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Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America

This page provides a listing of ethnographic and reference recordings from Central Ameria that are related to world flutes. They are sorted by culture and then chronologically.

Please refer to the Ethnographic Flute Recordings Overview Page for background on these listings.

Ethnographic Flute Recordings from Central America

These entries are sorted first by culture and then by the date (sometimes approximate) of the recording.

The term “collector” is used to indicate the researcher who oversaw the effort to record the material. In many cases, this person also serves as the recording engineer, although this role is typically not specified.

In the case of the publication of multiple editions of the audio material on different media (for example, LP, cassette, and compact disc), only the most recent edition is cited. However, the text of liner notes from earlier editiions is sometimes provided. Click on the citation tag to see the listing of all published editions.

Colima

[Rawcliffe 2008-03] Scott Wilkinson (performer); Susan Rawcliffe (collector). Colima Double Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double whistle), Colima culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:44.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 3.

1Rawcliffe description: Double whistle from Colima, West Mexico, Classic period, Fowler Museum. First the individual whistles are heard; played together, strong beats are heard. Edge tone at the end.


Huichol (Wixáritari)

[Huichol 1898] Unknown Huichol performer; Carl Sofus Lumholtz (collector) (1851–1922). Blowing Flute. Huichol (Wixáritari) culture. Recorded 1898, Mexico, Length: 1:03.
» Expedition described in Unknown Mexico, in two volumes ([Lumholtz 1902]).
» Recording described in Cylinder Recordings from Carl Lumholtz' "Unknown Mexico" ([Spear 1984]).
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-11 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress2, Washington, DC. AFS 11017:B2.
Bliven ID: Huichol 1

1Federal Cylinder Project listing: Huichol Music. The Carl Sofus Lumholtz Collection, AFS No. 11,017:B2; Original No. 18; AMNH Cat No. 272: Song 1) [Blowing Flute]

²Library of Congress information: MEXICO RECORDINGS IN THE ARCHIVE OF FOLK CULTURE
Compiled by: Mary Alfaro, Marjorie K. Crouch, Joseph C. Hickerson, Therese Langer
Series Editor: Ann Hoog
Revised: January 2013
AFS 11,007-11,299: Helen Roberts Collection
One hundred sixty-seven 12-inch, 79 10-inch, 40 8-inch, and 7 7-inch discs of various songs from Australia, California, China, Hawaii, Mexico, the South Pacific Islands, and Tahiti; and of North American Indians. Recorded by various collectors, including Berthold Laufer, Carl Lumholtz, and C. E. Shaeffer and donated by Helen Roberts. The collection includes 37 pages of correspondence, logs and notes.
AFS 11,017-11,023: Seven 12-inch discs containing copies of cylinders of music of the Huichol Indians, recorded by Carl Lumholtz in central Mexico, 1898. (preservation tape LWO 5111 reel 360A-B)
AFS 11,254 B1-3: One 12-inch disc containing music of the Huichol Indians. (preservation tape LWO 5111 reel 378B)
----------------------
From Crawford cover on the LOC CD-R: Track 22: Huichol Blowing Flute. AFS 11017:B2. Carl Sofus Lumholtz Collection.


Jaina-Maya

[Rawcliffe 2008-06] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Campeche Double Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double whistle), Jaina-Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:25.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 6.

1Rawcliffe description: Double whistle, Campeche, Jaina – Maya, A.D. 700–900, private collection. The individual whistles are heard first; played together, a low difference tone decreases with increased air pressure. Edge tone before and after.


Lakondo

[Montul 1952] S. Montul (performer); John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Flute Melody. Solo flute, Lakondo culture. Recorded 1952, Oaxaca, Mexico, Length: 1:22.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 998 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 35, Track 4).

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)

Transcription of Lakondo Flute Melody by J. D. Robb

Transcription of Lakondo Flute Melody by J. D. Robb Larger image


Maya

[Rawcliffe 2002-03] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Maya Bird Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Maya culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:28.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 3.

1Rawcliffe description: Measuring 55 x 62 x 81 mm, this Maya bird or possibly testicular whistle is from the island of Jaina, A.D. 700-900, late Classic Culture. In sound sample no. 3, note that the combination tone falls and rises with air pressure variation.


[Rawcliffe 2002-07] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Maya Tri-Globular Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Maya culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 2:10.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 7.

1Rawcliffe description: Measuring 56 x 38 x 71 mm (The proximal hole is 5 mm, the front distal is 4.5, and the rear, 4.5. The aperture measures 8 x 7.5), this tri-globular Maya frog-like flute can play a wide variety of sounds.


[Rawcliffe 2002-09] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Maya Zoomorph Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Maya culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:28.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 9.

1Rawcliffe description: This Maya zoomorph bird/animal specimen has two acoustically coupled chambers and measures 151 x 79 x 87 mm. The whistle forms the bird's head and the airduct is the beak. An open chamber is slung below, forming the body. Below the beak, there is an opening from the lower chamber to the outside. To vary the sound, the flute can be moved in and out against the lip.


[Rawcliffe 2008-07] Scott Wilkinson (performer); Susan Rawcliffe (collector). Belize Double Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double ocarina), Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:39.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 7.

1Rawcliffe description: Double ocarina, Belize – Maya, Post Classic period, with two fingerholes each ocarina. Fowler Museum. Individual sounds: first the left ocarina, fingering positions L1 – L4 then the right, positions R1 – R 4. (See Tab. 1) First played with steady air pressure, followed by air pressure variations, except for fingering L4. The right ocarina has air noise and audible high partials; the left ocarina stops at maximum air pressure.


[Rawcliffe 2008-08] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Belize Double Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double ocarina), Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 1:20.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 8.

1Rawcliffe description: Double ocarina, Belize – Maya, Post Classic period, with two fingerholes each ocarina. Fowler Museum. Interval combinations: Each interval is heard first with steady air pressure, except as noted, followed by air pressure variations for each interval.
Fingering positions L1 with R1 – 4
Fingering positions L2 with R1 – 4
Fingering positions L3 with R1 – 4
Fingering positions L4 with R1 – 4; no steady air pressure selections.


[Rawcliffe 2008-09] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Belize Double Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double ocarina), Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:21.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 9.

1Rawcliffe description: Double ocarina, Belize – Maya, Post Classic period, with two fingerholes each ocarina. Fowler Museum. Samples used for the sonograms, cut from the longer selections:
2.9” of fingering position L1, 3.6” of fingering position R3, and 3.2” of interval L1 & R3
3.6” of interval L4 & R1
2.4” of interval L2 & R3
3.4” of interval L4 & R3


[Rawcliffe 2008-10] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Belize Double Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double ocarina), Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:41.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 10.

1Rawcliffe description: Double ocarina, Belize – Maya, Post Classic period, with two fingerholes each ocarina. Fowler Museum. Difference tone melody.


Mexican

[Mexican 1963] Unknown Mexican performer. Flauta de Hueso Melody «Bone Flute Melody». Mexican culture. Recorded before 1963.
» Recording part of Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection (set of audio CDs [CSWR 2008] Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection), item 012.
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM. MU 4 / 012 / CD 1.


Michoacán/Jalisco

[Rawcliffe 2002-08] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Michoacán/Jalisco Poly-Globular Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Michoacán/Jalisco culture. Recorded 1981, Length: 0:29.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 8.

1Rawcliffe description: This poly-globular flute from Michoacán/Jalisco, A.D. 600-900, has two balls connected by one tube; it is brown with traces of white inlayed sgraffito in band and wave patterns. It is 180 mm long; the diameter of each ball is 40, and the tube is 19 mm long. The diameter of each fingerhole is 5 mm and the distance between holes is 130. I did not play any pitch sequence, however, note the wide range of pitches and multiphonics. Located in the Museo de Guadalajara, Mexico, the photo and recording were made in 1981.


Olmec

[Rawcliffe 2002-16] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Olmec Chamberduct Flute Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Olmec culture. Recorded 1981, Length: 0:52.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 16.

1Rawcliffe description: This Olmec chamberduct flute is from Tzotepan, Recolección de Superficie. It is 100 mm long, the tube is 28 mm in diametcr, the balls about 40 mm and the top sounding hole about 5 mm. This flute is located in the Musco de Antropología de Ia Universidad Veracruzana; the photo and recording were made in 1981.


Totonac

[Totonac 1951-01] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Dance of the Guaguas. Flute and Drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 6:27.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 979 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 17).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)

Transcription of Dance of the Guaguas by J. D. Robb

Transcription of Dance of the Guaguas by J. D. Robb Larger image


[Totonac 1951-02] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Dance of the Guaguas. Flute and Drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 0:58.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 980 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 18).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)

Transcription of Dance of the Guaguas by J. D. Robb

Transcription of Dance of the Guaguas by J. D. Robb Larger image


Transcription of
Music of the Voladores
by J. D. Robb

Transcription of
Music of the Voladores
by J. D. Robb Larger image

[Totonac 1951-03] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 1:40.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 972 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 9).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


[Totonac 1951-04] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 1:46.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 972a (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 10).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


[Totonac 1951-05] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 1:38.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 973 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 11).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


[Totonac 1951-06] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 2:36.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 974 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 12).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


[Totonac 1951-07] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 1:13.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 975 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 13).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


[Totonac 1951-08] Unknown performer; John Donald Robb (collector) (1892–1989). Music of the Voladores. Bamboo flute and small drum, Totonac culture. Recorded 1951, Papantla, Mexico, Length: 2:22.
» Transcribed in The J. D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies, in three volumes ([Robb 1979a]).
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico1, Albuquerque, NM. ZIM CSWR Robb MU 7; index number 976 (Digital ID: MU 7, CD 34, Track 14).

The culture was not specified for the recording. This dance is also performed by some groups of Nahuas and Huastecs who live in the area where the music was recorded.

¹CSWR description: Part of John Donald Robb Archive of Southwestern Music. Indexed in J.D. Robb Collection of Folk Music: Melodies (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R6 in 3 volumes) and Song Texts (ZIM CSWR Anderson ML 156.4 F6 R61 in 3 volumes)


Tule

Igwa Nigdibippi, 1924
BAE GN 4299 B, National
Anthropological Archives,
Smithsonian Institution

Igwa Nigdibippi, 1924
BAE GN 4299 B, National
Anthropological Archives,
Smithsonian Institution Larger image

[Nigdibippi 1924] Igwa Nigdibippi (born 1893) and Alfred Robinson (performers); Frances Densmore (collector). Melodies played upon the flute and panpipe. Tule culture. Recorded 1924, Panama.
» Discussed in Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1924 ([Smithsonian 1925]).
» Discussed in Music of the Tule Indians of Panama1 ([Densmore 1926a]).
» Listed in The Federal Cylinder Project: A Guide to Field Cylinder Collections in Federal Agencies, Volume 5: California Indian Catalog, Middle and South American Indian Catalog, Southwestern Indian Catalog-12 ([Gray 1990]).
» Recording archived at The Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. AFS 10690: A2-A5.

Four panpipe and one flute melody

1Densmore flute description: The Tule flute is "made of a different sort of reed" from that used in making the panpipes and all flutes are the same length. Such an instrument in the Marsh Collection is 24½ inches long and the two fingerholes are respectively 5 and 6 inches distant from the lower end. In making a flute the pith of a reed is removed with the stiff quill of a tail-feather of the wild turkey. The opening is flushed with water to remove all shreds of fiber, after which the fingerholes are burned with a hot iron and shaped with a sharp knife.

The manner of playing this flute is unique in that the end is held inside the player's mouth, apparently being placed near the roof of his mouth while the breath is directed across the open tube. It is believed this manner of playing the flute has not previously been described. When a gourd rattle is used with a flute, the player shakes the rattle with his right hand while holding the flute in position and manipulating the fingerholes with his left hand. The instrument is used thus at a wedding, two new flutes being made for the occasion.

2Federal Cylinder project: Information provided in personal communication from Judith Gray to Clint Goss, January 19, 2011:
Frances Densmore; Cuna (Panama); 1924
AFS 10690:A2-A5 -- melodies played upon the flute and panpipe (4 panpipe and 1 flute melody); played by Igwa Nigdibippi and Alfred Robinson

Transcription of the flute melody by Frances Densmore

Transcription of the flute melody by Frances Densmore Larger image


Uluoid-Maya

[Rawcliffe 2002-02] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Uluoid-Maya Frog Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Uluoid-Maya culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:31.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 2.

1Rawcliffe description: This frog whistle is late Classic, Uluoid-Maya from Honduras. It measures 90 x 53 x 77 mm. The airducts have suffered damage which may affect their frequencies. In sound sample no. 2, a beat can c1early be heard that becomes an audible tone with increased air pressure.


[Rawcliffe 2008-05] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Ulua-Maya Double Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double whistle), Uluoid-Maya culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:26.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 5.

1Rawcliffe description: Double whistle, Ulua – Maya from Honduras, Late Classic period, private collection. First the individual whistles are heard; played together, a buzz is heard then a low, soft difference tone, increasing and decreasing along with the air pressure. Double edge tones at the end.


Unknown

[Mexican 1941] Unknown Mexican performers; Laura Boulton (collector) (1899–1980). Pre-columbian, Ancient instruments, conch shells, notched sticks, ocarina, bells, flutes bronze. Unknown culture. Recorded before 1941, Mexico City.
» Recording part of Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection1 (set of audio CDs [CSWR 2008] Indian Music of the Southwest and Mexico Collection), item 025.
» Recording archived at The Center for Southwest Research, University Libraries, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM. MU 4 / 025 / CD 2.

1CSWR description: Pre-columbian, Ancient instruments, conch shells, notched sticks, ocarina, bells, flutes bronze
Artist: Mexico City
Record Co.: RCA Victor P-94
recorded by Laura Boulton in the field before 1941


Veracruzano

[Rawcliffe 2002-04] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruz Large Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:40.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 4.

1Rawcliffe description: From Veracruz, this piece measures 74 x 74 x 60 mm. The larger whistle with one fingerhole has a diameter of about 35, and the smaller, a diameter of about 17 mm. In sound sample no. 4, note that the pitch of the latter is more than an octave above the former. The combination tone is most audible when the fingerhole of the larger ocarina is opened, bringing the two sounds closer together in pitch.


[Rawcliffe 2002-05] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruz Bi-Globular Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 1:44.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 5.

1Rawcliffe description: This bi-globular mid-Classic A.D. 450-700 Veracruzano flute plays a major and minor triad. Measuring 170 mm long; the top ball is 60 x 78, the join is 59 in diameter, and the lower ball is 72.5 in diameter. (The proximal fingerhole measures 4.5, the distal front hole is 6 and the rear, 5. The apeture measures 15 x 15). The head dress of the figure forms the lip rest. It plays essentially one relatively high overtone for all finger positions, and does not play multiphonics.


[Rawcliffe 2002-06] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruz Black Bi-Globular Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 2:01.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 6.

1Rawcliffe description: From the Veracruzano Classic culture, A.D. 300-900, this black burnished bi-globular flute has a large saddle mouthpiece with a floral figure carved on each ball. It measures 69 x 41 x 56 mm (The proximal hole is 5.S mm, the front distal is 5.6, and the rear, 5.5) and plays useable harmonics and multiphonics.


[Rawcliffe 2002-12] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruzano Frontpiece Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:21.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 12.

1Rawcliffe description: Representing the category of frontpiece whistles, the Veracruzano Fat God on the left in the photo is late Classic A. D. 650-750, probably Nopilóa phase. It measures 103 x 60 x 47 mm. A suspension hole is clearly visible at the top of his head.


[Rawcliffe 2002-13] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruzano Lip Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:24.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 13.

1Rawcliffe description: In the photo, the relatively large Veracruzano Classic A.D. 600-750 lip ocarina has a head with an elaborate headdress on a round body with a tripod base. It measures 102 x 62 x 68 mm.


[Rawcliffe 2002-14] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruzano Bird Head Lip Ocarina Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute, Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2002, Length: 0:20.
» Published in Sounding Clay: Pre-Hispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2002]), sound sample 14.

1Rawcliffe description: The Iizard or bird head lip ocarina located in front of the above is also from Veracruz and measures 26 x 27 x 58 mm.


[Rawcliffe 2008-04] Susan Rawcliffe (researcher and performer). Veracruz Double Whistle Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double whistle), Veracruzano culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 0:32.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 4.

1Rawcliffe description: Double whistle from Veracruz, Late Classic, Nopiloa II, A.D. 600–750, private collection. The ocarina has one fingerhole. The individual whistles are heard first; together, a faint, fluttering tone is heard between the two flutes. Edge tones before and after.


West Mexico

[Rawcliffe 2008-01] Scott Wilkinson (performer); Susan Rawcliffe (collector). Double Flute Reference Recording «REF». Solo flute (double flute), West Mexico culture. Recorded 2007, Length: 1:15.
» Published in Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes1 ([Rawcliffe 2008]), track 1.

1Rawcliffe description: Double flute, West Mexico; with four holes each tube, Fowler Museum.
a) At the fundamentals, there is a 31⁄2 cycles per second beat; the holes of both flutes are then opened sequentially from all closed to all open.
b) Difference tone melody, played in the second register by Scott Wilkinson.


 
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