a wind instrument. This air stream must be controlled and directed into the mouthpiece of the instrument via a reed mechanism at the mouth. To be able to do this, firm velopharyngeal closure is required to prevent air leaking out through the nose from the oral cavity. In some musicians impairment of soft palate function may result in this air leak occurring, which is known as velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). A review of the functional anatomy of the soft palate and how it relates to wind and brass playing is discussed with a brief review of VPI as it is reported in musicians. A better understanding of the soft palate anatomy will assist students and music teachers to optimize their performance and prevent performance related medical problems.

[Evans-A 2010] Alison Evans, Bronwen Ackermann, and Tim Driscoll. “Functional Anatomy of the Soft Palate Applied to Wind Playing”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 25, Number 4, 2010, pages 183–189. Publication 21170481 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Wind players must be able to sustain high intraoral pressures in order to play their instruments. Prolonged exposure to these high pressures may lead to the performance-related disorder velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). This disorder occurs when the soft palate fails to completely close the air passage between the oral and nasal cavities in the upper respiratory cavity during blowing tasks, this closure being necessary for optimum performance on a wind instrument. VPI is potentially career threatening. Improving music teachers' and students' knowledge of the mechanism of velopharyngeal closure may assist in avoiding potentially catastrophic performance-related disorders arising from dysfunction of the soft palate. In the functional anatomy of the soft palate as applied to wind playing, seven muscles of the soft palate involved in the velopharyngeal closure mechanism are reviewed. These are the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, and salpingopharyngeus. These muscles contribute to either a palatal or a pharyngeal component of velopharyngeal closure. This information should guide further research into targeted methods of assessment, management, and treatment of VPI in wind musicians.

[Evans-A 2011] Alison Evans, Tim Driscoll, and Bronwen Ackermann. “Prevalence of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency in Woodwind and Brass Students”, Occupational Medicine, Volume 61, Number 7, October 2011, pages 480–482, doi:10.1093/occmed/kqr072. Publication 21697080 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Evans-B 1931] Bessie Evans and May Garrettson Evans. American Indian Dance Steps, published by A. S. Barnes and Company, New York, 1931, 102 pages. Reissued in [Evans-B 2003] and [Evans-B 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Evans-B 2003] Bessie Evans and May G. Evans. Native American Dance Steps, published by Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, 2003, 128 pages, ISBN 0-486-42700-5 (978-0-486-42700-3), softcover. Reissue of [Evans-B 1931]. See the Dover Publications web site. Contains 3 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Evans-B 2007] Bessie Evans and May G. Evans. American Indian Dance Steps, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007, 140 pages, ISBN 1-4326-2953-0 (978-1-4326-2953-3), ASIN 1432629530, softcover. Reissue of [Evans-B 1931]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Everest 2001] F. Alton Everest. The Master Handbook of Acoustics, published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001, 592 pages, ISBN 0-07-136097-2 (978-0-07-136097-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: FAQ for the Native American Flute, Intervals

Publisher's description: The goal of this book is to apply the principles of acoustics to the audio arts. This involves serving as an interpreter of major trends and the literature for students and practitioners in the audio field. Along with covering the more theoretical aspects of acoustics, the book applies the theory to the design of specialized audio spaces such as the home listening room, the control room, and the multi-track-recording studio.

[Ewers 1986] John C. Ewers (1909–1997). Plains Indian Sculpture: A Traditional Art from America's Heartland, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1986, 239 pages, ISBN 0-87474-422-9 (978-0-87474-422-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Beltrami Flutes - The Earliest Known Wooden Native American Flute

Review by Susan Hamburger from The Library Journal: Plains Indian art expert Ewers visited 150 museums and private collections during 20 years of research to document this "long-neglected three-dimensional art." In this comprehensive book, Ewers identifies by tribe, and sometimes by individual, previously unknown or mislabeled pieces. He groups pieces by types and uses, shows the sculptor's attitude toward his subject, and summarizes historical periods of sculptural activity. This is the definitive work on Plains Indian sculpture. The highly readable text is complemented by the well-placed photos.

 
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