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References - B

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter B. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

References - B

[Baby 1961] Raymond S. Baby. “A Hopewell Human Bone Whistle”, American Antiquity, Volume 27, Number 1, July 1961, pages 108–110. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Backus 1964] John Backus. “Effect of Wall Material on the Steady-State Tone Quality of Woodwind Instruments”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 36, Number 10, 1964, pages 1881–1887, doi:10.1121/1.1919286 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: FAQ for the Native American Flute

Abstract: A clarinet blown with an artificial embouchure was connected to one end of a large pipe with absorbing material at the other end so that the sound usually radiated was absorbed instead. Under these conditions, the sound radiated from the vibrating body was measured and found to be 48 dB below the sound normally produced by the instrument at the same location. Acceleration levels measured on the body with a vibration meter were correlated with the sound radiated by the body, both for the artificially blown clarinet and for clarinets set into vibration with an attachment energized by a complex signal. The figures obtained were used to check other woodwind instruments. Results showed that the body sound should be at least 37 dB below the normal sound for all instruments measured. The effect of nonrigid walls was checked by comparing tubes of brass and soft TYGON plastic blown on the embouchure, measuring the harmonic structure of the internal standing wave produced and the frequencies and Q's of the resonance modes. The differences were small. It is concluded that the vibrations of the walls of a woodwind instrument do not affect its steady tone either by radiating sound themselves or by affecting the harmonic structure of the internal standing wave.

[Badawi 1960] Ahmad Badawi (supervision); Mohamed Gamal el-Din Mokhtar and Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif Tanbuli (text); Aly Hassan el-Ghazouli, Abdel-Badie Abdel-Rahman, and Ahmad el-Gabouri (photographs). Dresses in Ancient Egypt «Le costume dans l'Egypte ancienne / al-Azya fi Misr al-qadimah», published by Le Caire: Centre de documentation sur l'ancienne Egypte, in English, French, and Arabic, 1960, 80 pages. Publication dressesinancient00bada on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Flute and Lyre scene from the Tomb of Djeserkara Amenhotep, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[BadHeartBull 1967] Amos Bad Heart Bull (drawings); Helen H. Blish (text); Mari Sandoz (introduction). A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux, published by the University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1967, 529 pages, ISBN 0-8032-0002-1 (978-0-8032-0002-9), ASIN 0803200021, hardcover. publication date is sometimes cited as 1968. Helen H. Blish is often listed as the first author. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the preface of the book: The publication of A Pictographic History of the Oglala Sioux, termed by Mari Sandoz "the most important single publishing venture, by volume, of the Great Plains," would be a noteworthy event under any circumstances. The conditions surrounding the discovery, analysis, and ultimate publication of the Amos Bad Heart Bull picture history—an effort spanning some forty years and involving the efforts of many people—only add to its significance.

The pictographic record, a series of more than four hundred drawings and script notations made in an old ledger book by Amos Bad Heart Bull, and Oglala Sioux from the Pine Ridge Reservation, between 1890 and the time of his death in 1913, passed into the possession of the artist's sister, Dollie Pretty Cloud. In 1926, Helen Blish, a graduate student at the University of Nebraska, while looking for objects of Indian art learned of the existence of the picture history from W. O. Roberts, chief clerk at that time and later superintendent of the Pine Ridge Agency.

It was only with great difficulty that Miss Blish was able to persuade Mrs. Pretty Cloud to allow her to use the book on a year-to-year basis for a modest annual fee between 1927 and 1940. Alternating between her teaching position in Detroit high school and graduate work at the University, Miss Blish spent her vacations interviewing informants, chiefly He Dog and Short Bull on the Pine Ridge Reservation, often accompanied by John Calhoff, the official agency interpreter. Her major advisor at the University, Professor Hartley Burr Alexander, chairman of the Department of Philosophy and a noted student of Indian art and religion, took a keen interest in her project of analyzing and interpreting the pictographic history; and through his help she received two grants from the Carnegie Institution.

[Bagwell 2005] Dick Bagwell. The Pipe & Tabor Tutor — A Self-Teaching Method with Play-along CD and Tune Book, 2005 Revision, published by PiperHQ Studio, Berkeley, California, 2005, 59 pages, comb binding. Originally published in 1988. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bailey 2008] Garrick Alan Bailey (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 2: Indians in Contemporary Society, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 2008, 589 pages, ISBN 0-16-080388-8 (978-0-16-080388-8). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: An encyclopedia summarizing knowledge about all Native peoples north of Mesoamerica, including cultures, languages, history, prehistory, and human biology, is a standard reference work for anthropologists, historians, students, and the general reader. Leading authorities have contributed chapters to each volume. Area volumes include separate chapters on all tribes. This heavily illustrated work contains extensive bibliographies and is well indexed. Each volume may be purchased and used independently. Some of the volumes are now out-of-print. Check the Internet for available copies.

The 46 chapters in this volume explore how Indians and Arctic peoples maintain their Native identity in contemporary societies, including their responses to the social forces around them. The major sections include The Issues in the United States, The Issues in Canada, Demographic and Ethnic Issues, and Social and Cultural Revitalization.

[Bain 2008] Reginald Bain. Enharmonic Interval Notation, Class Notes, University of South Carolina, 2008. See the Reginald Bain web site. Contains 3 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bain 2008a] Reginald Bain. Scale Glossary, Class Notes, University of South Carolina, 2008. See the Reginald Bain web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bain 2008b] Reginald Bain. The Major Pentatonic Modes, Class Notes, University of South Carolina, 2008. See the Reginald Bain web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baines 1993] John Baines. “Symbolic Roles of Canine Figures on Early Monuments”, Archéo-Nil, May 1993, pages 57–74. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawing of the Two-Dog Palette from the Temple of Hierakonpolis, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Baines-A 1957] Anthony Baines. Woodwind Instruments and Their History, First Edition, published by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1957, 382 pages. Publication woodwindinstrume000787mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baines-A 1963] Anthony Baines. Woodwind Instruments and Their History, Revised Edition, published by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1963. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baines-A 1991] Anthony Baines. Woodwind Instruments and Their History, Dover Third Edition, Dover Books on Music, published by Courier Dover Publications, London, 1991, 384 pages, ISBN 0-486-26885-3 (978-0-486-26885-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baird 1882] Elizabeth Thérèse Baird (1810–1890). “Indian Customs and Early Recollections”, Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Volume 9, published by the Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 1882, pages 303–326. republished in 1909. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bake 1949] Arnold Baké. “Indian Folk Dances”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 1, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1949, pages 47–48. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baken 2000] Ronald R. Baken and Robert F. Orlikoff. Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice, Second Edition, published by Cengage Learning, 2000, 610 pages, ISBN 1-56593-869-0 (978-1-56593-869-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Baker 1882] Theodore Baker (1851–1934). Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden «About the Music of the North American Wild», Doctoral dissertation – Universitat Leipzig, Germany, published by Druck vol Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, in German, 1882, iv + 82 pages + plates, ASIN B004S3J18C, hardcover. Translated and reissued in [Baker 1976] On the Music of the North American Indians. Reissued in [Baker 1978] On the Music of the North American Indians. Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (3), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (3)

From [Stevenson-R 1973]: Although not widely reviewed when in 1882 Breitkopf und Härtel published Theodore Baker's Leipzig dissertation, Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden, it soon came to be widely accepted on both sides of the Atlantic as a definitive survey of the prior literature as well as a record of close personal research.

[Baker 1976] Theodore Baker; Ann Buckley (translation). On the Music of the North American Indians, published by Frits Knuf and W. S. Heinman, Buren, the Netherlands and New York, in English and German, 1976, vii + 151 pages, ASIN B0000E8P1T, softcover. [obtainable from] W. S. Heinman. Translation and reissue of [Baker 1882] Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden «About the Music of the North American Wild». On the Music of the North American Indians (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Baker 1977] Theodore Baker; Ann Buckley (translation). On the Music of the North American Indians, Source Materials and Studies in Ethnomusicology, Volume 9, published by Da Capo Press, New York, New York, in English, 1977, ISBN 0-306-70888-4 (978-0-306-70888-6). Translation and reissue of [Baker 1882] Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden «About the Music of the North American Wild». On the Music of the North American Indians (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Baker 1978] Theodore Baker; Ann Buckley (translation). On the Music of the North American Indians, published by the University of Maryland Sea Grant Publications, June 1978, softcover. Reissue of [Baker 1882] Über die Musik der Nordamerikanischen Wilden «About the Music of the North American Wild». On the Music of the North American Indians (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Baker-WL 1972] Whiteford L. Baker. Eastern Forest Insects, Miscellaneous Publication Number 1175, published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, February 1972, 642 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Bakkegard 1960] B. M. Bakkegard. “Music in Arizona before 1912”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 8, Number 2, published by MENC: The National Association for Music Education, Autumn 1960, pages 67–74. Publication 3344027 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (4)

[Bakkegard 1961] B. M. Bakkegard and Elizabeth Ann Morris (1932–2012). “Seventh Century Flutes from Arizona”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 5, Number 3, September 1961, pages 184–186. Publication 924518 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seventeen citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - A (10), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave (6)

[BalaSinem 1973] Bala-Sinem Choir. American Indian Songs and Chants, Canyon Records, C-6110, 17 tracks, 1973. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

34 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (17), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (17)

[Baldridge 2003] Stephanie Baldridge. “Playing Native American Flute Duets”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 17–18. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baldridge 2003a] Stephanie Baldridge. “In a Rut? What it Means, and 10 Ways to Get Out of It”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 21–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baldridge 2004] Stephanie Baldridge. “Working with Prose, Poetry, and Storytelling”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2004, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2004, pages 18–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Balena 2014] Francesco Balena. The Scale Omnibus, June 8, 2014, 440 pages. Document version 1.02. See the Saxopedia web site. The Scale Omnibus Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Balkwill 1999] Laura-Lee Balkwill and William Forde Thompson. “A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Perception of Emotion in Music: Psychophysical and Cultural Cues”, Music and Perception, Volume 17, Number 1, published by the University of California Press, Fall 1999, pages 43–64. Publication 40285811 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Studies of the link between music and emotion have primarily focused on listeners' sensitivity to emotion in the music of their own culture. This sensitivity may reflect listeners' enculturation to the conventions of their culture's tonal system. However, it may also reflect responses to psychophysical dimensions of sound that are independent of musical experience. A model of listeners' perception of emotion in music is proposed in which emotion in music is communicated through a combination of universal and cultural cues. Listeners may rely on either of these cues, or both, to arrive at an understanding of musically expressed emotion. The current study addressed the hypotheses derived from this model using a cross-cultural approach. The following questions were investigated: Can people identify the intended emotion in music from an unfamiliar tonal system? If they can, is their sensitivity to intended emotions associated with perceived changes in psychophysical dimensions of music? Thirty Western listeners rated the degree of joy, sadness, anger, and peace in 12 Hindustani raga excerpts (field recordings obtained in North India). In accordance with the raga-rasa system, each excerpt was intended to convey one of the four moods or "rasas" that corresponded to the four emotions rated by listeners. Listeners also provided ratings of four psychophysical variables: tempo, rhythmic complexity, melodic complexity, and pitch range. Listeners were sensitive to the intended emotion in ragas when that emotion was joy, sadness, or anger. Judgments of
emotion were significantly related to judgments of psychophysical dimensions, and, in some cases, to instrument timbre. The findings suggest that listeners are sensitive to musically expressed emotion in an unfamiliar tonal system, and that this sensitivity is facilitated by psychophysical clues.

[Ball 1994] Jeff Ball. Trailhead of the American Indian Courting Flute, published by Four Winds Trading Company, 1994, 34 pages, softcover with cassette tape. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ball 2001] Jeff Ball with Bruce A. Whitten. Trailhead of the American Indian Courting Flute, Revised Edition, published by Red Feather Music, 2001, 40 pages, ISBN 0-9672383-0-7, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Ballantine 1965] Christopher Ballantine. “The Polyrhythmic Foundation of Tswana Pipe Melody”, African Music, Volume 3, Number 4, 1965, pages 52–67. Publication 30249600 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ballard 1969] Louis W. Ballard (1931–2007). Ritmo Indio: A Study in American Indian Rhythms, for Woodwind Quintet, published by the Bourne Co., New York, Copyright registration date August 14, 1969, 49 pages, Duration 13 minutes, miniature score. Movements: The Source, The Soul, The Dance. For flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn. "In second movement oboist doubles on the Sioux Indian flageolet or substitute soprano recorder.". Copyright RE0000748245 / 1997-01-08; EU0000129215 / 1969-08-14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ballard 1970] Louis W. Ballard. Mid-winter Fires — Woodwind Duo with Piano ccompaniment, for B-flat Clarinet, Sioux Flute, and Piano, Copyright registration date November 30, 1970, score. Copyright RE0000774468 / 1998-01-05; EU0000220311 / 1970-11-30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ballard 1975] Louis W. Ballard. Music of North American Indians, published by the Silver Burdett Company, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1975, ISBN 0-382-05202-1 (978-0-382-05202-6), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ballard 2002] L. W. Ballard. American Indian Music for the Classroom, published by New Southwest Music Publications, P.O. Box 4552, Santa Fe NM 87502, 2002, audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description by First Nations Composers Initiative: This is a reissue of a classic publication and is a well-documented collection of songs, dances, games, and information for teachers from many tribes. Includes teacher’s book, recordings (available on cassette or CD), packet of photographs and transparencies.

[Balogun 1990] F. Odun Balogun. “Nigerian Folktales and Children's Stories by Chinua Achebe”, Journal of Black Studies, Volume 20, Number 4, June 1990, pages 426–442. Publication 2784520 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bancroft 1875a] Hubert Howe Bancroft (1832–1918). The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, Volume 1 - Wild Tribes, published by D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1875, 797 pages. Publication cihm_14100 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bancroft 1875b] Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, Volume 2 - Civilized Nations, published by D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1875, 805 pages. Publication cihm_14101 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Bancroft 1875c] Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, Volume 3 - Myths and Languages, published by D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1875, 796 pages. Publication cihm_14102 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Bancroft 1875d] Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, Volume 4 - Antiquities, published by D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1875, 807 pages. Publication nativeraces04bancrich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bancroft 1875e] Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, Volume 5 - Primitive History, published by D. Appleton and Company, New York, 1876, 796 pages. Publication cihm_14104 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bannan 2012] Nicholas Bannan. Music, Language, and Human Evolution, published by Oxford University Press, 2012, 345 pages, ISBN 0-19-922734-9 (978-0-19-922734-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Why do human beings make music? No human society has ever existed without music, and people all around the world commit considerable resources, including time, effort, and ingenuity, to musical participation and consumption. Yet until recently archaeology has had little to say about the possible role of music in human evolution. This book examines the potential role of musicality in human evolution and its consequences for human culture. Drawing on a growing body of research in archaeology, anthropology, psychology, and musicology, it illustrates the inter-disciplinary necessity of accounting for the phenomenon of human music-making. Through twelve articles, the contributors to his volume build on Charles Darwin's speculation that human language may have had its origins in forms of vocal communication closer to the condition of music. Music and language are both acquired by individuals, and thus transmitted over the generations as a consequence of an evolved biology specially adapted for these purposes. The authors of this book seek to illuminate the debate surrounding the precedence of musicality over language in research influenced by Darwin's proposal, critically examining the controversial philosophical, developmental, and inter-cultural issues implied. The accompanying CD provides some glimpses of the practice of music in a variety of cultures and illustrates ways of listening to the human voice that reveal its intrinsic musicality.

[Bannister 1966] Bryant Bannister, Jeffrey S. Dean, and Elizabeth A. M. Gell. Tree-Ring Dates from Arizona E: Chinle - De Chelly - Red Rock Area, published by the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, The University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, April 1, 1966, 63 pages, ASIN B0006BS8FW Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Bao 2013] Katherine Jacobs Bao and Sonja Lyubomirsky. “The Rewards of Happiness”, Chapter 9 in [David 2013], 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barahona 2002] Agustin Barahona. “Ancient Objects Related to Music and Ancient Egypt in the National Archaeological Museum of Madrid”, contained in [Eldamaty 2002], 2002, pages 75–86. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbe 1979] Walter Burke Barbe (born 1926), Raymond H. Swassing, and Michael N. Milone, Jr. Teaching Through Modality Strengths: Concepts and Practices, published by Zaner-Blosner, Columbus, Ohio, June 1979, 117 pages, ISBN 0-88309-100-3 (978-0-88309-100-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbe 1981] Walter Burke Barbe and Michael N. Milone, Jr. “What We Know About Modality Strengths”, Educational Leadership, published by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, February 1981, pages 378–380. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1915] Marius Barbeau (1883–1969). Huron and Wyandot Mythology, With an Appendix Containing Earlier Published Records, Anthropological Series Number 11, Memoir 80, published by the Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa, Canada, 1915. Publication No. 1554. Publication huronwyandotmyth00barb on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (2), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (2)

[Barbeau 1933] Marius Barbeau. “Songs of the Northwest”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 19, Number 1, published by the Oxford University Press, New York, January 1933, pages 101–111, doi:10.1093/mq/XIX.1.101. Publication 738827 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1934] Marius Barbeau. “Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs”, The Musical Quarterly, Volume 20, Number 1, published by the Oxford University Press, New York, January 1934, pages 106–116, doi:10.1093/mq/XX.1.107. see [Barbeau 1942] Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs article of the same title. Publication 738713 on JSTOR (subscription access). Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

Description from [Bradley 1976]: Barbeau traces northwest Indian origins to Siberia and China through similarities in song, the instruments used, and the manner of mourning. Five songs are included complete with notation, text, and translation. Four original photographs complement the text.

[Barbeau 1934a] Marius Barbeau. “How Folk-Songs Travelled”, Music & Letters, Volume 15, Number 4, published by Oxford University Press, October 1934, pages 306–323. Publication 727883 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1942] Marius Barbeau. “Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs”, The Scientific Monthly, Volume 54, Number 4 (whole number 319), published by the Science Press for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., April 1942, pages 303–307. see [Barbeau 1934] Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs article of the same title. Publication 17582 on JSTOR (subscription access). Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Native American Flute - Map of Native American Flute Tunings

[Barbeau 1942a] Marius Barbeau. “Tsimsyan Songs, Monograph 18”, published by the American Ethnological Society, New York, 1942. the title is also spelled in some references "Tsimshian Songs". Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1945] Marius Barbeau. “The Aleutian Route of Migration into America”, Geographical Review, Volume 35, Number 3, published by the American Geographical Society, July 1945, pages 424–443. Publication 211330 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1951] Marius Barbeau. “The Dragon Myths and Ritual Songs of the Iroquoians — With Musical Illustrations”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 3, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1951, pages 81–85. Publication 835782 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1954] Marius Barbeau. “The Ermatinger Collection of Voyageur Songs (ca. 1830)”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 67, Number 264, published by the American Folklore Society, April–June 1954, pages 147–161. Publication 536221 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1961] Charlies Marius Barbeau. Catalogue of Indian Songs, 1911–1920, One Volume, February 9, 1961, manuscript (unpublished). American Philosophical Society, Manuscript Library, 105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106, 215-440-3400 call number Mss.497.2.C16. See the American Philosophical Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1961a] Marius Barbeau. “Canadian Folk Songs”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 13, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1961, pages 28–30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbeau 1962] Marius Barbeau. “Buddhist Dirges on the North Pacific Coast”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 14, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1962, pages 16–21. Publication 835553 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barber 1877] Edwin A. Barber. “Gaming Among the Utah Indians”, The American Naturalist, Volume 11, Boston, 1877, page 351. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barber 1883] Edwin A. Barber. “Indian Music”, The American Naturalist, Volume 17, Number 3, published by the University of Chicago Press, March 1883, pages 267–274. Publication 10.2307/2449040 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication jstor-2449040 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barber-SB 2004] Sarah B. Barber. Proyecto Río Verde, 2003: Report on Excavations at Yugüe, published by the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI), 2004, 26 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This report summarizes the results of excavations undertaken at the site of Yugüe, in the lower Río Verde valley of Oaxaca, México. The Yugüe excavations were undertaken from February to April of 2003 as part of the Proyecto Río Verde 2003 (PRV03). The PRV03 was designed as a study of early state organization on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, focusing on elite activities in the lower Río Verde valley’s first regional polity. A second goal of the PRV03 was to obtain as much archaeological information as possible from the threatened site of Yugüe, where ongoing construction is causing irrevocable damage to a Terminal Formative Period (150 B.C.–A.D. 250) archaeological site. The Yugüe excavations were very successful, providing the first primary deposits related to Terminal Formative elite public activities such as burial, feasting, and other rituals.

An addendum is included with this report summarizing the results of conservation efforts undertaken to conserve and restore a late Terminal Formative Period (A.D. 100–250) incised bone flute from the site of Yugüe. The object was discovered during the Proyecto Río Verde 2003. At the time of its discovery, the flute was in extremely fragile condition due to compaction, seasonal changes in humidity, and bioturbation in the form of root and insect activity. Mireya Olvera Sánchez consolidated, reconstructed, and restored the object. It is now in the collection of the Centro Cultural Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City, México.
Translation: Este informe presenta los resultados de excavaciones arqueológicas en el sitio de Yugüe, ubicado en el valle inferior del Río Verde. Las excavaciones tuvieron lugar entre febrero y abril del año 2003, y formaron parte del Proyecto Río Verde 2003 (PRV03). El PRV03 se diseñó como un estudio de la organización estatal del período Formativo Terminal (150 a.C.–250 d.C.) en la Costa Chica de Oaxaca, México. El objetivo principal era el de obtener datos sobre las actividades de la élite en el primer estado regional del valle inferior del Río Verde. El segundo objetivo del PRV03 fue el de emprender excavaciones de rescate en el sitio, que corre peligro a causa de una reocupación moderna del sitio. La construcción moderna continúa causado daños irreparables en este sitio del período Formativo Terminal. Las excavaciones tuvieron éxito, puesto que llegaron a proporcionar los contextos primarios correspondientes a las actividades públicas de la élite durante el período Formativo Terminal, incluyendo entierros, fiestas y rituales.

Este informe incluye un apéndice que resume los resultados de la restauración y conservación de una flauta de hueso del período Formativo Terminal (100–250 d.C.), proveniente del sitio de Yugüe. El objeto se descubrió durante las excavaciones del Proyecto Río Verde 2003. Cuando fue descubierta, esta flauta denotaba gran fragilidad debido a la compactación, a los cambios de humedad estacionales, y a las bioperturbaciones causadas por las raíces y la actividad de los insectos. La Lic. Mireya Olvera Sánchez se ocupó de consolidar, reconstruir y restaurar el objeto. La flauta está en la colección del Centro Cultural Santo Domingo, Oaxaca de Juárez, México.

[Barber-SB 2009] Sarah B. Barber, Gonzalo Sánchez, and Mireya Olvera. “Sounds of Death and Life in Mesoamerica: The Bone Flutes of Ancient Oaxaca”, Yearbook for Traditional Music, Volume 41, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 2009, pages 94–110. Publication 25735480 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Este ensayo presenta un estudio en la arqueologia musical la cual se enfoqua en una flauta hecha del femur de un venado proveniente del sitio arqueologico de Yugüe, en el estado Mexicano de Oaxaca. Utilizando perspectivas de arqueologia antropologica, conservacion, y etnomusicologia, discutimos la tecnologia e ideologia de la musica de las flautas en la Mesoamerica antigua. La flauta de Yugüe provee datos invaluables en terminos de estas perspectivas debido a su antigtiedad (esta de 100-250 d.C), su condicion casi completa, y porque esta tallada en una manera elaborada. La flauta era una ofrenda mortuaria la cual se habia puesto en la mano de un joven elite quien murio entre las edades de 15 y 17 aiios. Al igual que la mayoria de los instrumentos encontrados en contextos arqueologicos, la flauta de Yugüe se encontro en un mal estado de preservation. Se requirio conservacion profesional antes de estar analizada. La estabilizacion revelo una flauta con ducto externo y estaba tallada con una representation antropomorfica del mismo instrumento y de un ancestro o deidad que se manifestaba a traves de la musica. Aunque las incisiones estaban generalmente intactas, a causa de su condicion delicada no fue posible tocar el instrumento. Una copia experimental se hizo para determinar el mecanismo con cual la flauta producia sonido. Basada en estos estudios interdisciplinarios, nosotros argtiimos que la flauta de Yugüe era parte de una tradition tecnologica regional caracterizada por la ubicacion de la boquilla al lado opuesto de lo orificios. Las incisiones indican que el instrumento era visto como un objeto animado que tenia la abilidad de manifestar fuerzas divinas o ancestrales. Finalmente, instrumentos mas recientes de la epoca pre-Colombiana e imagenes de los codices demuestran que la tecnologia e ideologia representada por la flauta de Yugüe tenia una larga historia en la Mesoamerica.
Translation: This paper presents a study in musical archeology which enfoqua in a flute made from the femur of a deer Yugüe the archaeological site in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. We use anthropological perspectives of archeology, conservation, and ethnomusicology, discuss technology and ideology of the music of flutes in ancient Mesoamerica. Yugüe flute provides invaluable data in terms of these perspectives due to its antigtiedad (this AD 100-250), his condition almost complete, and that is carved in an elaborate way. The flute was a gravestone offering which had put in the hand of a young elite who died aged 15 or 17 years. Like most of the instruments found in archaeological contexts Yugüe flute was found in a poor state of preservation. Professional conservation was required before being analyzed. The stabilization revealed a flute with external pipeline and was carved with an anthropomorphic representation of the same instrument and an ancestor or deity manifested itself through music. Although the incisions were generally intact, because of his delicate condition was not possible to play the instrument. An experimental copy was made to determine the mechanism by which the flute was producing sound. Based on these interdisciplinary studies, we argtiimos Yugüe flute that was part of a regional technological tradition characterized by the location of nozzle holes than the opposite side. The incisions indicate that the instrument was seen as an animated object that had the ability to manifest divine or ancestral forces. Finally, more recent instruments of the pre-Colombian era and images of the codices show that the technology and ideology represented by the flute Yugüe had a long history in Mesoamerica.

[Barber-SB 2012] Sarah Stacy Barber and Mireya Olvera Sánchez. “A Divine Wind: The Arts of Death and Music in Terminal Formative Oaxaca”, Ancient Mesoamerica, Volume 23, Issue 1, Spring 2012, pages 9–24, doi:10.1017/S0956536112000016 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper examines the social context of music and musical instruments in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica through the detailed analysis of a late Terminal Formative period (a.d. 100–250) burial from the site of Yugüe in the lower Río Verde Valley of Oaxaca. The burial contained a sub-adult male interred with an incised bone flute and a plaster-backed iron-ore mirror. The Yugüe flute is the earliest reported bone flute from Mesoamerica and is incised and carved to create the bas relief image of a skeletal male figure. Based on the instrument's archaeological context and elaborate incising, we argue that the flute was categorized in pre-Columbian ontology as an animate object that actively participated in ceremonial action at Yugüe. While the nature of such ceremony remains unclear, the incising on the flute indicates that the instrument was capable of making manifest ancestral and divine forces affiliated with rain, wind, and agricultural fertility.

[Barbera 1977] C. André Barbera. “Arithmetic and Geometric Divisions of the Tetrachord”, Journal of Music Theory, Volume 21, Number 2, Autumn 1977, pages 294–323. Publication 843492 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbera 1984] André Barbera. “Octave Species”, The Journal of Musicology, Volume 2, Number 3, July 1984, pages 229–241, doi:10.1525/jm.1984.3.3.03a00020. Publication 763813 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barbour 1951] James Murray Barbour (1897–1970). Tuning and Temperament: A Historical Survey, published by the Michigan State College Press, East Lansing, Michigan, 1951. Publication tuningtemperamen00barb on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the preface: This book is based upon my unpublished Cornell dissertation, Equal Temperament: Its History from Ramis (1482) to Rameau (1737), Ithaca, 1932. As the title indicates, the emphasis in the dissertation was upon individual writers. In the present work the emphasis is on the theories rather than on their promulgators. Since a great many tuning systems are discussed, a separate chapter is devoted to each of the principal varieties of tuning, with subsidiary divisions wherever necessary. Even so, the whole subject is so complex that it seemed best that these chapters be preceded by a running account (with a minimum of mathematics) of the entire history of tuning and temperament. Chapter I also contains the principal account of the Pythagorean tuning, for it is unnecessary to spend a chapter upon a tuning system that exists in one form only.

[Barclay 1997] R. L. Barclay (editor). The Care of Historic Musical Instruments, published by CCI, MGC and CIMCIM, 1997, vi + 145 pages, ISBN 0-660-17116-3. See the CIMCIM web site. The Care of Historic Musical Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Roster of Museums, Libraries, and Cultural Sites Related to the Native American Flute, Crafting Native American Flutes

Description by the publisher: CIMCIM is a co-publisher of the new book THE CARE OF HISTORIC MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, edited by Robert L. Barclay. This important book is published by the Canadian Conservation Institute, The Museums and Galleries Commission (UK), and CIMCIM.

Topics covered include: ethics and the use of heritage musical instruments, whether they are in the possession of individuals, private collectors, or museums; materials; basic conservation treatments; maintenance strategies; and documentation. The book includes a bibliography and details of the resources, advice, and support available to the custodians of collections.

Written by seven international specialists in the care and preservation of historic musical instruments: Robert L. Barclay, May Cassar, Friedemann Hellwig, Cary Karp, Arnold Myers, Scott Odell, and Mimi Waitzman.

[Bard 2007] Kathryn A. Bard. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, published by Blackwell Publishing, 2007, 400 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4051-1148-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bard 2008] Kathryn A. Bard. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, published by Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., Oxford, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Bardos 1959] Lajos Bárdos. “Natural Tonal Systems «Natürliche Tonsysteme»”, contained in [Rajeczky 1959], in English translation from German, 1959, pages 207–246, retrieved April 11, 2011. Publication stdiamemoriaebel000107mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barker 1957] George C. Barker. “Some Aspects of Penitential Processions in Spain and the American Southwest”, The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 70, Number 276, published by the American Folklore Society, April–June 1957, pages 137–142. Publication 537297 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barker-A 1989] Andrew Barker. Greek Musical Writings II: Harmonic and Acoustic Theory, First Edition, published by Cambridge University Press, 1989. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barker-A 2007] Andrew Barker. The Science of Harmonics in Classical Greece, published by Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 1-139-46862-6 (978-1-139-46862-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barks 2004] Coleman Barks (translations); Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī (poetry) (1207–1273). The Essential Rumi, New Expanded Edition, published by HarperCollins, New York, 2004, 390 pages, ISBN 0-06-250959-4 (978-0-06-250959-8), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Poetry by Rumi (2)

[Barlow 1972] Earl Barlow and Robert Bigart. The Indian in the Classroom: Readings for the Teacher with Indian Students, published by the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena, Montana, August 1972, viii + 311 pages. Publication indianinclassroo00barl on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnard 1941] Herwanna Becker Barnard. The Comanche and His Literature: With an Anthology of His Myths, Legends, Folktales, Oratory, Poetry, and Songs, M.A. dissertation – University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 1941. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnett 1937] H. G. Barnett. Culture Element Distributions: VII - Oregon Coast, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1937, pages 155–208. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnett 1939] H. G. Barnett. Culture Element Distributions: IX - Gulf of Georgia Salish, Anthropological Records, Volume 1, Number 5, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, 1939, pages 221–295. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnett 2003] Andy Barnett. Compose Yourself, published by Llewellyn Worldwide, St. Paul, MN, 2003, 250 pages, ISBN 0-7387-0418-0 (978-0-7387-0418-0), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnett-RD 1976] Richard David Barnett. Sculptures from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (668–627 B.C.), published by the British Museum Press, London, 1976, 75 pages, ISBN 0-7141-1046-9 (978-0-7141-1046-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Barnett-RD 1982] Richard David Barnett. Ancient Ivories in the Middle East and Adjacent Countries, Volume 14 of Qedem: Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology, published by the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1982, 99 pages, ASIN B0055IIZTK, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barone 1960] Joseph A. Barone. “Patterns in Music”, Expedition, Volume 3, Number 1, Fall 1960, pages 29–31. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barrett 1911] S. A. Barrett (1879–1965). “The Dream Dance of the Chippewa and Menominee Indians of Nothern Wisconsin”, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, Volume 1, Article 4, Milwaukee, WI, November 1911, pages 251–406. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barrett 1917] Samuel Alfred Barrett. Pomo Bear Doctors, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 12, Number 11, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, July 11, 1917, pages 443–465. Publication pomobeardoctors00barrrich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barrett 1933] S. A. Barrett and E. W. Gifford (1887–1959). Miwok Material Culture, 1933. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

Description of the 2006 reprint by Kessinger: Originally published in 1933 by the Milwaukee Public Museum, this is a classic study of the Miwok Indian culture based upon data obtained from Miwok informants shortly after 1900. Because these people came into contact with Euro- Americans at a relatively early time, their numbers were depleted and their culture impacted more significantly than other California Indians during the period. This book is as complete a coverage of the Miwoks as exists.

[Barrientos 2007] Alexa Barrientos. “Music in Education”, contained in [French 2007], Spring 2007, pages 70–78. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barron 1991] Laura Barron. The Forbidden Flutes — Melanesian and Amazonian Gender Ideologies as Reflected in Various Flute Rituals, May 1991. See the Laura Barron web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The flute's phallic image is obvious. Therefore, it follows that the myths and beliefs which have been derived from this instrument illustrate some fascinating parallels in gender conception cross-culturally. Specifically, throughout New Guinea and three Central Brazilian cultures, (Mundurucus, Kalapalo, and Kamayura), the flute is endowed with very similar powers and meaning. Each region considers their flutes sacred. They are stored in the men's homes and females are forbidden to see or play them. In the event that women disobey this order, they can be subject to gang rape or other punishment. Spiritual associations with this instrument are present in all but the culture of the Kalapalo Indians. Ancestral communication is often achieved through the music of flutes as well. However, most importantly, a gender power struggle is represented by the flute, the rituals, and the ceremonies in which the instrument is used. In examining the origin myths of the flute, as well as the instrument's function and symbology in those cultures, many conclusions about the roles of the sexes can be drawn.

[Barry 2003] Nancy H. Barry and Paula Conlon. “Powwow in the Classroom”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 90, Number 2, November 2003, pages 21–26. Publication 3399930 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barton 1915] George A. Barton (1859–1942). Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents from the Earliest Times to the Dynasty fo Agade, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 9, Number 1, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1915, 106 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bartram 1794] William Bartram (1739–1823). Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws, Second Edition, published by J. Johnson, London, 1794, 526 pages, hardcover. Publication travelsthroughno00bart on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bartram 1794a] William Bartram. “An Account of the Persons, Manners, Customs, and Government of the Muscogules, or Creeks, Cherokees, Chactaws, &c. — Aborigines of the Continent of North America”, contained in [Bartram 1794], 1794, pages 479–520, hardcover. Publication travelsthroughno00bart on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Description of their character, customs and persons of the American Aborigines, from my own observations, as well as from the general and impartial report of ancient respectable men, either of their own people, or white traders, who have spent many days of their lives amongst them.

[Bartram 1996] William Bartram. Travels and Other Writings, published by Library of America, March 1, 1996, 734 pages, ISBN 1-883011-11-6 (978-1-883011-11-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Basehart 1973] H. W. Basehart. Mescalero Apache Subsistence Patterns, contained in Technical Manual: Survey of the Tularosa Basin, published by Human Systems Research, Tularosa, New Mexico, 1973. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks (2)

[Bastos 2002] Rafael José de Menezes Bastos. “Authenticity and Entertainment: Ethnic Folkways Library, American Ethnomusicology and the Ethnic Music Market”, contained in [Berlin 2002], 2002, pages 385–391. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bataille 1977] Gretchen M. Bataille. An Approach to the Study of American Indian Literature at the College Level, Doctoral dissertation – The School of Graduate Studies, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa, 1977, 162 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bates 1916] William N. Bates. “Summaries of Original Articles Chiefly in Current Publications — July-December 1915”, American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, Volume 20, published by Rumford Press for the Archaeological Institute of America, Concord, New Hampshire, 1916, pages 213–265. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bauman 1995] Carl Bauman; David Moretti (plans). “Courting Flute — An Instrumental Tie to an Old Native American Tradition”, Woodworker's Journal, Volume 19, Number 2, March/April 1995, pages 44–47. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

EBSCO Host description: Details the design and construction of a flute by woodworker David Moretti. Instrumental tie to an old native American tradition; Materials used. INSETS: Pro tip.; Playing your courting flute

[Baxter 2001] Marsha Lynne Baxter. The Chinese Dizi, the Native American Courting Flute, and the Andean Panpipes: An Investigation of Pedagogy and Musical Practice, Doctoral dissertation – Columbia University Teachers College, 2001, 540 pages, ISBN 0-493-39084-7 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: This study examines the musical and pedagogical practices employed in the teaching and learning of the Native American courting flute, Andean panpipes, and Chinese dizi within the context of field experience of private lessons with three master musicians and cultural insiders. Specifically, it investigates (a) the ideas and concepts that aid in understanding the music of each tradition, (b) extramusical associations made by performers and audience members when playing and listening to music, (c) the pedagogical process within each private lesson setting, (d) similarities and/or differences in the pedagogical process within the private lesson setting and the process of teaching and learning that occurs within the teacher's culture, (e) tone production and the ideal sound, (f) stylistic features of articulation, phrasing, ornamentation, andimprovisation, (g) music as defined by each culture, and (h) performance contexts. It also examines the relationship between the author and the research through the roles of participant-observer, learner, and researcher played in this investigation.
The investigation attempts to provide an insider's perspective through a case study analysis of musical studies with culture-bearers from three distinct musical and cultural traditions. Methods of data collection included participant observation, informal conversational interviews, and the interview guide approach.

Focusing on the study of five musical examples from the repertory of each flute tradition, the following themes emerged. First, music is an expression of the natural world in each flute tradition and culture. Second, the pedagogical process as evidenced with each teacher combined aural learning with musical notation in the private lesson setting, while the flute tradition in each teacher's culture is principally an aural tradition. Third, stylistic features of articulation, phrasing, ornamentation, and improvisation are expressive tools of the performer in the Native flute and Andean panpipe traditions; ornamentation in the Chinese dizi tradition allows the performer creative freedom and expression.

[Bazanova 2013] O.M. Bazanova and D. Vernon. “Interpreting EEG Alpha Activity”, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.05.007 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes ‘alpha activity’ or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it.

To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha “auto-rhythmicity” indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness.

Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

[Beach 1998] Amy Beach (1867–1944), Arthur Foote, Preston Ware Orem, and Arthur Farwell (composers). Music of Amy Beach / Arthur Foote / Arthur Farwell / Preston Ware Orem, New World Records, 80542, 13 tracks, 1998, total time 75:54, ASIN B000009V36, audio CD. See the New World Records web site. Contains 13 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beatty 1974] John Beatty. Kiowa-Apache Music, published by the Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greely, Colorado, 1974. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beauchamp 1905] William Martin Beauchamp (1830–1925). Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York, New York State Museum, Bulletin 89, Archeology 11, published by the New York State Education Department, Albany, New York, June 1905, pages 85–272, hardcover. Bulletin 344 of the New York State Education Department, M150m-S4-1500. Publication aboriginaluseofw00beaurich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians, Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Beaudry 1988] Claude Beaudry. “Catalogue des imprimés musicaux d'avant 1800 conservés à la bibliothèque de l'Université Laval «Catalogue of Printed Music Books before 1800 Preserved at the Library of Laval University»”, contained in [Beckwith 1988], in French, 1988, pages 29–49. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beck 2006] Robert J. Beck, Terry L. Gottfried, David J. Hall, Caitlin A. Cisler, and Kenneth W. Bozeman. “Supporting the Health of College Solo Singers: The Relationship of Positive Emotions and Stress to Changes in Salivary IgA and Cortisol during Singing”. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Becker 1975] Judith Becker. “Music in Java; Its History, Its Theory and Its Technique by Jaap Kunst; E. L. Heins”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 19, Number 2, May 1975, pages 310–315. Publication 850365 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Becker 2005] Cornelia Becker. “The Sound of Music Over ar-Raqqa — On a Rare Find of a Flute from an Islamic Glassworks”, Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, Volume 10, December 2005, pages 327–336. ISSN 1661-5468. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: At ar-Raqqa, an Islamic city in north-western Syria, a huge amount of bone material from a diversity of archaeological contexts had been excavated. In the debris of a glass workshop, dating from the end of the 8th to the middle of the 9th century AD, a fragment of a flute was discovered. The flute was fashioned from a vulture's ulna. It is one of the rare finds of a musical instrument of this date and provenance. Because of its fragmentary state of preservation, a comprehensive interpretation proved to be quite difficult.

[Beckerman 2003] Michael Beckerman. New Worlds of Dvořák: Searching in America for the Composer's Inner Life, published by W. W. Norton & Company, 2003, ISBN-13 978-0-393-04706-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Indianist Movement

[Beckstead 2013] D. Beckstead. “Improvisation: Thinking and Playing Music”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 99, Number 3, March 2013, page 69–74, doi:10.1177/0027432112467822 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article explores and contextualizes improvisation in music from an educational perspective. First, recent brain research that sees improvisation as a distinct cognitive activity is examined and used to illustrate the importance and uniqueness of this often ignored area of music learning. Next, the implications for the music classroom are explored in light of the brain research findings as well as the common misconceptions associated with improvisation in music classrooms. Finally, some overarching principles to help guide the teaching of improvisation in any music classroom are offered.

[Beckwith 1987] John Beckwith (editor). Sing Out the Glad News: Hymn Tunes in Canada, contains [Keillor 1987], published by the Institute for Canadian Music, Toronto, Ontario, 1987. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beckwith 1988] J. Beckwith and F. Hall (editors). Musical Canada: Words and Music Honouring Helmut Kallmann, published by the University of Tononto Press, Toronto, Ontario, 1988, ISBN 0-8020-5759-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beckwith-MW 1919] Martha Warren Beckwith (1871–1959). “The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai”, Thirty-third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1911-1912, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1919, pages 285–666, plates 91–95, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu33smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Beckwith-MW 1938] Martha Warren Beckwith. Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies, Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society, Volume 32, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1938. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians (2)

[Bee 1995] Tom Bee (narrator). Toubat: A Journey of the Native American Flute, published by Sundance Media Group, 1995, total time 55:30, ASIN B001877QE2, video VHS. Reissued in [Bee 2006]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: A 55 minute documentary on the history of the making, playing and revival of the Native American Flute, through the words and flute collection of Dr. Richard W. Payne, who has been collecting, studying, making and playing these flutes for over 60 years. Special appearances by Carlos Nakai, Douglas Spotted Eagle, Mary Youngblood, Nino Reyes, and many others; over 600 rare photographs, hundreds of flutes, and seldom-seen archival footage from as early as 1892 bring the flute to life. Includes the old flute players from before the revival such as Belo Cozad, Abel Big Bow, Richard Foolbull, Doc Tate Vevaquaya, etc. Shows the development of the flute from the early Hopi end-blown flute through its development into the typical Native American double-chamber flute.

[Bee 2006] Tom Bee (narrator). Toubat: A Journey of the Native American Flute, Expanded Edition, published by Sundance Media Group, 2006, total time 55:30, ISBN 0-9719606-5-8 (978-0-9719606-5-7), video DVD. Reissue of [Bee 1995] with additonal video material. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: Proto-Flutes and Yucca Stalks, Native American Flute - Finger Hole Placement, Anatomy of the Native American Flute (2), Narratives of the Native American Flute, A Brief History of the Native American Flute (3), Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (4)

[Behler 2012] G. K. Behler, M. Pollow, and M. Vorländer. “Measurements of Musical Instruments with Surrounding Spherical Arrays”, Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference, Nates, France, April 23–27, 2012, 2012, pages 761–765. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The directivities of natural sound sources such as musical instruments are often neglected in auralization, both when working with measured or simulated acoustical environments. This is due to the complex nature of both the radiation of musical instruments and the post-processing involved in this task. However, as the directivity patterns constitute an audible part of the tonal characteristic of a musical instrument in a room, it is advisable to take their directivities into account.
To conduct the measurements, a large surrounding spherical microphone array was constructed that allows to fully encompass the musician in an anechoic chamber. Hereby great care has to be taken in the design process of the recording device in order to obtain a broad-band omnidirectional sensitivity of the used microphones. The acquired multi-channel audio data can be then used to analyze the directivities of the recorded instrument.

[Bell 1941] Willis H. Bell and Edward F. Castetter. The Utilization of Yucca, Sotol, and Beargrass by the Aborigines in the American Southwest, Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest, Volume 7, The University of New Mexico Bulletin, Number 372, published by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico, December 1, 1941. The Utilization of Yucca, Sotol, and Beargrass by the Aborigines in the American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The various species of the genus Yucca inhabit large areas of the arid Southwest and southward far into Mexico, the Rocky Mountain region and the Great Plains as far north as the Dakotas, as well as xerophytic sites in the more humid southeastern states. Within the Southwest, yucca ranked foremost among the numerous wild plants entering into the economy of the aborigines, and had almost as great utility among certain tribes bordering on this area. It owed its importance to the great diversity of uses to which it was adaptable as well as to its naturally widespread occurrence.

[Bellman 1998] Jonathan Bellman. The Exotic in Western Music, published by the Northeastern University Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55553-319-1, softcover. Library of Congress call number 97-16407. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary from isbndb.com: Exoticism has flourished in western music since the seventeenth century. A blend of familiar and unfamiliar gestures, this vibrant musical language takes the listener beyond the ordinary by evoking foreign cultures and forbidden desires. In this pioneering collection, distinguished musicologists explore the ways in which western composers have used exotic themes for dramatic and striking effect. Interweaving historical, musical, and cultural perspectives, the contributors examine the compositional use of exotic styles and traditions in the works of artists as diverse as Mozart and George Harrison. The volume sheds new light on a significant yet largely neglected art form, and it makes a valuable contribution to music history and cultural studies.

[Beloff 1974] Sandra Beloff. Reviewed Work: Ponca Peyote Songs, Ethnomusicology, Volume 18, Number 1, January 1974, pages 178–181, doi:10.2307/850081. Publication 850081 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beltrami 1824] G. C. {Giacomo Costantino} Beltrami (1779–1855). Le Découverte des Sources du Mississippi et de la Rivière Sanglaute «The Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi and of the Bloody River», New Orleans, in French, 1824, 327 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Beltrami Flutes - The Earliest Known Wooden Native American Flute

[Beltrami 1828] G. C. Beltrami. A Pilgrimage in America, Leading to the Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi and Bloody Rivers;With a Description of the Whole Course of the Former, and of the Ohio, in Two Volumes, London, 1828, 472+545 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Beltrami Flutes - The Earliest Known Wooden Native American Flute, Flutopedia Image Detail: Portrait of Giacomo Costantino Beltrami from 1828

[Belz 2006] Mary Jane Belz. “Opening the Doors to Diverse Traditions of Music Making: Multicultural Music Education at the University Level”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 92, Number 5, May 2006, pages 42–45. Publication 3878501 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Benade 1967] A. H. Benade and F. Jansson. An Informal Preliminary Report on the Acoustics of Brass Instrument Bores (Chiefly on the Wave Equations in Theory and Experiment), April 1967, 24 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Benade 1977] Arthur H. Benade. Acoustical Evolution of Wind Instruments — A course (Physics 323) taught by A. H. Benade in the fall of 1977, Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1977, 80 pages and 3 illustrations. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Benade 1990] Arthur H. Benade. Fundamentals of Musical Acoustics, Second, Revised Edition, published by Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1990, 596 pages, ISBN 0-486-26484-X (978-0-486-26484-4), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: FAQ for the Native American Flute, Finger Hole Size

[Benito 2011] Carlos García Benito. “Methodology for the Reconstruction of Prehistoric Aerophones Made of Hard Animal Material, Volume 1”, Actas das IV Jornadas de Jovens em Investigação Arqueológica (JIA 2011), Campus de Cambelas, Universidate do Algarve, Portugal, May 11–13, 2011, published by Tipografia Tavirense, 2011, pages 411–416, ISBN-13 978-989-97666-2-4. Methodology for the Reconstruction of Prehistoric Aerophones Made of Hard Animal Material Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: One of the main problems faced by Music Archaeology is the identification, definition and classification of music in the archaeological record. Several scholars have tried to provide different solutions: Lund (1981), Coumont (2002) and d'Errico & Lawson (2006). Significantly, all suggest the need to use Experimental Archaeology for its empirical reconstruction. This paper proposes a methodology to reconstruct and experimentally replicate prehistoric aerophones made from hard animal material -bone, antler or shell- (but extensible to other types of musical instruments). The application of Experimental Archaeology will help solve many problems inherent to this field of study. An experimentally conscious program, with clear and rigorous objectives, will test hypotheses through experimental reconstruction. The aim is to discern whether certain archaeological remains are musical instruments or not, but also to determine the exact morphology of these (because many finds are fragmentary), their manufacturing process, and to identify their acoustic possibilities. Furthermore, this study will be accompanied by a preliminary morpho-technological study of the handled remains. After the experimentation phase, data is to be correlated with associated archaeological contexts, as well as with other archaeological, historical or ethnographic examples.

[Benjamin 2000] Vernon Benjamin. The Tawagonshi Agreement of 1613 — A Chain of Friendship in the Dutch Hudson Valley, The Bard Center, 2000. The Tawagonshi Agreement of 1613 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Bennett 1930] Jessye E. Bennett. Study of the Music of the Navajo Indians, New York, 1930. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Benson 2006] Dave Benson. “Music: A Mathematical Offering”, published by Cambridge University Press, November 2006, 426 pages, ISBN 0-521-85387-7. See the 531-page online PDF of this book dated December 14, 2008. Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Benward 2003] Bruce Benward and Marilyn Saker. Music: In Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition, published by McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003, 369 pages, ISBN 0-07-295068-4 (978-0-07-294262-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (3)

[Berger 1965] Donald Paul Berger. “The Nohkan: Its Construction and Music”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 9, Number 3, published by the University of Illinois Press, September 1965, pages 221–239. Publication 850235 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: World Flutes

[Berger-R 1983] Rainer Berger. “Direct Bone Dating in a Small CO2 Counter”, Radiocarbon, Volume 25, Number 2, 1983, pages 655–659. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A small 200ml capacity CO2 proportional counting system has been developed which uses only 100mg of carbon for complete filling. Thus, with respect to the small quantities needed, it compares favorably to dedicated accelerators at significantly lower cost. The performance of this equipment is demonstrated using a variety of samples including some human bone fragments from La Jolla which had been estimated to be 28,000 years old by aspartic acid racemization analysis.

[Bergman 2010] Richard Bergman, Zhiyong Cai, Charlie G. Carll, Mark A. Dietenberger, Robert H. Falk, Charles R. Frihart, Samuel V. Glass, Christopher G. Hunt, Rebecca E. Ibach, David E. Kretschmann, Stan T. Lebow, Douglas R. Rammer, Robert J. Ross, Nicole M. Stark, James P. Wacker, Xiping Wang, Robert H. White, Alex C. Wiedenhoeft, Michael C. Wiemann, and Samuel L. Zelinka. Wood Handbook — Wood as an Engineering Material, Centennial Edition, General Technical Report FPL-GTR-190, published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, April 2010, 508 pages. See the Forest Products Laboratory web site. Wood Handbook Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave, FAQ about Crafting Native American Flutes (2)

Abstract: Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

[Berk 2003] Lee S. Berk. “The Impact of Recreational Music-making for Long-Term Care Workers”, Advanced Mind-Body Medicine, Volume 19, Number 3–4, Fall–Winter 2003, page 16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Berlin 2002] Gabriel Berlin and Artur Simon (editors). Music Archiving in the World, Papers Presented at the Conference on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, published by VWB - Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, Berlin, 2002, 520 pages, ISBN 3-86135-681-3, hardcover book with audio CD. See the publisher web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This book contains articles by 66 authors who are concerned with the documentation and archival of music and dance. The contributions come from 31 countries from all over the world. In the first section of the book, general recent issues in sound archiving are discussed, such as the significance of archive recordings in modern societies and concepts behind the digitisation of historic sound recordings. The second part gives an insight into the unique qualities of regional and national music archives, not only in industrial metropolises but also in lesser-known places such as Cerreto di Spoleto in the Italian province of Umbria or Port Vila in the South Seas republic of Vanuatu.

The articles were presented as papers at the international conference held on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv in September, 2000, in Berlin, Germany. One of the oldest music archives in existence, the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv currently contains the largest collections of music and musical instruments in the world. It was here that the scholarly discipline of comparative musicology, or ethnomusicology, originated about one hundred years ago. Because of its unique collections, the archive has been included in the UNESCO "Memory of the World" Register.

[Berman 2001] Marvin H. Berman. EEG Biofeedback Training for Children Seen in the Public Mental Health System with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Quietmind Foundation internal report, November 28, 2001, retrieved May 29, 2012. See the Microsoft Word file from the Quietmind Foundation website Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A pilot study of sixty children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from within the public mental health outpatient and residential care systems was designed to assess the efficacy of two protocols of brainwave biofeedback or neurofeedback (NFB) as a means for reducing the complex of symptoms associated with this disorder. Thirty-nine subjects (32 treatment and 7 control) completed in the assessment and training protocol. The treatment consisted of forty, thirty-minute twice weekly sessions of brainwave biofeedback training. Based on studies indicating anomalous brainwave frequency profiles of ADHD as compared to normal children. The objective of this study was either to reduce the overall amplitude of brainwave activity across the full brainwave spectrum (.5-30hz) or to selectively increase one frequency band (beta 13-22hz) while decreasing another (theta 4-7hz) in order to create a frequency profile similar to children without ADHD symptoms. Pre and post measures of nonverbal intelligence, attention, and distractibility were gathered to assess the impact of the training. No adverse events ocurred during this study related to brainwave biofeedback training. Significant improvement in non-verbal intelligence was noted for the treatment group and not the controls. Positive trends were noted based on neuropsychological assessment data indicating improved executive functioning and for reduced hyperactivity for the treatment group and not controls that were supported by parent observation measures of ADHD symptoms. Finally, post hoc review of mental health service utilization by participants in this study showed a reduction in the need for other more expensive treatment modalities including individual and family therapy.

[Bernard 1929] Harry Bernard. “Musical Instrument”, United States Patent 1,703,382, Granted February 26, 1929, 4 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Musical Instrument Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Bernardi 2001] Luciano Bernardi, Peter Sleight, Gabriele Bandinelli, Simone Cencetti, Lamberto Fattorini, Johanna Wdowczyc-Szulc, and Alfonso Lagi. “Effect of Rosary Prayer and Yoga Mantras on Autonomic Cardiovascular Rhythms: Comparative Study”, British Medical Journal, Volume 323, December 22–29, 2001, pages 1446–1449. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: To test whether rhythmic formulas such as the rosary and yoga mantras can synchronise and reinforce inherent cardiovascular rhythms and modify baroreflex sensitivity.
Design: Comparison of effects of recitation of the Ave Maria (in Latin) or of a mantra, during spontaneous and metronome controlled breathing, on breathing rate and on spontaneous oscillations in RR interval, and on blood pressure and cerebral circulation.
Setting: Florence and Pavia, Italy.
Participants: 23 healthy adults.
Main outcome measures: Breathing rate, regularity of breathing, baroreflex sensitivity, frequency of cardiovascular oscillations.
Results: Both prayer and mantra caused striking, powerful, and synchronous increases in existing cardiovascular rhythms when recited six times a minute. Baroreflex sensitivity also increased significantly, from 9.5 (SD 4.6) to 11.5 (4.9) ms/mm Hg, P<0.05.
Conclusion: Rhythm formulas that involve breathing at six breaths per minute induce favourable psychological and possibly physiological effects.

[Bernardini 2010] Nicola Bernardini. The Role of Physical Impedance Matching in Music Playing, Sound is Motion Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, February 11, 2010, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bernheimer 1924] Charles L. Bernheimer. Rainbow Bridge — Circling Navajo Mountain and Explorations in the "Bad Lands" of Southern Utah and Northern Arizona, First Edition, published by Doubleday, Page and Company, Garden City, New York, 1924, 182 pages. Publication rainbowbridgecir013405mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (2), The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Bernotas 2008] Rivo Bernotas. “Dendrodates of Three Medieval Latrines of Tartu”, Estonian Journal of Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 1, in English and Estonian, 2008, pages 16–29, doi:10.3176/arch.2008.1.02 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Medieval Recorder

Abstract: In the article dendrodates of three latrines in Tartu (15 Ülikooli Street, latrines 1b and 5, and 14 Ülikooli Street, latrine 14G-14F) are viewed and they are compared with other archaeological findings. Latrine 1b dates back to the year 1335, latrine 5 to the year 1309 and latrine 14G-14F to the year 1362. The research is unique in northern Europe, because the specifics of medieval waste management are viewed using exact dating. As a result of the research, it was found out that the latrines were used at least 40 years and that the theories of emptying latrines starting not before early modern times are not true.

[Berntson 1997] Gary G. Berntson, Thomas Bigger, Jr., Dwain L. Eckberg, Paul Grossman, Peter G. Kaufmann, Marek Malik, Haikady N. Nagaraja, Stephen W. Porges, J. Philip Saul, Peter H. Stone, and Maurits W. Van Der Molen. “Heart Rate Variability: Origins, Methods, and Interpretive Caveats”, Psychophysiology, Volume 34, Number 6, published by Cambridge University Press, 1997, pages 623–648, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1997.tb02140.x. Publication 9401419 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Components of heart rate variability have attracted considerable attention in psychology and medicine and have become important dependent measures in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability, however, remain complex issues and are fraught with pitfalls. The present report (a) examines the physiological origins and mechanisms of heart rate variability, (b) considers quantitative approaches to measurement, and (c) highlights important caveats in the interpretation of heart rate variability. Summary guidelines for research in this area are outlined, and suggestions and prospects for future developments are considered.

[Berry 1999] Wendell Berry. The Selected Poems of Wendell Berry, published by Counterpoint Press, 1999, 192 pages, ISBN 1-58243-037-3 (978-1-58243-037-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Poetry for the Native American Flute, Poetry and Readings for Memorial Services

[Berteling 1868] Theodore Berteling. “Improvement in Flutes”, United States Patent 76,389, Granted April 7, 1868, 2 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Improvement in Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Bertschinger 2007] Dimiter Robert Bertschinger, Efstratios Mendrinos, and André Dosso. “Yoga Can be Dangerous—Glaucomatous Visual Field Defect Worsening Due to Postural Yoga”, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 91, Number 10, October 2007, pages 1413–1414, doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.114546. Publication 17895421 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The relationship between the head-down body position and increased IOP is well known. We present a 46-year old woman who presented with a worsening of glaucomatous visual field defects one year after starting to perform regularly a particular postural headstand yoga exercise, reversible after cessation of the exercise.

In 10 non-yoga-practising volunteers intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by Tono-Pen in sitting and immediately after assuming a headstand position. A more than twofold increase of the IOP was measured in the headstand position. Therefore postural (head-down) yoga exercises are clearly not recommended for patients suffering from glaucoma.

[Bessaraboff 1941] Nicholas Bessaraboff. Ancient Wuropean Musical Instruments, 1941. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Bettermann 2002] H. Bettermann, D. von Bonin, M. Frühwirth, D. Cysarz, M. Moser. “Effects of Speech Therapy with Poetry on Heart Rate Rhythmicity and Cardiorespiratory Coordination”, International Journal of Cardiology, Volume 84, Number 1, July 2002, pages 77–88. Publication 12104068 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Our objective was to study the effects of guided rhythmic speech with poetry, referred to as anthroposophical therapeutic speech (ATS), on binary differential heart rate dynamics (also called musical heart rate rhythmicity or HRR) as well as on classical spectral parameters during the 15 min after a speech exercise had ended. A total of 105 1-h sessions with speech or control exercises were performed in seven healthy subjects, with 15 sessions each. Heart rate was recorded with ambulatory solid state recorders. Sessions were divided into a 15-min baseline measurement (S1), 30 min of exercise and a 15-min effect measurement (S2). The overall binary pattern predominance (PP) as well as the frequency of predominant and cyclically recurrent cardiorespiratory phase locking patterns were calculated from HRR and their changes from S1 to S2 were compared with the changes in low and high frequency heart rate variability. The results showed that: (i) ATS provokes alterations in heart rate dynamics which are different from those after control exercises and which persist at least for 15 min following exercise; (ii) in comparison to spectral parameters of heart rate variability, pattern predominance discloses the effects of rhythmic speech exercises best; and (iii) cardiorespiratory phase locking patterns, which contribute most to the rhythm pattern predominance, are more prominent after ATS.

[Beyhom 2008] Amine Beyhom. “A New Hypothesis for the Elaboration of Heptatonic Scales and Consequences in Understanding their Origins”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 151–209. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The reason for having eight notes in one octave is an arbitrary concept. There are diverging explanations but none is satisfactory. The first part of this paper offers another view based on the author’s theory of Modal Systematics, where basic principles are explained. The second part is a statistical analysis on the combination of intervals within the span of the just fourth, fifth and of the octave. The conclusion proposes two hypotheses, the first on the elaboration of the heptatonic scale and the second on the origins of heptatonism.

[Bhat-N 1999] N. Bhat and K. Bhat. “Anger Control Using Biofeedback: A Clinical Model for Heart Patients”, Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 4, 1999, pages 15–17. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bhattacharya 1999] Deben Bhattacharya. Folksongs and Sacred Music from Nepal, Arc Music, EUCD 1517, 15 tracks, August 24, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia (2)

Review by Bruno Deschênes on AllMusic.com: Nepal has a diversified music. On the one hand, raga music (an influence from India) is considered their national art, while folk music is regional and is related to the different ethnic people of Nepal. Except for two excerpts of raga pieces ("Basant" and "Ramkali"), this CD presents a sampling of the folk and sacred music of Nepal. In fact, religious and folk music are closely tied to the music of the Himalayas. There are also farming, seasonal, heroic songs, and dances, but with religious characters underlying them. Despite India's influence on their music, they have very few instruments: the Nepalese Sarangi, the Basuri (the Nepalese version of the Indian Bansuri, a bamboo transverse flute), the Bai (a straight wooden flute), and the Ponga (a long copper horn), plus a good number of percussion instruments (such as drums, cymbals, and more), which will vary, depending on the ethnic people a song or dance comes from. A most pleasing and enchanting music.

[Bhattacharya 2004] Deben Bhattacharya. Bedouins of the Middle East — Field Recordings by Deben Bhattacharya (1955, 1960), Arc Music, EUCD1910, 14 tracks, 2004, total time 53:38, ASIN B00BURMREO Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of the Middle East

Publisher's description: Field recordings made in 1955 and 1960 by ethnomusicologist Deben Bhattacharya. Recorded in Bedouin camps in the desert no-man’s land between Jordan and Iraq. Communal coffee grinding and drinking ritual in the tents after sundown. Pictures and an excerpt from Bhattacharya’s journal, plus extensive notes about music and instruments in four languages.

[Bhattacharya 2013] Deben Bhattacharya. The Music of Uzbekistan — Field Recordings by Deben Bhattacharya, Arc Music, EUCD2438, 14 tracks, 2013, total time 54:55, ASIN B00ARWDS4Q Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia (2)

Publisher's description: Uzbekistan was the half-way point of the fabled "Silk Road" from the Mediterranean to Xian in China. The music which was recorded in 1970 in Tashkent by ethnomusicologist Deben Bhattacharya, recalls the ancient oriental beauty and mystery. Traditional instruments: chang, (dulcimer), rubab (lute), dutar (lute), ney (flute), doira (frame drum) and more.

[Bhave 2010] Swati Y. Bhave and Sunil Saini (editors). The AHA-Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases, published by Anamaya Publishers, New Delhii, India, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bhayro 2008] Siam Bhayro. “Ancient Near Eastern and Early Jewish Lyre Traditions”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 77–82. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bhayro 2010] Siam Bhayro. “On the Manipulation of the Planets by the Lyre Player in a 'Wine Song' by Khamis Bar Qardahe”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 41–44, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[BIA 2010] Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 190, published by the Federal Register Online, October 1, 2010, pages 60810–60814. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Native American Indian Tribal Maps, Native American Flute - Honoring the Tradition, Tribal Identification

Abstract: This notice publishes the current list of 564 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes.

[BIA 2010a] Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. Supplement to Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Volume 75, Number 207, published by the Federal Register Online, October 27, 2010, page 66124. Supplement to Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Native American Flute - Honoring the Tradition, Native American Indian Tribal Maps, Tribal Identification

Abstract: This notice supplements the list of ‘‘Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs,’’ published in the Federal Register on October 1, 2010, and announces that, as of October 1, 2010, the Shinnecock Indian Nation is an Indian entity recognized and eligible to receive services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).

[Biamonte 2010] Nicole Biamonte. “Triadic, Modal, and Pentatonic Patterns in Rock Music”, Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 32, Number 2, Fall 2010, pages 95–110, doi:10.1525/mts.2010.32.2.95 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The pitch syntax of mainstream rock music comprises a variety of tonal, modal, blues-based and chromatic elements. Traditional constructs of scale-degree theory and harmonic functionality, while originally pertaining to art music, can be usefully modified to address elements of rock music that do not conform to tonal norms, particularly when these elements are considered in conjunction with other musical parameters such as rhythm, hypermeter, texture, consonance, and contour. This study examines the context and function of some harmonic structures unique to rock music that cannot be interpreted in conventional tonal terms: double-plagal and Aeolian progressions, and triad-doubled scale systems.

[Bickerton 1987] R. C. Bickerton and G. S. Barr. “The Origin of the Tuning Fork”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 80, December 1987, pages 771–773. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bier 2004] Lisa Bier. American Indian and African American People, Communities, and Interactions: An Annotated Bibliography, Bibliographies and Indexes in American History Series, published by Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport CT, June 30, 2004, 288 pages, ISBN 0-313-32347-X (978-0-313-32347-8), hardcover, doi:10.1336/031332347X. Library of Congress call number 2003068989. See the Praeger Publishers web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bierhorst 1974] John Bierhorst; Joe Servello (pictures). Songs of the Chippewa/Adapted from the Collections of Frances Densmore and Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, and Arranged for Piano and Guitar, First Edition (song book), published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, in Chippewa and English, 1974, 47 pages, ISBN 0-374-37145-8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bierhorst 1979] John Bierhorst. A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians, published by Four Winds Press, 1979, 113 pages, ISBN 0-590-07533-0 (978-0-590-07533-6), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bierhorst 1979a] John Bierhorst (producer, editor). A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians, Folkways Records, FA 37777, 11 bands, 33 songs, 1979, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Reissued in [Bierhorst 1992a] and [Bierhorst 2006]. Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

56 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (28), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (28)

[Bierhorst 1992] John Bierhorst. A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians, Illustrated Paperback Edition, published by Ancient City Press, New Mexico, May 1992, 113 pages, ISBN 0-941270-53-X (978-0-941270-53-3), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bierhorst 1992a] John Bierhorst (producer, editor). A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians, Folkways Records, 37777, 33 bands, 1992, audio cassette. Reissue of [Bierhorst 1979a]; Reissued in [Bierhorst 2006]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

52 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (26), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (26)

[Bierhorst 2006] John Bierhorst (producer, editor). A Cry from the Earth: Music of the North American Indians, Smithsonian / Folkways, FA 37777, 33 tracks, 2006, UPC 0-93073-77772-6, ASIN B00242VZ2Y, audio CD. Source archive: Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. Reissue of [Bierhorst 1979a]. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

60 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (30), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (30)

Liner notes: This album is representative of the vast variety of American Indian music found across the United States and Canada. A complement to the book of the same name by John Bierhorst, this collection delineates the different regional musical styles in North America (including The Northwestern Coast, The Great Basin, The Plains, and the Eastern Woodlands) and explores the close relationship between music and culture.

[Bimboni 1917] Alberto Bimboni (1882–1960). Songs of the American Indians, published by G. Schirmer, New York, 1917, ASIN B0000CT8B8. Yale call number Zc12 +917bi. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Binder 1992] T. Binder, B. Frey, G. Porenta, G. Heinz, M. Wutte, G. Kreiner, H. Gössinger, H. Schmidinger, R. Pacher, H. Weber. “Prognostic Value of Heart Rate Variability in Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation”, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Volume 15, Number 11, Part 2, November 1992, pages 2215–2220. Publication 1279628 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined in patients with severe endstage heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation (HTX). These parameters were then correlated with mortality to investigate the performance of HRV in discriminating between groups with high and low risk of death. The standard deviation of five consecutive RR intervals (SDANN) was found to be the parameter with the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (91%). Patients with SDANN values of < 55 msec had a twenty-fold increased risk of death (90% confidence limits: 4-118, P < 0.001). The results furthermore suggest that measurements of HRV are superior to other prognostic markers such as left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, cardiac index, and serum sodium levels. We conclude that HRV is a powerful, noninvasive tool to assess the risk of death in candidates for HTX. HRV measurements can therefore be used as a supplement to other markers of risk to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

[Biolsi 2004] Thomas Biolsi (editor). A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians, Blackwell Companions to Anthropology, published by Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachussets, 2004, 593 pages, ISBN 0-631-22686-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Birkett 2002] Stephen Birkett and Paul Poletti. “Reproduction of Authentic Historical Soft Iron Wire for Musical Instruments”, Instruments a claviers – expressivite et flexibilite sonore, Proceedings of the 2002 Harmoniques Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland, editors: Peter Lang, 2002. Reproduction of Authentic Historical Soft Iron Wire for Musical Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bishko 2012] Andrew Markus Bishko; Tom McCune (illustrations). First Lessons Native American Flute: How to Sit on a Rock, published by Mel Bay, 2012, 60 pages, ISBN 1-61911-303-1 (978-1-61911-303-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bittman 2001] Barry B. Bittman, Lee S. Berk, David L. Felte, James Westengard, O. Carl Simonton, James Pappas, and Melissa Ninehouser. “Composite Effects of Group Drumming Music Therapy on Modulation of Neuroendocrine-Immune Parameters in Normal Subjects”, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, Volume 7, Number 1, January 2001, pages 38–47. Publication 11191041 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Context: Drum circles have been part of healing rituals in many cultures throughout the world since antiquity. Although drum circles are gaining increased interest as a complementary therapeutic strategy in the traditional medical arena, limited scientific data documenting biological benefits associated with percussion activities exist.
Objective: To determine the role of group-drumming music therapy as a composite activity with potential for alteration of stress-related hormones and enhancement of specific immunologic measures associated with natural killer cell activity and cell-mediated immunity.
Design: A single trial experimental intervention with control groups.
Setting: The Mind-Body Wellness Center, an outpatient medical facility in Meadville, Pa.
Participants: A total of 111 age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects (55 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 30.4 years) were recruited.
Intervention: Six preliminary supervised groups were studied using various control and experimental paradigms designed to separate drumming components for the ultimate determination of a single experimental model, including 2 control groups (resting and listening) as well as 4 group-drumming experimental models (basic, impact, shamanic, and composite). The composite drumming group using a music therapy protocol was selected based on preliminary statistical analysis, which demonstrated immune modulation in a direction opposite to that expected with the classical stress response. The final experimental design included the original composite drumming group plus 50 additional age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects who were randomly assigned to participate in group drumming or control sessions.
Main Outcome Measures: Pre- and postintervention measurements of plasma cortisol, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-to-cortisol ratio, natural killer cell activity, lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, plasma interleukin-2, plasma interferon-gamma, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II.
Results: Group drumming resulted in increased dehydroepiandrosterone-to-cortisol ratios, increased natural killer cell activity, and increased lymphokine-activated killer cell activity without alteration in plasma interleukin 2 or interferon-gamma, or in the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory II.
Conclusion: Drumming is a complex composite intervention with the potential to modulate specific neuroendocrine and neuroimmune parameters in a direction opposite to that expected with the classic stress response.

[Bittman 2003] B. Bittman, K. T. Bruhn, C. Stevens, J. Westengard, and P. O. Umbach. “Recreational Music-making: A Cost-Effective Group Interdisciplinary Strategy for Reducing Burnout and Improving Mood States in Long-Term Care Workers — Insights and Potential Economic Impact”, Advanced Mind-Body Medicine, Volume 19, Number 3–4, Fall–Winter 2003, pages 4–15. Publication 14686266 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objectives: This controlled, prospective, randomized study examined the clinical and potential economic impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions, as well as on Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in an interdisciplinary group of long-term care workers.
Methods: A total of 112 employees participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on building support, communication, and interdisciplinary respect utilizing group drumming and keyboard accompaniment. Changes in burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Cost savings were projected by an independent consulting firm, which developed an economic impact model.
Results: Statistically-significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD scores, were noted. Economic-impact analysis projected cost savings of $89,100 for a single typical 100-bed facility, with total annual potential savings to the long-term care industry of $1.46 billion.
Conclusions: A cost-effective, 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions, as well as TMD, in long-term care workers.

[Bittman 2003a] Barry Bittman. “Asthma: Musical Instruments as Medical Instruments”, Texas Bandmasters Association Journal, Volume 4, Number 2, January/February 2003, 2 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bittman 2004] Barry B. Bittman, Cherie Snyder, Karl T. Bruhn, Fran Liebfreid, Christine K. Stevens, James Westengard, and Paul O. Umbach. “Recreational Music-making: An Integrative Group Intervention for Reducing Burnout and Improving Mood States in First Year Associate Degree Nursing Students: Insights and Economic Impact”, International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, Volume 1, Number 1, Article 12, 2004. Publication 16646877 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The challenges of providing exemplary undergraduate nursing education cannot be underestimated in an era when burnout and negative mood states predictably lead to alarming rates of academic as well as career attrition. While the multi-dimensional nature of this complex issue has been extensively elucidated, few rational strategies exist to reverse a disheartening trend recognizable early in the educational process that subsequently threatens to undermine the future viability of quality healthcare. This controlled prospective crossover study examined the impact of a 6-session Recreational Music-making (RMM) protocol on burnout and mood dimensions as well as Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) in first year associate level nursing students. A total of 75 first year associate degree nursing students from Allegany College of Maryland (ACM) participated in a 6-session RMM protocol focusing on group support and stress reduction utilizing a specific group drumming protocol. Burnout and mood dimensions were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Profile of Mood States respectively. Statistically significant reductions of multiple burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD scores were noted. Potential annual cost savings for the typical associate degree nursing program (16,800 dollars) and acute care hospital (322,000 dollars) were projected by an independent economic analysis firm. A cost-effective 6-session RMM protocol reduces burnout and mood dimensions as well as TMD in associate degree nursing students.

[Bittman 2005] Barry Bittman, Lee Berk, Mark Shannon, Muhammad Sharaf, Jim Westengard, Karl J. Guegler, and David W. Ruff. “Recreational Music-Making Modulates the Human Stress Response: A Preliminary Individualized Gene Expression Strategy”, Medical Science Monitor, Volume 11, Number 2, February 2005, pages BR31–BR40. Publication 15668624 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Recreational Music-Making Modulates the Human Stress Response Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: A central component of the complex human biological stress response is the modulation of the neuro-endocrine-immune system with its intricate feedback loops that support homeostatic regulation. Well-documented marked gene expression variability among human and animal subjects coupled with sample collection timing and delayed effects, as well as a host of molecular detection challenges renders the quest for deciphering the human biological stress response challenging from many perspectives.
Material / Methods: A novel Recreational Music-Making (RMM) program was used in combination with a new strategy for peripheral blood gene expression analysis to assess individualized genomic stress induction signatures. The expression of 45 immune response-related genes was determined using a multiplex preamplification step prior to conventional quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) mRNA analysis to characterize the multidimensional biological impact of a 2-phase controlled stress induction/amelioration experimental protocol in 32 randomly assigned individuals.
Results: In subjects performing the RMM activity following a 1-hour stress induction protocol, 19 out of 45 markers demonstrated reversal with significant (P = 0.05) Pearson correlations in contrast to 6 out of 45 markers in the resting control group and 0 out of 45 in the ongoing stressor group.
Conclusions: The resultant amelioration of stress-induced genomic expression supports the underlying premise that RMM warrants additional consideration as a rational choice within our armamentarium of stress reduction strategies. Modulation of individualized genomic stress induction signatures in peripheral blood presents a new opportunity for elucidating the dynamics of the human stress response.

[Bjorkman 2016] Rosemary Bjorkman. Between a Rock and a Hard Place — Establishing the Ownership of the Range Creek Flute under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, The 35th Great Basin Anthropological Conference, Reno, Nevada, October 5–8, 2016, October 7, 2016. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P, The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

Abstract: In the fall of 2006, a unique Elderberry flute was discovered in a rock crevice high on a cliff wall of Range Creek Canyon, near Price, Utah. Dating of the sand lying directly underneath the artifact by thermal luminescence indicated a date within the Fremont occupation of Range Creek Canyon. The intent of this poster is to explore the claims made by the Ute, Navajo, Paiute and Hopi tribes for repatriation of the artifact as they relate to Section 10.6 of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Although it is not possible to positively identify the original owner, statistical comparisons of morphological and technical features of the Range Creek Flute with the same features of ancestral and historical Ute, Anasazi, Hopi, and Navaho flutes in existing collections have the potential to indicate which tribe has the strongest claim for repatriation.

[BlackBear 1976] Ben Black Bear and R. D. Theisz. Songs and Dances of the Lakota, Volume 1, North Plains Press, 1976, 137 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Blacker 1978] Carmen Blacker (1924–2009). Review of Zen and the Ways, Asian Affairs, Volume 9, Issue 3, 1978, pages 330–354, doi:10.1080/03068377808729912 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Blacker 2013] Carmen Blacker. Collected Writings of Carmen Blacker, 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[BlackHawk 1834] Black Hawk; J. B. Patterson (editor). Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk — Dictated by Himself, published by Russell, Odiorne, & Metcalf, Boston, 1834, 155 pages, retrieved December 27, 2009. Reissued in [BlackHawk 1975] Life of Black Hawk — Dictated by Himself. Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

Description of the Rare Book Gallery of the Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville: This first edition of Blackhawk’s autobiography would be especially useful in discussions of Midwestern history, Native American history, and American literature. The book’s original material form is revealing because the book evinces a multi-layering of orality, translation, and textuality. The frontispiece of Black Hawk pictures a man caught between Anglo and Native American cultures, and is representative of his need to communicate cross-culturally even while his body and text undergo a process of assimilation and essentialism. In this frontispiece, Black Hawk acts as the representative of all Native American experience. The text is introduced with several official statements of authenticity from white officials and translators followed by Black Hawk’s own dedication of the text to Brigadier General H. Atkinson, his captor, written in Sauk and then translated for white audiences. The text embodies the ways in which print, as the primary mode of Anglo communication and certification, attempted to fossilize Native American existence in the mid-nineteenth-century.

[BlackHawk 1975] Black Hawk; J. B. Patterson (editor). Life of Black Hawk — Dictated by Himself, published by the Ye Galleon Press, January 1975, 155 pages, ISBN 0-87770-137-7 (978-0-87770-137-8). Reissue of [BlackHawk 1834] Life of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak or Black Hawk — Dictated by Himself. Life of Black Hawk (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Blake 2008] Elizabeth C. Blake and Ian Cross. “Flint Tools as Portable Sound-Producing Objects in the Upper Palaeolithic Context: An Experimental Study”, contained in [Cunningham 2008], 2008, pages 1–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Blanc 2010] François Blanc, Benoît Fabre, Nicolas Montgermont, Patricio De La Cuadra, and André Almeida. “Scaling of Flute-Like Instruments: An Analysis from the Point Of View of the Hydrodynamic Instability of the Jet”, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Volume 96, Number 4, July/August 2010, pages 642–653, doi:10.3813/AAA.918319 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flute Crafting Dimensions

Abstract: The scaling of a family of five baroque recorders is studied considering two aspects: the compass of each instrument and the control parameters. The observations are interpreted in terms of the homogeneity of the timbre. The control parameters are measured on an experienced player performing a simple scale task on each of the instruments, and are described in the frame of the hydrodynamic jet behaviour.

On the family studied, the geometrical parameters appear to be adjusted so that the control parameters are similar on all the instruments. Low-pitched instruments present an enrichment of their spectra in high frequencies.

[Blasdel 2008] Christopher Yohmei Blasdel and Kamisango Yuko. The Shakuhachi: A Manual for Learning, Second Edition, published by Printed Matter Press, 2008, 200 pages, ISBN 1-933606-15-0 (978-1-933606-15-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Comprehensive Scale Catalog: Five-Tone Scales in Equal Temperament (4)

[Blench 2007] Roger Blench. Using Ethnography to Reconstruct the Culture of Early Modern Humans, December 11, 2007, 31 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It is now widely accepted that modern humans evolved in Africa and that they spread out of Africa around 100,000 years ago. Moreover, they displaced hominids who then populated the Old World so effectively that by ca. 30,000 BP these had been eliminated. The balance of opinion is that there was no genetic interchange between modern Sapiens populations and the resident Homo erectus. It is widely, though less formally, accepted that the reason for this dominance is cultural, that the incomers had the technology, the social organisation and religious belief systems that enabled them to out-think the hominids. It has been proposed, for example, that modern humans had language which enabled them to organise in novel ways. Many of these assumptions are unprovable by standard archaeological methods. In recent years, finds from Southern and Eastern Africa have begun to underpin notions about the elaboration of the culture of modern humans. We have, for example, harpoon points, bone needles, and more strikingly, intentionally incised bone and rock at Blombos cave, striking evidence of ‘behavioural modernity’. In other words, our estimates of the complexity of the culture of modern humans is constantly increasing. Nonetheless, there is much about the culture of early modern humans that can never be constructed from the archaeological record. Many materials rarely preserve and particular aspects of social and cultural life cannot be reconstructed with confidence. However, this paper will propose a wholly different method of attributing elements of culture to modern humans, using ethnographic reconstruction based on the world-wide distributions of material and social culture. By re-interpreting the evidence for the distribution of culture traits we can develop hypotheses concerning the non-archaeological culture of early modern humans before and after the dispersal out of Africa. The paper discusses the nature of evidence, the pattern of cultural bottlenecks and also some possible candidates for worldwide cultural traits.

[Blench 2004] Roger Blench. Reconstructing African Music History: Methods and Results, Conference of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAFA), Tuscon, Arizona, May 17–21, 2002, December 12, 2004, 18 pages, retrieved April 14, 2014. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Both African musical instruments and musical structures form continent-wide patterns, although there have been few attempts to link to these to reconstructions of prehistory. A large database of information on present-day societies and a new appreciation of linguistic evolution makes it possible to correlate these with other sources of prehistory. The paper examines two examples in detail: the history of the arched harp, typical of Uganda and the Nile region, and the polyphonic wind ensembles found from Burkina Faso to Mozambique. It builds on ethnographic results to show how models of music history may be linked to linguistic groupings and archaeological cultures.

[Blench 2012] Roger Blench. Theory, Methods and Results in the Reconstruction of African Music History, October 8, 2012, 25 pages, retrieved December 15, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The reconstruction of the prehistory of African musical instruments and musical structures has barely begun, despite the importance of music in African culture in the present. The paper reviews the sources of information for the history of music in Sub-Saharan Africa with examples from direct finds, iconography and text sources. If the claimed flute fragment at Haua Fteah is accepted, it may predate modern humans, which would be of considerable significance for claims about early cognitive capacity. Due to the richness of the material, and the fact that little of it is relevant to other parts of the continent, Egypt is generally excluded from this study. If diverse sources of evidence can be combined with the rich ethnographic record, then it is possible to reconstruct large-scale patterns, both of the spread of instruments and the distribution of musical practices. A methodological example of how such data integration would work is given; the reconstruction of polyphonic wind ensembles, a musical form characteristic of Sub-Saharan Africa from Burkina Faso to Mozambique. This has the particular interest of being identifiable in Saharan rock art. The evidence suggests that archaeologists may not be identifying musical instrument fragments in their excavations and the combination of ethnography and other sources allows us to explore a much broader range of culture history than is usually recognised.

[Bliss X] Marilyn Bliss (born 1954). Phantom Breeze — for Solo Native American Flute, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Zalo / JP-Publications. See the James Pellerite web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The "Phantoms" refer to the notes E and G#, not usually in the traditional scale of the g-min. flute; melodic expression is borne by the wind as the spirit, communicating through its natural channel, the flute.

[Bliven 2003] Steve Bliven. “A Mandan Flute Legend and Song”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2003, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2003, pages 14–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Narratives of the Native American Flute

[Bloch 1925] Ernest Bloch (1880–1959). America, an Epic Rhapsody in Three Parts — for orchestra, published by C.C. Birchard, New York, 1928. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bloechl 2008] Olivia Ashley Bloechl. Native American Song at the Frontiers of Early Modern Music, New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism, Volume 17, published by Cambridge University Press, 2008, 279 pages, ISBN 0-521-86605-7 (978-0-521-86605-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Olivia A. Bloechl reconceives the history of French and English music from the sixteenth through to the eighteenth century from the perspective of colonial history. She demonstrates how encounters with Native American music in the early years of colonization changed the course of European music history. Colonial wealth provided for sumptuous and elite musical display, and American musical practices, materials, and ideas fed Europeans' taste for exoticism, as in the masques, ballets, and operas discussed here. The gradual association of Native American song with derogatory stereotypes of musical 'savagery' pressed Europeans to distinguish their own music as civilized and rational. Drawing on evidence from a wide array of musical, linguistic, and visual sources, this book demonstrates that early American colonization shaped European music cultures in fundamental ways, and it offers a fresh, politically and transculturally informed approach to the study of music in the early colonial Atlantic world.

[Blood 2011] Brian Blood (webmaster). Dolmetsch Online, 2011. See the Web Site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

24 citations: Meter for Native American Flutes (3), Glossary of Native American Flute Terms (10), Ornaments on the Native American Flute (11)

Web site description: Extensive music resources of the Dolmetsch Organisation, which has been making and selling early musical instruments for over one hundred years.

[Blouin 2011] Melissa Lutz Blouin. Raiders of the Lost Arkansas, University of Arkansas Research Notes, Fall 2011. Raiders of the Lost Arkansas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Breckenridge Flute (2)

[Bludts 1999] Carl Bludts. The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book), published by RabbitDog Publishing, Louisville, Kentucky, 1999, 34 pages, comb binding and audio CD. Reissued in [Bludts 2004]. Contains 20 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

26 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (13), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (13)

[Bludts 2000] Carl Bludts. Feathered Pipe Memories — Solos for Native American Flute (song book), published by RabbitDog Publishing, Louisville, Kentucky, 2000, 37 pages, comb binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger charts, CD included. Reissued in [Bludts 2006]. Contains 14 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Ten citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Poetry for the Native American Flute, Readings and Quotations on Music, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Bludts 2003] Carl Bludts. The 7th Direction — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book), published by Blue Cat Publishing, 2003, 59 pages, comb binding. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Fourteen citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (7), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (7)

[Bludts 2004] Carl Bludts. The Four Directions — Traditional and Original Compositions for Native American Flute (song book), published by The Oregon Flute Store, 2004, 38 pages, comb binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger charts, CD included. Reissue of [Bludts 1999]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bludts 2006] Carl Bludts. Feathered Pipe Memories — Solos for Native American Flute (song book), published by The Oregon Flute Store, 2006, 34 pages, comb binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger charts, CD included. Reissue of [Bludts 2000]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Blundell 2004] Geoffrey Blundell. Nqabayo's Nomansland: San Rock Art and the Somatic Past, Studies in Global Archaeology 2, published by the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, 2004, 204 pages, ISBN 91-973212-0-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The most significant challenge facing modern southern African rock art research is the integration of rock paintings into the construction of San history. This challenge is made all the more difficult because of poor chronological control over the images. In the absence of reliable dating techniques, the challenge to interdigitate image and history becomes a profoundly theoretical one. Drawing on theoretical studies of body and embodiment, this work takes up the challenge of incorporating rock paintings into the production of the past.

Primarily concerned with a small area, previously known as Nomansland, in the south-eastern mountains of South Africa, the work uses embodiment as a tool for extending present interpretations of the art before moving on to arguing that a focus on body allows us to detect change in certain images in Nomansland. Finally, embodiment is used to re-evaluate present understandings of the social consumption of the paintings.

In using embodiment to investigate issues of meaning, change and the production and consumption of San rock art, it becomes clear that this theoretical concept offers a way of incorporating rock paintings into the writing of San history in Nomansland. This work, then, contributes to the broader field of southern African San historiography, where the question of San interaction with other peoples is sometimes treated too simply and in a manner that is not consistent with broader postcolonial writing.

[Blundell 2006] Geoffrey Blundell. “Origins: The Story of the Emergence of Humans and Humanity in Africa”. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[BNL 1999] Brookhaven National Laboratory. Brookhaven Lab Expert Helps Date Flute Thought to be Oldest Playable Musical Instrument — Bone Flute Found in China at 9,000-year-old Neolithic Site, September 22, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boardman 1848] David Boardman. “Organ-Pipe”, United States Patent 5,520, Granted April 18, 1848, 2 pages, retrieved October 13, 2010. Organ-Pipe Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Organ Pipes and the Native American Flute, Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Boas 1888] Franz Boas (1858–1942). “The Central Eskimo”, Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1884-'85, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1888, pages 409–669, retrieved March 15, 2010. Publication annualreportofbu618841885smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 20 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Lead paragraph of the introduction: The following account of the Central Eskimo contains chiefly the results of the author's own observations and collections made during a journey to Cumberland Sound and Davis Strait, supplemented by extracts from the reports of other travelers. The geographical results of this journey have been published in a separate volume. A few traditions which were considered unsuitable for publication by the Bureau of Ethnology may be found in the Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologic und Urgeschichte, 1887. The linguistic material collected during the journey will be published separately.

[Boas 1888a] Franz Boas. “On Certain Songs and Dances of the Kwakiutl of British Columbia”, The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 1, Boston and New York, 1888, pages 49–64. Contains 4 songs. On Certain Songs and Dances of the Kwakiutl of British Columbia Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Boas 1888b] Franz Boas. “Poetry and Music of Some North American Tribes”, The Swiss Cross, Volume 2, New York, pages 146–148. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boas 1888c] Franz Boas. “Chinook Songs”, Journal of American.Folk-lore, Volume 1, Number 3, Boston and New York, 1888, pages 220–226. Contains 3 songs. Chinook Songs Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Boas 1891] Franz Boas. “Second General Report on the Indians of British Columbia”, British Association of the Advancement of Science, Report of the sixtieth meeting, London, 1891, pages 562–715. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boas 1891a] Franz Boas. Second General Report on the Indians of British Columhia, Report of the Sixtieth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, London, 1891, page 590. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boas 1893] Franz Boas. Linguistic Material Relating to the Kwakiutl Language, 1893, 227 pages. manuscript in possession of its author, with material collected at Chicago during the "World's Columbian Exposition and …. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Description from …: 1. Kwaklutl tiibe: Thirteen old songs belonging to the Tsetsaeka ceremonial.
Thirty-one songs of Tsetsaeka dances.
Fifteen songs belonging to Tsetsaeka masks.
Thirteen Potlatsh songs.
Two songs froia traditions.
Five shaman's songs.
Three Laola^a songs.
Two prayers to the sun.
Three love songs.
Two morning songs.
Two children's songs.
2. Nimkish tribe: Five songs of Tsetsaeka dances.
3. Koskinio tribe: One song of Tsetsaeka dance.
4. Newette tribe: Four old songs belonging to the Tsetsaeka ceremonial.
Eleven songs of Tsetsaeka dances.
Nine songs of Nonleow dances.
Three war songs.

[Boas 1894] Franz Boas. Chinook Texts, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 20, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1894, 278 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boas 1894a] Franz Boas. “The Anthropology of the North American Indians”, contained in [Wake 1894], 1894, pages 37–49. The Anthropology of the North American Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Boas 1897] Franz Boas. “The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians — Based on Personal Observations and on Notes Made by Mr. George Hunt”, Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and Report of the U. S. National Museum, Year Ending June 30, 1895, published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1897, pages 311–738. Publication annualreportofbo1895smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boas 1918] Franz Boas. Kutenai Tales, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 59, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., in Kutenai and English, 1918, 387 pages. Publication bulletin591918smit on Archive.org (open access). Contains 2 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bodley 1946] Nicholas B. Bodley. “The Auloi of Meroë: A Study of the Greek-Egyptian Auloi Found at Meroë, Egypt”, American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 50, Number 2, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, April–June 1946, pages 217–240. Publication 499049 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bogler 2005] David J. Bogler, J. Chris Pires, and Javier Francisco-Ortega. “Phylogeny of Agavaceae Based on ndhF, rbcL, and its Sequences: Implications of Molecular Data for Classification”, Aliso, Volume 22, Number 1, 2005, pages 311–326. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Great advances have been made in our understanding of the phylogeny and classification of Agavaceae in the last 20 years. In older systems Agavaceae were paraphyletic due to overemphasis of ovary position or habit. Discovery of a unique bimodal karyotype in Agave and Yucca eventually led to a reexamination of concepts and relationships in all the lilioid monocots, which continues to the present day.

Developments in cytogenetics, microscopy, phylogenetic systematics, and most recently DNA technology have led to remarkable new insights. Large-scale rbcL sequence studies placed Agavaceae with the core Asparagales and identified closely related taxa. Analysis of cpDNA restriction sites, rbcL, and ITS nrDNA sequences all supported removal of Dracaenaceae, Nolinaceae, and clarified relationships. Agavaceae s.s. presently consists of Agave, Beschorneria, Furcraea, Hesperaloe, Hesperoyucca, Manfreda, Polianthes, Prochnyanthes, and Yucca. In this paper we analyze recently obtained ndhF sequence data from Agavaceae and Asparagales and discuss the implications for classification. Parsimony analysis of ndhF data alone resolves most genera of Agavaceae and supports the inclusion of Camassia, Chlorogalum, Hesperocallis, and Hosta within Agavaceae s.l. Analysis of combined ndhF and rbcL data sets of selected Asparagales results in better resolution and stronger bootstrap support for many relationships. Combination of all available ndhF, rbcL, and ITS data in a single analysis results in the best resolution currently available for Agavaceae s.l. Implications for classification schemes past and present are discussed.

[Bonnet 1998] M. H. Bonnet and D. L Arand. “Heart Rate Variability in Insomniacs and Matched Normal Sleepers”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 60, 1998, pages 610–615. Publication 9773766 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: It was hypothesized that psychophysiological insomniacs, who have been shown to have elevated heart rate, body temperature, and whole body metabolic rate, would also have increased low frequency and decreased high frequency power in the spectral analysis of their heart period data.
Method: Groups of 12 objectively defined insomniacs and age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls with normal sleep were evaluated on sleep and EKG measures over a 36-hour sleep laboratory stay.
Results: Heart period was decreased (ie, heart rate was increased) and its SD was decreased in all stages of sleep in the insomniacs compared with the controls. Spectral analysis revealed significantly increased low frequency power and decreased high frequency power in insomniacs compared with controls across all stages of sleep.
Conclusions: Because increased low frequency spectral power is an indicator of increased sympathetic nervous system activity, these data imply that chronic insomniacs could be at increased risk for the development of disorders, such as coronary artery disease, that are related to increased sympathetic nervous system activity.

[Bonnie 1968] Boniface Bonnie, Autisdy Smith, M.D. Johnson, Roy Bonnie, Ben J. Johnson, Benny Roan Horse, Ted Bonnie, Donald Deal (performers); Tony Isaacs (recording engineer). Night and Daylight Yeibichei, Taos, New Mexico, Indian House, IH 1502, 10 tracks, 1968, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Recorded at: Klagetoh, Arizona, March 2, 1968. See [McAllester 1971] for review. See the Indian House web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Booker 2011] Erica Booker and Rhonda Boyle. “Piano Keyboards — One Size Does Not Fit All! Pianistic Health for the Next Generation”, Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, “Leading Notes to Effective Teaching: Resolving the past - Exploring the future”, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia, Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, “Leading Notes to Effective Teaching: Resolving the past – Exploring the future”, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, published by the Australasian Piano Pedagogy Association (APPCA), July 4–8, 2011, ISBN-13 978-0-646-90142-8. Piano Keyboards Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The width of piano keys became standardised approximately 120 years ago, based on the needs of European male pianists. Only recently has piano keyboard size come into question, as more pianists experience the benefits of reduced-size keyboards. There is strong evidence that smallhanded pianists are more likely to suffer pain and injury than those with larger hands. Many pianists, particularly women and children, are unable to reach their full potential with the standard keyboard. The lecture/demonstration will include statistics, literature review, live and recorded performances, and a rationale for encouraging the use of smaller piano keyboards.

[Boothroyd 1925] Frederick Boothroyd. Songs of the Red Man — for voice and piano, published by Coolidge Publ. Co., Lander, Wyoming, 1925, 19 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Borch 2011] D. Zangger Borch and Johan Sundberg (born 1936). “Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing”, Journal of Voice, Volume 25, Number 5, September 2011, pages 532–537, doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.07.014. Publication 20926250 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/ in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

[Borg 1995] Odell Borg. “How to Play” Native American Flute, video DVD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Borg 1995a] Odell Borg. Native American Flute Intermediate Instruction, video DVD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Borst 1975] Greg Borst. “The Courting Flute”, Sing Out! The Folk Song Magazine, Volume 24, Number 5, 1975, pages 14–15. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boswell 1970] George W. Boswell. “The Neutral Tone as a Function of Folk-Song Text”, Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 2, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1970, pages 127–132. Publication 767430 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Botermans 1989] Jack Botermans, Herman Dewit, Hans Goddefroy, Afke den Boer, and Margot de Zeeuw; Anthony Burrett (translation); Piet Hohmann (working diagrams). Making and Playing Musical Instruments, published by the University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, 1989, ISBN 0-295-96948-2 (978-0-295-96948-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Both 2002] Arnd Adje Both. “Aztec Flower-Flutes: On the Symbolic Organization of Sound in Late Postclassic Mesoamerica”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], 2002, pages 279–289. Aztec Flower-Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article discusses the organology and acoustics of musical instruments related to the Tezcatlipoca-ritual, preserved in the Ethnological Museum Berlin. It also puts the relevant ethnohistorical information together, providing insights regarding the meaning of these instruments.

[Both 2004] Arnd Adje Both. “Shell Trumpets in Mesoamerica — Music-Archaelogical Evidence and Living Tradition”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2004], 2004, pages 261–277. Shell Trumpets in Mesoamerica Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Abstract: This article discusses the meaning of shell trumpets as ceremonial musical instruments in Classic and Postclassic Mesoamerica (Teotihuacan, Maya, Aztecs). It also provides an ethnoarchaeological research discussing ethnographical and ethnomusicological data on contemporary ethnic groups (Huichol, Maya-Lacandon). The addendum includes an introduction on the organology and acoustics of shell trumpets.

[Both 2005] Arnd Adje Both. Aerófonos mexicas de las ofrendas del Recinto Sagrado de Tenochtitlan «Aztec Aerophones of the Temple Precinct of Tenochtitlan», Ph.D. dissertation – Lateinamerika-Institut, Freie Universität Berlin (Universidad Libre de Berlín), Germany, in Spanish and German, 2005, 346 pages. Aerófonos mexicas de las ofrendas del Recinto Sagrado de Tenochtitlan Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The study discusses Aztec sound artefacts, such as shell trumpets, whistles and flutes, excavated in the offering caches of the temple precinct of Tenochtitlan, Valley of Mexico (Late Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1350-1521 AD). The archaeological context of these finds reveals extensive information on specific musical practices performed in Aztec temple cult and insights into the prehispanic musical thought. Furthermore, the perfect state of preservation of the excavated instruments allows them to be played and their performance and acoustic characteristics to be investigated. The interdisciplinary approach enlights the debate from both archaeological and musicological perspectives, complementing the information drawn from ethnohistorical sources and proposing answers to many of the questions on Aztec music culture which were, heretofore, left unanswered.

[Both 2007] Arnd Adje Both. “Aztec Music Culture”, The World of Music, Volume 49, Number 2, 2007, pages 91–104. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper reviews the ethnohistoric record of the Aztec music culture that flourished during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica, AD 1325-1521. The written sources from the early colonial period suggest that among the Aztecs a differentiation was made between temple music practiced by specialized priests and court music practiced by professional musicians. Moreover, information is related on the religious concepts of sound, revealing important insights into the musical knowledge of Late Postclassic Mesoamerica. In this context, archaeological and music iconographical data is also considered.

[Both 2008] Arnd Adje Both, Ricardo Eichmann, Ellen Hickmann, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Challenges and Objectives in Music Archaeology, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 6, Papers from the 5th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Ethnological Museum, State Museums, Berlin, September 19–23, 2006, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 22, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2008, 616 pages, 518 illustrations, 14 tables, 8 diagrams, 8 plates, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-652-6 (978-3-89646-652-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Both 2009] Arnd Adje Both. “Music Archaeology: Some Methodological and Theoretical Considerations”, Yearbook for Traditional Music, Volume 41, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 2009, pages 1–11. Publication 25735475 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bouhuys 1964] Arend Bouhuys. “Lung Volumes and Breathing Patterns in Wind-Instrument Players”, Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 19, September 1964, pages 967–975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Pulmonary function at rest and physiological performance during play was studied in 42 professional wind players on 15 different instruments. Vital capacity was larger than expected from age and height in all brass players. Other lung function results were similar to or better than those in control subjects. Breathing patterns are qualitatively similar in players of nearly all instruments; rapid and deep inspirations are followed by prolonged expirations through the instrument. In some instruments nearly the whole vital capacity may be used during play. No gross changes in arterialized capillary blood pH, Pco2 and standard bicarbonate content occurred during frac12 hour's play. Mouth pressure on most instruments increased both with pitch and loudness and varied from 2.5 to 158 mm Hg. Air flow rates varied from less than 0.05 to over 1.6 liters/ sec. Performance on some, mainly brass, instruments is limited mechanically; on others, e.g., the oboe, breath-holding time is the limiting factor. Energy expended on the instrument (mouth pressure times flow rate) ranged from less than 0.1 up to 17 w.

[Bouhuys 1965] Arend Bouhuys. “Sound-Power Production in Wind Instruments”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 37, Number 3, March 1965, pages 453–456. Publication 14284611 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: This paper presents data for output sound power PO of wind instruments relation to input power PI supplied by the player. PI was calculated as pV̇, where p equals mouth pressure and V̇ air flow rate through the instrument. PO was calculated from sound-pressure level and measurements of reverberation time in a live room of known volume. A part of the data was obtained in a room of unknown characteristics; from 15 comparable measurements on 8 different instruments in both the live and the unknown room, data were obtained that allowed calculation of PO also from other experiments in the unknown room. Measurements were made on single notes, played both pp and ff, on each instrument; one low and one high note on the scale of each instrument were chosen. The ratio PO/PI, representing the mechanical efficiency of wind instruments as sources of sound power, varies from less than 0.001% to about 2%. It appears to increase with increasing PI and, in some instruments, with frequency. The consistent results obtained for 3 different flutes played by one performer suggest that the variability noted in the other data at least partially reflects individual differences in mechanical efficiency.

[Bouhuys 1968] Arend Bouhuys. “Pressure-Flow Events During Wind Instrument Playing”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 155, Number 1, November 1968, pages 264–275, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb56771.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bouhuys 1969] Arend Bouhuys. “Physiology and Musical Instruments”, Nature, Volume 221, Number 5187, March 29, 1969, pages 1199–1204, doi:10.1038/2211199a0. Publication 5773830 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boulton 1984] Joye R. Boulton (text); Steve Sisney (photographs). “Breathing Life into Indian Flutes”, Oklahoma Today, Volume 34, Number 2, March/April 1984, pages 28–33. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boulton-L 1975] Laura Boulton (1899–1980). Musical Instruments of World Cultures, Revised Edition, published by the Arizona State Museum, Tempe, Arizona, 1975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bourg 2005] Cameron Hideo Bourg. Ancient Maya Music Now With Sound, M.A. dissertation – Louisiana State University, December 2005, 82 pages. Ancient Maya Music Now With Sound Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Classification of Flutes, The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

Abstract: The subject of Maya music is by no means a new field of study for Hispanic cultural scholars or Mesoamerican anthropologists. For example, the archeological reports of Dr. Norman Hammond and Dr. Paul Healy have greatly increased the information in this area of study. The instrumentation utilized by ancient Maya musicians and the raw materials that were the essence of their production have been the major themes in these previous publications. However, these perspectives exclude the sound of music and aspects of ancient Maya society. This thesis has been planned to examine ancient Maya music according to archaeology, society and the sound of music.

[Bower 1984] Calvin M. Bower. “The Modes of Boethius”, The Journal of Musicology, Volume 3, Number 3, published by the University of California Press, Summer 1984, pages 252–263. Publication 763815 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bower-B 1999] Bruce Bower. “Chinese Dig Sound from Ancient Flute”, Science News, Volume 156, Number 13, published by the Society for Science and the Public, September 25, 1999, page 197. Publication 4011780 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Excerpt: In one of the most unusual recording sessions ever held, a musician recently entered a sound studio and successfully played a Chinese folk song on a nearly 9,000-year-old bone flute. The flute, one of six unearthed in a prehistoric Chinese village, is the earliest known complete, playable musical instrument, a research group reports.

[Boyadjian 2010] Hayg Boyadjian. Vientos, Albany Records, 6 tracks, 2010, ASIN B0041DVVUU Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle 1898] David Boyle. Archaeological Report 1898 — Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, published by Warwick Bros. & Rutter, Toronto, Ontario, 1898, 211 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle 1906] David Boyle. Ethnology of Canada and Newfoundland, Annual Archaeological Report 1905, being part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, Volume 20, published by L. K. Cameron, Toronto, Ontario, 1906, 249 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle-RB 2009] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard — Literature Review and a Survey of the Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists using Reduced-Size Keyboards in North America”, Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, "Expanding Musical Thinking", The King’s School, North Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, published by the Australasian Piano Pedagogy Association (APPCA), July 13–17, 2009, ISBN-13 978-0-646-55411-2. Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle-RB 2010] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard. Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists Using Reduced-Size Keyboards”, Journal of the Victorian Music Teachers' Association (VMTA), Volume 36, Number 1, March 2010, pages 17–35. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: For around 130 years, there has been a ‘one size fits all’ approach to the piano keyboard, despite the wide variation in hand sizes within the human population. Much of the literature relating hand size to piano playing is in the performing arts medicine field, identifying small hand size as one of the likely causes of pain and injury among pianists. Adopters of reduced-size keyboards, available since the mid-1990s, report relief from pain and tension, and other benefits, such as improvements in specific technical and musical skills, faster learning times, and greater comfort and security.

[Boyle-RB 2010a] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard — An Introduction to the Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists using Reduced-Size Keyboards”, Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring 2010, pages 18–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bozkurt 2009] Barış Bozkurt, Ozan Yarman, M. Kemal Karaosmanoğlu, and Can Akkoç. “Weighing Diverse Theoretical Models on Turkish Maqam Music Against Pitch Measurements: A Comparison of Peaks Automatically Derived from Frequency Histograms with Proposed Scale Tones”, Journal of New Music Research, Volume 3, Number 1, 2009, pages 45–70, doi:10.1080/09298210903147673 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Since the early 20th century, various theories have been advanced in order to mathematically explain and notate modes of Traditional Turkish music known as maqams. In this article, maqam scales according to various theoretical models based on different tunings are compared with pitch measurements obtained from select recordings of master Turkish performers in order to study their level of match with analysed data. Chosen recordings rae subjected to a fully computerized sequence of signal processing algorithms for the automatic determination of the set of relative pitches for each maqam scale: f0 estimation, histogram computation, tonic detection + histogram alighment, and peak picking. For nine well-recognized maqams, automatically derived relative pitches are compared with scale tones defined by theoretical models using quantitative distance measures. We analyse and interpret histogram peaks based on these measures to find the theoretical models most conforming with all the recordings, and hence, with the quotidian performance trends influenced by them.

[Brade 1982] Christine Brade. “The Prehistoric Flute — Did It Exist?”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 35, published by the Galpin Society, March 1982, pages 138–150. Publication 841239 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Survey of the literature concludes that Palaeo and Neo flutes remain unproven, and that not every prehistoric object with holes is necessarily a music-producer. J V S Megaw adds an appendix drawing attention to R A Harrison's work (79/6272) including experiments, on pierced phalanges; and there are two Upper Palaeo bone 'flutes' in the British Museum. Hence the debate remains open (see also 87/1287, 90/354).

[Bradley 1976] Ian L. Bradley. “Indian Music of the Pacific Northwest: An Annotated Bibliography of Research”, BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, Number 31, Autumn 1976, pages 12–22. ISSN 0005-2949. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brady 1984] Erika Brady, Maria La Vigna, Dorothy Sara Lee, and Thomas Vennum, Jr. The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 1: Introduction and Inventory, Studies in American Folklife, Number 3, Volume 1, published by the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center, Washington, D.C., 1984, 105 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic and Reference Flute Recordings

Abstract: Volume one of a multivolume catalog inventories 247 federal agency collections of wax cylinder recordings made by early ethnographers during 5 decades (1890-1941) of field work with Native American, traditional American, and world cultures. Native American music, chants, and linguistic samples comprise the majority of the collection. In addition to their value as original cultural materials, the collections chronicle theoretical and methodological developments in anthropology, ethnomusicology, folklore, and linguistics, parallel the early history of sound recording, and reflect differing attitudes among early ethnographers toward use of the cylinder phonograph. Inventory entries are arranged alphabetically by collector with larger collections grouped into cultural areas. Each entry contains preservation tape number, Archive of Folk Culture number, number of cylinders in each collection/number duplicated, collector's name/sponsor, descriptive title, recording date/location, provenance, and notes on technical aspects of sound and cylinder quality. An introduction traces the mechanics and use of the cylinder phonograph from the 1890s to the early 1940s, discusses field methods of early ethnographers, and explains preservation methods, documenting and archiving techniques, and dissemination efforts of the Federal Cylinder Project. Indexes to American Indian groups, other cultural groups by region, and collectors, institutions, sponsors, and provenances are included. (LFL)

[Brandt 2012] Anthony Brandt, Molly Gebrian, and L. Robert Slevc. “Music and Early Language Acquisition”, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 3, Number 327, September 11, 2012, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00327 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

[Braun 1987] Anton J. Braun. “Piccolo Flute”, United States Patent 4,714,000, Granted December 22, 1987, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Piccolo Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Braun-J 2002] Joachim Braun. Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine: Archaeological, Written, and Comparative Sources, published by William B. Eerdmans, 2002, 368 pages, ISBN 0-8028-4477-4 (978-0-8028-4477-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This book contains the first study of the musical culture of ancient Israel/Palestine based primarily on the archaeological record. Noted musicologist Joachim Braun explores the music of the Holy Land region of the Middle East, tracing its form and development from its beginning in the Stone Age to the fourth century A.D.

This is not a study of music in the Bible or music in biblical times but a unique, in-depth investigation of the historical periods and cultures that influenced the music of the region and its people. Braun combines significant archaeological findings -- musical instruments, terra cotta and metal figures, etched stone illustrations, mosaics -- with evidence drawn from written (mainly biblical) texts and anthropological, sociological, and linguistic sources.

The portrait Braun assembles of this past musical world is both fascinating and innovative, suggesting a reconsideration of many views long accepted by tradition. Enhanced with numerous illustrations and photographs that bring the archaeological evidence to life, this exceptional work will be a valued resource for scholars, students, and general readers interested in the history of music, biblical studies, Jewish studies, and the cultures of the ancient Near East.

[Braun-M 2002] Martin Braun. The Gamelan Pelog Scale of Central Java as an Example of a Non-harmonic Musical Scale, August 2002, retrieved January 20, 2015. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Braun-M 2003] Martin Braun. Pitch and harmony detection in the auditory midbrain, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Braun-M 2003a] Martin Braun. Bell tuning in ancient China: A six-tone scale in a 12-tone system based on fifths and thirds, June 16, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A unitary ensemble of 65 bells, with 130 discrete strike tones, was excavated in a fully preserved state 1978 in the Chinese province of Hubei from the tomb of the Marquis Yi of Zeng from 433 B.C. The ensemble's tuning system could now for the first time be determined by applying exclusively empirical methods. Only pitch data, hanging order, and tone names on the bells were considered. The results show (1) a norm tone of F4 ~ 345 Hz (ca. F4-20 Cent, re modern A4 = 440 Hz), (2) a six-tone standard scale of D-E-F-G-A-C with F#, G#, A#, B, C#, and D# as accidentals, and (3) a third-oriented tuning with equally tempered fifths (~696 Cent) in the series CGDAE.

[Bray 2005] Robert L Bray and Monica Pignotti. “Heart Rate Variability in Verifying Treatment Efficacy of Thought Field Therapy™”, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has now been supported, not only by the client’s self report but also by an independent, objective physiological measure known as Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV is gaining increasing popularity for use in both clinical and research settings as a measure of treatment success. Being stable and placebo-fee, it has the potential to meet this need. Twenty eight cases are presented from the clinical practices of the authors and one other TFT trained psychotherapist where HRV was used pre and post TFT treatment. The cases included TFT treatments which addressed a wide variety of problems including phobias, anxiety, trauma, depression, fatigue, learning difficulties, compulsions, obsessions, food craving, anger, and physical pain. A lowering of Subjective Units of Distresses (SUD) as reported by subjects was related to an improvement in HRV SDNN measurement in all cases.

[Brazil 2004] Mark Brazil. “Swan Songs of Yore: Ancient Birds, Stone Age Music”, Japan Times, March 17, 2005, retrieved December 29, 2009. See the Japan Times web site. Swan Songs of Yore Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Ulm Whooper Swan flute, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Brenner 2001] Athalya Brenner. A Feminist Companion to Exodus-Deuteronomy Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brewer-K 2004] Kevin Brewer. The Cultural Significance of the Pueblo Indian Flute, Honors Thesis – Ouachita Baptist University, April 15, 2004, 27 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Bridges 2006] Anne Bridges, Russ Clement, and Kenneth Wise (editors). “James Mooney, Among the Cherokee”, Great Smokey Mountains Colloquy, Volume 7, Number 2, Fall 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bright 2004] William Bright. Native American Place Names of the United States, published by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Brisbin 1878] James S. Brisbin. “The Poetry of Indians”, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Volume 57, Number 337, June 1878, pages 104–108. The Poetry of Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Music-related Literature for the Native American Flute

[Brittin 1996] Ruth V. Brittin. “Listeners' Preference for Music of Other Cultures: Comparing Response Modes”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 44, Number 4, Winter 1996, pages 328–340. Publication 3345445 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study was designed to investigate listeners' preferences for music of other cultures, as determined by 10 point Likert-type scales and by continuous ratings taken throughout the duration of each excerpt with a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI). Music major (n = 75), nonmusic major (n = 75), and junior high school (n = 75) musicians participated. One-third of each group's subjects rated the selections with a Likert-type rating scale, representinga summative, static response. One-third of each group used a single CRDI dial to continuously show preference throughout the music. The remaining third continuously manipulated two CRDI dials, one to indicate preference and the other complexity. Selections representing the following cultures were included: the Caribbean, Africa, India, and Oceania. Listeners using the continuous measurement responses rated selections significantly higher than did listeners using paper-and-pencil rating scales (p < .05). There was no significant difference in preference between listeners who rated preference only and listeners who rated preference and complexity. There were no significant differences attributable to level of music experience. These results have implications for (1) the way teachers present new material to students, (2) the manner in which teachers structure student feedback, and (3) the technological devices teachers use for music activities.

[Broad 1988] William J. Broad. “Complex Whistles Found to Play Key Roles in Inca and Maya Life”, The New York Times, March 29, 1988, page C–1. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Broadwater 2002] Kimberly Jaye Broadwater. The Effects of Singing on Blood Pressure in Classically Trained Singers, Doctoral dissertation – Louisiana State University, May 2002, 73 pages. See the Louisiana State University Electronic Thesis & Dissertation Collection Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Blood pressure readings were taken in four normotensive, classically trained singers of varying age and experience. The results show changes during the systolic and diastolic phases of blood pressure measurements while singing. While systolic blood pressure changes were individualized and random, diastolic blood pressure changes generally showed a direct correlation to changes in intrathoracic pressure. Additional research using a larger subject base involving normotensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive populations is warranted.

[Broderick 2000] Sylvia Broderick. “Kids and Native American Flute Music”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2000, Volume 1, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2000, pages 8–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bromiley 1986] Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Illustrated in Four Volumes, Revised Edition, published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1986. Reissued in [Bromiley 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2), Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Bromiley 2007] Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Illustrated Edition, published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2007, ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 (978-0-8028-3785-1). Reissue of [Bromiley 1986]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher description: Representing the scholarship of hundreds of evangelical contributors from many specialized fields of biblical research, this four-volume encyclopedia includes articles on virtually every person, place, and term in the Bible. Based on the Revised Standard Version, ISBE contains cross-reference entries making it readily accessible to users of other major translations.

[Bronk 2010] Beth Bronk. “It’s Just Intonation”, Bandmasters Review, published by the Texas Bandmasters Association, December 2010, pages 15–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brovarski 2000] Edward Brovarski. The Senedjemib Complex, Part 1, Giza Mastabas, Volume 7, published by the Arts of the Ancient World, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown 1967] Donald Nelson Brown (born 1937). “The Distribution of Sound Instruments in the Prehistoric Southwestern United States”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 11, Number 1, published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of the Society for Ethnomusicology, January 1967, pages 71–90. Publication 850499 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (2), The Development of Flutes in North America (5), Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

Opening paragraph: The sound instruments of the prehistoric peoples of the Southwestern United States have received relatively little attention from either archaeologists or ethnomusicoloogists. Scattered throughout the literature are descriptions and illustrations of sound instruments which have been found at many prehistoric sites. Museum collections include the instruments themselves, often mislabeled and without prevenience. This paper attempts to draw together the many published references along with the museum specimins in order to present a picture of the musical life of the prehistoric Southwesterners.

[Brown 1971] Donald N. Brown. “Ethnomusicology and the Prehistoric Southwest”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 15, Number 3, published by the University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology, September 1971, pages 363–378. Publication 850636 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-EJ 2005] Emily J. Brown. Instruments of Power: Musical Performance in Rituals of the Ancestral Puebloans of the American Southwest, Doctoral dissertation – Columbia University, New York, 2005, 553 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Names of the Native American Flute (2), Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P (4)

Abstract: The nature and degree of hierarchy in middle-range societies is a topic of recent interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. The use of ritual to add the power of tradition to social and political authority is one way leaders in such societies might have reinforced their positions. In this dissertation, a multidisciplinary approach is taken to analyze prehispanic musical instruments, architecture, and imagery from the American Southwest to identify the social contexts and physical settings of ritual musical performance among the Ancestral Puebloans. The results show a correlation between elaboration of ritual and periods of increased social and political complexity, suggesting that authority figures in middle-range societies of the prehispanic Southwest included music in manipulation of aspects of ritual performance to further their political ends.

[Brown-EJ 2005a] Emily Brown. “"They Made Many Tunes": Southwestern Flutes in Spanish Accounts, Early Anthropological Sutdies, and Puebloan Mythology”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 18–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-EJ 2005b] Emily Brown. “Changing Sound Production Technology of Prehistoric Flutes from the American Southwest”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2005, Volume 3, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2005, pages 10–13. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-EJ 2009] Emily J. Brown. “Musical Instruments in the Pre-Hispanic Southwest”, Park Science, Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2009, retrieved December 4, 2011. ISSN 1090-9966. See the Article on the National Park Service web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Introduction: Studying the music of past eras is challenging, even when written manuscripts are available. In archaeological contexts without written records, it becomes yet more difficult. However, a surprising amount can be learned by studying musical instruments from archaeological sites. Researchers studying the social and physical contexts in which music took place (Brown 2005) and the instruments themselves (Olsen 1990) have identified some roles music may have played in prehistoric societies. Music lends itself well to ritual; strategic use of ritual is one way Ancestral Puebloan leaders in the American Southwest established, validated, and maintained their social authority.

[Brown-H 1994] Harry Brown. “Making the American Indian Flute”, Woodwind Quarterly, Volume 7, 1994, pages 32–49. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-JP 2001] John Pairman Brown. Israel and Hellas, Volume 3, published by Walter de Gruyter, 2001, 548 pages, ISBN 3-11-014233-3 (978-3-11-014233-4). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Brown-L 1967a] Lamont Brown, Harry Buffalohead, Joe H. Rush, Russell Rush, Sylvester Warrior, Albert Waters, Louis Yellow Horse, Alice Cook, Lucy C.F. Ribs, and Stella Yellow Horse; James Waters (camp crier); Tony Isaacs (recording, producer); Allan Emig (technical direction). War Dance Songs of The Ponca, Volume 1, Taos, New Mexico, Indian House, IH 2001, 19 tracks, 1967. Recorded at Ponca City, Oklahoma, May 15, 1967. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Review by Eugene Chadbourne on AllMusic.com: The LP version of this production was the first to be distributed commercially, coming out in 1967 courtesy of the small Indian House enterprise of Taos, NM. The larger version of the cover photograph is worth the price of admission alone, but more importantly the album notes fill in many details not provided on the dinky cassette fold-in sold at powwows throughout the '70s and '80s. Neither release identifies the actual name of the powwow or drum circle group that performs these 18 selections, but once again the album provides more detail regarding individual responsibilities in what most likely was not just an ad hoc group. The entire credit for a fellow named Tony Isaacs, who did a job of great magnificence producing and recording the original 1967 session, seems to have gone the way of the Canadian goose on the cassette release, likewise the liner notes by Isaacs that actually identify this set of Ponca songs as being part of that tribe's Hetoshka tradition. Singers James Waters and Sylvester Warrior take on the important role of camp crier on this inspiring set of songs, musically initiating and introducing the Hetoshka meeting and then calling forth memorials to the great deeds of their ancestors. The drum sound is superb; the instrument sounds deep enough to prepare enough chili in to feed everyone involved, including Stella Yellow Horse.

[Brown-L 1967b] Lamont Brown, Harry Buffalohead, Joe H. Rush, Russell Rush, Sylvester Warrior, Albert Waters, Louis Yellow Horse, Alice Cook, Lucy C.F. Ribs, and Stella Yellow Horse; James Waters (camp crier); Tony Isaacs (recording, producer); Allan Emig (technical direction). War Dance Songs of The Ponca, Volume 2, Taos, New Mexico, Indian House, IH 2002, 22 tracks, 1967. Recorded at Ponca City, Oklahoma, May 15, 1967. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MEA 1888] Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown (1842–1917) and William Adams Brown (1865–1943). Musical Instruments and Their Homes, published by Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1888. Publication cu31924022445849 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MEA 1902] Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown. Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations, Volume 1 - Europe, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1902, 351 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MEA 1903] Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown. Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations, Volume 2 - Asia, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1903, 98 pages. Publication cataloguecrosby00browgoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MEA 1905] Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown. Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations, Volume 4 - Historical Groups, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1905. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MEA 1907] Mary Elizabeth Adams Brown. Catalogue of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations, Volume 3 - Part 1 - Africa, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1907. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-MF 1998] Michael F. Brown. “Can Culture Be Copyrighted?”, Current Anthropology, Volume 39, Number 2, published by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, April 1998, pages 193–222. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The digital revolution has dramatically increased the ability of individuals and corporations to appropriate and profit from the cultural knowledge of indigenous peoples, which is largely unprotected by existing intellectual property law. In response, legal scholars, anthropologists, and native activists now propose new legal regimes designed to defend indigenous cultures by radically expanding the notion of copyright. Unfortunately, these proposals are often informed by romantic assumptions that ignore the broader crisis of intellectual property and the already imperiled status of the public domain. This essay offers a skeptical assessment of legal schemes to control cultural appropriation—in particular, proposals that indigenous peoples should be permitted to copyright ideas rather than their tangible expression and that such protections should exist in perpetuity. Also examined is the pronounced tendency of intellectual property debate to preempt urgently needed reflection on the political viability of special-rights regimes in pluralist democracies and on the appropriateness of using copyright law to enforce respect for other cultures.

[Brown-R 2002] Rachel Brown. The Early Flute — A Practical Guide, published by Cambridge University Press, 2002, 184 pages, ISBN 0-521-89080-2 (978-0-521-89080-9), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This handbook for flautists addresses all who wish to consider the issues raised when performing music of the past, and experiment with them on old or new instruments. Its aim is to provide an authoritative and practical guide with evidence drawn from a variety of primary sources directly and indirectly associated with the flute. The author provides sound advice on instruments and their care, historical techniques, stylistic issues and historically informed interpretation, with examples drawn from a wide range of case studies, including Bach, Handel, Mozart and Brahms.

[Brown-RP 2005] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II - Clinical Applications and Guidelines”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, Number 4, August 2005, pages 711–717. Publication 16131297 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Part I of this series presented a neurophysiologic theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). Part II will review clinical studies, our own clinical observations, and guidelines for the safe and effective use of yoga breath techniques in a wide range of clinical conditions.
Although more clinical studies are needed to document the benefits of programs that combine pranayama (yogic breathing) asanas (yoga postures), and meditation, there is sufficient evidence to consider Sudarshan Kriya Yoga to be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. SKY has been used as a public health intervention to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters. Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance. Proper training by a skilled teacher and a 30-minute practice every day will maximize the benefits. Health care providers
play a crucial role in encouraging patients to maintain their yoga practices.

[Brown-RP 2005a] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part I - Neurophysiologic Model”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, Number 1, April 2005, pages 189–201. Publication 15750381 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Mind-body interventions are beneficial in stress-related mental and physical disorders. Current research is finding associations between emotional disorders and vagal tone as indicated by heart rate variability. A neurophysiologic model of yogic breathing proposes to integrate research on yoga with polyvagal theory, vagal stimulation, hyperventilation, and clinical observations. Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Many studies demonstrate effects of yogic breathing on brain function and physiologic parameters, but the mechanisms have not been clarified. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY), a sequence of specific breathing techniques (ujjayi, bhastrika, and Sudarshan Kriya) can alleviate anxiety, depression, everyday stress, post-traumatic stress, and stress-related medical illnesses. Mechanisms contributing to a state of calm alertness include increased parasympathetic drive, calming of stress response systems, neuroendocrine release of hormones, and thalamic generators. This model has heuristic value, research implications, and clinical applications.

[Brown-RP 2009] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Yoga Breathing, Meditation and Longevity”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1172, August 2009, pages 54–62, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04394.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

[Browner 1995] Tara Browner. Transposing Cultures: The Appropriation of Native North American Musics 1890–1990, Doctoral dissertation – University of Michigan, 1995, 221 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Since the earliest contacts between Europe and North America, Indians have been represented by Europeans and their colonial descendants in music and imagery. Beginning in the late 1880s, "Indian" compositions in the art music repertoire increased in frequency, paralleling interest shown in Native cultures by American ethnologists, whose research made transcribed Indian melodies and oral texts more readily available. Composers used these melodies and texts in an attempt to create an American "national" music, authentic in its foundation within indigenous repertoires, but problematic with its use of these materials without an accompanying cultural sensitivity. And although direct quotation of Native melodies became less common after 1925, composers have continued to draw from indigenous cultures by means of appropriating oral texts, historic figures, and ritual forms through the present day.

Beginning with the assumption that all forms of appropriation or "borrowing" by one culture from another are not identical, composers and their works are presented and classified using a framework derived from the semiotic analysis of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). Three categories, "iconic," "indexical," and "symbolic" are defined, and musical examples from each are discussed, including works by Burton, Cadman, Busoni, Coleridge-Taylor, Carter, and Oliveros. In addition, art music by a Native North American composer, Louis Ballard, is examined, and his use of Indian melodies compared to that of non-Indian composers.

[Browner 1997] Tara Browner. ““Breathing the Indian Spirit”: Thoughts on Musical Borrowing and the “Indianist” Movement in American Music”, American Music, Volume 15, Number 3, published by the University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, Autumn 1997, pages 265–284. Publication 3052325 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Indianist Movement

[Browner 2002] Tara Browner. Heartbeat of the People: Music and Dance of the Northern Powwow, published by the University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 2002. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Browner 2009] Tara Browner. Music of the First Nations: Tradition and Innovation in Native North America, published by the University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, March 13, 2009, 184 pages, ISBN 0-252-02221-1 (978-0-252-02221-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bruneau 1970] Philippe Bruneau. “Bruneau 1970b: Ph. Bruneau, La vaisselle, in: L’îlot de la Maison des Comédiens, Délos XXVII, Paris 1970, 239-265.”, Exploration archéologique de Délos, Volume 27, Paris, France, 1970, pages 239–265. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brunet 1972] Jacques Brunet (collector). Laos — Musique du Nord «Laos - Music of the North», Collection Musiques du Monde, volume 12, Galloway Records, GB 600531, 1972, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Asia

[Bruning 2005] Stephanie Bruning. The Indian Character Piece for Solo Piano (ca. 1890–1920): A Historical Review of Composers and Their Works, D.M.A. dissertation – College-Conservatory of Music, University of Cincinnati, Ohio, August 2005, 85 pages. See the Thesis on the OhioLink web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Indianist Movement (2)

Abstract: The Indianist Movement is a title many music historians use to define the surge of compositions related to or based on the music of Native Americans that took place from around 1890 to 1920. Hundreds of compositions written during this time incorporated various aspects of Indian folklore and music into Western art music. This movement resulted from many factors in our nation’s political and social history as well as a quest for a compositional voice that was uniquely American. At the same time, a wave of ethnologists began researching and studying Native Americans in an effort to document their culture. In music, the character piece was a very successful genre for composers to express themselves. It became a natural genre for composers of the Indianist Movement to explore for portraying musical themes and folklore of Native-American tribes. Although there were some common procedures for incorporating Indian themes, many composers had different philosophies about how to create their Indian character pieces. Eventually the enthusiasm for using Native-American material died out and left a large body of piano literature collecting dust, out of print, and virtually unrecognized. Through a perspective of cultural relativism, this study reviews and provides information on every known Indian character piece for solo piano and their composers from the Indianist Movement. The purpose of this study is to revive the Indian character piece and promote the Indianist Movement as an important part of America’s musical past, which undoubtedly impacted the direction of twentieth-century music.

[Bruno 2006] Thomas J. Bruno and Paris D. N. Svoronos. CRC Handbook of Fundamental Spectroscopic Correlation Charts, published by CRC Press, 2006, 225 pages, ISBN 0-8493-3250-8 (978-0-8493-3250-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Color of Sound - Pitch-to-Color Calculator

[BrutelVuilmet 2008] Claire Brutel-Vuilmet and Susanne Fuchs. “Rate Effects on Aerodynamics of Intervocalic Stops: Evidence from real speech data and model data”, Papers in Phonetics and Phonology, ZAS Papers in Linguistics, Volume 49, 2008, pages 1–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper is a first attempt towards a better understanding of the aerodynamic properties during speech production and their potential control. In recent years, studies on intraoral pressure in speech have been rather rare, and more studies concern the air flow development. However, the intraoral pressure is a crucial factor for analysing the production of various sounds.

In this paper, we focus on the intraoral pressure development during the production of intervocalic stops.

Two experimental methodologies are presented and confronted with each other: real speech data recorded for four German native speakers, and model data, obtained by a mechanical replica which allows reproducing the main physical mechanisms occurring during phonation. The two methods are presented and applied to a study on the influence of speech rate on aerodynamic properties.

[Bryce-Laporte 2004] Camila Bryce-Laporte and Rachel L. Mears. Montana Collections in the Archive of Folk Culture, Finding Aids to Collections Organized by Topic in the Archive of Folk Culture, published by the Library of Congress, Web revision date March 2006. Originally published February 2004. Series Number: LCFAFA Number 35; ISSN 0736-4903; Series Editor: Ann Hoog. See the Montana Collections listing at The American Folklife Center Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buccellati 2000] Giorgio Buccellati and Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati. The Royal Palace and the Daughter of Naram-Sin, Urkesh Bulletin, Volume 3, April 2000, 41 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buccellati 2003] G{iorgio} Buccellati. Hurrian Music, published by IIMAS (The International Institute for Mesopotamian Area Studies), 2003, retrieved September 28, 2011. Hurrian Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bucht 2004] Saku Bucht and Erkki Huovinen. “Perceived Consonance of Harmonic Intervals in 19-tone Equal Temperament”, Proceedings of the Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM04), Graz, Austria, April 15–18, 2004, April 2004, pages 1–10. Perceived Consonance of Harmonic Intervals in 19-tone Equal Temperament Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Glossary of Native American Flute Terms, Guided NAFlutomat - Step 4. Temperament

Abstract:
Background in microtonal research: Regardless of the method of evaluation used, the 19-tone equal temperament (19-tet) has frequently emerged as one of the most plausible candidates for an alternative equally tempered tuning system (e.g. Krantz & Douthett, 1994). Speculations on consonance within the 19-tet have been presented by Yasser (1975/1932) and Mandelbaum (1961).
Background is psychoacoustics: According to Plomp and Levelt (1965), sensory consonance for harmonic complex tones reaches its local maxima at simple-integer frequency ratios (which represent the consonant intervals). These ratios are well approximated in e.g. 12-tet and 19-tet. Quite similar influence of coinciding and nearly coinciding partials can also be found for inharmonic tones (cf. e.g. Geary, 1980). Terhardt (1984/1976) suggested that sensory consonance is insufficient to describe the phenomenon of musical consonance, which also depends on culturally conditioned aspects of music.
Aims: The present study had two aims. First, we wanted to get a comprehensive overview of the relative amounts of consonance and dissonance perceived among the harmonic intervals of 19-tone equal temperament. Second, we aimed at producing general information about the strategies that are used for making judgments concerning musical consonance (e.g. the influence of fundamental frequency ratios vs. the matching of partials). This involved evaluating how well current models of sensory (or tonal) consonance would predict the experimentally obtained values of this study.
Method: Two experiments were conducted in order to study listeners’ tendencies to attribute patterns of relative consonance and dissonance to adjacent harmonic intervals of the 19-tet. The stimuli in Experiment 1 consisted of ordered pairs of harmonic intervals. The subjects indicated whether the perceived consonance increased or decreased from the first to the second interval. Experiment 2 was designed firstly to replicate the previous findings in an atemporal setting: now the subjects had to choose the most consonant interval from three alternatives that they were free to explore using three push-buttons. In half of the trials, Experiment 2 also incorporated inharmonic spectra, designed to yield maximum sensory consonance for intervals that would otherwise be heard as dissonant.
Results: The results suggest that (1) intervals, which approximate the familiar diatonic intervals, were perceived as most consonant. (2) The subjects used various strategies in their judgment on consonance of harmonic intervals: sensory consonance, fundamental-frequency relations and avoidance of slow beating were all significant factors. Sensory consonance seemed to be the dominating factor when subjects judged dyads incorporating an inharmonic spectrum. These findings do not support the previously proposed hypothetical consonance/dissonance rankings for 19-tet (by e.g. Yasser).
Conclusions: Although unsatisfactory in itself to describe musical consonance in 19-tet, the results obtained in this study will provide a psychoacoustic foundation for such a concept. As Huron (1994) has noted, there exists a connection between sensory aspects of consonance and most common musical scales and chords. Thus, our results will form a basis for practical suggestions concerning the use of the 19-tet.

[Buckley-D 2000] Daniel Buckley. “R. Carlos Nakai Speaks His Mind”, Native Peoples, Volume 13, Number 3, 2000, pages 24–28. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buechel 2002] Eugene Buechel. Lakota Dictionary, New Comprehensive Edition, published by the University of Nebraska Press, 2002, 530 pages, ISBN 0-8032-6269-8 (978-0-8032-6269-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Bufe 1994] Chaz Bufe. The Understandable Guide to Music Theory, published by See Sharp Press, 1994, 74 pages, ISBN 1-884365-00-0 (978-1-884365-00-3), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buffalohead 1986] Harry Buffalohead (translation); Earl C. Fenner (translation recording, compilation, and transcription); Jonathan B. Orens (translation recording); Lamont Brown, Harry Buffalohead, Joe H. Rush, Russell Rush, Sylvester Warrior, Albert Waters, Louis Yellow Horse, Alice Cook, Lucy C.F. Ribs, and Stella Yellow Horse (singers); James Waters (camp crier); Tony Isaacs (performance recording, producer); Allan Emig (technical direction). War Dance Songs of the Ponca - Songs and Translation, 1986, 41 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buffalohead 1986a] Harry Buffalohead (translation); Earl C. Fenner (recording, compilation, and transcription); Jonathan B. Orens (recording). War Dance Songs of the Ponca — Volumes 1 and 2, 1986, 41 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bugos 2004] Jennifer Bugos, William Michael Perlstein, Timothy S. Brophy, and Purvis Bedenbaugh. “The Effects of Individualized Piano Instruction on Executive Memory Functions in Older Adults (Ages 60-85)”, 8th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition, Evanston, IL, August 3–7, 2004, editors: S. D. Lipscomb, R. Ashley, R. O. Gjerdingen, and P. Webster (editors), 2004, pages 344–345, ISBN 1-876346-50-7 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conclusions: IPI may have the capacity to induce plastic changes affecting cognition among older adults (ages 60-85). Significant enhancements in the experimental group’s performance on strategic executive memory function tasks were noted with regard to shifting, planning, working memory, and strategy maintenance.

[Bugos 2007] J. A. Bugos, W. M. Perlstein, C. S. McCrae, T. S. Brophy, and P. H. Bedenbaugh. “Individualized Piano Instruction Enhances Executive Functioning and Working Memory in Older Adults”, Aging and Mental Health, Volume 11, Number 4, July 2007, pages 464–471, doi:10.1080/13607860601086504. Publication 17612811 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study evaluates transfer from domain-specific, sensorimotor training to cognitive abilities associated with executive function. We examined Individualized Piano Instruction (IPI) as a potential cognitive intervention to mitigate normal age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Thirty-one musically naïve community-dwelling older adults (ages 60-85) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 16) or control group (n = 15). Neuropsychological assessments were administered at three time points: pre-training, following six months of intervention, and following a three-month delay. The experimental group significantly improved performance on the Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol measures as compared to healthy controls. Results of this study suggest that IPI may serve as an effective cognitive intervention for age-related cognitive decline.

[Bugos 2009] Jennifer A. Bugos and Linda High. “Perceived Versus Actual Practice Strategy Usage by Older Adult Novice Piano Students”, Visions of Research in Music Education, Volume 13, 2009, pages 1–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate learning of practice strategies as a tool for teaching individualized piano instruction (IPI) to novice older adults (ages 60-85). The research questions examined in this study included: (1) Does strategy-training assist novice older adults by improving their practice? and (2) Are there differences between perceived and actual use of practice strategies? Participants (n=8) were given a set of 19 different strategies to employ in their required 30 minutes of daily-recorded practice. They were counseled on their use of these strategies during lessons. Trained raters used the IPI Rating Forms to quantify strategy implementation for a sampling of 30 minutes of recorded practice for each of nine weeks of instruction (270 minutes). Results of the study provide evidence to suggest that older adults perceived more frequent usage of practice strategies than actual implementation.

[Bugos 2009a] Jennifer A. Bugos and A. Groner. “The Effects of Instrumental Training on Non-verbal Reasoning in Eighth-grade Students”, Research Perspectives in Music Education, Volume 14, March 2009, pages 14–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bugos 2010] Jennifer A. Bugos. “The Benefits of Music Instruction on Processing Speed, Verbal Fluency, and Cognitive Control in Aging «學習音樂對於老年人大腦思維速度、語言流利程度和認知控制能力的益處»”, Music Education Research International, Volume 4, 2010, pages 1–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of active music instruction in piano compared with music listening instruction on executive function in healthy older adults (ages 60-85). Seventy adults were matched by age, education, and estimated intelligence in two 16-week training groups: group piano instruction (GPI) and music listening instruction (MLI). Participants completed a battery of cognitive assessments pre- and post-instruction to examine processing speed, verbal fluency, planning, and cognitive control. Forty-six participants (24 in GPI, 22 in MLI) completed the study. Results of a series of repeated measures ANOVAs reveal no significant group differences on measures of executive function as both groups demonstrated an increase in scores. To further examine the effects of training on specific cognitive abilities, separate analyses of paired t-tests for each independent group indicate significantly enhanced processing speed, verbal fluency, and cognitive control for GPI participants. These results suggest the importance of active music making in community music programs.
Translation: 本研究的目的是爲了比較鋼琴課與音樂欣賞課對於健康老年人(60 歲-85 歲)機體功能的作用。70 位老年人參
與了研究,研究者根據參與者的年齡、教育程度和預估智能高低進行匹配比較。研究過程持續了16 周,參
與者分別接受集體鋼琴課和音樂欣賞課,幷在接受音樂課之前和16 周的音樂指導結束後分別完成了對大腦
思維速度、語言流利程度、計劃和認知控制能力的測試。46 名參與者(24 名鋼琴課,22 名音樂欣賞課)完
成了所有的課程與測試。研究者進行了重複的ANOVA 統計,結果顯示兩組參與者的機體功能測試分數都
在試驗結束後有所提高,沒有顯著區別。爲了進一步證實認知能力訓練的效果,研究者對於匹配後的參與
者的分數進行了t-test 統計。結果證實了接受鋼琴訓練的參與者比接受音樂欣賞課的參與者在思維速度、語
言流利程度、認知控制方面有顯著的提高。研究結果顯示了主動的音樂學習課程在社區音樂課程中的重要
性。

[Bugos 2011] Jennifer Bugos and Wendy Mostafa. “Musical Training Enhances Information Processing Speed”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 187, published by the University of Illinois Press, Winter 2011, pages 7–18. Publication 41162320 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of music instruction on information processing speed. We examined music's role on information processing speed in musicians (N = 14) and non-musicians (N = 16) using standardized neuropsychological measures, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Results of a One Way ANOVA indicate significantly (p < .05) enhanced performance by musicians compared to non-musicians on the PASAT and TMT (Part A and B). These results suggest that musical training has the capacity to enhance processing speed of auditory and visual content. Implications for music educators stemming from these findings include the need for inclusion of rhythmic sight-reading exercises and improvisational activities to reinforce processing speed.

[Bugos 2012] Jennifer A. Bugos. “Working Memory and Cognitive Control in Aging: Results of Three Musical Interventions”, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition and the 8th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Thessaloniki, Greece, July 23–28, 2012, editors: E. Cambouropoulos, C. Tsougras, P. Mavromatis, and K. Pastiadis (editors), July 23–28, 2012, page 176. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conclusions: Musical training may benefit general cognitive abilities. The type of training may predict such benefits. Data suggest that instrumental training enhances working memory performance while music listening instruction may contribute to cognitive control.

[Bugos 2012a] Jennifer Bugos and Edward Jacobs. “Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study”, Research and Issues in Music Education, Volume 10, Number 1, September 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster general analytical/aural skill development associated with vocabulary, arithmetic, and processing speed abilities. Two sixth-grade classes assigned to the experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 13) groups completed a series of standardized neuropsychological and cognitive assessments pre and post-instruction. Results of a Repeated Measures ANOVA (Group X Time) indicate significant (p < .05) enhancements in arithmetic performance by the CiPS group compared to controls. These results suggest that creative experiences with musical notational symbols, sequence creation, and analytical compositional concepts may broadly impact student performance in subject areas depending upon analysis and symbolic manipulation such as arithmetic.

[Bugos 2014] Jennifer Bugos and William Lee. “Perceptions of Challenge: The Role of Catastrophe Theory in Piano Learning”, Music Education Research, Volume 17, Number 3, May 2, 2014, pages 1–15, doi:10.1080/14613808.2014.899334 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of private piano instructors on the role of challenge in teaching and learning the piano and to examine the potential application of catastrophe theory in understanding the role and outcomes of such challenges. A 23-item electronic questionnaire was administered to collect quantitative and qualitative data related to perceptions of music teaching and learning. Respondents included (n = 804) piano instructors affiliated with Music Teachers National Association. Results of a correlation analysis indicate an interaction between years of teaching experience and the potential for a non-linear advancement in music learning. The analysis suggests that catastrophe theory may indeed be applicable to music education. Implications from this research contribute to our knowledge of the role of challenge in student retention and our understanding of curricular development in the advancement of music learning.

[Buisson 1990] D. Buisson. “Les flûtes paléolithique d'Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) «The Paleolithic Flutes of Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques)»”, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Volume 87, Number 10–12, published by the Société préhistorique française, Paris, in French, 1990, pages 420–433, doi:10.3406/bspf.1990.9925. ISSN 0249-7638. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (3)

Abstract: La grotte d'Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) a été fouillée entre 1912 et 1922 par E. Passemard. De 1928 à 1950, R. et S. de Saint-Périer y ont repris des fouilles qui ont été menées jusqu'en 1954 par S. de Saint-Périer après la mort de son mari. Ils ont découvert d'importantes couches archéologiques attribuées au Paléolithique moyen (Moustérien) et supérieur (Aurignacien, Graettien, Solutréen, Magdalénien moyen et supérieur, Azilien). La collection d'Isturitz conservée au Musée des Antiquités Nationales compte une série unique d'os d'oiseaux portant une ou plusieurs perforations, parfois ornés, que nous pouvons interpréter comme des fragments de flûtes. La plupart de ces objets proviennent de la couche gravettienne. Les raccords de plusieurs fragments nous ont permis de reconstituer une flûte à quatre trous ; la plus longue connue à ce jour datant du Paléolithique. L'intérêt de cette étude est aussi de proposer différents modèles théoriques que nous expérimenterons ultérieurement.
Translation: Cave Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) was excavated between 1912 and 1922 by E. Passemard. From 1928 to 1950, R. and S. Saint-Perier have resumed excavations that were conducted until 1954 by S. Saint-Perier after the death of her husband. They found significant archaeological layers attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) and higher (Aurignacian Graettien, Solutrean, Magdalenian Middle and Upper Azilian). The collection of Isturitz in the Museum of National Antiquities has a unique set of bones of birds carrying one or more perforations, sometimes decorated, we can interpret as fragments of flutes. Most of these objects come from the Gravettian layer. The connections of several fragments allowed us to reconstruct a flute with four holes, the longest known to date dating from the Paleolithic. The interest of this study is to propose different theoretical models that we will experience later.

[Bumsted 2007] J. M. Bumsted. A History of the Canadian Peoples, published by Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-542349-6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Burchardt 1977] Bill Burchardt. “The Kiowa Sacred Flute”, Oklahoma Today, Volume 27, Number 2, Spring 1977, page 5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burchardt 1977a] Bill Burchardt. “The Legend of the Flute”, Oklahoma Today, Volume 27, Number 4, Autumn 1977, pages 38–39. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burchell 1824] William John Burchell (1781–1863). Travels in the Interior of Southern Africa, Volume 2, printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1824. Publication travelsininteri00unkngoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burgh 2006] Theodore W. Burgh. Listening to the Artifacts: Music Culture in Ancient Palestine, Illustrated Edition, published by the Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, 181 pages, ISBN 0-567-02542-X (978-0-567-02542-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burke 1937] Carleton Burke. Symphony Iroquoian — Symphonic poem for orchestra, published by the Rochester Music and Science Center, 1937. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burns 1990] Russell M. Burns and Barbara H. Honkala (technical coordinators). Silvics of North America, Volume 1: Conifers; Volume 2: Hardwoods, Agriculture Handbook 654, published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 1990, 877 pages. Silvics of North America Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

Abstract: The total environment of a tree is a complex integration of physical and biological elements. The physical elements are related to climate and soil and include radiation, precipitation, and the movement and composition of air; as well as the texture of the soil and its structure, depth, moisture capacity, drainage, nutrient content, and topographic position. Biological elements are the plant associates; the larger animals that use the forest as a source of food and shelter; the many small animals, insects, and insectuke animals; the fungi to which the trees are hosts; and the microorganisms in the soil.

[Burns-BD 2004] Bruce D. Burns. “The Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess Performance”, Psychological Science, Volume 15, Number 7, 2004, pages 442–447. The Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess Performance Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Lessons on Lessons - article by Clint Goss

Abstract: Two types of mechanisms may underlie chess skill: fast mechanisms, such as recognition, and slow mechanisms, such as search through the space of possible moves and responses. Speed distinguishes these mechanisms, so I examined archival data on blitz chess (5 min for the whole game), in which the opportunities for search are greatly reduced. If variation in fast processes accounts for substantial variation in chess skill, performance in blitz chess should correlate highly with a player's overall skill. In addition, restricting search processes should tend to equalize skill difference between players, but this effect should decrease as overall skill level increases. Analyses of three samples of blitz chess tournaments supported both hypotheses. Search is undoubtedly important, but up to 81% of variance in chess skill (measured by rating) was accounted for by how players performed with less than 5% of the normal time available.

[Burns-DS 2011] Debra S. Burns, Tonya R. Bergeson, Susan M. Perkins, Brenna C. McDonald, Andrew J. Saykin, Fred W. Unverzagt, and Victoria L. Champion. “Music Cognition in Breast Cancer Survivors”, Music and Medicine, Volume 3, Number 4, October 2011, pages 258–263, doi:10.1177/1943862111414434 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Advances in breast cancer treatment have resulted in improved survival rates and concomitant reports of chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction. Music cognition, a form of general cognition, also may be negatively affected by chemotherapy. Moreover, chemotherapy may have general ototoxic effects. The goal of this study was to explore whether breast cancer survivors (BCS) had similar hearing thresholds and music cognition abilities compared with age-matched healthy controls (HC). A total of 56 women (28 BCS and 28 HC) completed the audiometric tests and the Montreal Battery Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Results indicate the 2 groups have similar hearing thresholds. A comparison of music cognition variables suggests possible differences in some music cognition tasks, with HC scoring slightly, but not significantly, better in melodic perception. The BCS scored slightly better, though not significantly, on melodic memory. An adequately powered study including cognitive variables is needed for verification of findings and to establish clinical meaningfulness.

[Burton 1909] Frederick Russell Burton (1861–1909). American Primitive Music — with Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways, published by Moffat, Yard and Company, New York, October 1909, 283 pages plus musical addenda of 79 pages, hardcover. Reissued in [Burton 2006] American Primitive Music — with Special Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways and [Burton 2010] American Primitive Music — with Special Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways. Contains 144 songs. American Primitive Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Revision History

[Burton 2006] Frederick Russell Burton. American Primitive Music — with Special Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways, published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 9, 2006, 380 pages, ISBN 1-4286-4181-5 (978-1-4286-4181-5), softcover. Reissue of [Burton 1909] American Primitive Music — with Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways. American Primitive Music (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burton 2010] Frederick Russell Burton. American Primitive Music — with Special Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways, published by Nabu Press, March 10, 2010, 386 pages, ISBN 1-147-20979-0 (978-1-147-20979-2), softcover. Reissue of [Burton 1909] American Primitive Music — with Especial Attention to the Songs of the Ojibways. American Primitive Music (another edition of this reference) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burton-B 1993] Bryan Burton (born 1948). Moving Within the Circle: Contemporary Native American Music and Dance, published by World Music Press, Danbury, Connecticut, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burton-B 1998] Bryan Burton; Maria Pondish Kreiter (lesson plans). Voices of the Wind — Native American Flute Songs (song book), published by World Music Press, Danbury, Connecticut, 1998, 36 pages, ISBN 0-937203-88-2 (978-0-937203-88-0). Staff notation, no finger diagrams, CD included. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Notes by University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries: Includes transcriptions of eleven traditional songs for flute or recorder, listening lessons, playing tips, historical information, and lesson plans for class use. The companion recording includes each song performed on both Native American flute and recorder.

[Busby 1886] Alli B. Busby. “Two Summers Among the Musquakies”, 1886. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Busch 1918] Carl Busch. Four Separately Published Works for String Orchestra, published by C. Fischer, New York, 1918. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bushyhead 1989] Robert Edward Bushyhead. Songs in the Wind, 1989. Museum of the Cherokee Indian call number 1987.013.026. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Busoni 1913] Ferruccio Busoni. Indian Fantasy, For Piano and Orchestra, Opus 44, KiV 264 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buss 1977] Judy Epstein Buss. The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians, M.Mus. Thesis – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, May 1977, vi + 134 pages. The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

95 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (46), The Warble, Glossary of Native American Flute Terms, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (46), The Flute and Flute Music of the North American Indians

[Buttree 1930] Julia M. Buttree. The Rhythm of the Red Man: In Song, Dance and Decoration, published by A. S. Barnes Co., New York, 1930, 280 pages. Author sometimes cited as Julia M. Buttree-Seton. Contains 106 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Eight citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (4), Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (4)

[Byington 1915] Cyrus Byington. A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 46, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1915, 611 pages. Publication bulletin461915smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

 
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