Flutopedia - an Encyclopedia for the Native American Flute

Sign up for our Flute Newsletter

 


 
Previous PageNext Page
Flutopedia.com

Archaeology References

This is a list of archaeology-related references cited throughout Flutopedia.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

Archaeology References

[Adams-KR 2006] Karen R. Adams. “Through the Looking Glass — The Environment of the Ancient Mesa Verdeans”, Contained in [Noble-DG 2006], 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andric 2011] Maja Andrič. “Lateglacial Vegetation at Lake Bled and Griblje Marsh (Slovenia): A Comparison of (in Last Glacial Maximum) Glaciated and Non-glaciated Landscapes”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 235–250. Lateglacial Vegetation at Lake Bled and Griblje Marsh (Slovenia) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: The results of pollen analysis suggest that at the beginning of the Lateglacial interstadial (14300 cal. BP) an open woodland (Pinus, Betula) was growing at both study sites, but an increase of mesophilous deciduous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus), Betula and Picea at ca. 13800 cal. BP indicated further climatic warming, and the differences between study sites became apparent. Whereas in warmer southestern Slovenia (Griblje) Tilia and Betula were more abundant, pollen influx for these two taxa was much lower at Lake Bled, which was located in colder northwestern Slovenia in glaciated landscape and mountains. At both study sites a decline of tree taxa and an increase of herbs (Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Artemisia) suggest colder and drier conditions in the Younger Dryas.

[Applegate 2008] Darlene Applegate. “Woodland Period”, contained in Volume 1 of [Pollack 2008], 2008, pages 339–604. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

Introduction: The Woodland period (1000 B.C. to A.D. 1000) in Kentucky was a time of cultural continuities as well as cultural innovations. Food collection remained the prevailing subsistence pursuit, populations lived in mostly small communities for varying lengths of time, utilitarian tools were used for a variety of domestic tasks, and inter-regional contacts including long-distance trade continued. Overlaying these continuities, however, were technological, social, and ideological developments or intensifications, most notably the adoption or elaboration of pottery and textile industries, introduction of the bow and arrow, cultivation of indigenous plants, development of substantial housing and nucleated settlements, construction of earthworks, and elaboration of mortuary-ritual activities. The pace and impacts of these cultural changes varied widely across Kentucky.

[Atema 2004] Jelle Atema. “Old Bone Flutes”, Pan, Volume 23, Number 4, December 2004, pages 18–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baby 1961] Raymond S. Baby. “A Hopewell Human Bone Whistle”, American Antiquity, Volume 27, Number 1, July 1961, pages 108–110. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Barahona 2002] Agustin Barahona. “Ancient Objects Related to Music and Ancient Egypt in the National Archaeological Museum of Madrid”, contained in [Eldamaty 2002], 2002, pages 75–86. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barber-SB 2009] Sarah B. Barber, Gonzalo Sánchez, and Mireya Olvera. “Sounds of Death and Life in Mesoamerica: The Bone Flutes of Ancient Oaxaca”, Yearbook for Traditional Music, Volume 41, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 2009, pages 94–110. Publication 25735480 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Este ensayo presenta un estudio en la arqueologia musical la cual se enfoqua en una flauta hecha del femur de un venado proveniente del sitio arqueologico de Yugüe, en el estado Mexicano de Oaxaca. Utilizando perspectivas de arqueologia antropologica, conservacion, y etnomusicologia, discutimos la tecnologia e ideologia de la musica de las flautas en la Mesoamerica antigua. La flauta de Yugüe provee datos invaluables en terminos de estas perspectivas debido a su antigtiedad (esta de 100-250 d.C), su condicion casi completa, y porque esta tallada en una manera elaborada. La flauta era una ofrenda mortuaria la cual se habia puesto en la mano de un joven elite quien murio entre las edades de 15 y 17 aiios. Al igual que la mayoria de los instrumentos encontrados en contextos arqueologicos, la flauta de Yugüe se encontro en un mal estado de preservation. Se requirio conservacion profesional antes de estar analizada. La estabilizacion revelo una flauta con ducto externo y estaba tallada con una representation antropomorfica del mismo instrumento y de un ancestro o deidad que se manifestaba a traves de la musica. Aunque las incisiones estaban generalmente intactas, a causa de su condicion delicada no fue posible tocar el instrumento. Una copia experimental se hizo para determinar el mecanismo con cual la flauta producia sonido. Basada en estos estudios interdisciplinarios, nosotros argtiimos que la flauta de Yugüe era parte de una tradition tecnologica regional caracterizada por la ubicacion de la boquilla al lado opuesto de lo orificios. Las incisiones indican que el instrumento era visto como un objeto animado que tenia la abilidad de manifestar fuerzas divinas o ancestrales. Finalmente, instrumentos mas recientes de la epoca pre-Colombiana e imagenes de los codices demuestran que la tecnologia e ideologia representada por la flauta de Yugüe tenia una larga historia en la Mesoamerica.
Translation: This paper presents a study in musical archeology which enfoqua in a flute made from the femur of a deer Yugüe the archaeological site in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. We use anthropological perspectives of archeology, conservation, and ethnomusicology, discuss technology and ideology of the music of flutes in ancient Mesoamerica. Yugüe flute provides invaluable data in terms of these perspectives due to its antigtiedad (this AD 100-250), his condition almost complete, and that is carved in an elaborate way. The flute was a gravestone offering which had put in the hand of a young elite who died aged 15 or 17 years. Like most of the instruments found in archaeological contexts Yugüe flute was found in a poor state of preservation. Professional conservation was required before being analyzed. The stabilization revealed a flute with external pipeline and was carved with an anthropomorphic representation of the same instrument and an ancestor or deity manifested itself through music. Although the incisions were generally intact, because of his delicate condition was not possible to play the instrument. An experimental copy was made to determine the mechanism by which the flute was producing sound. Based on these interdisciplinary studies, we argtiimos Yugüe flute that was part of a regional technological tradition characterized by the location of nozzle holes than the opposite side. The incisions indicate that the instrument was seen as an animated object that had the ability to manifest divine or ancestral forces. Finally, more recent instruments of the pre-Colombian era and images of the codices show that the technology and ideology represented by the flute Yugüe had a long history in Mesoamerica.

[Bard 2008] Kathryn A. Bard. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, published by Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., Oxford, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Berger-R 1983] Rainer Berger. “Direct Bone Dating in a Small CO2 Counter”, Radiocarbon, Volume 25, Number 2, 1983, pages 655–659. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A small 200ml capacity CO2 proportional counting system has been developed which uses only 100mg of carbon for complete filling. Thus, with respect to the small quantities needed, it compares favorably to dedicated accelerators at significantly lower cost. The performance of this equipment is demonstrated using a variety of samples including some human bone fragments from La Jolla which had been estimated to be 28,000 years old by aspartic acid racemization analysis.

[Bernheimer 1924] Charles L. Bernheimer. Rainbow Bridge — Circling Navajo Mountain and Explorations in the "Bad Lands" of Southern Utah and Northern Arizona, First Edition, published by Doubleday, Page and Company, Garden City, New York, 1924, 182 pages. Publication rainbowbridgecir013405mbp on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Bernotas 2008] Rivo Bernotas. “Dendrodates of Three Medieval Latrines of Tartu”, Estonian Journal of Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 1, in English and Estonian, 2008, pages 16–29, doi:10.3176/arch.2008.1.02 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Medieval Recorder

Abstract: In the article dendrodates of three latrines in Tartu (15 Ülikooli Street, latrines 1b and 5, and 14 Ülikooli Street, latrine 14G-14F) are viewed and they are compared with other archaeological findings. Latrine 1b dates back to the year 1335, latrine 5 to the year 1309 and latrine 14G-14F to the year 1362. The research is unique in northern Europe, because the specifics of medieval waste management are viewed using exact dating. As a result of the research, it was found out that the latrines were used at least 40 years and that the theories of emptying latrines starting not before early modern times are not true.

[Both 2002] Arnd Adje Both. “Aztec Flower-Flutes: On the Symbolic Organization of Sound in Late Postclassic Mesoamerica”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], 2002, pages 279–289. Aztec Flower-Flutes Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This article discusses the organology and acoustics of musical instruments related to the Tezcatlipoca-ritual, preserved in the Ethnological Museum Berlin. It also puts the relevant ethnohistorical information together, providing insights regarding the meaning of these instruments.

[Both 2004] Arnd Adje Both. “Shell Trumpets in Mesoamerica — Music-Archaelogical Evidence and Living Tradition”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2004], 2004, pages 261–277. Shell Trumpets in Mesoamerica Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Abstract: This article discusses the meaning of shell trumpets as ceremonial musical instruments in Classic and Postclassic Mesoamerica (Teotihuacan, Maya, Aztecs). It also provides an ethnoarchaeological research discussing ethnographical and ethnomusicological data on contemporary ethnic groups (Huichol, Maya-Lacandon). The addendum includes an introduction on the organology and acoustics of shell trumpets.

[Both 2005] Arnd Adje Both. Aerófonos mexicas de las ofrendas del Recinto Sagrado de Tenochtitlan «Aztec Aerophones of the Temple Precinct of Tenochtitlan», Ph.D. dissertation – Lateinamerika-Institut, Freie Universität Berlin (Universidad Libre de Berlín), Germany, in Spanish and German, 2005, 346 pages. Aerófonos mexicas de las ofrendas del Recinto Sagrado de Tenochtitlan Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The study discusses Aztec sound artefacts, such as shell trumpets, whistles and flutes, excavated in the offering caches of the temple precinct of Tenochtitlan, Valley of Mexico (Late Postclassic Mesoamerica, 1350-1521 AD). The archaeological context of these finds reveals extensive information on specific musical practices performed in Aztec temple cult and insights into the prehispanic musical thought. Furthermore, the perfect state of preservation of the excavated instruments allows them to be played and their performance and acoustic characteristics to be investigated. The interdisciplinary approach enlights the debate from both archaeological and musicological perspectives, complementing the information drawn from ethnohistorical sources and proposing answers to many of the questions on Aztec music culture which were, heretofore, left unanswered.

[Both 2008] Arnd Adje Both, Ricardo Eichmann, Ellen Hickmann, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Challenges and Objectives in Music Archaeology, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 6, Papers from the 5th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Ethnological Museum, State Museums, Berlin, September 19–23, 2006, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 22, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2008, 616 pages, 518 illustrations, 14 tables, 8 diagrams, 8 plates, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-652-6 (978-3-89646-652-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Both 2009] Arnd Adje Both. “Music Archaeology: Some Methodological and Theoretical Considerations”, Yearbook for Traditional Music, Volume 41, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 2009, pages 1–11. Publication 25735475 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle 1898] David Boyle. Archaeological Report 1898 — Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario, published by Warwick Bros. & Rutter, Toronto, Ontario, 1898, 211 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brade 1982] Christine Brade. “The Prehistoric Flute — Did It Exist?”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 35, published by the Galpin Society, March 1982, pages 138–150. Publication 841239 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Survey of the literature concludes that Palaeo and Neo flutes remain unproven, and that not every prehistoric object with holes is necessarily a music-producer. J V S Megaw adds an appendix drawing attention to R A Harrison's work (79/6272) including experiments, on pierced phalanges; and there are two Upper Palaeo bone 'flutes' in the British Museum. Hence the debate remains open (see also 87/1287, 90/354).

[Brovarski 2000] Edward Brovarski. The Senedjemib Complex, Part 1, Giza Mastabas, Volume 7, published by the Arts of the Ancient World, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brown-EJ 2005] Emily J. Brown. Instruments of Power: Musical Performance in Rituals of the Ancestral Puebloans of the American Southwest, Doctoral dissertation – Columbia University, New York, 2005, 553 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Names of the Native American Flute (2), The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: The nature and degree of hierarchy in middle-range societies is a topic of recent interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. The use of ritual to add the power of tradition to social and political authority is one way leaders in such societies might have reinforced their positions. In this dissertation, a multidisciplinary approach is taken to analyze prehispanic musical instruments, architecture, and imagery from the American Southwest to identify the social contexts and physical settings of ritual musical performance among the Ancestral Puebloans. The results show a correlation between elaboration of ritual and periods of increased social and political complexity, suggesting that authority figures in middle-range societies of the prehispanic Southwest included music in manipulation of aspects of ritual performance to further their political ends.

[Brown-EJ 2009] Emily J. Brown. “Musical Instruments in the Pre-Hispanic Southwest”, Park Science, Volume 26, Number 1, Spring 2009, retrieved December 4, 2011. ISSN 1090-9966. See the Article on the National Park Service web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Introduction: Studying the music of past eras is challenging, even when written manuscripts are available. In archaeological contexts without written records, it becomes yet more difficult. However, a surprising amount can be learned by studying musical instruments from archaeological sites. Researchers studying the social and physical contexts in which music took place (Brown 2005) and the instruments themselves (Olsen 1990) have identified some roles music may have played in prehistoric societies. Music lends itself well to ritual; strategic use of ritual is one way Ancestral Puebloan leaders in the American Southwest established, validated, and maintained their social authority.

[Buisson 1990] D. Buisson. “Les flûtes paléolithique d'Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) «The Paleolithic Flutes of Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques)»”, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Volume 87, Number 10–12, published by the Société préhistorique française, Paris, in French, 1990, pages 420–433, doi:10.3406/bspf.1990.9925. ISSN 0249-7638. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (3)

Abstract: La grotte d'Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) a été fouillée entre 1912 et 1922 par E. Passemard. De 1928 à 1950, R. et S. de Saint-Périer y ont repris des fouilles qui ont été menées jusqu'en 1954 par S. de Saint-Périer après la mort de son mari. Ils ont découvert d'importantes couches archéologiques attribuées au Paléolithique moyen (Moustérien) et supérieur (Aurignacien, Graettien, Solutréen, Magdalénien moyen et supérieur, Azilien). La collection d'Isturitz conservée au Musée des Antiquités Nationales compte une série unique d'os d'oiseaux portant une ou plusieurs perforations, parfois ornés, que nous pouvons interpréter comme des fragments de flûtes. La plupart de ces objets proviennent de la couche gravettienne. Les raccords de plusieurs fragments nous ont permis de reconstituer une flûte à quatre trous ; la plus longue connue à ce jour datant du Paléolithique. L'intérêt de cette étude est aussi de proposer différents modèles théoriques que nous expérimenterons ultérieurement.
Translation: Cave Isturitz (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) was excavated between 1912 and 1922 by E. Passemard. From 1928 to 1950, R. and S. Saint-Perier have resumed excavations that were conducted until 1954 by S. Saint-Perier after the death of her husband. They found significant archaeological layers attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) and higher (Aurignacian Graettien, Solutrean, Magdalenian Middle and Upper Azilian). The collection of Isturitz in the Museum of National Antiquities has a unique set of bones of birds carrying one or more perforations, sometimes decorated, we can interpret as fragments of flutes. Most of these objects come from the Gravettian layer. The connections of several fragments allowed us to reconstruct a flute with four holes, the longest known to date dating from the Paleolithic. The interest of this study is to propose different theoretical models that we will experience later.

[Campbell-PD 1995] P. D. Campbell and D. Wescott. “California Elderwood Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, Number 2, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995, pages 27–29. ISSN 1078-4845. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Carstens 2004] Kenneth C. Carstens and Philip J. DiBlasi. “Unique Prehistoric Cultural Artifacts in the S-Bend Area of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky”, contained in [Hockensmith 2004], 2004, pages 69–83. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Chase 1998] Philip G. Chase and April Nowell. “Taphonomy of a Suggested Middle Paleolithic Bone Flute from Slovenia”, Current Anthropology, Volume 39, Number 4, August–October 1998, pages 549–553. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cheong 2014] Kong F. Cheong, Terry G. Powis, Paul F. Healy, Roger Blench, and Linda Howie. “Recovering Music from Pacbitun, Belize: New Evidence for Ancient Maya Instruments”, Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology, Volume 11, 2014, pages 177–190. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coles 1967] John M. Coles. “Experimental Archaeology”, Proceedings of the Anthropological Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1966-1967, Volume 99, 1967, 2 plates, pages 1–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coles 1979] John M. Coles. Experimental Archaeology, published by Academic Press, 1979, 274 pages, ISBN 0-12-179750-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coles 2010] John M. Coles. Experimental Archaeology, 2010, ISBN-13 978-1-932846-26-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Coltrain 2007] Joan Brenner Coltrain, Joel C. Janetski, and Shawn W. Carlyle. “The Stable- and Radio-Isotope Chemistry of Western Basketmaker Burials: Implications for Early Puebloan Diets and Origins”, American Antiquity, Volume 72, Number 2, 2007, pages 301–321. See the University of Utah Anthropology web site. The Stable- and Radio-Isotope Chemistry of Western Basketmaker Burials Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito, The Development of Flutes in North America (2), Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave (2)

Abstract: The timing and degree of reliance on maize agriculture in the Four Corners region of the American Southwest has been a central issue in studies that examine the origins of Puebloan society. Both diffusionist (various, but see Wills 1995) and migrationist (Berry and Berry 1986; Matson 1991) models have been proposed to explain the processes responsible for the movement of maize (Zea mays) north into the Four Corners region. This paper reports bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values with paired accelerator radiocarbon dates on a large collection of human remains from western Basketmaker II/III sites in Marsh Pass and other areas of northeastern Arizona, as well as data on a small number of Puebloan remains including Chacoan Great House burials. The results make clear that Basketmaker II people were heavily dependent on maize by 400 B.C. Moreover, their degree of dependence is similar to that of Pueblo II and III farmers of the Four Corners region. These findings and the apparent rapidity of maize dependence support a migrationist model for the origins of maize farming in the northern Southwest.

[Comte 2003] Christian le Comte. Indígenas Argentinos «Indigenous Argentinians», published by Maizal, in Spanish, 2003, 32 pages, ISBN 987-9479-10-6 (978-987-9479-10-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Conard 2008] Nicholas J. Conard and Maria Malina. “New Evidence for the Origins of Music from the Caves of the Swabian Jura”, Challenges and Objectives in Music Archaeology, Orient-Archäologie 22, contained in [Both 2008], 2008, pages 13–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Bei Ausgrabungen der Universität Tübingen in den Höhlen der Schwäbischen Alb in Südwestdeutschland konnten drei paläolithische Flöten aus den aurignacienzeitlichen Schichten des Geißenklösterle geborgen werden. Darunter sind zwei Exemplare aus Vogelknochen und seit kurzem auch eine Flöte, die aus Mammutelfenbein gefertigt wurde.
Die Flöten aus dem Geißenklösterle sind weltweit die ältesten bekannten Musikinstrumente. Die Schichten, aus denen sie stammen, wurden mit der Thermolumineszenz-Methode auf ca. 37.000 Jahre vor heute und mit der Radiokohlenstoff-Methode auf 29–37.000 Jahre vor heute datiert. Die Instrumente stammen aus fundreichen Schichten, die sowohl zahlreiche organische als auch Steinartefakte sowie figürliche Kunst und Schmuck geliefert haben.
Experimentelle Rekonstruktionen zeigen, dass sowohl die Vogelknochenflöten als auch die Elfenbeinflöte voll entwickelte Musikinstrumente sind. Sie dokumentieren eine gut ausgebildete Musiktradition auf der Schwäbischen Alb während des frühen Jungpaläolithikums. Neue Ausgrabungen am Vogelherd führten darüber hinaus zu der Entdeckung dreier bearbeiteter Vogelknochenfragmente, die sehr wahrscheinlich ebenfalls zu einer Flöte, ähnlich den Knochenflöten aus dem Geißenklösterle, gehören.
Translation: During excavations by the University of Tübingen in the caves of the Swabian Alb in southwestern Germany, three Paleolithic flutes were recovered from the Aurignacian layers of Geißenklösterle . Among them are two specimens from bird bones and, more recently, a flute, which was made ​​from Mammoth ivory.
The flutes of Geißenklösterle are the oldest known musical instruments worldwide. The layers from which they are derived have been dated by the thermoluminescence method to about 37,000 years before present and with the radiocarbon method to 29-37000 years ago. The instruments come from fund -rich layers that have delivered both numerous organic and stone artifacts , as well as figurative art and jewelery.
Experimental reconstructions demonstrate that both the bird bone flutes as well as the ivory flute are fully developed musical instruments. They document a well-trained musical tradition in the Swabian Alb during the early Upper Paleolithic. New excavations at Vogelherdhöhle have also led to the discovery of three processed bird bone fragments that are likely to also belong to a flute, similar to the bone flutes from the Geißenklösterle .

[Coppens 2002] Philip Coppens. “Caral: The Oldest Town in the New World”, Frontier Magazine, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2002, retrieved September 4, 2010. Caral Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

Abstract: In 2001, the oldest town in South America was officially announced. Dating to 2600 BC, it pushed back the date for the “first town” with one millennium. What is even more intriguing, is that the town of Caral has pyramids, contemporary with the Egyptian Pyramid Era.

[Crane 1968] H. R. Crane and James B. Griffin. “University of Michigan Radiocarbon Dates XII”, Radiocarbon, Volume 10, 1968, pages 61–114. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Breckenridge Flute (4)

[Culiberg 2011] Metka Culiberg. “Fragments of Ice Age Environments — Palaeobotanical Research at Palaeolithic Sites in Slovenia”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 219–234. Fragments of Ice Age Environments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Palaeobotanic material, such as wood charcoal and/or pollen has been found in numerous Palaeolithic sites in Slovenia. More than 20 charcoal rich hearths were discovered in the Mousterian cave site Divje Babe I from the Middle Würm (approximately 80,000 to 40,000 BP). Thousands of specimens of charcoal were analysed from this site. It was established that conifers (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, Taxus, Juniperus) dominated the vegetation in the area of the site during that period, which were joined in warmer periods of the Glacial by various deciduous species, including beech (Fagus). Pollen analysis was also performed on sediments from the 9-meter deep profile. Palaeobotanical finds from other, mostly Upper Palaeolithic sites are much more scarce; however, it can be seen that Pinus was present in the vicinity of the sites in the last Würm stadial (W III), and was joined by other conifers in the Late Glacial and, soon afterwards, by deciduous trees, including beech.

[Curtis-J 1914] J. Curtis. “The Double Flutes”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 34, 1914, pages 89–105. Publication 624480 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dandridge 2006] Debra E. Dandridge. “Arlington Springs Woman: First Lady of the New World”, Mammoth Trumpet, Volume 21, Number 4, September 2006, pages 4–14. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dawe 2007] Thomas V. C. Dawe. Our Own Newfoundland and Labrador, 2007, 114 pages. Our Own Newfoundland and Labrador Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Tribal Identification (2)

[Dennett 2013] Carrie L. Dennett and Katrina Kosyk. “Winds of Change: Ceramic Musical Instruments from Greater Nicoya”, contained in [Stockli 2013], 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we illustrate, describe, and examine the chronological development of ceramic musical instruments – especially aerophones of the ocarina family – from pre-Columbian Greater Nicoya, an archaeological region located in modern day northwest Costa Rica and Pacific Nicaragua. These instruments are subsequently compared to contemporaneous styles from surrounding archaeological regions, and followed by a brief discussion of potential functions and meanings. The overarching purpose of the present research, however, is to investigate aspects of change and continuity in the musical past of the region in order to evaluate traditional claims that periodic change in the material culture of the region was the result of sporadic “waves” of foreign migrants from central Mexico.
Translation: En el presente artículo describimos y examinamos el desarrollo cronológico de una colección de instrumentos musicales hechos de barro – especialmente de aerófonos de la familia de las ocarinas – provenientes de la Gran Nicoya precolombina, región arqueológica ubicada al noroeste de Costa Rica y la costa del Océano pacífico de Nicaragua. Luego hacemos una comparación de dichos instrumentos con estilos contemporáneos de regiones arqueológicas colindantes, seguida por una breve discusión acerca de sus posibles funciones y significados. No obstante, el objetivo principal del estudio es investigar los aspectos de cambio y continuidad en el pasado musical de la región, a fin de evaluar las afirmaciones tradicionales de que los cambios periódicos occurridos en la cultura material de la región fueron el resultado de “olas” esporádicas de migrantes extranjeros provenientes del centro de México.

[dErrico 2005] Francesco d’Errico, Christopher Henshilwood, Marian Vanhaeren, and Karen van Niekerk. “Nassarius kraussianus Shell Beads from Blombos Cave: Evidence for Symbolic Behaviour in the Middle Stone Age”, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 45, 2005, pages 3–24, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.09.002 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Since 1991, excavations at Blombos Cave have yielded a well-preserved sample of faunal and cultural material in Middle Stone Age (MSA) levels. The uppermost MSA phase, M1, is dated to c. 75 ka by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence, and the middle M2 phase to a provisional c. 78 ka. Artefacts unusual in a MSA context from these phases include bifacial points, bone tools, engraved ochre and engraved bone. In this paper, we describe forty-one marine tick shell beads recovered from these MSA phases and tick shell beads from Later Stone Age (LSA) levels at Blombos Cave and the Die Kelders site. Thirty-nine shell beads come from the upper M1 phase and two from M2. Morphometric, taphonomic and microscopic analysis of modern assemblages of living and dead tick shell demonstrate that the presence of perforated Nassarius kraussianus shells in the Blombos MSA levels cannot be due to natural processes or accidental transport by humans. The types of perforation seen on the MSA shells are absent on modern accumulations of dead shells and not attributable to post-depositional damage. Their location, size, and microscopic features are similar to those obtained experimentally by piercing the shell wall, through the aperture, with a sharp bone point. Use-wear, recorded on the perforation edge, the outer lip, and the parietal wall of the aperture indicates the shells having being strung and worn. MSA shell beads differ significantly in size, perforation type, wear pattern and shade compared to LSA beads and this eliminates the possibility of mixing across respective levels.

[Diedrich 2015] Cajus G. Diedrich. “‘Neanderthal Bone Flutes’: Simply Products of Ice Age Spotted Hyena Scavenging Activities on Cave Bear Cubs in European Cave Bear Dens”, Royal Soceity Open Science, Volume 2, Article 140022, April 1, 2015, doi:10.1098/rsos.140022 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den.

[Douglass 1936] A. E. Douglas. “The Central Pueblo Chronology”, Tree Ring Bulletin, Volume 2, Number 4, April 1936, pages 29–34. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dunham 1974] Dows Dunham and William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III — G 7530-7540, Giza Mastabas, Volume 1, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1974. See the Giza Digital Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eichmann 2010] Ricardo Eichmann, Ellen Hickmann, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Musical Perceptions - Past and Present — On Ethnographic Analogy in Music Archaeology, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 7, Papers from the 6th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Ethnological Museum, State Museums, Berlin, September 9–13, 2008, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 25, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2010, 332 pages, 203 illustrations, 24 tables, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-655-0 (978-3-89646-655-6), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eichmann 2012] Ricardo Eichmann, Fang Jianjun, and Lars-Christian Koch (editors). Sound from the Past — The Interpretation of Musical Artifacts in an Archaeological Context, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 8, Papers from the 7th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Tianjin Conservatory of Music, Tianjin, China, September 20–25, 2010, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 27, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2012, 462 pages, 338 illustrations, 36 tables, 1 disk, ISBN 3-89646-657-7 (978-3-89646-657-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Eldamaty 2002] Mamdouh Eldamaty and Mai Trad (editors). Egyptian Museum Collections Around the World, Volume 1, Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, published by The Supreme Council of Antiquities, Cairo, 2002, 1377 pages, ISBN 977-424-777-9 (978-977-424-777-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Emerson-TE 2009] Thomas E. Emerson. Archaic Societies: Diversity and Complexity Across the Midcontinent, published by SUNY Press, 2009, 867 pages, ISBN 1-4384-2701-8 (978-1-4384-2701-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Sweeping and detailed, this long-awaited volume is an indispensable guide to the Archaic period across the midcontinent. Archaeologists throughout the region share the latest excavation results and analytical perspectives to reveal and reinterpret the worlds of those Native peoples who lived there for some 9,000 years (up to about 3,000 years ago). Of particular concern is the establishment of relative and absolute chronologies for the Archaic period, the relationships between the artifacts left behind and the peoples who made and used them, and the changing interactions between cultures, climate, and landscape. Archaeologists offer useful, up-to-date overviews of Archaic societies, assessment of stratigraphic sequences, and detailed discussions of finds and interpretations from the Mississippi and Ohio river regions and the Great Lakes. Comprehensive and accessible, this landmark book is a must for anyone wanting to understand a crucial but little-understood period in North America's prehistory.

[Emsheimer 1966] Ernst Emsheimer. “A Finno-Ugric Flute Type?”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, Volume 18, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1966, pages 29–35. Publication 834638 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Emsheimer 1981] Ernst Emsheimer. “Tongue Duct Flutes Corrections of an Error”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 34, published by the Galpin Society, March 1981, pages 98–105. Publication 841473 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Evans 2005] E. Raymond Evans. Prehistoric Metal Workers in the Eastern United States, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Faulkner 1997] Charles H. Faulkner. “Four Thousand Years of Native American Cave Art in the Southern Appalachians”, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Volume 59, Number 3, published by the National Speleological Society, December 1997, pages 148–153. ISSN 1090-6924. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The seminal work of archaeologists in Mammoth and Salts caves, Kentucky, in the 1960s, revealed that prehistoric Native Americans not only buried their dead in these caverns, but also intensively explored and mined the “dark zones” beginning 4,000 years ago. When the glyph caves of Tennessee and Virginia were studied in the 1980s, research revealed these underground sanctuaries were also sacred areas of non-mortuary ritual. It was concluded at that time that Native American cave use during the past 4,000 years probably shifted from exploration to intensive mining of cave minerals. At about the beginning of the common era, the increasing use of caves as burial places eventually led to their abandonment as sources for minerals. By circa 1,000 years ago only a few of these caves continued to be used for ceremonial purposes. The recent discoveries of two additional glyph caves in Tennessee, one in Virginia, and two in Kentucky, have resulted in a reassessment of this chronological sequence of prehistoric cave use, and have also underscored the fact that southern Appalachian caves still contain important undiscovered archaeological remains.

[Fewkes 1911] Jesse Walter Fewkes. Preliminary Report on a Visit to the Navaho National Monument Arizona, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 50, published by the United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1911, 35 pages. Publication bulletin501911smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: On the completion of the work of excavation and repair of Cliff Palace, in the Mesa Verde National Park, in southern Colorado, in charge of the writer, under the Secretary of the Interior, he was instructed by Mr. W. H. Holmes, then Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, to make an archeologic reconnaissance of the northern part of Arizona, where a tract of land containing important prehistoric ruins had been reserved by the President under the name Navaho National Monument. In the following pages are considered some of the results of that trip, a more detailed account of the ruins being deferred to a future report, after a more extended examination shall have been made. Mention is made of a few objects collected, and recommendations are submitted for future excavation and repair work on these remarkable ruins to preserve them for examination by students and tourists. As will appear later, a scientific study of them is important, for they are connected with Hopi pueblos still inhabited, in which are preserved traditions concerning the ruins and their ancient inhabitants.

[Fischer 1981] Henry G. Fischer. “Notes on Two Tomb Chapels at Gîza”, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 67, published by The Egyptian Exploration Society, London, 1981, pages 166–168. Notes on Two Tomb Chapels at Gîza Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fischer 1989] Henry G. Fischer. “Organology and Iconography of Ancient Egypt and the Renaissance”, Metropolitan Museum Journal, Volume 249, Number 6, published by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1989, pages 47–52. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Galpin 1929] F. W. {Francis William} Galpin. “The Sumerian Harp of Ur”, Music & Letters, Volume 10, Number 2, published by Oxford University Press, April 1929, pages 108–123, doi:10.1093/ml/X.2.108. Publication 726035 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gilreath 2011] Amy Gilreath. Gypsum Cave, January 4, 2011, retrieved April 21, 2012. Gypsum Cave Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gruhn 2006] Ruth Gruhn. “Paleoamericans in Peru”, Mammoth Trumpet, Volume 21, Number 4, September 2006, pages 10–17. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gruhn 2007] Ruth Gruhn. “The Earliest Reported Archaeological Sites in South America”, Mammoth Trumpet, Volume 22, Number 1, January 2007, pages 14–18. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gudrian 1995] Fred W. Gudrian. “An Examination of Late Woodland Ceramic Pipe Fragments from the Morgan Site in Rocky Hill, Connecticut”, Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut, Number 58, 1995, pages 13–29. An Examination of Late Woodland Ceramic Pipe Fragments from the Morgan Site in Rocky Hill, Connecticut Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hadlock 1941] Wendell S. Hadlock. Three Shell-heaps on Frenchman's Bay, Bulletin of the Robert Abbe Museum, Volume 6, 1941, 63 pages, ASIN B0007FYRO8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hadlock 1943] Wendell S. Hadlock. “Bone Implements from Shell Heaps around Frenchman's Bay, Maine”, American Antiquity, Volume 8, Number 4, published by the Society for American Archaeology, April 1943, pages 341–353. Publication 275866 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hahn 1995] Joachim Hahn and Susanne C. Münzel. “Knochenflöten aus dem Aurignacien des Geißenklösterle bei Blaubeuren, Alb-Donau-Kries «Bone Flutes from the Aurignacian of Geißenklösterle at Blaubeuren, Alb-Donau-Kries»”, Fundberichte aus Baden-Württemberg, Volume 20, in German, 1995, pages 1–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Harding 1999] A. F. Harding (editor). Experiment and Design. Archaeological Studies in Honour of John Coles, published by Oxbow Books, Oxford, England, 1999, ISBN-13 978-1-900188-76-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Harrington 1933] Mark Raymond Harrington. Gypsum Cave, Nevada — Report of the Second Sessions Expedition, Southwest Museum Papers, Number 8, published by Southwest Museum, Highland Park, Los Angeles, April 1933, 197 pages, softcover. Reissued in [Harrington 1963]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (5)

[Harrington 1963] Mark Raymond Harrington. Gypsum Cave, Nevada — Report of the Second Sessions Expedition, Southwest Museum Papers, Number 8, published by Southwest Museum, Highland Park, Los Angeles, 1963, 197 pages, ISBN 0-916561-23-2 (978-0-916561-23-9), ASIN 0916561232, softcover. Reissue of [Harrington 1933]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Haury 1940] Emil W. Haury. Excavations in the Forestdale Valley, East-Central Arizona, University of Arizona Bulletin, Volume 11, Number 4, Tuscon, Arizona, 1940, 147 pages, 12 plates, 44 figures, 3 maps, ASIN B0007G3OHS. With appendix, the skeletal remains of the Bear Ruin, Norman E. Gabel. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Hausler 1960] Alexander Häusler. “Neue Funde steinzeitlicher Musikinstrumente in Osteuropa «New finds of Stone Age Musical Instruments in Eastern Europe»”, Acta Musicologica, Volume 32, Fasc. 2/3, published by the International Musicological Society, in German, April–September 1960, pages 151–155. Publication 931665 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Prähistorische Musikinstrumente sind wichtige kulturgeschichtliche Zeugnisse. Die ältesten Beispiele verdienen eine ganz besondere Beachtung, da aus den weit zuruckliegenden Perioden menschlicher Entwicklung nur ein geringes Quellenmaterial vorliegt.
Translation: Prehistoric music instruments are important to cultural history. The oldest examples deserve special attention, dating as far back to early in the periods of human development, present a low quality of source material.

[Hays 2011] Jeffrey Hays. Jiahu Culture and the First Rice, Wine and Flutes in China, Updated February 2011, retrieved October 4, 2011. Original copyright 2008. Jiahu Culture and the First Rice, Wine and Flutes in China Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hays-Gilpin 1998] Kelley Hays-Gilpin, Ann Cordy Deegan, and Elizabeth Ann Morris. Prehistoric Sandals from Northeastern Arizona: The Earl H. Morris and Ann Axtell Morris Research, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, paper #62, published by the University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, Arizona, 1998, 150 pages, ISBN 0-8165-1801-7 (978-0-8165-1801-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

Publisher's description: During the late 1920s and early 1930s, archaeologists Earl and Ann Axtell Morris discovered an abundance of sandals from the Basketmaker II and III through Pueblo III periods while excavating rockshelters in northeastern Arizona. These densely twined sandals made of yucca yarn were intricately crafted and elaborately decorated, and Earl Morris spent the next 25 years overseeing their analysis, description, and illustration. This is the first full published report on this unusual find, which remains one of the largest collections of sandals in Southwestern archaeology. This monograph offers an integrated archaeological and technical study of the footwear, providing for the first time a full-scale analysis of the complicated weave structures they represent. Following an account by anthropologist Elizabeth Ann Morris of her parents' research, textile authority Ann Cordy Deegan gives an overview of prehistoric Puebloan sandal types and of twined sandal construction techniques, revealing the subtleties distinguishing Basketmaker sandals of different time periods. Anthropologist Kelley Ann Hays-Gilpin then discusses the decoration of twined sandals and speculates on the purpose of such embellishment.

[Henderson 2004] A. Gwynn Henderson. “Fort Ancient Period”, contained in Volume 2 of [Pollack 2008], 2004, pages 739–902. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Henvell 2011] Robert Henvell. Maritime New England and Eastern Canada 11000–6000 BCE, August 29, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2000] Ellen Hickmann and Ricardo Eichmann (editors). Stringed Instruments in Archaeological Context, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 1, Papers from the 8th Symposium of the Study Group on Music Archaeology [ICTM] and other contributions, Limassol, Cyprus, August 26–30, 1996, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 6, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2000, 157 pages, 166 illustrations, 7 tables, ISBN 3-89646-636-4 (978-3-89646-636-5), hardcover. ISSN 1434-162X. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2000a] Ellen Hickmann, Ingo Laufs, and Ricardo Eichmann (editors). Music Archaeology of Early Metal Ages, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 2, Papers from the 1st Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Monastery Michaelstein, Blankenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, May 18–24, 1988, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 7, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2000, 418 pages, 239 illustrations, 6 tables, 10 plates, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-637-2 (978-3-89646-637-2), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2002] Ellen Hickmann, Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, and Ricardo Eichmann (editors). I. The Archaeology of Sound: Origin and Organisation; II. Music Archaeology in the Aegean and Anatolia, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 3, I: Papers from the 2nd Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology; II: Papers from the Colloquium on Music Archaeology organised by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut [Istanbul] in cooperation with the ICTM-Study Group on Music Archaeology and the Institut Français d'Archéologie [Istanbul], I: Monastery Michaelstein; II: Mimar Sinan University, Istanbul, Turkey, I: September 17–23, 2000; II: April 12–16, 1993, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 10, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2002, 678 pages, 217 illustrations, 51 tables, 79 plates, 2 data storage media, ISBN 3-89646-640-2 (978-3-89646-640-2), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2004] Ellen Hickmann and Ricardo Eichmann (editors). Music-Archaeological Sources: Finds, Oral Transmission, Written Evidence, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 4, Papers from the 3rd Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Monastery Michaelstein, Blankenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, June 9–16, 2002, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 15, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2004, 610 pages, 419 illustrations, 5 tables, 8 diagrams, 1 supplement, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-645-3 (978-3-89646-645-7), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2006] Ellen Hickmann, Arnd Adje Both, and Ricardo Eichmann (editors). Music Archaeology in Contexts — Archaeological Semantics, Historical Implications, Socio-Cultural Connotations, Studien zur Musikarchäologie (Studies in Music Archaeology), Volume 5, Papers from the 4th Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology, Monastery Michaelstein, Blankenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, September 19–26, 2004, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 20, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, in German and English, 2006, 493 pages, 311 illustrations, 7 tables, 13 diagrams, 1 data storage medium, ISBN 3-89646-650-X (978-3-89646-650-1), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-H 1949] M. Hans Hickmann. Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire. Nos. 69201–69852 — Instruments de Musique, published by l'lnstitut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, Cairo, in French, 1949, viii + 216 pages with 116 plates. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Higham 2012] Thomas Higham, Laura Basell, Roger Jacobi, Rachel Wood, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, and Nicholas J. Conard. “Τesting Models for the Beginnings of the Aurignacian and the Advent of Figurative Art and Music: The Radiocarbon Chronology of Geißenklösterle”, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 62, 2012, pages 664–676, doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2012.03.003 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: The Hohle Fels Griffon Vulture Flute, Flutopedia Revision History, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: The German site of Geißenklösterle is crucial to debates concerning the European Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition and the origins of the Aurignacian in Europe. Previous dates from the site are central to an important hypothesis, the Kulturpumpe model, which posits that the Swabian Jura was an area where crucial behavioural developments took place and then spread to other parts of Europe. The previous chronology (critical to the model), is based mainly on radiocarbon dating, but remains poorly constrained due to the dating resolution and the variability of dates. The cause of these problems is disputed, but two principal explanations have been proposed: a) larger than expected variations in the production of atmospheric radiocarbon, and b) taphonomic influences in the site mixing the bones that were dated into different parts of the site. We reinvestigate the chronology using a new series of radiocarbon determinations obtained from the Mousterian, Aurignacian and Gravettian levels. The results strongly imply that the previous dates were affected by insufficient decontamination of the bone collagen prior to dating. Using an ultrafiltration protocol the chronometric picture becomes much clearer. Comparison of the results against other recently dated sites in other parts of Europe suggests the Early Aurignacian levels are earlier than other sites in the south of France and Italy, but not as early as recently dated sites which suggest a pre-Aurignacian dispersal of modern humans to Italy byw45000 cal BP. They are consistent with the importance of the Danube Corridor as a key route for the movement of people and ideas. The new dates fail to refute the Kulturpumpe model and suggest that Swabian Jura is a region that contributed significantly to the evolution of symbolic behaviour as indicated by early evidence for figurative art, music and mythical imagery.

[Hockensmith 2004] Charles D. Hockensmith and Kenneth C. Carstens (editors). Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky, Volume 7, published by the Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky, 2004, 420 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hood-BC 1993] Bryan C. Hood. “The Maritime Archaic Indians of Labrador: Investigating Prehistoric Social Organization”, Newfoundland Studies, Volume 9, Number 2, 1993, pages 163–184. ISSN 0823·1737. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hooton 1920] E. A. Hooton and Charles C. Willoughby. “Indian Village Site and Cemetery Near Madisonville, Ohio”, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Volume 7, Number 1, 1920. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Hourmouziades 2002] G. H. Hourmouziades. Sound at Last, Entry #6 of Dispilio Excavations - The Diary of and Archaeologist, in Greek and English, August 8, 2002. Sound at Last Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Jerkic 1993] Sonja Jerkic. “Burials and Bones: A Summary of Burial Patterns and Human Skeletal Research in Newfoundland and Labrador”, Newfoundland Studies, Volume 9, Number 2, 1993, pages 213–234. ISSN 0823-1737. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Johnson-F 1951] Frederick Johnson. “Radiocarbon Dating”, American Antiquity, Volume 17, Number 1, Part 2, 1951, pages 5–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Jones-G 2007] Goode Jones. “Really, Really Old Toe Bone Whistle”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 33, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Judd 1930] Neil Merton Judd. The Excavation and Repair of Betatakin, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Volume 77, Number 5, 1930. The Excavation and Repair of Betatakin Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Juzhong 2005] Zhang Juzhong and Lee Yun Kuen. “The Magic Flutes”, Natural History Magazine, Volume 114, Number 7, September 2005, pages 43–49. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The village of Jiahu (河南省舞陽縣賈湖) is located almost exactly between the Huai River (淮河) and Huang He (黃河). Archaeologists have found many flutes made from the bones of the red-crowned crane. These 9,000-year old flutes are the oldest playable flutes yet found in the world. The excavations at this site have yielded valuable insights into not just the material life of ancient China, but its cultural life as well.

[Kennedy 1997] Mary C. Kennedy and Patty Jo Watson. “The Chronology of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky”, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Volume 59, Number 1, published by the National Speleological Society, April 1997, pages 5–9. ISSN 1090-6924. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: During the past 30 years, 57 radiocarbon determinations have been obtained from Salts and Mammoth Caves in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. These range from 4120 ±70 BP to 1920 ±160 BP, thus falling within the Late Archaic and Woodland periods of North American prehistory. We discuss the patterning of the dates, which cluster in two groups (Late Archaic, ca. 4200 BP to 3000 BP) and Early Woodland (ca. 2800 BP to 2200 BP). We also address the implications of those patterns for the history of aboriginal cave exploration and cave mineral mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave portions of the world’s longest cave system, and for the development of early agriculture in Eastern North America.

[Kidder-N 1995] Norm Kidder. “Musical Instruments of Central California”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Musical Instruments of Central California Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Killion 1992] Thomas W. Killion. Gardens of Prehistory: The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica, published by the University of Alabama Press, 1992, 334 pages, ISBN 0-8173-0565-3 (978-0-8173-0565-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The prehistoric agricultural systems of the New World provided the foundations for a diverse set of complex social developments ranging from the puebloan societies of the American Southwest to the archaic state polities of Mesoamerica and the Andean region. From the tropical forests of Central America to the arid environments or northern New Mexico, Native American farmers made use of a distinctive set of cultigens and cropping systems that supported-with varying degrees of success-growing populations and expanding economies. Lacking most domesticated animals, so important to the mixed agricultural systems of the Old World, Precolumbian farmers developed intensive and resilient systems of agricultural production. These systems supported large societies of people who altered the landscapes they inhabited and generated a unique archaeological record of the evolution of farming in the New World.

[Kilmer 1998] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Musical Instruments from Ur and Ancient Mesopotamian Music”, Expedition, Volume 40, Number 2, 1998, pages 12–19. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[King 2002] Adam King. “Mississippian Period: Overview”, The New Georgia Encyclopedia, October 3, 2002, retrieved October 7, 2010. Mississippian Period Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Kinkade 1995] Randal Kinkade. “The Chippewa Courting Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landels 1963] J. G. Landels. “The Brauron Aulos”, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Volume 58, 1963, pages 116–119. Publication 30102923 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landels 1968] J. G. Landels. “A Newly Discovered Aulos”, The Annual of the British School at Athens, Volume 63, 1968, pages 231–238. Publication 30103192 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the introduction: An ancient reed-blown pipe (αύλός) has recently been acquired by the Museum of Greek Archaeology in Reading University. This article contains a full descriptive account of the instrument, and a brief discussion of its relationship to other surviving auloi.

[Lawergren 1988] Bo Lawergren. “The Origin of Musical Instruments and Sounds”, Anthropos, Volume 83, 1988, pages 31–45. Publication 40461485 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The earliest musical instruments are found to derive from a common source: hunting implements. Loud instruments (percussion instruments, reeds, trumpets) were used to call or repulse the prey and to signal between hunters. Quiet instruments (flutes, musical bows, bullroarers) had alternate uses as hunting tools (dagger edges, hunting bows and bolas, respectively). It is argued that "hand-song" was another, previously overlooked, early instrument used for signalling. Some literary sources from ancient Greece and China as well as iconographic material from Egypt and Mexico provide late descriptions of the music/hunt association.

[Lawson 1988] Graeme Lawson and Angela Wardle. “A Roman Pipe from London”, Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS), Volume 39, 1988, pages 35–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract by Francis Grew, Sep 27, 1996: A piece of bone and copper alloy tubing has been identified as the remains of a Roman pipe, one of a pair of tibiae, of the kind often seen in classical paintings, sculpure and mosaics.The cylindrical bone sections have finger-holes to allow the production of different musical pitches; originally they fitted inside a series of tightly fitting but freely rotating metal sleeves, each with a different pattern of finger-holes which could be opened and closed in various combinations.

[Lawson 1991] Graeme Lawson and Angela Wardle. “A Roman Pipe from London”, Antiquities Journal, Volume 71, 1991, pages 229–230. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract by Francis Grew, Sep 27, 1996: A piece of bone and copper alloy tubing has been identified as the remains of a Roman pipe, one of a pair of tibiae, of the kind often seen in classical paintings, sculpure and mosaics.The cylindrical bone sections have finger-holes to allow the production of different musical pitches; originally they fitted inside a series of tightly fitting but freely rotating metal sleeves, each with a different pattern of finger-holes which could be opened and closed in various combinations.

[Lawson 1999] G. Lawson. “Getting to Grips with Music's Prehistory: Experimental Approaches to Function, Design and Operational Wear in Excavated Musical Instruments”, contained in [Harding 1999], 1999, pages 133–138. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lister-FC 1993] Florence Cline Lister and Robert Hill Lister. Earl Morris & Southwestern Archaeology, published by the Western National Parks Association, 1993, 204 pages, ISBN 1-877856-30-4 (978-1-877856-30-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lizarralde 1995] Manuel Lizarralde. “Primitive Flutes Made of Bone”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995, pages 20–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lovaas 1996] John Lovaas. “A Cucurbit Flute”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 12, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Fall 1996. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lund-C 1981] Cajsa Lund. “The Archaeomusicology of Scandinavia”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3, published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., February 1981, pages 246–265. Publication 124236 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: Studies of Scandinavian music (Broholm et al. 1949) - most of them dealing with the so-called bronze lurs (Holmes and Coles this journal) - have occurred occasionally since the middle of the nineteenth century. At the beginning of the 1970s, however, more comprehensive and systematic research on prehistoric Scandinavian music was started by the author under the term archaeomusicology. To date, this new discipline has concerned itself chiefly with the task of securing a basic corpus of potential musical instruments, sufficiently comprehensive as to provide a basis for further studies into the nature, practice and purposes of music within the behavioural patterns and ideologies of prehistoric Scandinavian cultures. The present article surveys the methods, problems and results that work with archaeomusicological finds in Scandinavia has disclosed so far.

[Macdonald-DB 1940] D. Bruce Macdonald. University of Toronto Report of the Board of Governors for the Year Ended 30th June 1939, Sessional Paper No. 12, 1940, published by T. E. Bowman, 1940, 334 pages. Publication uoftreportgov1939univ on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Madsen 1989] D. B. Madsen. Exploring the Fremont, published by the Utah Museum of Natural History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 1989, 70 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Mair 2006] Victor H. Mair. “Prehistoric European and East Asian Flutes”, contained in [Anderl 2006], 2006, pages 209–216. See the Instphi.Org web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Lead paragraph: The world's first flutes - which are also the world's first known musical instruments fashioned and played by man - were created in Europe, and were associated with a quantum leap in the overall cognitive, aesthetic, and symbolic abilities of modern human beings during the Upper Paleolithic. The cave art and plastic art from this period and region are rightly celebrated as constituting a remarkable advance in human civilization, and it is possible that modern linguistic capability arose at around the same time, perhaps for similar reasons (the expansion and increased neural complexity of the human brain), although the hominid predecessors of Homo sapiens sapiens admittedly also possessed slowly increasing capacity to represent, express, and communicate.

[Malea 1997] E. Malea, P. Papageorgiou, G. Hourmouziadis, and G. Panagiaris. “Bone Flute from the Prehistoric Lake Settlement from Dispilio Kastoria: Technology and Conservation Problems”, Proceedings of the International Conference: Ancient Greek Technology, Thessalonica, Greece, September 4–7, 1997, in Greek, September 1997, pages 525–533. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Marczak 2000] Eric P. Marczak. “Bone Flutes and Whistles of New York”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2000, Volume 4, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2000. See the INAFA web site. Bone Flutes and Whistles of New York Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Flutes and whistles from the Lamoka Lake and the Frontenac Island cultures are observed, measured, reproduced, and played upon.

[Martin 1954] Paul S. Martin, John B. Rinaldo, and Elaine Bluhm. Caves of the Reserve Area, Fieldiana: Anthropology, A continuation of the Anthropological Series of Field Museum of Natural History, Volume 42, published by the Chicago Natural History Museum, Chicago, U. S. A., June 11, 1954, 227 pages. Publication 29782335 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication cavesofreservear42mart on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the preface: During the summer of 1952, we continued our archaeological researches of the Mogollon culture of west-central New Mexico. We excavated a large rectangular kiva in an open site and four caves, two of which contain clifF-houses. This work was done under permits issued to Chicago Natural History Museum by the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture.

[Maslowski 1995] Robert F. Maslowski, Charles M. Niquette and Derek M. Wingfield. “The Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia Radiocarbon Database”, West Virginia Archaeologist, Volume 47, Number 1–2, 1995. The Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia Radiocarbon Database Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A total of 1919 radiocarbon dates for archeological sites and objects in Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia has been compiled by the Council For West Virginia Archaeology. These data represent most radiocarbon dates available for the region up to August 1996. The database is presented in a tabular format in ascending order of radiocarbon age. The database includes site numbers, site names, components, time periods, lab numbers, radiocarbon age, sigma, calibrated age and references.

[Maxwell 1992] Timothy D. Maxwell and Kurt F. Anschuetz. “The Southwestern Ethnographic Record and Prehistoric Agricultural Diversity”, contained in [Killion 1992], 1992, pages 35–68. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[McGhee 1975] Robert J. McGhee and James A. Tuck. An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador, Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada, Paper 34, published by the National Museum of Man, Ottawa, 1975, 254 pages. An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, The L'Anse Amour Flute (3)

Abstract: This report presents the results of archaeological survey and test excavation undertaken on the southern coast of Labrador during the summers of 1973 and 1974. Preliminary reports summarize our work at 14 sites, all but one of which relate to Archaic occupations. These components are placed in chronological sequence using evidence from seriation, comparison of collections, relative site elevations, and radiocarbon dating. The resulting sequence is used as the basis for postulating the development of a local variant of the Maritime Archaic tradition from a late Palaeo-Indian immigration to the area at approximately 8000-9000 years ago. We postulate continuity in the local occupation and adaptation from that time to approximately 3000-2000 years ago, when we suggest that the local tradition was interrupted by a possible environmental change and the immigration of Dorset Eskimos. The prehistory of the last 2000 years is unclear, and we suspect that occupation of this region was sparse and perhaps sporadic during the late prehistoric period.

[McGhee 1976] Robert J. McGhee. The Burial at l'Anse-Amour, published by the National Museum of Man, Ottawa, 1976, 24 pages, ISBN 0-660-00019-9 (978-0-660-00019-0), softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The L'Anse Amour Flute (2)

[McGhee 2011] Robert J. McGhee. “L'Anse Amour Site”, The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2011, retrieved April 8, 2011. See the Canadian Encyclopedia web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The L'Anse Amour Flute

[McManamon 2009] Francis P. McManamon, Linda S. Cordell, Kent G. Lightfoot, and George R. Milner. Archaeology in America: Northeast and Southeast, Volume 1 of Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia, published by ABC-CLIO, 2009, 424 pages, ISBN 0-313-33184-7 (978-0-313-33184-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The greatness of America is right under our feet. The American past-the people, battles, industry and homes-can be found not only in libraries and museums, but also in hundreds of archaeological sites that scientists investigate with great care. These sites are not in distant lands, accessible only by research scientists, but nearby-almost every locale possesses a parcel of land worthy of archaeological exploration. Archaeology in America is the first resource that provides students, researchers, and anyone interested in their local history with a survey of the most important archaeological discoveries in North America. Leading scholars, most with an intimate knowledge of the area, have written in-depth essays on over 300 of the most important archaeological sites that explain the importance of the site, the history of the people who left the artifacts, and the nature of the ongoing research.

Archaeology in America divides it coverage into 8 regions: the Arctic and Subarctic, the Great Basin and Plateau, the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains, the Midwest, the Northeast, the Southeast, the Southwest, and the West Coast. Each entry provides readers with an accessible overview of the archaeological site as well as books and articles for further research.

[Mead 1903] Charles Williams Mead. The Musical Instruments of the Incas: A Guide Leaflet to the Collection on Exhibition in the American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet Number 11, published by the American Museum of Natural History, July 1903, 31 pages. supplement to the American Museum Journal, Volume 3, Number 4. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Megaw 1963] J. V. S. Megaw. “A Medieval Bone Pipe from White Castle, Monmouthshire”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 16, published by the Galpin Society, May 1963, pages 85–94. Publication 841097 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: It is some ten years since the publicationin this journal of the bone pipe from Malham Tarn, West Riding of Yorkshire, drew attention not only to the considerabale antiquity in Britain of the simple end-blown flute but emphasized the range of information which may be inferred from the thorough examination of so simple an instrument. It may be of interest to members of the Galpin Society to present another example of what archaeology can offer to our knowledge of the remoter corners of European organology.

[Mills 1917] W. C. Mills. “The Feurt Mounds and Village Site”, Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Volume 26, 1917, pages 305–449. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Mills-S 2014] Steve Mills. Auditory Archaeology. Understanding Sound and Hearing in the Past, published by Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California, 2014, 313 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-61132-079-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Auditory archaeology considers the potential contribution of everyday, mundane and unintentional sounds in the past and how these may have been significant to people. Steve Mills explores ways of examining evidence to identify intentionality with respect to the use of sound, drawing on perception psychology as well as soundscape and landscape studies of various kinds. His methodology provides a flexible and widely applicable set of elements that can be adapted for use in a broad range of archaeological and heritage contexts. The outputs of this research form the case studies of the Teleorman River Valley in Romania, Çatalhöyük in Turkey, and West Penwith, a historical site in the UK.This fascinating volume will help archaeologists and others studying human sensory experiences in the past and present.

[Moorehead 1917] Warren K. Moorehead. Stone Ornaments Used by Indians in the United States and Canada — Being a Description of Certain Charm Stones, Gorgets, Tubes, Bird Stones and Problematical Forms, published by, A. H. Clark and The Andover Press, Cleveland, Ohio and Andover, Massachusetts, 1917, 448 pages. alternate title: "Stone ornaments of the American Indian". Publication stoneornamentsus00mooruoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[MorenoGarcia 2006] Marta Moreno-García and C. Pimenta. “O aerofone de Cacela — Notas sobre a identificação osteológica e taxonómica de um instrumento musical «The Aerophone Cacela - Notes on Osteological Identification and Taxonomy of a Musical Instrument»”, O Arqueólogo Português, Series 4, Number 24, in Portuguese, 2006, pages 401–410. O aerofone de Cacela Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we present the anatomical and taxonomical identification of a small musical instrument of five holes fashioned from bone. This item was one of the archaeological objects collected by Estácio da Veiga at Cacela at the end of the 19th century. In spite of it having entered the MNA in 1894 it remained unpublished. Comparison with bone elements present in the vertebrate reference collection of the Archaeozoology Lab at the IPA and observation of the bone section from both endings allow us to identify it as the right tibiotarsus (leg bone) of a Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), a long-legged bird commonly found in the salty and moorland areas of the Algarve coast. Issues related to ethnomusicology and “archaeomusicology” of the Iberian Peninsula, where wind musical instruments showing some similarities to this one from Cacela occur, are discussed.

[Morley 2013] Iain Morley. The Prehistory of Music — Human Evolution, Archaeology, and the Origins of Musicality, published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, October 24, 2013, xiv + 447 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-19-923408-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Morris 1925] Earl H. Morris. “Exploring the Canyon of Death: Remains of a People Who Dwelt in Our Southwest at Least 4,000 Years Ago are Revealed”, The National Geographic Magazine, Volume 48, Number 3, September 1925, pages 263–300. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, Anasazi Flutes from the Broken Flute Cave

[Morris 1936] Earl H. Morris. “Early Date Archaeology”, Tree Ring Bulletin, Volume 2, Number 4, April 1936, pages 34–36. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Morris 1938] Earl H. Morris. “Mummy Cave”, Natural History Magazine, Volume 42, Number 2, September 1938, pages 127–138. Publication naturalhistory42newy on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Morris 1939] Earl H. Morris. Archaeological Studies in the La Plata District, Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico, published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D. C., 1939. Publication 519. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Morris 1954] Earl H. Morris and Robert F. Burgh. Basketmaker II Sites near Durango, Colorado, Carnegie Institution Monograph Series, Publication 604, Washington, D.C., 1954, 135 pages, 116 illustrations. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Muller-M 1988] Mette Müller. “Reed-Pipe of the Vikings or the Slavs? — An Early Find from the Baltic Region”, contained in [Hickmann-E 1988], 1988. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nash 1999] Stephen E. Nash. “Tularosa Cave”, published by The Field Museum, March 22, 1999. See the Article on The Field Museum web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nelson 1997] D. E. Nelson and T. L. Ku. “Radiocarbon Dating of Bone and Charcoal from Divje Babe I Cave”, contained in [Turk 1997], 1997, pages 51–64. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Nickens 1991] Paul R. Nickens (editor). Perspectivss on Archeological Site Protection and Preservation, Technical Report EL-91-6, published by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 1991, 150 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nordenskiold 1893] Gustaf Nordenskiöld; D. L. Morgan (translation). The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde «Ruiner af klippboningar i Mesa Verde's cañons», published by P. A. Norstedt & Söner, Stockholm, Sweden and Chicago, Illinois, in Swedish and English, 1893. Reissued in [Nordenskiold 1990]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Nordenskiold 1990] Gustaf Nordenskiöld. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Antiquities of the New World, Volume 12, published by the Mesa Verde Museum Association, 1990, 174 pages, ISBN 0-937062-14-6 (978-0-937062-14-2). Reissue of [Nordenskiold 1893]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[OBrien 2001] Michael John O'Brien and James William Cogswell. Mississippian Community Organization: The Powers Phase in Southeastern Missouri, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, published by Springer, 2001, 324 pages, ISBN 0-306-46480-2 (978-0-306-46480-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Abstract: The Powers Phase Project, a multiyear archaeological program undertaken in southeastern Missouri by the University of Michigan in the late 1960s and early 1970s, represents a milestone in Americanist archaeology. This volume reinterprets a number of the earlier conclusions from the long-term excavations of the Turner and Snodgrass sites and enhances the usefulness of the findings for archaeologists interested in the late prehistory of the Mississippi River Valley.

[Osburn 1946] Mary Hubbell Osburn. “Prehistoric Musical Instruments in Ohio”, Ohio State Archaelogocial and Historical Quarterly, Volume 55, 1946, pages 12–20. See the Ohio History web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Payne 1991] Richard W. Payne. “Bone Flutes of the Anasazi”, The Kiva, Volume 56, Number 2, published by the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, in English and Spanish, 1991, pages 165–177. Publication 30247265 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Anasazi sites have contributed a substantial number of tubular bone artifacts, many of which can be considered as flutes or whistles. Similarities in the design of these instruments would indicate that these prehistoric inhabitants of the Southwest had some appreciation of simple harmonic ratios as well as efficient methods for sound generation utilizing open tubes.
Translation: Los sitios Anasazi han contribuido una cantidad de artefactos tubulares de hueso, muchos de ellos probablementeflautas o silbatos. Las similitudes en el diseño de los instrumentos indicarían que estos habitantes del Suroeste de los Estados Unidos tenían cierto entendimiento de simples proporciones armónicas así como métodos eficientes para la generación de sonidos utilizando tubos abiertos.

[Pepper 1920] George H. Pepper; Nels C. Nelson (additional notes); Clark Wissler (foreward). “Pueblo Bonito”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 27, 1920, 398 pages. Reprinted in [Pepper 1996]. Pueblo Bonito Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito Flute, Room 85, H-7270, The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (3), Flutopedia Image Detail: Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563, Flutopedia Image Detail: Six Pueblo Bonito Flutes, Flutopedia Image Detail: Design of Pueblo Bonito flute H-4563

[Pepper 1996] George H. Pepper; David E. Stuart (introduction). Pueblo Bonito, published by the University of New Mexico Press, October 1996, 398 pages, ISBN 0-8263-1736-7 (978-0-8263-1736-0). Originally published in 1920. Reprint of [Pepper 1920] Pueblo Bonito. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: One of the most spectacular ruins in North America is Pueblo Bonito, located at Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico. This book, originally published in 1920 and unavailable for decades, describes the earliest archaeological investigations of Pueblo Bonito. The excavations at Bonito, begun a century ago, in 1896, were overseen by the American Museum of Natural History, which published Pepper's book. To celebrate a century of archaeology at Pueblo Bonito the book is reissued with a preface that provides context for archaeologists and visitors to Chaco.

[Petit 1999] J. R. Petit, J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N. I. Barkov, J. M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, J. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V. M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. “Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 Years from the Vostok Ice Core”, Nature, Number 399, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., June 3, 1999, pages 429–436, doi:10.1038/20859. See the article abstract on the Nature web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2)

Abstract: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial–interglacial cycles. The succession of changes through each climate cycle and termination was similar, and atmospheric and climate properties oscillated between stable bounds. Interglacial periods differed in temporal evolution and duration. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years.

[Petit 2001] Jean Robert Petit. Vostok Ice Core Data for 420,000 Years, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #2001-076, published by the NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, Colorado, 2001, retrieved October 4, 2011. View this reference Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Pohar 1994] Vida Pohar. “Veliki sesalci iz viška zadnjega glaciala v Sloveniji «Great Mammals Descending from the Culmination Point of the Last Glacial in Slovenia»”, Razred za naravoslovne vede Classis 4, Historia Naturalis, Volume 34, Number 4, in Slovenian, 1994, pages 87–100. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: The study of animals fossil remains from 7 Tardigravettin localities indicated that the Würm periods of cooling attained their culmination during the third Würm stadial (WIII). This is proved by remains of the reindeer, polar fox and mammoth. The studies suggest the cold impulse was not extremely cold during all its duration. The appearance of the wild boar and beaver indicate smaller warming periods after the culmination of the stadial. Investigations in the Betalov spodmol also indicated that the cave bear did not become extinct in the studied area before the culminating point of WIII

[Pollack 1992] David Pollack and A. Gwynn Henderson (editors). Current Archaeological Research in Kentucky, Volume 2, published by the Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort, Kentucky, 1992, 276 pages, softcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pollack 2008] David Pollack (editor). The Archaeology of Kentucky: An Update, in two volumes, State Historic Preservation Comprehensive Plan Report No. 3, published by the Kentucky Heritage Council, 2008, 1132 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-934492-28-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Raistrick 1952] A. Raistrick, Eric Todd, E. A. Spaul. “The Malham Iron-Age Pipe”, The Galpin Society Journal, Volume 5, published by the Galpin Society, March 1952, pages 28–38, doi:10.2307/841408. Publication 841408 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: During September of 1950 and 1951 the excavation of a barrow on Seaty Hill, Malham Moor, W. Yorkshire, was carried through as part of a course in Field Archaeology arranged by the Council for the Promotion of Field Studies. The course was directed by the writer and was held at the Tarn House, Malham. Among many discoveries the outstanding one for general interest was that of a bone pipe or primitive recorder, clearly associated with an Iron Age burial, and that pipe is the subject of these notes.

[Rawcliffe 1992] Susan Rawcliffe. “Complex Acoustics in Pre-Columbian Flute Systems”, Experimental Musical Instruments, Volume 8, Number 2, December 1992, +18 line drawings and diagrams + 11 pages. See the Windworld web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The author describes the advanced techniques of construction that were used in manipulating sound in Pre-Columbian clay flutes. She addresses the designs of flute apertures and hoods, body shapes, vessel flutes, tubular flutes and hybrid forms, such as ball and tube flutes, whistles and ocarinas. Timbre and tuning is also touched upon and the article also includes an extensive appendix, notes and bibliography.

[Rawcliffe 1992a] Susan Rawcliffe. “Complex Acoustics in Pre-Columbian Flute Systems”, contained in [Robertson 1992], 1992, pages 35–63. cassette number 8. Also published in the Journal of the National Council on Education in the Ceramic Arts, Volume 14, 1993-4. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Over a span of 30 centuries, Mesoamerican Pre-Hispanic societies developed a unique flute organology. They made flutes, pipes, ocarinas and whistles in a great diversity of form, timbre, and tunings. As an artist-musician for about 25 years, I have been making ceramic flutes and sound sculptures, many of which were inspired by my explorations into these ancient and wonderful wind instruments. Because I wanted to build a better flute, I studied the patterns to be found in both the ancient and my own flutes. The laws of acoustics dictate the range of possibilities for instrument construction within which design decisions are made according to cultural and individual preferences. Some instruments are dissected to illustrate choices made by their creators in order to produce particular sounds. Many of the most complex and time consuming innovations of the Pre-Hispanic artisans resulted in instruments of restricted pitch but rich timbre.

[Rawcliffe 2008] Susan Rawcliffe. “Entrancing Sounds: Beats, Difference Tones and Other Sounds in Prehispanic Flutes”, contained in [Both 2008], in English and German, 2008, pages 333–348. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Ethnographic Flute Recordings of Central America (9)

Abstract: This article consists of photos, recorded samples, discussions, and sonograms of six double prehispanic flutes, plus a Rawcliffe double flute inspired by prehispanic concepts. Air pressure variations allow for increased performance possibilities through manipulation of intervals and difference tones on double flutes with fingerholes, and on double whistles, are the only performance variable. The manipulation of air pressure to adjust timbre, intervals and difference tones on some prehispanic flutes was surely more important than tonal range or potential melodies. Many high pitched double flutes are found in the organology of prehispanic flutes across many cultures. They frequently produce strong heterodyne/difference tones; these tones can be disorienting, deafening and entrancing. Both beats and heterodyne tones arise through an interaction between two source tones. Beats are a result of two tones of slightly different frequencies and similar amplitude levels being played together. The sonograms of these double flutes show lines that seem to represent combination tones; these tones probably have a physical presence in the air, not just in our ears. These tones can be produced either within the head, through a non linear response of the basilar membrane of the ear or auditory cortex, or externally through an interaction between two proximal sound sources such as presumably, the adjacent mouthpieces of these double flutes. Perhaps, when listening to difference tones, we are hearing what was once, in the prehispanic world, the voice of a deity.

[Redmond 2003] Brian G. Redmond and James R. Jones III (editors). Facing the Final Millennium: Studies in the Late Prehistory of Indiana, A.D. 700 to 1700, published by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indianapolis, Indiana, 2003, 297 pages. Facing the Final Millennium Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rees 2011] James A. Rees, Jr. “Musical Instruments of the Prehistoric Ozarks”, Field Notes Newsletter of the Arkansas Archeological Society, Number 361, July/August 2011, pages 3–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Seven citations: The Breckenridge Flute (7)

[Rees 2013] James A. Rees, Jr. “The Breckenridge Flute Dated with ARF Grant”, Field Notes Newsletter of the Arkansas Archeological Society, Number 373, July/August 2013, pages 11–12. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in North America, A Brief History of the Native American Flute, The Breckenridge Flute

[Renaud 1926] Etienne B. Renaud. “Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest»”, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France, Volume 23, Issue 7–8, in French, 1926, pages 168–178, doi:10.3406/bspf.1926.5910. Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: Le Musée de l'Université de l'Etat du Colorado, à Boulder, contient des collections importantes d'archéologie indienne préhistorique. Parmi les trésors de ce petit Musée se trouvent les objets nombreux et très intéressants rapportés par Mr. Earl Morris de son expédition de 1924 dans la région du Canon del Muerto, au nordest de l'Arizona. Alors que j'enseignais l'anthropologie à l'Université du Colorado pendant l'été de 1925, j'ai eu l'avantage, grâce à l'aimable permission du curateur, Prof. J. Henderson, d'étudier une partie de cette collection et d'en mesurer et dessiner un certain nombre d'objets. J'ai décrit et discuté ailleurs les « atlatls » ou pro pulseurs et les flèches préhistoriques de même provenance. Dans la présente note je désire parler de quatre flûtes indiennes précolumbiennes et discuter quelques points se rapportant à leur usage.
Translation: The Museum of the State University of Colorado at Boulder contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are the many interesting objects brought by Mr. Earl Morris of his expedition of 1924 in the region of Canon del Muerto, to the northeast of Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado during the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, thanks to the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and prehistoric arrows from the same source. In this note I want to mention four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Renaud 2012] Etienne B. Renaud; Clint Goss (translation). Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest, in French and English, 2012, 16 pages. English translation of [Renaud 1926] Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest». Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: The Museum of the University of Colorado, Boulder, contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are objects and many very interesting reported by Mr. Earl Morris in his 1924 expedition in the region of the Canon del Muerto in northeast Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado in the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, with the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I have described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and even from prehistoric arrows. In this note I wish to speak of four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Ritchie 1965] William Augustus Ritchie. The Archaeology of New York State, Revised Edition, pubished for the American Museum of Natural History by the Natural History Press, 1965, 357 pages. Reissued in [Ritchie 1994]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: The most complete account of ancient man in the New York area ever published in one volume, this book traces a rich, 8000-year story of human prehistory. Beginning with the first known inhabitants, Paleo-Indian hunters who lived approximately 7000 B.C., the author gives a detailed chronological account of the complex of cultural units that have existed in the area, culminating in the Iroquois tribes encountered by the European colonists at the dawn of the seventeenth century.

All of the major archaeological sites in the region are described in detail and representative artifacts from all the major cultural units are illustrated in over 100 plates and drawings. The entire account is informed by the most recently obtained radio-carbon dates. In addition to giving much new, previously unpublished information, the author has synthesized all earlier published material and from this he has drawn as many inferences as the material affords regarding the nature of these early inhabitants, where they came from, and how they lived.

Each cultural unit is systematically described: its discovery and naming; its ecological and chronological setting; the physical characteristics of the related people; economy; housing and settlement pattern; dress and ornament; technology; transportation; trade relationships; warfare; esthetic and recreational activities; social and political organization; mortuary customs; and religio-magical and ceremonial customs.

[Ritchie 1994] William Augustus Ritchie. The Archaeology of New York State, Second Edition, published by Purple Mountain Press, 1994, 357 pages, ISBN 0-935796-52-5 (978-0-935796-52-0). Reissue of [Ritchie 1965]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robertson 1992] Carol E. Robertson (editor). Musical Repercussions of 1492: Encounters in Text and Performance, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1992, 486 pages, ISBN 1-56098-183-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robinson 1996] Brian S. Robinson. “A Regional Analysis of the Moorehead Burial Tradition: 8500-3700 B.P.”, Archaeology of Eastern North America, Volume 24, published by the Eastern States Archeological Federation, 1996, pages 95–147. Publication 40914407 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The Moorehead burial tradition is a long-lived Archaic period burial pattern concentrated within the central Gulf of Maine region. The tradition is characterized by a large number of formal cemetery sites with graves generally lacking bone preservation, but containing a variety of artifacts including gouges, adzes, celts, whetstones, plummets, ground slate points, firekits and flaked stone bifaces, often of elaborated mortuary form. Copious amounts of red ocher in most graves provided the basis for the early twentieth century name, "The Red Paint People," at a time when most of the known sites were excavated and largely destroyed. The present research involves reanalysis of most of the known mortuary assemblages, increasing the number of published site assemblages from 25 to 37. Dating has been resolved to some degree, yielding five distinct burial periods spanning 5000 years. Regional analysis of the newly recognized patterns reveals systematic changes in cemetery site location through time, providing insight into mortuary symbolism, settlement structure, the social groups represented by the cemeteries, and culture contact in the Archaic period. The focus on regional analysis in mortuary studies is comparatively recent (e.g., Beck 1995) and in this case was made possible by the relatively high number of site assemblages preserved in the public and private domain.

[Robinson-WJ 1976] William J. Robinson. “Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology in the American Southwest”, Tree-Ring Bulletin, Volume 36, 1976, pages 9–20. See the Tree Ring Society web site. Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology in the American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The relationship between archaeology and tree-ring dating, or dendrochronology, is reviewed. Until the past decade, the applications of tree-ring dating to archaeological problems had not been thoroughly exploited. Now, in addition to providing the most precise dating control in the world, dendrochronology is making contributions to behavioral archaeology and to the reconstruction of past environments.

[Robinson-WJ 1991] William J. Robinson and Catherine M. Cameron. A Directory of Tree-Ring Dated Prehistoric Sites in the American Southwest, published by the Laboratory of Tree-Rink Research, The University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, November 1, 1991, 62 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Ross 2002] John F. Ross. “First City in the New World?”, Smithsonian Magazine, published by the Smithsonian Institution, August 2002, retrieved September 5, 2010. First City in the New World? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

Abstract: Peru's Caral suggests civilization emerged in the Americas 1,000 years earlier than experts believed.

[Roth-AM 1995] Ann Macy Roth. A Cemetery of Palace Attendants, Giza Mastabas, Volume 6, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Russell-DJ 1989] Dann J. Russell. “Bone Whistles of Northern Utah”, Utah Archaeology, Volume 2, Number 1, 1989, pages 48–55. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The Great Salt Lake Fremont peoples made extensive use of the bone refuse from the various wild game they hunted as is evident from the numerous bone awls and other tools that have been recovered. Knives and saws made from deer and mountain sheep scapulae are also fairly common, although they are rare in other parts of the state. In addition, Great Salt Lake Fremont sites are somewhat unusual in that they contain large numbers of bison and waterfowl bones. From the latter the Fremont made bone whistles, an artifact considered to be characteristic of this variant (Marwitt 1970: 145).

[Sanchez 2007] Gonzalo Sánchez Santiago. “An Introduction to the Music Cultures of Ancient Oaxaca: Sound Artifacts in the Archaeological Record”, The World of Music, Volume 49, Number 2, published by VWB – Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, Berlin, 2007, pages 67–79. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper discusses the sound artefacts from archaeological excavations made in the present-day State of Oaxaca, Mexico. The finds reveal the rich diversity of ancient music cultures such as the Zapotec, Mixtec, and Mixe-Zoque. Based on the organologicaldata, important aspects of the musical history of this cultural area can be reconstructed.

[Schneider-RL 1966] Roger Lee Schneider. A Preliminary Study of a Fort Ancient Site, Masters Thesis – Department of Education, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio, 1966. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schulz 2001] Regine Christiane Schulz. “Harp and Flute in a 26th Dynasty Tomb”, Joined Meeting of CIPEG and the International Committee of Museums with Musical Instruments Collections (CIMICIM), ICOM, Barcelona, Spain, 2001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Semaw 2003] S. Semaw, M. J. Rogers, J. Quade, P. R. Renne, R. F. Butler, M. Dominguez-Rodrigo, D. Stout, W. S. Hart, T. Pickering, and S. W. Simpson. “2.6-Million-year-old Stone Tools and Associated Bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia”, Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 45, Number 2, August 2003, pages 169–177, doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Evolution of Music - Flutopedia.com

[Sharp 1992] William E. Sharp and David Pollack. “The Florence Site Complex: Two Fourteenth-Century Fort Ancient Communities in Harrison County, Kentucky”, contained in [Pollack 1992], 1992, pages 183–218. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Simpson-WK 1976] William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III — G 7101-7102, Giza Mastabas, Volume 2, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1976. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Simpson-WK 1980] William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of the Western Cemetery: Part 1, Giza Mastabas, Volume 4, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1980. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smiley 1951] Terah L. Smiley. “A Summary of Tree Ring Dates from Some Southwestern Archaeological Sites”, University of Arizona Bulletin, Volume 22, Number 4, Tuscon, Arizona, October 1951. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research Bulletin, Number 5. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Smith-H 1904] Hermann Smith. The World's Earliest Music: Traced to its Beginnings in Ancient Lands, published by William Reeves, London, 1904, 362 pages. Publications worldsearliestmu00smituoft and worldsearliestmu04smit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-HI 1910] H. I. Smith. “The Prehistoric Ethnology of a Kentucky Site”, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 6, Part 2, New York, 1910, pages 173–241. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Solis 2001] Ruth Shady Solís, Jonathan Haas, and Winifred Creamer. “Dating Caral, a Preceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the Central Coast of Peru”, Science, Volume 292, Number 5517, April 27, 2001, pages 723–726, doi:10.1126/science.1059519 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

Abstract: Radiocarbon dates from the site of Caral in the Supe Valley of Peru indicate that monumental corporate architecture, urban settlement, and irrigation agriculture began in the Americas by 4090 years before the present (2627 calibrated years B.C.) to 3640 years before the present (1977 calibrated years B.C.). Caral is located 23 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and contains a central zone of monumental, residential, and nonresidential architecture covering an area of 65 hectares. Caral is one of 18 large preceramic sites in the Supe Valley.

[Solis 2004] Ruth Shady Solís. Caral. The City of the Sacred Fire «La Ciudad del Fuego Sagrado», published by Graph & Consult, Cuzzi y Cia. S.A. Interbank, Centura SAB, Peru, 2004, 260 pages. See the Caral web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in the Americas (2)

[Southgate 1890] Thomas Lea Southgate. “The Recent Discovery of Egyptian Flutes, and their Significance”, The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Volume 31, Number 572, October 1, 1890, pages 585–587. Publication 3361142 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Southgate 1915] Thomas Lea Southgate. “Ancient Flutes from Egypt”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 35, Number 1, published by The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 1915, pages 12–21. Publication 624521 on JSTOR (subscription access). Publication journalofhelleni35sociuoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Spear-C 1995] Charles Spear. “The Flageolet”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thackeray-AI 1981] Anne I. Thackeray, J. Francis Thackeray, Peter B. Beaumont, and J. C. Vogel. “Dated Rock Engravings from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa”, Science, Volume 214, Number 4516, November 1981, pages 64–67, doi:10.1126/science.214.4516.64. Publication 17802575 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Radiocarbon dates associated with engraved stones from sealed archeological deposits at Wonderwerk Cave in the northern Cape Province indicate that rock engraving in South Africa is at least 10,000 years old.

[Toskan 2011] Borut Toškan (editor). Drobci ledenodobnega okolja. Zbornik ob življenjskem jubileju Ivana Turka «Fragments of Ice Age Environments. Proceedings in Honour of Ivan Turk’s Jubilee», Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae, Number 21, published by Arhiv Inštituta za arheologijo, Znanstvenoraziskovalni center SAZU, Ljubljana, in Slovenian and English, 2011, 280 pages, ISBN-13 978-961-254-257-3, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Trease 2006] Christine K. Trease. “Fremont Flute Found in Range Creek is Music to our Ears — Press Release”, December 19, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in North America (2)

[Trease 2007] Christine K. Trease (editor). “Fremont Flute Measures up against the Biggies”, Raptor Review, Issue 7, published by the College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum, Price, Utah, April 2007, page 1. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutopedia Image Detail: Broken Flute Cave flutes in the Arizona State Museum, The Development of Flutes in North America, Flutopedia Image Detail: The Range Creek Freemont Flute

[Tuck 1976] James A. Tuck and Robert J. McGhee. “An Archaic Indian Burial Mound in Labrador”, Scientific American, Volume 235, Number 5, November 1976, pages 122–129. An Archaic Indian Burial Mound in Labrador Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The L'Anse Amour Flute

Abstract: Ancient burial mounds are usually associated with large, stable agricultural societies. Yet the oldest mound known, now found on a subarctic shore, was made by a band of hunters and gatherers.

This journal article describes the archaeological excavation by Memorial University, Newfoundland, of a subarctic Archaic Indian burial mound (grave) near L'Anse L'Amour, Labrador, Canada. Removal of sand and boulders revealed traces of red ochre and organic stains. Stone and bone artifacts accompanying the prone skeleton include knives, projectile points, pebbles, pendant and a whistle. A harpoon head and toggle confirms that these prehistoric hunters pursued sea mammals as well as caribou. Carbon 14-dating of charcoal samples estimates the date at approximately 5,000 B.C.

[Tuck 1976a] James A. Tuck. Ancient People of Port au Choix — The Excavation of an Archaic Indian Cemetery in Newfoundland, Fourth Printing, 1994, Newfoundland Social and Economic Studies, Number 17, published by the Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1976, xi + 264 pages, ISBN 0-919666-12-4 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tuck 1977] James A. Tuck. “Early Cultures on the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 288, February 1977, pages 472–480, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb33637.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Tuniz 2012] Claudio Tuniz, Federico Bernardini, Ivan Turk, Ljuben Dimkarozki, Lucia Mancini, and Diego Dreossi. “Did Neanderthals Play Music? — X-Ray Computed Micro-tomography of the Divje Babe 'Flute'”, Archaeometry, Volume 54, Issue 3, June 2012, pages 581–590, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2011.00630.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Archaeological evidence for wind musical instruments made by modern humans has been well established from the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. Musical instruments evidently made by Neanderthals have not been found so far. The most controversial object is a juvenile cave bear femur with two complete holes, found in 1995 in the Middle Palaeolithic layers of the Cave Divje babe I, Slovenia. The bone was interpreted as a possible Neanderthal ‘flute’, but some scholars have firmly rejected this hypothesis on the basis of taphonomic observations, suggesting a carnivore origin for the holes. Here, we show the results of X-ray computed micro-tomography (mCT) performed on the Divje babe I ‘flute’. Our analyses demonstrate that there were originally four holes, possibly made with pointed stones and bone tools. Most surface modifications near the holes, previously interpreted as effects of carnivore gnawing, are post-depositional marks. Furthermore, a thin layer has been removed around one of the complete holes, producing a flat surface, possibly to facilitate perforation. The new data show that a Neanderthal manufacture of the object cannot be ruled out.

[Turk-M 2011] Matija Turk and Ljuben Dimkaroski. “Neanderthal Flute from Divje Babe I: Old and New Findings”, contained in [Toskan 2011], 2011, pages 251–266. Neanderthal Flute from Divje Babe I Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The perforated femur of a cave bear, found in 1995 in the Palaeolithic cave site of Divje babe I (western Slovenia), has been the subject of many a heated discussion on its origin since its discovery. Whereas some advocate a natural origin of holes, the consequence of carnivore gnawing, others argue for an artificial origin and see in it the product of a Neanderthal. The results of experimental piercing of fresh brown bear femurs using casts of carnivore teeth, the results of experimental archaeology as well as computer tomography of the disputed flute confirm the latter, that is artificial origin of the holes. This is further confirmed by the latest musicological research, which brings new findings on the musical capacity of the flute. This research was carried out on an authentic replica of the flute, whereby the proximal part of the flute served as the mouthpiece and the distal, broader part as the bell. The disposition of holes and the preserved length of the flute form a system, which enables a wide range of sonority and melodic motion and thus reveals the object as an instrument in the proper sense of the word. In the sound sequence of a twelve-tone scale, the instrument has a two and a half octave compass, which extends to over three octaves by over-blowing. The technical capacity of the instrument in terms of expression thus leaves no doubt as to the artificial origin of holes and their deliberate alignment. The layer, in which the flute was found, is ESR dated to between 60 and 50 ky in the past. The flute from Divje babe I is today considered the oldest instrument and the first known to have been made by Neanderthal hands. Its technological perfection points to high cognitive abilities of Neanderthals.

[USC 2004] University Of South Carolina. “New Evidence Puts Man In North America 50,000 Years Ago”, ScienceDaily, November 18, 2004, retrieved December 21, 2009. See the article on the USC web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in the Americas

[Vyse 1840] Howard Vyse. The Pyramids of Gizeh in 1837, Three Volumes, published by James Fraser, London, 1840. Publications operationscarrie01howa, operationscarrie02howa, operationscarri00vysegoog, operationscarri01vysegoog, operationscarri02vysegoog, and operationscarri03vysegoog on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Walpole 2012] Jonathan Walpole. Pueblo Bonito Flute Replicas, February 1, 2012, 8 pages. Pueblo Bonito Flute Replicas Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Flutes of Pueblo Bonito (2)

Introduction: This document describes the construction of two working replicas of Mojave flutes found at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The original flutes, estimated to be between 1000 and 1300 years old, are shown in Figure 1. The replicas described
here are of H-4559 and H-4560, both of which are complete flutes.

[Ward 1999] H. Trawick Ward and R. P. Stephen Davis. Time Before History: The Archaeology of North Carolina, published by the University of North Carolina Press, 1999, 328 pages, ISBN 0-8078-4780-1 (978-0-8078-4780-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Plains Style and Woodlands Style Native American Flutes

Abstract: A current hypothesis suggests the purr indicates contentment, however, cats purr when they are severely injured or frightened. Forty-four felids were recorded including cheetahs, ocelots, pumas, domestic cats, and servals. A Sony TCD-D8 Digital Audio Recorder (DAT) and Statham Radio microphones recorded the purrs. FFTs and spectrographs were performed using National Instrument's Polynesia. An accelerometer was also used to measure domestic cat purrs. Every felid in the study generated strong frequencies between 25 and 150 Hz. Purr frequencies correspond to vibrational/electrical frequencies used in treatment for bone growth/fractures, pain, edema, muscle growth/strain, joint flexibility, dyspnea, and wounds. Domestic cats, servals, ocelots, and pumas produce fundamental, dominant, or strong frequencies at exactly 25 Hz and 50 Hz, the two low frequencies that best promote bone growth/fracture healing [Chen et al., Zhong. Wai Ke Za Zhi. 32, 217–219 (1994)]. These four species have a strong harmonic exactly at, or within 2 Hz of 100 Hz, a frequency used therapeutically for pain, edema, wounds, and dyspnea. An internal healing mechanism would be advantageous, increasing recovery time and keeping muscles and bone strong when sedentary.

[Ward-C 2012] Christie Ward (Gunnvôr silfrahárr). Viking Age Music, 2012, retrieved December 5, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Watson-PJ 1969] Patty Jo Watson, Richard A. Yarnell, Harold Meloy, William Benninghoff, Eric Callen, Aiden Cockburn, Hugh Cutler, Paul Parmalee, Lionell Prescott, and William White. “The Prehistory of Salts Cave, Kentucky”, Reports of Investigations, Number 16, published by the Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois, 1969, 86 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Webb 1946] W. S. Webb. “Indian Knoll, Ohio County, Kentucky”, University of Kentucky Reports in Anthropology and Archaeology, Volume 4, Number 3, Part 1, Lexington, Kentucky, 1946. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

[Weeks 1994] Kent R. Weeks. Mastabas of Cemetery G 6000, Giza Mastabas, Volume 5, published by the Department of Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1994. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wilcox 2002] David R. Wilcox and Don D. Fowler. “The Beginnings of Anthropological Archaeology in the North American Southwest: From Thomas Jefferson to the Pecos Conference”, Journal of the Southwest, Volume 44, Number 2, Tuscon, Arizona, Summer 2002. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: This special monograph issue of Journal of the Southwest presents a developmental history of anthropological archaeology in the North American Southwest within the context of western American exploration, the rise of Americanist anthropology, and the larger cultural milieu in which they took place. Our time frame is roughly 1780 to 1950, although that boundary is permeable. As vehicles for our discussion, we will focus on certain anthropological and archaeological issues, the intellectual and sociocultural factors underlying and giving rise to them, and research agendas developed to resolve them.

[Will-RT 1997] Richard T. Will. Teachers Guide to Teaching Tools: Maine Prehistoric Archaeology, Teacher Resource Kit, published by Archaeological Research Consultants, Inc., Ellsworth, Maine, 1997. Teachers Guide to Teaching Tools Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Williams-BB 1988] B. B. Williams and J. L. Wilkinson. “Excavation of a Bronze Age Cist at Knockroe, County Tyrone”, Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, 1988, pages 85–90. Publication 20568117 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Winters 1969] Howard Dalton Winters. The Riverton Culture — A Second Millennium Occupation in the Central Wabash Valley, Monograph No. 1 of the Illinois Archaeological Survey, published by the Illinois State Museum, 1969, 164 pages + 48 plates. Publication monograph11969illi on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Preface: The following report deals with excavations in the Robeson Hills, Riverton, and Swan Island shell middens of the central Wabash Valley during the spring, summer, and fall of 1962 and the summer of 1963 at the Riverton Site. All three are closely related components within a hitherto unreported Archaic culture typified by a distinctive micro-tool industry in chert. The culture has been named the Riverton Culture after the site at which the micro-tool tradition was first noted in surface collections.

[Withrow 1995] Rob Withrow. “Wing-Bone Whistle”, Bulletin of Primitive Technology, Volume 9, published by the Society of Primitive Technology, Utah, Spring 1995. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wood-WR 1963] W. Raymond Wood; Charles R. McGimsey, III (editor). Arkansas Archeology, 1962 — An Annual Report on Archeological Research, Investigations, Activities, and Progress in the State of Arkansas, published by the Arkansas Archeological Society, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1963, ASIN B002IEXZ7Q Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Breckenridge Flute

[Zhang 1999] Juzhong Zhang, Garman Harbottle, Changsui Wang, and Zhaochen Kong. “Oldest Playable Musical Instruments Found at Jiahu Early Neolithic Site in China”, Nature, Number 401, published by Macmillan Publishing Ltd., September 23, 1999, pages 366–368. ISSN 0028-0836. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Six extremely well-made complete bone flutes have been found at the early Neolithic site of Jianhu in Henan Province, China, along with fragments of around 30 more. These flutes, which are made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane, could be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. The best preserved flute has seven main holes, along with a very small hole near hole 7. It was tested using a 'Stroboconn' sound-analyzing stroboscope.

[Ziegler-CH 1993] Christiane H. Ziegler. Le mastaba d’Akhethetep: Une chapelle funéraire de l’Ancien Empire, Monographies des musées de France, published by the Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, in French, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
Previous PageNext Page

   
 

To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2016_refs_arch"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title= Archaeology References for the Native American Flute |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/refs_arch.htm |date=20 December 2016 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>