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References - T

This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter T. For other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references page. You can also click on these direct links to the various pages:

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References - T

[Taboada 2009] Eloy Uribe Taboada. Precisiones Torno al Siku «Clarifications about the Siku», in Spanish, April 9, 2009, 28 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tadashi 1999] Tajima Tadashi (born 1942). Japan — Tajima Tadashi, Master of Shakuhachi, World Network Volume 49, Network Germany, 1999, ASIN B00000IMRJ, Audio CD. Library of Congress call number 6759. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Tailfeathers 2004] Olivia Tailfeathers. Ninihkssin, Arizona Recording Productions, March 22, 2004, UPC 778505121529, audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Takase 2004] Bonpei Takase, Takashi Akima, Kimio Satomura, Fumitaka Ohsuzu, Takemi Mastui, Masayuki Ishihara, and Akira Kurita. “Effects of Chronic Sleep Deprivation on Autonomic Activity by Examining Heart Rate Variability, Plasma Catecholamine, and Intracellular Magnesium Levels”, 4th International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy, Tokyo, Japan, November 8, 2003, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 58, Supplement 1, October 2004, pages S35–S39, doi:10.1016/S0753-3322(04)80007-6. Publication 15754837 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22±1 years; mean±SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events.

[Taki 2014] Akitsugu Taki. “The Proto-Structure of a Folklore Recorded in the Togane Area,“Monta the Piper”―A Note in Community Environmental History «東金地域採集、再話『横笛紋太』の原―物語構造 ―地域環境誌研究ノート»”, Josai International University Bulletin, Volume 22, Number 7, March 2014, pages 65–94. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This is an analysis of a folklore recorded in the Togane area, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, “Monta the Piper”, a biography of a villager ambitious in pipe-playing in the Edo era who went from his birthplace, a village in the Togane area, up to Edo, the Tokugawa shogunate metropolis, to be master of pipe-playing but on a further itinerancy for pipe-playing supremacy and in quest for a treasured exquisite pipe, arrived at a Buddhist temple in Michinoku, the northeastern area in Japan, and, entering priesthood, trained himself for intellectual perfection. In the climax of the story, the priest, highest in intellectuality, allured by the treasured pipe, played highest in sensuous beauty but in the resonance died an atrocious death. By analyzing the story into the pipe-playing musicality in the Buddhistic tradition, the historical intellectual and religious itinerants’ network, and the tradition of practical transcendence by discarnation, I bring to light a universal aspect of humanity behind the ascension and apex in quest for the perfection in musicality and intellectuality. To this folklore analysis I add a suggestion that the antagonism between industrialism and environmentalism cannot be resolved without reconsidering the fundamental aspect of humanity and its related idea of nature as enlightened by the proto-structure deduced from the literature in the pre-scientific age.
Translation: 東金地域で採集された再話「横笛紋太」の物語は、江戸期を舞台として、村人紋太が、横笛修行の
道程で、江戸に上り、名笛「ぬれ羽の笛」の存在を知り、そこから、この名笛を求め、秘匿された陸
奥の寺に上り、仏僧として修行を遂げた末に、終に名笛を紐解き奏で、身を亡う物語である。本稿で は、この物語生成の原構造を、笛、遊行者ネットワーク、亡身の文化史的背景に関する考察を通して 解明し、その原構造の示す世界像が、科学主義が支配する時代に有する意義について付言する。

[Tan 2011] Gabriel Tan, Tam K. Dao, Lorie Farmer, Roy John Sutherland, and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Pilot Study”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 36, March 2011, pages 27–35, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9141-y Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Exposure to combat experiences is associated with increased risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy have garnered a significant amount of empirical support for PTSD treatment; however, they are not universally effective with some patients continuing to struggle with residual PTSD symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the autonomic nervous system functioning and reflects an individual's ability to adaptively cope with stress. A pilot study was undertaken to determine if veterans with PTSD (as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist) would show significantly different HRV prior to an intervention at baseline compared to controls; specifically, to determine whether the HRV among veterans with PTSD is more depressed than that among veterans without PTSD. The study also aimed at assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of providing HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD. The findings suggest that implementing an HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD is effective, feasible, and acceptable for veterans. Veterans with combat-related PTSD displayed significantly depressed HRV as compared to subjects without PTSD. When the veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either HRV biofeedback plus treatment as usual (TAU) or just TAU, the results indicated that HRV biofeedback significantly increased the HRV while reducing symptoms of PTSD. However, the TAU had no significant effect on either HRV or symptom reduction. A larger randomized control trial to validate these findings appears warranted.

[Taniguchi 1985] Yoshinobu Taniguchi (born 1947); Roderic Knight (editor); Kay Stratman (sumi-e paintings). How to Play the Shakuhachi — A Guide to the Japanese Bamboo Flute, published by Tai Hei Shakuhachi, Willits, California, 1985, 53 pages, ASIN B0006EJ8TE, comb binding. Copyright by the Board of Trustees of Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Hon Shirabe Sheet Musich by Yoshinobu Taniguchi, Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Taniguchi 2001] Yoshinobu Taniguchi. Ajikan, Volume 1, Chikuzen Shakuhachi Series, Tai Hei Shakuhachi, CSS-1, 2001, Audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Hon Shirabe - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Tapsell 1997] Paul Tapsell. “The Flight of Pareraututu: An Investigation of Taonga from a Tribal Perspective”, Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 106, Number 4, 1997, pages 323–374. See the Journal of the Polynesian Society web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tapsell 2012] Paul Tapsell. “"Aroha mai: Whose Museum?" — The Rise of Indigenous Ethics within Museum Contexts: A Maori-Tribal Perspective”, contained in [Marstine 2012], 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tarvainen 2012] Mika P. Tarvainen and Juha-Pekka Niskanen. Kubios HRV Version 2.1 — User's Guide, published by the Biosignal Analysis and Medical Imaging Group (BSAMIG), Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, July 6, 2012, 44 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Overview: Kubios HRV is an advanced tool for studying the variability of heart beat intervals. Due to its wide variety of di erent analysis options and the easy to use interface, the software is suitable for researchers and clinicians with varying premises. The software is mainly designed for the analysis of normal human HRV, but can also be used e.g. for animal research.

[TaskForce 1996] Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. “Heart Rate Variability: Standards of measurements, physiological interpretation, and clinical use”, European Heart Journal, Volume 17, March 1996, pages 354–381. Publication 8737210 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[TaskForce 1996a] Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. “Heart Rate Variability: Standards of measurements, physiological interpretation, and clinical use”, Circulation, Volume 93, Number 5, March 1996, pages 1043–1065, doi:10.1161/​01.CIR.93.5.1043. Publication 8598068 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Taslakian 2008] Perouz Taslakian. Musical Rhythms in the Euclidean Plane, Doctoral dissertation – School of Computer Science, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in English and French, December 1, 2008, 208 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This thesis contains a collection of results in computational geometry that are inspired from music theory literature. The solutions to the problems discussed are based on a representation of musical rhythms where pulses are viewed as points equally spaced around the circumference of a circle and onsets are a subset of the pulses. All our results for rhythms apply equally well to scales, and many of the problems we explore are interesting in their own right as distance geometry problems on the circle.

In this thesis, we characterize two families of rhythms called deep and Euclidean. We describe three algorithms that generate the unique Euclidean rhythm for a given number of onsets and pulses, and show that Euclidean rhythms are formed of repeating patterns of a Euclidean rhythm with fewer onsets, followed possibly by a different rhythmic pattern. We then study the conditions under which we can transform one Euclidean rhythm to another through ve di erent operations. In the context of measuring rhythmic similarity, we discuss the necklace alignment problem where the goal is to nd rotations of two rhythms and a perfect matching between the onsets that minimizes some norm of the circular distance between the matched points. We provide o(n2)-time algorithms to this problem using each of the `1, `2, and `1 norms as distance measures. Finally, we give a polynomial-time solution to the labeled beltway problem where we are given the ordering of a set of points around the circumference of a circle and a labeling of all distances de ned by pairs of points, and we want to construct a rhythm such that two distances with a common onset as endpoint have the same length if and only if they have the same label.

[Tate 1998] Elda Tate. “Native American Flute in a University Curriculum”, Voice of the Wind, Year 1998, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 1998, pages 9–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tate 2004] Elda Tate. Native American Flute Song «Anishnaabe bbigon ngamwin» (song book), published by Flutter Publication, 2004, 140 pages, ISBN 0-9759317-0-9 (978-0-9759317-0-7), spiral binding. Nakai tablature notation, six-hole finger diagrams. Contains 130 songs. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

23 citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically (11), Maliseet Love Song - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture (11)

[Tate-L 1990] LaVerne Tate. “Billy Mike and His Courting Flute”, Blue Mountain Shadows, Volume 7, published by the San Juan County Historical Commission, Winter 1990, pages 42–43. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tedlock 1992] Barbara Tedlock. The Beautiful and the Dangerous: Encounters with the Zuñi Indians, First Edition, published by Viking Adult, 1992, 352 pages, ISBN 0-670-84448-9 (978-0-670-84448-7), ASIN 0670844489, hardcover. Reissued in [Tedlock 2001]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Library Journal, by Gwen Gregory: Tedlock first visited the Zuni Reservation, located in western New Mexico, in the late 1960s. She and her husband, Dennis, both anthropologists, spent time there in the 1970s doing fieldwork and research. Tedlock's book is not an ethnography but rather a description of the process of participant observation and its rewards and pitfalls. She shares much information about the Zuni, but most of all this is the story of her personal journey from outsider to Zuni family member. The spirit and humor of the Zunis she knew are very appealing. Tedlock gets at the heart of Zuni life through her many experiences: a trip to a Zunis-only bar, participating in the Shalako ceremony, cooking with Zuni women.

[Tedlock 2001] Barbara Tedlock. The Beautiful and the Dangerous: Encounters with the Zuñi Indians, published by University of New Mexico Press, 2001, 352 pages, ISBN 0-8263-2342-1 (978-0-8263-2342-2), ASIN 0826323421, softcover. Reissue of [Tedlock 1992]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From Publishers Weekly: For more than two decades, Tedlock (Teachings from the American Earth), an anthropologist, and her husband made sporadic visits to their adopted family on the Zuni Indian Reservation of western New Mexico. Here she records legends, songs, ceremonies and folk medicine practices and vividly captures the daily life of this agrarian and matriarchal tribe. The focus zooms in on Hapiya and his wife Tola and their sons and daughters, as they try to maintain balance between the old way and the intrusions of technology and outside culture. The Apollo space mission, for instance, wreaks havoc on the Zuni religion and its gods of the sun and moon. The book powerfully portrays the tribe's visceral and mystic nature.

[Teit 1916] James A. Teit (1864–1922). Songs and Notes Recorded in Ottawa by J.A. Teit. Singer, Chief John Tetlenitsa. Canadian Ethnology Service, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Ontario, Canadian Ethnology Service, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Ontario, 1921. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Teit 1921] James A. Teit. Unpublished Field Collection: Songs and Notes Recorded in Spence's Bridge, B.C., Canadian Ethnology Service, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, Ontario, 1921. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Teit 1930] James A. Teit; Franz Boas (editor). “The Salishan Tribes of the Western Plateaus”, Forty-Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1927-1928, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1930, pages 23–396, retrieved July 7, 2013. Publication annualreportofbu45smithso on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians

[Teplan 2006] Michal Teplan, A. Krakovská, and S. Štolc. “EEG Responses to Long-term Audio-visual Stimulation”, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 59, Number 2, February 2006, pages 81–90, doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.02.005. Publication 15936103 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this study, linear and nonlinear electroencephalogram (EEG) changes due to long-term audio-visual stimulation (AVS) were investigated. In the course of 2 months, 25 repetitions of a 20-min AVS program with stimulation frequencies in the range 2-18 Hz were applied to six healthy volunteers. EEG data were recorded from six head locations during relaxed wakefulness prior to AVS. Then linear spectral measures (total power, frequency band powers, spectral edge frequency, and spectral entropy), nonlinear measures of complexity (histogram-based entropy and correlation dimension), interdependency measures (linear correlation coefficient, mutual information, and coherence), and measures of subjective assessment were estimated. Evolution of these measures during the whole experiment period was analyzed with respect to the significance of their linear regression. Our results confirm that repetitive training with audio-visual stimulation does induce changes in the electro-cortical activity of the brain. Long-term AVS significantly increased power in theta-1, theta-2, and alpha-1 bands in the frontal and central cortex locations. Total power increased in the right central region. Interhemispheric coherence in alpha-1 band displayed a significant increase between frontal parts in contrast to the decrease of both linear correlation and mutual information. Correlation dimension significantly decreased in some locations while entropy displayed an ascending trend.

[Terathongkum 2004] Sangthong Terathongkum and Rita H. Pickler. “Relationships Among Heart Rate Variability, Hypertension, and Relaxation Techniques”, Journal of Vascular Nursing, Volume 22, Number 3, September 2004, pages 78–82, doi:10.1016/j.jvn.2004.06.003. Errata in Issue 4, December 2004, page 140. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a simple noninvasive measurement for investigating autonomic influence on the cardiovascular system. HRV, the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, may be evaluated by time domain and frequency domain methods. HRV can be used as a predictor of risk or warning sign of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have shown that a reduced HRV can also be used as a predictor of hypertension, development of diabetic neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, and lethal arrhythmic complications after an acute myocardial infarction. A few studies have also revealed that relaxation techniques can increase HRV. This article reviews the literature about HRV measurement and the relationships among HRV, hypertension, and relaxation techniques. Limitations of the review literature have also been considered to identify areas for future research.

[Terathongkum 2006] Sangthong Terathongkum. Relationships Among Stress, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Meditators, Doctoral dissertation – Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 2006, 170 pages, retrieved June 8, 2012. See the VCU Digital Archives web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Problem Statement: Growing evidence indicates that psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases through complex neuroendocrine mechanisms. Psychological stress leads to several physiological responses including increased heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) as well as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) through alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), specifically increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Meditation is thought to induce an innate relaxation response leading to reduced psychological stress. Findings from past studies have provided inconclusive evidence regarding the direction and strength of relationships among stress, BP, HRV, and meditation practice.
Procedures: A cross-sectional descriptive-correlational design was used to examine relationships among perceived stress, BP, HRV and meditation practice in meditators. A convenience sample of 71 meditators at two meditation centers in the southeast United States was used. Sample size was based on a power analysis. Each participant was asked to complete meditation, perceived stress, and demographic questionnaires. Participants' BP was measured before meditation and HRV was recorded during a 30 minute meditation session. Finally, BP was recorded after meditation.
Results: Participants were predominantly female (55%), Caucasian/white (94%), and Buddhist (76%), with 93% having at least college graduate. Most participants practiced soto zen or vipassana meditation (45% and 30%, respectively). The average length of total meditation practice was 103.66 months. Participants practiced meditation an average of once a day for 4 days a week with mean session duration of 34 minutes. Most participants had a low level of perceived stress and normal HRV. There was a statistically significant decrease in mean systolic BP after meditation (t = 5.31, p < .0001) and a significant inverse relationship between the length of total meditation practice and perceived current stress. However, there were no statistically significant relationships among meditation practice, perceived stress and the ANS assessed through BP and HRV.
Conclusions: The results suggested meditators had low levels of perceived stress and that meditation had an effect on systolic BP and perceived current stress. Future research needs to include longitudinal studies to elucidate the cumulative effects of consistent meditation practice on psychological and physiological outcomes.

[Terry 1921] Richard Runciman Terry (1865–1938). The Shanty Book, Part 1 - Sailor Shanties, published by J. Curwen & Sons Ltd., London, 1921, softcover. Curwen Edition 6308. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Shenandoah - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Terry 2007] Richard Runciman Terry. The Shanty Book, Part 1 - Sailor Shanties, published by Project Gutenberg, March 8, 2007. See the Project Gutenberg Ebook #20774 web page Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thackeray-AI 1981] Anne I. Thackeray, J. Francis Thackeray, Peter B. Beaumont, and J. C. Vogel. “Dated Rock Engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa”, Science, Volume 214, Number 4516, November 1981, pages 64–67, doi:10.1126/science.214.4516.64. Publication 17802575 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

[Tham 2005] G. J. E. Tham. “Jasmine Flower in Three Different Contexts”, GRASP, 1st Annual Symposium, Wichita, KS, 2005, pages 17–18, retrieved September 23, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thatcher 2008] Robert W. Thatcher. NeuroGuide Manual and Tutorial, published by Applied Neuroscience, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2008, 504 pages, retrieved May 5, 2012. See the Applied Neuroscience web site. NeuroGuide Manual and Tutorial Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Theodat 1636] Gabriel Sagard-Théodat. Histoire du Canada et voyages que les frères mineurs recollects y on faicts pour la conversion des infidèles depuis l'an 1615, Deuxième Partie, Paris, in French, 1636. Reissued in [Theodat 1866]. Contains 1 song. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Theodat 1866] Gabriel Sagard-Théodat. Histoire du Canada et voyages que les frères mineurs recollects y on faicts pour la conversion des infidèles depuis l'an 1615, Deuxième Partie, published by Librairie Tross, Paris, in French, 1866. Reissue of [Theodat 1636]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (3), Membertou's Three Songs - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (4)

[Therond 1878] E. Therond. Le Tour du Monde, 1878. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: Woodcut of The Great Stupa at Sanchi

[Thiel A] Mark Thiel. Indian Way: A Reference Guide to the Heritage of Native North America, published by Noc Bay Trading, Escanaba, Michigan, CD-ROM. See the Noc Bay Trading web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thoegersen 2014] Peter Thoegersen. Microtonal Modes and Scales in the Middle East and Central Asia, 2014. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thomas-EM 2007] Elizabeth Marshall Thomas. The Old Way: A Story of the First People, published by Picador, 2007, 368 pages, ISBN 0-312-42728-X (978-0-312-42728-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Elizabeth Marshall Thomas was nineteen when her father took his family to live among the Bushmen of the Kalahari. Fifty years later, after a life of writing and study, Thomas returns to her experiences with the Bushmen, one of the last hunter-gatherer societies on earth, and discovers among them an essential link to the origins of all human society.

Humans lived for 1,500 centuries as roving clans, adapting daily to changes in environment and food supply, living for the most part like their animal ancestors. Those origins are not so easily abandoned, Thomas suggests, and our modern society has plenty still to learn from the Bushmen.

Through her vivid, empathic account, Thomas reveals a template for the lives and societies of all humankind.

[Thomas-LC 2010] Lisa Cheryl Thomas. Native American Elements in Piano Repertoire by the Indianist and Present-Day Native American Composers, Doctoral dissertation – University of North Texas, May 2010, 86 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: My paper defines and analyzes the use of Native American elements in classical piano repertoire that has been composed based on Native American tribal melodies, rhythms, and motifs. First, a historical background and survey of scholarly transcriptions of many tribal melodies, in chapter 1, explains the interest generated in American indigenous music by music scholars and composers. Chapter 2 defines and illustrates prominent Native American musical elements. Chapter 3 outlines the timing of seven factors that led to the beginning of a truly American concert idiom, music based on its own indigenous folk material. Chapter 4 analyzes examples of Native American inspired piano repertoire by the “Indianist” composers between 1890-1920 and other composers known primarily as “mainstream” composers. Chapter 5 proves that the interest in Native American elements as compositional material did not die out with the end of the “Indianist” movement around 1920, but has enjoyed a new creative activity in the area called “Classical Native” by current day Native American composers.

The findings are that the creative interest and source of inspiration for the earlier “Indianist” compositions was thought to have waned in the face of so many other American musical interests after 1920, but the tradition has recently taken a new direction with the success of many new Native American composers who have an intrinsic commitment to see it succeed as a category of classical repertoire. Native American musical elements have been misunderstood for many years due to differences in systems of notation and cultural barriers. The ethnographers and Indianist composers, though criticized for creating a paradox, in reality are the ones who saved the original tribal melodies and created the perpetual interest in Native American music as a thematic resource for classical music repertoire, in particular piano repertoire.

[Thomas-NW 1910] Northcote Withridge Thomas (1838–1936). Anthropological Report on the Edo-speaking Peoples of Nigeria, Harrison and Sons, London, 1910. Publication anthropologicalr00thom on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa

[Thompson-J 2009] John Thompson. 18 Songs of a Nomad Flute, 2009. See the John Thompson's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thompson-R 1936] Ralph Thompson. American Literary Annuals and Gift Books 1825–1865, published by The H. W. Wilson Company, New York, 1936, 183 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Thompson-WF 2010] William Forde Thompson and Laura-Lee Balkwill. “Cross-cultural Similarities and Differences”, Contained in [Juslin 2010], Chapter 27, April 2010, pages 755–788, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230143.001.0001 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thomson 2006] William Thomson. “Pitch Frames as Melodic Archetypes”, Empirical Musicology Review, Volume 1, Number 2, 2006, pages 85–102. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In our history we have recognized scales of some variety as keystones to music’s pitch structure. And yet, empirical studies of perception and archeological appraisals of human evolution confirm an unchanging cognitive/perceptual ground for the musical experience; they render the ragas and modes and tonoi and scales of the past to be understood only as "local" explanations for things better understood by the space/time kinetics of limited elements rather than by frozen note paradigms.

This paper concludes that an empirical study of music from a broad variety of times and cultures argues for a more elemental basis: thus coinage of the tonality frame. This conceptualization reunites harmonic nucleus with temporal span, meshing as well with ancient and exotic conceptualizations of hierarchical patterning.

[Thong 2003] Tran Thong, Kehai Li, James McNames, Mateo Aboy, and Brahm Goldstein. “Accuracy of Ultra-Short Heart Rate Variability Measures, Volume 3”, Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, September 17–21, 2003, 2003, pages 2424–2427, ISBN 0-7803-7789-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) measures have been used to assess autonomic cardiac regulation. The standard lengths used in HRV analyses are 5 minutes and 24 hours. In this paper we investigated the accuracy of three HRV measures for ultra-short record length, 10 seconds, which is the length of standard electrocardiograms. The measures chosen were: Standard Deviation Normal– Normal (SDNN), Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD), frequency of the peak of the high-frequency (HF) spectra derived using a nonparametric spectrum method. Our analyses indicated that the RMSSD(10)s would be consistent estimates of the 5 minute RMSSD(300)s. The SDNN(10)s were found not to be accurate in our analyses. The HF peak, while promising, would require further studies

[Thornby 1911] Robert Thornby (1888–1953), Helen Case, and Harry T. Morey (actors). The Indian Flute, produced by Vitagraph Company of America, October 11, 1911. silent short black & white drama. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thurber 2006] Myron Ross Thurber. Effects of Heart-rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students, Doctoral dissertation – University of North Texas, December 2006, 94 pages, retrieved June 8, 2012. See the University of North Texas Digital Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade’s rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.149. HR showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.143. HRV showed statistical significance at p=.000 level and a large effect size eta2=.698. This study demonstrated practical/clinical significance of a relatively quick and inexpensive biofeedback training that had large effect at decreasing mental, emotional, and physiological symptoms of MPA for university students.

[Thwaites 1899] Reuben Gold Thwaites (editor) (1853–1913). Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610—1791, Volume 59: Lower Canada, Illinois, Ottawas 1667—1669, Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, published by The Burrows Brothers Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 1899. Publication jesuits59jesuuoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Thwaites 1904] Reuben Gold Thwaites (editor). Early Western Travels 1748–1846: A Series of Annotated Reprints of Some of the Best and Rarest Contemporary Volumes of Travel: Descriptive of the Aborigines and Social and Economic Conditions in the Middle and Far West, During the Period of Early American Settlement, Volumes 22-25, published by the Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1904–1906. Reissue of [Wied 1843]. Publications earlywesterntr23thwa, earlywesterntr24thwa, earlywesterntrav00thwa, earlywesterntrav22thwa, earlywesterntrav23thwa, and earlywesterntrav24thwa on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Tiersot 1905] Julien Tiersot. La musique chez les peuples indigènes de l'Amérique du Nord (Etats-Unis et Canada), Notes d'ethnographie musicale, published by Librairie Fischbacher, Paris, in French, 1905, 93 pages. Extriat du recueil de la Société internationale de musique, année XI, Liv. 2. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tillyard 1916] H. J. W. Tillyard. “The Problem of Byzantine Neumes”, American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, Volume 20, published by Rumford Press for the Archaeological Institute of America, Concord, New Hampshire, 1916, pages 62–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tindall 1857] Henry Tindall. A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Namaqua-Hottentot Language, published by G. J. Pike, Cape Town, South Africa, 1857, 124 pages. Publication gram00marvocabulartindrich on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Tipps 1994] Betsy L. Tipps. “Barrier Canyon Rock Art Dating”, contained in [NPS 2006] The Archeology of Horseshoe Canyon, 1994, pages 35–45. Barrier Canyon Rock Art Dating Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Titiev 1939] Mischa Titiev. “The Story of Kokopele”, American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 41, published by the American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C., 1939, pages 91–98. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Titiev 1944] Mischa Titiev. “The Major Rites of the Flute Societies”, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 22, Number 1, published by Harvard University, 1944, pages 142–154. Reissued in [Titiev 1992]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Titiev 1992] Mischa Titiev. “The Major Rites of the Flute Societies”, from Chapter 11 ("Solstitial and Solar Ceremonies”) of [Titiev 1992a], 1992. Reissue of [Titiev 1944]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Titiev 1992a] Mischa Titiev and Richard Ford. “Old Oraibi: A Study of the Hopi Indians of Third Mesa”, published by the University of New Mexico Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8263-1344-2 (978-0-8263-1344-7). Reissue of [Titiev 1944]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Titon 2009] Jeff Todd Titon, Linda Fujie, David Locke, David P. McAllester, Anne K. Rasmussen, and David B. B. Reck. Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, Third Edition, published by Schirmer, 2009, 464 pages, ISBN 0-495-57010-9 (978-0-495-57010-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

[Tixier 1844] Victor Tixier. Tixier's Travels on the Osage Prairies, in French, 1844. Reissued in [Tixier 1940] and [McDermott 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Names of the Native American Flute

[Tixier 1940] Victor Tixier; John F. McDermott (editor); Albert J. Salvan (translation). Tixier's Travels on the Osage Prairies, published by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1940, xv + 309 pages. Translation and reissue of [Tixier 1844]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Toichi 1997] Motomi Toichia, Takeshi Sugiurab, Toshiya Muraia, and Akira Sengoku. “A New Method of Assessing Cardiac Autonomic Function and its Comparison with Spectral Analysis and Coefficient of Variation of R–R Interval”, Journal of Autonomic Nervous System, Volume 62, Numbers 1/2, January 1997, pages 79–84, doi:10.1016/S0165-1838(96)00112-9. Publication 9021653 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

[Tooker 1986] Elisabeth Tooker. “Fabrics of the Iroquois — The Lewis H. Morgan Collection for the New York State Museum”, Expedition, Volume 28, Number 1, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Spring 1986, pages 29–34. See the University of Pennsylvania Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Toop 2011] David Toop; Derek Wolmsey (host). Music from the Lost Worlds, Adventures in Modern Music, Resonance 104.4FM radio broadcast, October 20, 2011. Music from the Lost Worlds Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Torrence 1989] Gaylord Torrence and Robert Hobbs. Art of the Red Earth People: The Mesquakie of Iowa, published by the University of Iowa Museum of Art, Iowa City, Iowa, 1989, 144 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Review by Helen H. Schuster: Art of the Red Earth People offers the first comprehensive and detailed coverage of the distinctive aesthetic traditions of the Mesquakie Indians of Iowa. It is a catalog prepared to accompany an outstanding exhibition of the same title at the University of Iowa,Museum of Art. Although the catalog was not available until some five months after the exhibition closed, it stands alone as a much needed, significant presentation and discussion of the artistic works of the 'Red Earth People," as the Mesquakie (or Fox) Indians refer to themselves. The authors are two distinguished scholars and art historians who collaborated as guest curators for the exhibition.

[Toskan 2011] Borut Toškan (editor). Drobci ledenodobnega okolja. Zbornik ob življenjskem jubileju Ivana Turka «Fragments of Ice Age Environments. Proceedings in Honour of Ivan Turk’s Jubilee», Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, Number 21, published by Arhiv Inštituta za arheologijo, Znanstvenoraziskovalni center SAZU, Ljubljana, in Slovenian and English, 2011, 280 pages, ISBN-13 978-961-254-257-3, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Toulouse 1960] Joseph H. Toulouse, Jr. and Robert L. Stephenson (born 1919). Excavations at Pueblo Pardo, Central New Mexico, Papers in Anthropology, Number 2, published by the Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 1960, 64 pages. Publication excavationsatpue1960toul on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Touma 1996] Habib Hassan Touma; Laurie Schwartz (translation). The Music of the Arabs, published by Amadeus Press, Portland, Oregon, 1996, ISBN 0-931340-88-8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Perfect Intervals (2)

[Toussaint 2005] Godfried Toussaint. “The Euclidean Algorithm Generates Traditional Musical Rhythms”, Proceedings of BRIDGES: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music and Science, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 31–August 3, 2005, 2005, pages 47–56. Extended version of this paper is [Toussaint 2005a]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Toussaint 2005a] Godfried Toussaint. The Euclidean Algorithm Generates Traditional Musical Rhythms, 2005, 25 pages. Extended version of [Toussaint 2005]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Euclidean algorithm (which comes down to us from Euclid’s Elements) computes the greatest common divisor of two given integers. It is shown here that the structure of the Euclidean algorithm may be used to automatically generate, very efficiently, a large family of rhythms used as timelines (rhythmic ostinatos), in traditional world music. These rhythms, here dubbed Euclidean rhythms, have the property that their onset patterns are distributed as evenly as possible in a mathematically precise sense, and optimal manner. Euclidean rhythms are closely related to the family of Aksak rhythms studied by ethnomusicologists, and occur in a wide variety of other disciplines as well. For example they characterize algorithms for drawing digital straight lines in computer graphics, as well as algorithms for calculating leap years in calendar design. Euclidean rhythms also find application in nuclear physics accelerators and in computer science, and are closely related to several families of words and sequences of interest in the study of the combinatorics of words, such as mechanical words, Sturmian words, two-distance sequences, and Euclidean strings, to which the Euclidean rhythms are compared.

[Tramo 2001] Mark Jude Tramo. “Music of the Hemispheres”, Science, New Series, Volume 291, Number 5501, published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, January 5, 2001, pages 54–56. Publication 3082168 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Trease 2006] Christine K. Trease. “Fremont Flute Found in Range Creek is Music to our Ears — Press Release”, December 19, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2), Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P

[Trease 2007] Christine K. Trease (editor). “Fremont Flute Measures up against the Biggies”, Raptor Review, Issue 7, published by the College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum, Price, Utah, April 2007, page 1. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Flutopedia Image Detail: Broken Flute Cave flutes in the Arizona State Museum, Flutopedia Image Detail: The Range Creek Freemont Flute, Flute Catalog for the Native American Flute - P

[Trease 2010] Christine K. Trease (editor). “Range Creek Flute Update”, Raptor Review, Issue 17, published by the College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum, Price, Utah, January 2010, page 8. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Range Creek Freemont Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Tremaine 1967] Daniel V. Tremaine. “Wind Instrument”, United States Patent 3,326,073, Granted June 20, 1967, 5 pages, retrieved December 5, 2009. Wind Instrument Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Patents and Patent Applications Related to Flute Construction

[Trigger 1978] Bruce G. Trigger (volume editor); William C. Sturtevant (general editor). Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15: Northeast, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 1978, 924 pages, ISBN 0-87474-195-5 (978-0-87474-195-7). See the Handbook overview on Smithsonian Institute web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: 73 chapters on Indians from Virginia to St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Ohio Valley, Illinois.

[Tripathi 2004] Lt. Col. KK Tripathi. “Respiration And Heart Rate Variability: A Review With Special Reference To Its Application In Aerospace Medicine”, Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine, Volume 48, Number 1, 2004, pages 64–75. Respiration And Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular control mechanisms. The last few years have witnessed a burgeoning growth of research effort and literature on various HRV indices, encompassing a large cross section of cardiovascular and autonomic physiology/psychophysiology. The analysis finds varied applications in a multitude of fields including Aerospace Medicine. After presenting a brief summary of linear and nonlinear HRV indices, the present article reviews the effects of various respiratory influences on different HRV estimates with the mechanisms involved therein. Certain examples are given, from the field of Aerospace Medicine, of the application of HRV analysis wherein respiration could be a potential confounder. Concerns expressed regarding effects of controlling the respiratory variables on HRV indices are addressed and, finally, the issue of susceptibility of non-linear HRV estimates to breathing is dealt with.

[Tripcevich 2013] Nicholas Tripcevich and Kevin J. Vaughn (editors). Mining and Quarrying in the Ancient Andes — Sociopolitical, Economic, and Symbolic Dimensions, Interdiciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, published by Springer-Verlag, 2013, 353 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4614-5199-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Trombetti 2011] Andrea Trombetti, Mélany Hars, François R. Herrmann, Reto W. Kressig, Serge Ferrari, and René Rizzoli. “Effect of Music-Based Multitask Training on Gait, Balance, and Fall Risk in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Trial”, Archives of Internal Medicine, Volume 171, Number 6, March 28, 2011, pages 525–533, doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.446 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Falls occur mainly while walking or performing concurrent tasks. We determined whether a music-based multitask exercise program improves gait and balance and reduces fall risk in elderly individuals.
Methods: We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial involving 134 community-dwelling individuals older than 65 years, who are at increased risk of falling. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 66) or a delayed intervention control group scheduled to start the program 6 months later (n = 68). The intervention was a 6-month multitask exercise program performed to the rhythm of piano music. Change in gait variability under dual-task condition from baseline to 6 months was the primary end point. Secondary outcomes included changes in balance, functional performances, and fall risk.
Results: At 6 months, there was a reduction in stride length variability (adjusted mean difference, -1.4%; P < .002) under dual-task condition in the intervention group, compared with the delayed intervention control group. Balance and functional tests improved compared with the control group. There were fewer falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.79) and a lower risk of falling (relative risk, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.96). Similar changes occurred in the delayed intervention control group during the second 6-month period with intervention. The benefit of the intervention on gait variability persisted 6 months later.
Conclusion: In community-dwelling older people at increased risk of falling, a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program improved gait under dual-task condition, improved balance, and reduced both the rate of falls and the risk of falling. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01107288.

[Troutman 2004] John William Troutman. Indian Blues: American Indians and the Politics of Music, 1890-1935, Doctor of Philosophy dissertation – The University of Texas at Austin, August 2004, 345 pages. See the University of Texas Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Various Native American individuals and communities effectively utilized the practice of music as a political catalyst between 1890 and 1935 to both reshape federal Indian policy and to develop new, modern expressions of tribal and Indian identity. I focus primaril on three performative arenas: reservations (mostly Lakota), offreservation boarding schools, and professional public venues such as theatres, concert halls, and Chautauqua circuits.

The contests over the practice of music by American Indians in these arenas serve to thematically join the dissertation chapters. Chapter one examines the ways in which the Lakota manipulated tropes of citizenship and patriotism through dance in order to reinvigorate their Lakota identity in the midst of assimilation and allotment policies. The next chapter investigates the impact of the press and trends in popular culture on federal policy as many American Indians protested loudly over the renewed efforts of the OIA to suppress dancing on a national scale in the mid 1920s. Chapter three focuses on the boarding schools, where the music education curricula initially focused on regimentation, cadence, and discipline. I examine the implications of what forms of music school officials deemed appropriate, and how the students responded to the instruction. The following chapter maintains a focus on the schools. While the marching bands, string quartets, and vocal lessons ostensibly served the OIA to inculcate particular Anglo cultural tastes, many teachers and superintendents also engaged in a movement to teach the students through musical instruction how to become, on their terms, "proper" Indians. I investigate the relationship between these agendas and the impetus behind the movement. The final chapter explores the lives of several alumni who utilized their musical training on a professional level. They crafted modern constructions of Indian identities in part through the performance of Indianness before the public, in defiance of the era’s assimilation policies. With an education rooted in the dismemberment of their tribal identities, they engaged the market economy and the public on their own terms, celebrating their difference and often advocating for change in federal Indian policy through the public platforms that their musical talents provided.

[Troutman 2009] John William Troutman. Indian Blues: American Indians and the Politics of Music, 1879-1934, The New Directions in Native American Studies series, Volume 3, published by the University of Oklahoma Press, May 30, 2009, xvi + 323 pages, ISBN 0-8061-4019-4 (978-0-8061-4019-3), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: A Brief History of the Native American Flute

Publisher's description: From the late nineteenth century through the 1920s, the U.S. government sought to control practices of music on reservations and in Indian boarding schools. At the same time, Native singers, dancers, and musicians created new opportunities through musical performance to resist and manipulate those same policy initiatives. Why did the practice of music generate fear for government officials and opportunity for Native peoples?

In this innovative study, John W. Troutman explores the politics of music at the turn of the twentieth century in three spheres: reservations, off-reservation boarding schools, and public venues such as concert halls and Chautaqua circuits. On their reservations, the Lakotas manipulated concepts of U.S. citizenship and patriotism to reinvigorate and innovate social dances, even while the federal government stepped up efforts to suppress them. At Carlisle Indian School, teachers and bandmasters used music in hopes of imposing their "civilization" agenda, but students made their own meaning of their music. Finally, many former students, armed with saxophones, violins, or operatic vocal training, formed their own "all-Indian" and tribal bands and quartets and traversed the country, engaging the market economy, and federal Indian policy initiatives, on their own terms.

While recent scholarship has offered new insights into the experiences of "show Indians" and evolving powwow traditions, Indian Blues is the first book to explore the polyphony of Native musical practices and their relationship to federal Indian policy in this important period of American Indian history.

[Trowbridge 1939] C. C. Trowbridge (1800–1883); Vernon Kinietz and Erminie W. Voegelin (editors). “Shawnese Traditions: C. C. Trowbridge's Account”, Occasional contributions from the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan, Issue 9, published by University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June 1939, 71 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Instrumental and Vocal Love Songs of the North American Indians (2)

[Troyer 1904] Carlos Troyer (1837–1920). Traditional Songs of the Zuñi Indians — With English and Zuñi Text, Four Volumes, First Series (song book), published by The Wa-Wan Press, Newton Center, Massachusetts, 1904, 30 pages. 1. Zunian lullaby; 2. Zuni Lover's Wooing or Blanket Song; 3. The Sunrise Call; 4. The Coming of Montezuma. Library of Congress call number M1669 .T864t. Contains 5 songs. Traditional Songs of the Zuñi Indians Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Zuni Sunrise - Sheet Music for Native American Flute

[Troyer 1913] Carlos Troyer. Indian Music Lecture - The Zuñi Indians and their Music, published by Theo Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913, 44 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Trumbull 1903] James Hammond Trumbull (1821–1897); Edward Everett Hale (introduction). Natick Dictionary, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 25, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1903, xxviii + 349 pages. Publication bulletin251903smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2)

[Trussell 2010] Ron Trussell. “Ani-Tsalagi Language Letter Use”, Tsalagi Tsunalugi - Newsletter of Tsalagiyi Nvdagi Indian Tribe, Fall 2010, 8 pages. Ani-Tsalagi Language Letter Use Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Tribal Identification

[Tsai 2013] Jui-Feng Tsai, Shaw-Hwa Jou, WenChun Cho, and Chieh-Min Lin. “Electroencephalography when Meditation Advances: A Case-based Time-series Analysis”, Cognitive Processes, April 5, 2013, 6 pages, doi:10.1007/s10339-013-0563-3. Publication 23558913 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Increased alpha and theta activities in electroencephalography (EEG) have been found during various forms of meditation. However, advanced stage of meditation drew less attention to date. We aimed at exploring EEG characteristics during advanced meditation. Bilateral absolute alpha and theta EEG powers were recorded when a single meditator at rest, exercising breath meditation, and reaching the advanced meditative stage in 10 sessions of meditation. Averaged time-series data were analyzed using simulation modeling analysis to compare the powers during different meditative phases. During breath meditation, significantly higher activities compared with baseline were found only in bilateral theta (P = 0.0406, 0.0158 for left and right sides, respectively), but not in alpha (P = 0.1412, 0.0978 for left and right sides, respectively) bands. When meditation advanced, significantly increased activities were found both in bilateral alpha (P = 0.0218, 0.0258 for left and right sides, respectively) and theta (P = 0.0308, 0.0260 for left and right sides, respectively) bands compared against breath meditation. When advanced meditation compared against baseline, bilateral alpha (P = 0.0001, 0.0001 for left and right sides, respectively) and theta (P = 0.0001, 0.0001 for left and right sides, respectively) bands revealed significantly increased activities. Our findings support that internalized attention manifested as theta activity continuingly enhances significantly in sequential phases of meditation, while relaxation manifested as alpha activity is significant only after the advanced meditative phase is reached.

[Tse 2009] TSE Chun Yan Victor. From Chromaticism to Pentatonism: A Convergence of Ideology and Practice in Qin Music of the Ming and Qing Dynasties «從半音階到五聲音階:明清琴曲音律實踐與意識形態的匯合», Ph.D. dissertation – The Chinese University of Hong Kong, August 2009, xi + 226 pages. See the TSE Chun-Yan web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Qin music in the living tradition passed down from the late Qing Dynasty uses mostly an anhemitonic pentatonic scale, in line with the Confucian ideology favoring the use of pentatonic notes. The intonation used is typically based on the circle of fifths, in line with traditional Chinese music theory.

In this study, I demonstrate that the practice in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was far from the Confucian ideology and traditional theory. Through a rigorous methodology, representative pieces from past scores are reconstructed, and the use of tonal materials in past scores is studied. The results show that notes outside the pentatonic scale were often used in the early Ming Dynasty qin pieces. Non-circle-of-fifths intonation elements, including vernacular intonation elements, were used frequently in the Qing Dynasty, and possibly the Ming Dynasty.

Changes in the tonal materials during the transmission process are then traced. The use of non-pentatonic notes was gradually reduced, and the pieces became mostly pentatonic in the mid-Qing Dynasty. Efforts to eliminate the non-circle-of-fifths intonation elements began to appear in the mid-Qing Dynasty, and the elimination was successful in the late Qing Dynasty.

There were multiple contextual factors related to the changes. The loss of repertoire during the wartime periods before the Ming Dynasty led to the exoticness of the chromatic qin pieces among the less chromatic majority. Pursuit of simplicity and subtlety in qin music probably contributed to the further reduction of chromatic notes in the late Ming Dynasty. The elimination of the 4th and 7th degrees in the Qing Dynasty could be related to the preference for the "southern style" among the literati, but ideological factors probably were operative as well. These included the quest for antiquity and identity issues. Both were intimately related to social and political factors, associated with frustrations of the Han Chinese under the rule of Manchus. On the other hand, the effort to eliminate the non-circle-of-fiflhs intonation elements was prompted mainly by the increasing emphasis among scholars to put theory into practice near the end of the Qing Dynasty. Finally, ideology and practice converged, and pentatonism and "proper" intonation prevailed.
Translation: 現今的古琴音樂承傳自清末,主要使用五聲音階,律制主要使用五度律。這
符合推崇五聲音階的儒家理念和傳统律學理論。
反觀明清時期琴曲的音律使用,卻跟傳统理念有很大差異。透過嚴謹的方
法,我從古譜重塑具代表性的琴曲,並分析古譜音律的運用。結果顯示’明初琴
曲常使用五聲以外的樂音;“非五度律”的音位,包括民間音律,則常使用於清
朝琴曲,或甚至明朝琴曲。
我接著探討了音律使用的轉變過程。五聲以外的樂音,在承傳中續漸減少,
至清朝中葉,大部份琴曲已是五聲;減用“非五度律”音位的嘗試,則在清朝中
葉出現,至清末才達致成效。
以上的轉變曾受到多個背境因素影響。明朝以前的戰亂弓丨致大量琴曲流失,
半音性的琴曲在較少用半音的音樂環境中,便顯得乖異。明末琴人追求清微淡
遠,進一步減少半音的使用。清朝琴曲捨棄第四級音和第七級音,可能與文人推
崇“南派”風格有關,但更受意識形態的影響,包括復古心態和身份象徵,而兩
者與當時的歷史文化背境息息相關,涉及漢人在滿人統治下的困擾。另一方面,
捨棄“非五度律”的音位’主要受到清末學者強調把理論付諸實踐的影響。最
後,理論與實踐匯合,五聲音階與“正統”律制終於成爲了主流。

[Tsu 1985] Lao Tsu; Richard Wilhelm (German translation); H. G. Ostwald (English translation). Tao Te Ching, published by Arkana, an imprint of Routledge, Kegan, & Paul, 1985, ISBN 1-85063-011-9 (978-1-85063-011-1), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Readings and Quotations on Music

[Tuchman 1986] Maurice Tuchman (editor). The Spritual in Art: Abstract Painting, 1890-1985, published by Abbeville Press, New York, 1986. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tuck 1976] James A. Tuck (born 1940) and Robert J. McGhee. “An Archaic Indian Burial Mound in Labrador”, Scientific American, Volume 235, Number 5, November 1976, pages 122–129. An Archaic Indian Burial Mound in Labrador Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The L'Anse Amour Flute

Abstract: Ancient burial mounds are usually associated with large, stable agricultural societies. Yet the oldest mound known, now found on a subarctic shore, was made by a band of hunters and gatherers.

This journal article describes the archaeological excavation by Memorial University, Newfoundland, of a subarctic Archaic Indian burial mound (grave) near L'Anse L'Amour, Labrador, Canada. Removal of sand and boulders revealed traces of red ochre and organic stains. Stone and bone artifacts accompanying the prone skeleton include knives, projectile points, pebbles, pendant and a whistle. A harpoon head and toggle confirms that these prehistoric hunters pursued sea mammals as well as caribou. Carbon 14-dating of charcoal samples estimates the date at approximately 5,000 B.C.

[Tuck 1976a] James A. Tuck. Ancient People of Port au Choix — The Excavation of an Archaic Indian Cemetery in Newfoundland, Fourth Printing, 1994, Newfoundland Social and Economic Studies, Number 17, published by the Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1976, xi + 264 pages, ISBN 0-919666-12-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tuck 1977] James A. Tuck. “Early Cultures on the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 288, February 1977, pages 472–480, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb33637.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tulk 2009] Janice Esther Tulk. Welta'q "It Sounds Good": Historic Recordings of the Mi'kmaq, published by the MMaP Research Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, 2009, audio CD with liner notes. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Nancy Lewis (Mi’kmaw) Holding a Flute, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Tulppo 2004] Mikko Tulppo and Heikki V. Huikuri. “Origin and Significance of Heart Rate Variability”, Journal of the Americn College of Cardiology, Volume 43, Number 12, June 2004, pages 2278–2280, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.03.034 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tuniz 2012] Claudio Tuniz, Federico Bernardini, Ivan Turk, Ljuben Dimkarozki, Lucia Mancini, and Diego Dreossi. “Did Neanderthals Play Music? — X-Ray Computed Micro-tomography of the Divje Babe 'Flute'”, Archaeometry, Volume 54, Issue 3, June 2012, pages 581–590, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2011.00630.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Archaeological evidence for wind musical instruments made by modern humans has been well established from the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. Musical instruments evidently made by Neanderthals have not been found so far. The most controversial object is a juvenile cave bear femur with two complete holes, found in 1995 in the Middle Palaeolithic layers of the Cave Divje babe I, Slovenia. The bone was interpreted as a possible Neanderthal ‘flute’, but some scholars have firmly rejected this hypothesis on the basis of taphonomic observations, suggesting a carnivore origin for the holes. Here, we show the results of X-ray computed micro-tomography (mCT) performed on the Divje babe I ‘flute’. Our analyses demonstrate that there were originally four holes, possibly made with pointed stones and bone tools. Most surface modifications near the holes, previously interpreted as effects of carnivore gnawing, are post-depositional marks. Furthermore, a thin layer has been removed around one of the complete holes, producing a flat surface, possibly to facilitate perforation. The new data show that a Neanderthal manufacture of the object cannot be ruled out.

[Turff 1997] Gina M. Turff. A Synthesis of Middle Woodland Panpipes in Eastern North America, M.A. dissertation – Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawings of the Helena Crossing Hopewell panpipe, The Development of Flutes in North America

[Turff 2006] Gina M. Turff and Christopher Carr. “Hopewellian Panpipes from Eastern North America — Their Social, Ritual, and Symbolic Significance”, contained in [Carr 2006], 2006, pages 648–695, doi:10.1007/0-387-27327-1_18 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawings of the Helena Crossing Hopewell panpipe, The Development of Flutes in North America (4)

[Turino 1989] Thomas Turino. “The Coherence of Social Style and Musical Creation among the Aymara in Southern Peru”, Ethnomusicology, Volume 33, Number 1, published by the University of Illinois Press, Winter 1989, pages 1–30. Publication 852167 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Turk 1997] Ivan Turk (editor). Moustérienska 'koščena piščal' in druge najdbe iz Divjih bab I v Sloveniji «Mousterian 'Bone Flute' and Other Finds from Divje Babe I Cave Site in Slovenia», Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, Number 2, published by the Znanstvenoraziskovalni Center Sazu, Ljubljana, Slovenia, in Slovenian, 1997, 223 pages, ISBN 961-6182-29-3 (978-961-6182-29-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Publisher's description: The most topical Middle Paleolithic site in Slovenia is presented in full detail in this series. The Divje Babe I cave site became famous for the discovery of what current investigations indicate could be the oldest human flute known, made of the bone of a cave bear. The principal parts of the book address typological, technological, acoustic and musicological aspects of this remarkable find. Individual chapters present the stratigraphy, chronology, fauna and flora from the site, in addition to the Paleolithic material finds up to the layer including the bone flute.

[Turk 2008] Ivan Turk. Upper Pleistocene Site Divje Babe I, 2008, retrieved February 6, 2011. Upper Pleistocene Site Divje Babe I Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Turk-M 2011] Matija Turk and Ljuben Dimkaroski. “Neanderthal Flute from Divje Babe I: Old and New Findings”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 251–266. Neanderthal Flute from Divje Babe I Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The perforated femur of a cave bear, found in 1995 in the Palaeolithic cave site of Divje babe I (western Slovenia), has been the subject of many a heated discussion on its origin since its discovery. Whereas some advocate a natural origin of holes, the consequence of carnivore gnawing, others argue for an artificial origin and see in it the product of a Neanderthal. The results of experimental piercing of fresh brown bear femurs using casts of carnivore teeth, the results of experimental archaeology as well as computer tomography of the disputed flute confirm the latter, that is artificial origin of the holes. This is further confirmed by the latest musicological research, which brings new findings on the musical capacity of the flute. This research was carried out on an authentic replica of the flute, whereby the proximal part of the flute served as the mouthpiece and the distal, broader part as the bell. The disposition of holes and the preserved length of the flute form a system, which enables a wide range of sonority and melodic motion and thus reveals the object as an instrument in the proper sense of the word. In the sound sequence of a twelve-tone scale, the instrument has a two and a half octave compass, which extends to over three octaves by over-blowing. The technical capacity of the instrument in terms of expression thus leaves no doubt as to the artificial origin of holes and their deliberate alignment. The layer, in which the flute was found, is ESR dated to between 60 and 50 ky in the past. The flute from Divje babe I is today considered the oldest instrument and the first known to have been made by Neanderthal hands. Its technological perfection points to high cognitive abilities of Neanderthals.

[Turnbull 1992] Colin Turnbull and Francis S. Chapman (original recordings, compilation, and editing); Michelle Kisliuk (reissue compilation and editing); Alan Yoshida (remastering). Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Rainforest, Smithsonian / Folkways, CD SF 40401, 26 tracks, 1992. Originally issued as Folkways FE 4457 in 1957 and FE 4483 in 1958. See the Smithsonian / Folkways Recordings web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Africa (2)

Publisher's description: "Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Rainforest captures the variety and tonal quality of the solo and choral traditions present in Mbuti vocal music. Songs are primarily concerned with Mbuti's nomadic life and the forest, from which their lives and those of the animal kingdom are sustained. These prized recordings have been remastered and resequenced to reflect Dr. Turnbull's original mode: the recording begins in the forest with music associated with hunting and gathering, moves to the village for a Bantu initiation ritual, and finally returns to the forest for the Mbuti rituals. This record documents the music discussed in the book The Forest People, read by many anthropology classes."

[Turner 1989] Otha Turner. Otha Turner - Live 1989 - Memphis Music & Heritage Festival, Center for Southern Folklore, CSF 1906, 5 tracks, December 9, 2014, ASIN B00QRKYN2I, audio digital download. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture

[Turner 1999] Othar Turner & the Afrossippi Allstars. From Senegal to Senatobia, November 15, 1999, audio CD. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized by Culture, Ethnographic Flute Recordings of North America - Organized Chronologically

Review by Brian Beatty on AllMusic.com: Mississippi fife legend Turner is joined on this outing by a loose union of players billed as the Afrosippi All Stars. This makeshift band is comprised of members of Turner's family, visiting Senegalese musicians, a university percussion student/organizer, and slide guitarist/producer/North Mississippi All Star Luther Dickinson. Their sympathetic accompaniment on African percussion, kora, and bottleneck guitar give "Shimmy She Wobble," "Station Blues," and Bounce Ball -- reprised from his recording debut, Everybody Hollerin' Goat -- a depth lacking on his earlier versions. Traditional African drums exchange rhythms with marching-band snares and bass drums. Staccato kora melodies complement whining slide guitar riffs. And Turner's shrill, archaic fife floats freely over it all. The title track is the album's most distinctly African number, and probably the only track here easy on the listener's ears. The closing "Sunu" is five minutes of nothing but drums. This is hardly good-time music for casual blues listeners or weekend world music fans, but it's important music all the same, bridging, as it does, great distances between continents and traditions.

[Turner 2002] Steve Turner. Amazing Grace: The Story of America's Most Beloved Song, published by Harper Collins, New York, 2002, 304 pages, ISBN 0-06-000219-0 (978-0-06-000219-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Amazing Grace - Sheet Music for Native American Flute (2)

From Library Journal, by Barry Zaslow: Turner, a respected British music biographer (Trouble Man: The Life and Death of Marvin Gaye), divides his excellent book into two almost even halves. Part 1, "Creation," tells the story of John Newton (1725-1807), the lyricist of "Amazing Grace." Part 2, "Dissemination," provides new evidence for the tune's origin, explains how the words and a variety of tunes came together until the familiar match was arrived at, reveals which stanzas are commonly sung, and discusses popularizers like Mahalia Jackson and Judy Collins (who wrote the foreword). Turner's account of Newton's life reads like a good suspense novel: he carefully sets the stage for Newton's conversion from slave trader to abolitionist champion while presenting his experiences as a country clergyman and relationships with poet William Cowper and politician William Wilberforce, among others. The hyperbolic subtitle does not originate with the author, but the book is fully researched and supplemented by useful appendixes, including a discography and a "Who's Who" of performers who recorded the song, as well as up-to-date references to events in 2002. William Phipps's Amazing Grace in John Newton is the most recent comparable title, but it has a more academic slant and focuses more on the person than the song. Heartily recommended for all collections.

[Tvauri 2007] Andres Tvauri and Taavi-Mats Utt. “Medieval Recorder from Tartu, Estonia”, Estonian Journal of Archaeology, Volume 11, Number 2, in English and Estonian, 2007, pages 141–154. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Medieval Recorder

Abstract: In summer 2005 a complete and well preserved recorder was unearthed during archaeological excavations in the centre of Tartu in a latrine dated to the 14th century. The instrument is nearly cylindrical and is made of maple. Tartu recorder belongs to three oldest surviving medieval recorders. We are thus dealing with an extremely rare find and as yet the Tartu recorder is the best survived medieval recorder ever found.

[Tyler 1907] Lyon Gardiner Tyler (editor) (1853–1935). Narratives of Early Virginia 1606–1625, Original Narratives of Early American History series, published by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1907, 478 pages. Rights assigned to Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1946, printed 1959. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tyler 1920] Robert Tyler. The Contrast — A Comedy in Five Acts, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 1920, 120 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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