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Ancient Music References

This is a list of references realted to ancient music cited throughout Flutopedia. These references have only tangential relationship to the Native American flute, but I've found them interesting when researching the earliest origins of music.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

Ancient Music References

[Abraham-RH 2006] Ralph H. Abraham and William Irwin Thompson. “The Canon of Lespugue”, The Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers (ESOP), Volume 24, 2006, pages 170–175. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Venus of Lespugue (2)

Abstract: Linear measurements taken from the Venus of Lespugue, a 25,000 year old sculpture, closely match the diatonic scale of the Vedic Aryans, also known as the Dorian mode of the ancient Greeks.

[Anderson-R 2005] Robert Anderson, Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco, and Virginia Danielson. Egypt, Ancient Music, 2005, 39 pages. Egypt, Ancient Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Anderson-RD 1976] R. D. Anderson; Grace Huxtable (drawings). Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum, Volume 3: Musical Instruments, Illustrated Edition, published by British Museum Publications Limited, 1976, viii + 87 pages with 150 illustrations, ISBN 0-7141-0919-3 (978-0-7141-0919-0), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Andreopoulou 2008] Areti Andreopoulou. Modeling the Greek Aulos, Master of Music in Music Technology – The Steinhardt School, New York University, May 14, 2008, 96 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Aristoxenus 1902] Aristoxenus; Henry Stewart Macran (editor). Aristoxenou Harmonika Stoicheia «The Harmonics of Aristoxenus», published by Clarendon Press, 1902, 303 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arroyo 2003] Rafael Pérez Arroyo and Syra Bonet. Music in the Age of the Pyramids, English Edition, published by Editorial Centro de Estudios Egipcios, Madrid, Spain, 2003, 511 pages, ISBN 84-932796-1-7, hardcover. See the Rafael Pérez Arroyo web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Arroyo 2006] Rafael Pérez Arroyo and Syra Bonet. Music in the Age of the Pyramids, Natural Acoustic Recordings, NAR-0010-01, with booklet in English and Spanish. NAR-0010-02, with booklet in French and German., 10 tracks, October 30, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Badawi 1960] Ahmad Badawi (supervision); Mohamed Gamal el-Din Mokhtar and Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif Tanbuli (text); Aly Hassan el-Ghazouli, Abdel-Badie Abdel-Rahman, and Ahmad el-Gabouri (photographs). Dresses in Ancient Egypt «Le costume dans l'Egypte ancienne / al-Azya fi Misr al-qadimah», published by Le Caire: Centre de documentation sur l'ancienne Egypte, in English, French, and Arabic, 1960, 80 pages. Publication dressesinancient00bada on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: Flute and Lyre scene from the Tomb of Djeserkara Amenhotep, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Baines 1993] John Baines. “Symbolic Roles of Canine Figures on Early Monuments”, Archéo-Nil, May 1993, pages 57–74. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutopedia Image Detail: Drawing of the Two-Dog Palette from the Temple of Hierakonpolis

[Bard 2007] Kathryn A. Bard. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, published by Blackwell Publishing, 2007, 400 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4051-1148-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barnett-RD 1976] Richard David Barnett. Sculptures from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (668–627 B.C.), published by the British Museum Press, London, 1976, 75 pages, ISBN 0-7141-1046-9 (978-0-7141-1046-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Barnett-RD 1982] Richard David Barnett. Ancient Ivories in the Middle East and Adjacent Countries, Volume 14 of Qedem: Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology, published by the Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1982, 99 pages, ASIN B0055IIZTK, hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barone 1960] Joseph A. Barone. “Patterns in Music”, Expedition, Volume 3, Number 1, Fall 1960, pages 29–31. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Barton 1915] George A. Barton. Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents from the Earliest Times to the Dynasty fo Agade, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 9, Number 1, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1915, 106 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Beyhom 2008] Amine Beyhom. “A New Hypothesis for the Elaboration of Heptatonic Scales and Consequences in Understanding their Origins”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 151–209. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The reason for having eight notes in one octave is an arbitrary concept. There are diverging explanations but none is satisfactory. The first part of this paper offers another view based on the author’s theory of Modal Systematics, where basic principles are explained. The second part is a statistical analysis on the combination of intervals within the span of the just fourth, fifth and of the octave. The conclusion proposes two hypotheses, the first on the elaboration of the heptatonic scale and the second on the origins of heptatonism.

[Bhayro 2008] Siam Bhayro. “Ancient Near Eastern and Early Jewish Lyre Traditions”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 77–82. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bhayro 2010] Siam Bhayro. “On the Manipulation of the Planets by the Lyre Player in a 'Wine Song' by Khamis Bar Qardahe”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 41–44, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Brenner 2001] Athalya Brenner. A Feminist Companion to Exodus-Deuteronomy Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bromiley 1986] Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Illustrated in Four Volumes, Revised Edition, published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1986. Reissued in [Bromiley 2007]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2), Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Bromiley 2007] Geoffrey W. Bromiley. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Illustrated Edition, published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2007, ISBN 0-8028-3785-9 (978-0-8028-3785-1). Reissue of [Bromiley 1986]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher description: Representing the scholarship of hundreds of evangelical contributors from many specialized fields of biblical research, this four-volume encyclopedia includes articles on virtually every person, place, and term in the Bible. Based on the Revised Standard Version, ISBE contains cross-reference entries making it readily accessible to users of other major translations.

[Brown-JP 2001] John Pairman Brown. Israel and Hellas, Volume 3, published by Walter de Gruyter, 2001, 548 pages, ISBN 3-11-014233-3 (978-3-11-014233-4). Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Buccellati 2000] Giorgio Buccellati and Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati. The Royal Palace and the Daughter of Naram-Sin, Urkesh Bulletin, Volume 3, April 2000, 41 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Buccellati 2003] G{iorgio} Buccellati. Hurrian Music, published by IIMAS (The International Institute for Mesopotamian Area Studies), 2003, retrieved September 28, 2011. Hurrian Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Burgh 2006] Theodore W. Burgh. Listening to the Artifacts: Music Culture in Ancient Palestine, Illustrated Edition, published by the Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, 181 pages, ISBN 0-567-02542-X (978-0-567-02542-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[CAD 2011] Martha T. Roth (editor in charge). The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD), 21 Volumes (26 total parts), published by The Oriental Institute, Chicago, Illinois, Date of publication completion June 2011, 10,000 pages, retrieved December 22, 2011. Publication began 1921. also known as The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD) Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: The CAD project was initiated in the early 1920s, not long after James Henry Breasted founded the Oriental Institute in 1919, and barely one hundred years after the decipherment of the cuneiform script. This initial decipherment, and the soon-to-follow achievements in understanding the languages in which the hundreds of thousands of clay tablets were inscribed, opened an unsuspected treasure-house for the study and appreciation of one of the world's oldest civilizations.

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary was conceived to provide more than lexical information alone, more than a one-to-one equivalent between Akkadian and English words. By presenting each word in a meaningful context, usually with a full and idiomatic translation, it recreates the cultural milieu and thus in many ways assumes the function of an encyclopedia. Its source material ranges in time from the third millennium b.c. to the first century a.d., and in geographic area from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east.

With sixteen of the projected twenty-one volumes published and the remaining volumes in various stages of preparation, with close to two million file cards - a database which is continually updated and which is accessible to scholars and students who wish to consult it - the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary has become an invaluable source for the study of the civilizations of the ancient Near East, their political and cultural history, their achievements in the sciences of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and linguistics, and not least the timeless beauty of their poetry.

[Cambel 2003] H. Çambel and A. Özyar. Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: Die Bildwerke «Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: The Image Works», Mainz am Rhein, in German, 2003, ISBN-13 978-3-8053-3085-5 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Campbell 2011] Dennis R. M. Campbell. Observations on the Lyric Structure of Hurrian Songs and the Fragment KBo 35.39, 2011, 35 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Caplice 1988] Richard I. Caplice and Daniel C. Snell. Introduction to Akkadian, published by Gregorian and Biblical Book Shop, 1988, 106 pages, ISBN 88-7653-566-7 (978-88-7653-566-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Cerny 1987] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Das altmesopotamische Tonsystem, seine Organisation und Entwicklung im Lichte der neuerschlossenen Texte «The Mesopotamian Sound System, its Organization and Development in the Light of New Closed Texts»”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 55, in German, 1987, pages 41–57. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 1988] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Probleme der Musikaufzeichnung aus Ugarit — Versuch einer neuen Interpretation des "Hymnus h 6" «Problems of Recording Music from Ugarit - Attempt at a New Interpretation of the "Hymn H 6"»”, Sulmu / Vavrousek Petr. - Prague : Univerzita Karlova, in German, 1988, pages 49–62. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 1994] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Some Musicological Remarks on the Old Mesopotamian Music and its Terminology”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 62, Number 1, 1994, pages 17–26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cerny 2004] Miroslav Karel Černý. “Another Look at the Mesopotamian "Tonal" System - Ascending or Descending?”, Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies, Volume 72, Number 1, 2004, pages 25–32. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The ancient Mesopotamian music (tonal) system was first interpreted as ascending (Kilmer, Duchesne-Guillemin, Wulstan, Gurney, Thiel and myself). Criticism of the "descending interpretation" (Krispijn, West, and, more recently, Gurney). No argument for this is valid (transformation of original heptatonic and nomenclature, primitive scales, ancient Greece a.o.). Musical-anthropological constants and nomenclature, psychology in the interpretation of notated sources, and the construction of harps all speak for the "ascending" interpretation. Question of Gurney's new reading ...

[Champollion 1876] M. Jacques-Joseph Champollion-Figeac. Egypte Ancienne «Ancient Egypt», in French, 1876. Publication egypteancienne00cham on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cheng 2009] Jack Cheng. “A Review of Early Dynastic III Music: Man's Animal Call”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 68, Number 3, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 2009, pages 163–178, doi:10.1086/613988. A Review of Early Dynastic III Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Introduction: A review of the texts, images and actual musical instruments of the Early Dynastic III period leads to new insights into how Sumerians understood their world, and to the fine line they drew between civilization and nature.

[Cheung 2008] Vincent C. K. Cheung. “Tudor Dedications to the Blessed Virgin: History, Style, and Analysis of Music from the Eton Choirbook”, 2008. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Civil 2008] Miguel Civil. ARES III: The Early Dynastic Practical Vocabulary A: Archaic HAR-ra A, Volume 4 of Archivi reali di Ebla: Studi, Missione archeologica italiana in Siria, published by Missione Archeologica Italiana in Siria, Rome, 2008, 181 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Civil 2010] Miguel Civil. The Lexical Texts in the Schøyen Collection, Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology, Volume 12, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, July 15, 2010, xxii+308 pages, ISBN 1-934309-11-7 (978-1-934309-11-7), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: Contains an introduction and complete editions of several hundred lexical texts, including full transliterations and commentaries, along with accompanying photos of the tablets.

The lexical texts in the Schøyen Collection constitute perhaps the most important group of new lexical sources now known. Miguel Civil has prepared the complete publication of this remarkably well-preserved and diverse collection of sources that adds greatly to the Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon (MSL) series and particularly to those working in lexicography, philology, and Sumerian and Babylonian culture.

[Colburn 2009] Jerome Colburn. “A New Interpretation of the Nippur Music-Instruction Fragments”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 61, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, January 2009, pages 97–109. ISSN 0022-0256 (print). Publication 25608635 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Colburn 2009a] Jerome Colburn. “CBS 1766 as a Guide to String Pairs, Including Seconds”, N. A. B. U., Volume 3, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Collon 1990] Dominique Collon. Near Eastern Seals, Volume 2 of Interpreting the Past, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1990, 64 pages, ISBN 0-520-07308-8 (978-0-520-07308-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: A rich source of pictorial information about the Ancient Near East comes to us in the form of miniature reliefs, created from the impressions made in clay by tiny engraved stone seals. Originally used for sealing goods and writing tablets, these seals now provide important evidence for administrative practices, technical development, and long-distance trade. The designs themselves record religious beliefs, mythical characters, architectural styles, musical instruments, festivals, sport, warfare, transportation, and fashions in dress.

In this first comprehensive introduction to pre-Islamic Near Eastern seals, Dominique Collon discusses cylinder seals—a form unique to the Ancient Near East—as well as stamp seals, the earliest dating from the fifth millennium B.C. As a reflection of how their owners saw the world around them, Near Eastern seals are an essential tool for archaeologists in interpreting the past. A rich source of pictorial information about the Ancient Near East comes to us in the form of miniature reliefs, created from the impressions made in clay by tiny engraved stone seals. Originally used for sealing goods and writing tablets, these seals now provide important evidence for administrative practices, technical development, and long-distance trade. The designs themselves record religious beliefs, mythical characters, architectural styles, musical instruments, festivals, sport, warfare, transportation, and fashions in dress.

[Collon 2008] Dominique Collon. “Playing in Concert in the Ancient Near East”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 47–65. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Six citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (6)

Introduction: This paper focuses on depictions of groups of musicians playing together. The evidence selected comes predominantly from Mesopotamia (including Syria and south-western Iran) and Anatolia, between c. 3100 B.C. and c. 645 B.C. We shall only consider scenes showing groups of musicians playing musical instruments of different types. Men and women performers have not been distinguished because gender is often ambiguous (eunuchs, sastrati etc), as the first document in our series amply demonstrates; where there is ambiguity, rather than use 'he/she', the figure will be treated as masculine. The documents selected are numbered for ease of reference and are arranged in probable chronological order.

[Crickmore 2003] Leon Crickmore. “A Re-valuation of the Ancient Science of Harmonics”, Psychology of Music, Volume 31, Number 4, 2003, pages 391–403, doi:10.1177/03057356030314004 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Harmonics was the theoretical arithmetic underpinning the tuningofmusical instruments in ancient times. It was a numerical science based onratios ofstring-length. The ancients believed that the planets circled the heavensin similar mathematical proportions, and that, by analogy, these alsocorresponded to powers in the human psyche. Harmonics survived as such untilthe 17th century. Only recently, however, have musicologists made abreakthrough to a more comprehensive understanding ofits coherence andcultural significance. This article offers a short re-valuation ofharmonics. Itseeks to stimulate debate about the relevance ofthe relationships betweennumber and tone to contemporary thought, and whether an understanding of harmonics has anything to contribute to future interdisciplinary research intothe evolution ofmusic and the human mind.

[Crickmore 2007] Leon Crickmore. “A New Hypothesis for the Construction and Tuning of Babylonian Musical Scales”, Journal of Ancient Civilizations, Volume 22, 2007, pages 35–67. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2008] Leon Crickmore. “A Musical and Mathematical Context for CBS 1766”, Music Theory Spectrum, Volume 30, Number 2, published by the University of California Press, Berkeley, California, October 1, 2008, pages 327–338, doi:10.1525/mts.2008.30.2.327. Publication mts.2008.30.2.327 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

Introduction: CBS 1766 was published by Horowitz (2006). This cuneiform tablet, dating from about 1500 BC, shows a seven-pointed star within two concentric circles, below which are column of seven integers between one and seven. Horowitz reads the figures horizontally, in pairs, and suggests a mathematical explanation. Waerzeggers and Siebes (2007) propose and alternative musical interpretation, reading the figures in pairs, by columns. Thereby, they related the numbers to the seven-pointed star, which they understand as a visual tuning chart for seven heptachords on a seven-stringed instrument, supplementing the numerical and verbal instructions contained in CBS 10996. Finkel and Dumbrill at the British Museum support their view from both a philological and musical standpoint. Dumbrill cites CBS 1766 as evidence that the Babylonian scales were heptachords.

[Crickmore 2008a] Leon Crickmore. “A New Light on the Babylonian Tonal System”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 11–22. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

From the introduction: One of the most significant developments in recent musicology has been the transcription and interpretation of a number of musical cuneiform tablets dating from the second millennium B.C. It has been established that Old Babylonian music was diatonic and based on seven heptachords, corresponding to the first seven tones of the ancient Greek octave species. But a problem remains about the direction of these scales. This paper will suggest a resolution of the ‘dilemma’ reached by Kilmer in her pioneering research. It will also argue that the theoretical musicians of ancient Mesopotamia are likely to have quantified their scales, using sexagesimal arithmetic and numbers from their standard tables of reciprocals. The resulting tuning would therefore have been Just rather than Pythagorean.

[Crickmore 2008b] Leon Crickmore. “The Musicality of Plato”, Hermathena, Volume 180, 2008, pages 19–43. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A certain passage in the eighth book of Plato's Republic has been described as 'notoriously the most difficult in his writings'. This article offer a commentary on the passage, in the light of recent musicological and other related research and its insights into the ways in which Plato's political and moral thought is underpinned by the ancient science of harmonics.

[Crickmore 2009] Leon Crickmore. “A Possible Mesopotamian Origin for Plato's World Soul”, Hermathena, Volume 186, published by Trinity College, Dublin, Summer 2009, pages 5–23. Publication 23041697 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In the introduction to the Loeb translation of Plato's Timaeus, R.G. Bury notes: 'The primary operation of the Demiurge is to construct the World Soul. In his description of this process, Plato mixes myth with mathematics in a peculiarly baffling way'.

This article will argue that if Plato's mathematics is interpreted in accordance with the Pythagorean tradition and the ancient science of harmonics, the arithmetic quickly ceases to be 'baffling'. The article will also identify a possible Mesopotamian origin for Plato'e mathematical construct.

[Crickmore 2009a] Leon Crickmore. “The Tonal Systems of Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece: Some Similarities and Differences”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 1–16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2009b] Leon Crickmore. “Harmonic Mythology — Nine Interdiciplinary Research Notes”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 51–66. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crickmore 2010] Leon Crickmore. “Egyptian Fractions and the Ancient Science of Harmonics”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 1–8, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesis that in ancient times there existed throughout the Near East a common mathematical approach to the definition of musical pitch in terms of ratios of pipe or string-length. This tradition became known by the time of Plato as the science of harmonics. As a branch of music theory, harmonics probably originated in Mesopotamia. It would later have been transmitted to Greece and Egypt. As performing musicians were traded widely by kings between the temples and palaces of cities across the Near East, they would have taken their knowledge of music theory with them. It seems reasonable therefore to assume that the science of harmonics would then have been accommodated to the various regional systems of arithmetic in use: sexagesimal in Mesopotamia; Pythagorean in Greece and in Egypt by means of Egyptian fractions.

[Crickmore 2012] Leon Crickmore. “A Musicological Interpretation of the Akkadian term siḫpu”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 64, 2012, pages 57–64, doi:10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057. Publication 10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: This article aims to provide a musicological interpretation of the Akkadian term siḫpu, which makes sense to modern musicians and is compatible with the eight known cuneiform music texts.

[Crocker 1977] Richard L. Crocker. “Music and Archaeology”, IMSCR, Volume 12, Berkeley, California, 1977, pages 844–868. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1978] R{ichard} L. Crocker. “Remarks on the Tuning Text UET VII 74 (U.7/80)”, Orientalia, Volume 47, published by Faculty of Ancient Oriental Studies, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, Italy, 1978, pages 99–104, ASIN B0007BPL7E. Publication 43074799 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1984] R{ichard} L. Crocker and A{nn} D{raffkorn} Kilmer. “The Fragmentary Music Text from Nippur”, Iraq, Volume 46, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1984, pages 81–85. Publication 4200217 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Crocker 1997] Richard L. Crocker. “Mesopotamian Tonal Systems”, Iraq, Volume 59, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1997, pages 189–202. Publication 4200443 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[CUL 2004] Columbia University Libraries. Jewels in Her Crown — Treasures of Columbia University Libraries Special Collections, 2004. See the Exhibition web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[DEAA 1902] Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum, Part XV (50 plates), 1902. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[DEAA 1909] Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum; L. W. King (text and copies of the tablets); E. A. Wallis Bidge (editor). Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum, Part XXV (50 plates), 1909. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[deSchauensee 1998] Maude de Schauensee. “The "Boat-Shaped" Lyre — Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur”, Expedition, Volume 40, Number 2, 1998, pages 20–8. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[deSchauensee 2002] Maude de Schauensee. Two Lyres from Ur, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2002, 125 pages, ISBN 0-924171-88-X (978-0-924171-88-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: During the 1928-29 season at Ur, in the Great Death Pit of the Royal Cemetery, C. Leonard Woolley discovered two spectacular musical instruments—a silver Boat-shaped Lyre and a magnificent lyre with the head of a bull made of gold sheet and a lapis lazuli beard. This book chronicles their history, conservation, and reconservation. While little was known about mid-third millennium Mesopotamian archaeology early last century, it was clear that the Sumerians had developed a vigorous trade in luxury goods, with an economy that necessitated a highly structured government whose leaders could command rich and elaborate graves that included a full panoply of musical instruments.

In meticulous detail, using both traditional methods and new X-ray and electronic imaging investigative techniques, Maude de Schauensee probes and analyzes the construction of the two lyres held by the University Museum while providing an economic, historical, and sociological context in which to better understand them. She examines the decorative motifs along with the materials and the techniques of the builders of these instruments. The illustrations—10 pieces of line art, 25 photographs, 6 CAT-scans, 5 X-rays, and 24 color plates—supply additional details. This book presents new information and conservation descriptions for the first time. Musicologists, art historians, Near East scholars and archaeologists, and general readers will find this book's new analysis of the instruments of an ancient culture of significant interest.

[Dietrich 1975] Manfried Dietrich and Oswald Loretz. “Kollationen zum Musiktext aus Ugarit «Collations to Music Text from Ugarit»”, Ugarit-Forschungen, Volume 7, in German, 1975, pages 521–522. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dowley 2011] Tim Dowley. Christian Music: A Global History, published by Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2011, 264 pages, ISBN 0-8006-9841-X (978-0-8006-9841-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Tim Dowley's popular history of Christian music is the first to encompass all eras, regions, and varieties of this rich and vast treasure. From its Jewish origins, through medieval chant and hymns, to gospel and rock, Christian music around the world is harmonized beautifully in this colorfully illustrated survey. Dowley travels beneath the plurality of forms and styles to pose questions about the meaning of diverse traditions. His skillful narrative and fascinating insights from specialists combine for a truly global history of Christianity's musical culture.

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1963] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. “Découverte d'une Gamme Babylonienne «Discovery of a Babylonian Scale»”, Revue de Musicologie, Volume 49, Number 126, published by the Société Française de Musicologie, in French, July 1963, pages 3–17. Publication 927207 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1981] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. “Music in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3 (Archaeology and Musical Instruments), published by Taylor & Francis, Ltd., February 1981, pages 287–297, doi:10.1080/00438243.1981.9979803. Publication 124240 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Abstract: Almost all categories of instruments were represented in Mesopotamia and Egypt, from clappers and scrapers to rattles, sistra, flutes, clarinets, oboes, trumpets, harps, lyres, lutes, etc. As early as 2600 B.C. harps and lyres are attested at Ur. In the New Kingdom, Egypt borrowed several instruments from Mesopotamia: the angular vertical harp, square drum, etc. The organ, invented in Ptolemaic Egypt, is first attested in its new, non-hydraulic form in the third century A.D. Hama mosaic. Musical theory, based on the heptatonic system with seven scales and modes is found in Mesopotamia as early as the eighteenth century B.C. This theory is reflected in a musical score written beneath a Hurrite hymn of the fourteenth century B.C.

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. A Hurrian Musical Score from Ugarit: The Discovery of Mesopotamian Music, Sources from the Ancient Near East, Volume 2, Number 2, published by Undena Publications, Malibu, California, 1984, 32 pages, ISBN 0-89003-158-4 (978-0-89003-158-2), ASIN B0006YMP3U, monograph and audio cassette. ISSN 0732-6424. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Abstract: The discovery of a Babylonian musical theory, published by the author in 1963, has repeatedly been confirmed by further discoveries, notably by that of a Hurrian tablet containing a musical notation. Of this notation, three interpretations have been offered so far. This is a fourth one.

Nothing was known about Babylonian music, apart from instruments, until a Babylonian tablet (in The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania) was published by Ann Kilmer in 1960 and interpreted by the present author in 1963. It revealed the existence of a theory of the scale. This discovery created quite a stir among scholars and made it possible for an asyriologist, 0. Gurney, and a musicologist, D. Wulstan, to interpret an unknown fragment in the British Museum which gives a method for passing from one mode to another, thus proving the existence of seven modes as far back as the 18th century B.C - The next step was the publication, in 1970, of a Hurrian tablet of the 14th century B.C. found at Ugarit (Syria) containing a musical score the interpretation of which is very difficult. Three attempts have been made so far. A fourth one is offered here with a recording made at Lihge in 1975 by a talented group of amateur singers specialized in ancient music. This theory is based on the assumption that polyphony never existed in the Middle East, and confirmed by a comparison with traditional Jewish psalm-songs and ancient Syro-Chaldean Christian liturgical melodies.

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984a] Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin. “Déchiffrement de la musique babylonienne «Decryption of Babylonian Music»”, Accademia dei Lincei, Quaderno, Volume 236, Rome, Italy, in French, 1977. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997a] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. Götterzahlen and Scale Structure, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997b] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. The Uruk Lute: Elements of Metrology, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1997c] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. The Morphology of the Babylonian Scale, 1997. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 1998] Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill. The Musicology and Organology of the Ancient Near East, ANE Series, published by Tadema Press, London, 1998, 670 pages, ISBN 0-9533633-0-9 (978-0-9533633-0-8), hardcover. Reissued in [Dumbrill 2005]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2005] Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill; Yumiko Higano (illustrations). The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East, Second Edition, published by Trafford Publishing, 2005, 530 pages, ISBN 1-4120-5538-5 (978-1-4120-5538-3). Reissue of [Dumbrill 1998]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nineteen citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets (2), Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (17)

[Dumbrill 2008a] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Four Tables from the Temple Library of Nippur: A Source for 'Plato's Number' in Relation to the Quantification of Babylonian Tone Numbers”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 27–38. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The four cuneiform texts discussed here were originally published by Hilprecht in his twentieth volume of the Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, in 1906. They came from the temple library of Nippur and were part of some 7000 texts and fragments Hilprecht catalogued. The volume lists the texts as numbers 20, Rev.; 21, Rev.; 22, Obv. and 24, Rev. They are dated about 2200 BC. (Tables I-IV).

Hilprecht refers to the texts as tables of multiplication and division. However, the purpose for these peculiar operations was not fully understood, mainly for the reason that in the early twentieth century, texts of theory, specifically UET VII 74 and 126; CBS 1766 and 10996, had not yet been satisfactorily interpreted. Although Hilprecht saw similarities with 'Plato's number' as laid out in Republic, Book VIII, He did not perceive that the lacunae of certain numbers, in addition to other mathematical purposes, were also the consequence of their relation to music theory.

The thesis is constructed from the premise that these omissions, in our present knowledge of Babylonian mathematics, cannot suit, in practice, any other systems such are enunciated, principally, in UET VII 74; UET VII 126; CBS 1766 and CBS 10996.

[Dumbrill 2008b] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Is the Heptagram in CBS 1766 a Dial?”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 47–50. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

From the Introduction: The heptagram on the tablet is inscribed within two concentric circles. The sevenpoints of the heptagram are labelled with the names of musical strings and with numbers. This paper will argue that this was the representation of a dial showing the construction of the heptatonic scale and the location of the seven modes originating from each of its degrees.

[Dumbrill 2008c] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “The Earliest Evidence of Heptatonism in a Late Old Babylonian Text: CBS 1766”, The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, published by Iconea Publications, London, April 2008, pages 1–18. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Dumbrill 2008d] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Evidence and Inference in Texts of Theory in the Ancient Near East”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 105–116. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Dumbrill 2009] Richard J{ean} Dumbrill. “Babylonian Quantification of Pitches and its Influence on Music Theory of the Abbasids and the Renaissance”, Musical Traditions in the Middle East: Reminiscences of a Distant Past, Conference on Ancient Near East Musicology, Leiden University, December 10-12, 2009, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2010] Richard Dumbrill. “Mesopotamian Origins of Heptatonism”, Music and Numbers, May 14–15, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dumbrill 2010a] Richard Dumbrill. “Music Theorism in the Ancient World”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 107–132, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: Music was born with mankind as one of his essential functions and developed with his evolution. The psychogenesis of writing and its later voicing was the cause of theoricism. Musical instruments developed as extension therefore replication of the voice and became tools for the quantification of the ethereal nature of sound. This thesis exposes that the production of just or natural intervals was the reason for the usage of sexagesimalism and why it became a major system for the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians.

[Ebeling 1919] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts «Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 1, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 28, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Ebeling 1923] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts «Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 2, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 34, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1923, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Ebeling 1927] Erich Ebeling. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts «Legal Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 50, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1927, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Effat 1996] Mahmoud Effat, Robert Cribbs, and Fathi Saleh. “On the Discovery of the Ancient Egyptian Musical Scales”, Informatica ed Egittologia all’inizio degli anni’ 90, in English and French versions available, 1996, pages 119–140. On the Discovery of the Ancient Egyptian Musical Scales Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellermeier 1970] Friedrich Ellermeier. Sibyllen, Musikanten, Haremsfrauen: Aufsätze «Sibyls, Musicians, Harem Women: Essays», Volume 2 of Theologische und orientalistische Arbeiten, published by Jungfer, in German, 1970, 30 pages, ISBN 3-921747-05-8 (978-3-921747-05-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Engel 1864] Carl Engel. The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt, First Edition, published by J. Murray, London, 1864, 379 pages. Publication musicofmostancie00enge on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

[Engel 1870] Carl Engel. The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt, Second edition, published by J. Murray, London, 1870, 379 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Erman 1907] Adolf Erman; A. S. Griffith (translation). A Handbook of Egyptian Religion, published by Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1907, 277 pages. English translation of the original German edition, published by the General Verwaltung of the Berlin Imperial Museums. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fink 2003] Robert Fink. Selected Essays & Readings: On the Origin of Music, published by Greenwich Publishing, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Finkel 1982] Irving L. Finkel and M. Civil (editors). Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon, Volume 16, SIG 7 ALAN, published by Pontificium Institute Biblicum, Rome, 1982, 348 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Franklin 2002] John Curtis Franklin. “Musical Syncretism in the Greek Orientalizing Period”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in German and English, 2002, pages 441–451. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2002a] John Curtis Franklin. Terpander: The Invention of Music in the Orientalizing Period, Doctoral dissertation – University College, London, England, 2002. See the Thesis on John Franklin's KingMixders web site. Terpander Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Franklin 2002b] John Curtis Franklin. Diatonic Music in Greece: A Reassessment of its Antiquity, Mnemosyne, Volume 55, Fasc 6, 2002, pages 669–702. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2003] John Curtis Franklin. The Language of Musical Technique in Greek Epic Diction, contained in Gaia. Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaïque 7, 2003, pages 295–307. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2004] John Curtis Franklin. Structural Sympathies in Ancient Greek and South-Slavic Heroic Song, contained in [Hickmann-E 2004], 2004, 11 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2006] John Curtis Franklin. “Lyre Gods of the Bronze Age Musical Koine”, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: That the Late Bronze Age cultural koine included a musical dimension is suggested by the Mesopotamian and Hurrian/Ugaritic musical tablets. This paper presents a selective survey and analysis of evidence for a parallel phenomenon, the deification of lyres/harps, which seemingly originated in late third millennium Mesopotamia and spread abroad in the second. Deified lyres are considered as both a ritual reality and an inducement to poetic elaboration by the same poetpriests who used them; much of the textual evidence thus represents remnants of a professional repertoire. At the same time, the motif also commonly centers on kingship, which is explained in terms of the dual office of priest-kingship; as such, there is some involvement of the deified lyre with the ritual of sacred marriage (hieros gamos). Relevant material comes from Ugarit and Cyprus, especially in the figure of Kinyras. In Greek evidence, ‘lyre heroes’ like Orpheus, Amphion, Cadmus and Linus are seen as late mythological derivatives of the pattern, Archaic survivals of Mycenaean ritual-poetics. Finally, Old Testament evidence for musical prophecy is considered in light of the foregoing.

[Franklin 2006a] John Curtis Franklin. “The Wisdom of the Lyre: Soundings in Ancient Greece, Cyprus and the Near East”, in English and German, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2006c] John Curtis Franklin. ‘Songbenders of Circular Choruses’: Dithyramb and the ‘Demise of Music’, 2006, 22 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2007] John Curtis Franklin. “A Feast of Music”: The Greco-Lydian Musical Movement on the Assyrian Periphery, 2007, 12 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Franklin 2009] John Curtis Franklin. Kinyras: The Divine Lyre, 2009, 207 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Franklin 2010] John Curtis Franklin. Kinyras and the Musical Stratigraphy of Early Cyprus, 2010, 34 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gadalla 2000] Moustafa Gadalla. Egyptian Harmony — The Visual Music, published by the Tehuti Research Foundation, Greensboro, North Carolina, 2000, 191 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gadalla 2002] Moustafa Gadalla. Egyptian Rhythm — The Heavenly Melodies, published by the Tehuti Research Foundation, Greensboro, North Carolina, 2002, 239 pages, ISBN 1-931446-02-4 (978-1-931446-02-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Discover the cosmic roots of Egyptian musical, vocal, and dancing rhythmic forms. Learn the fundamentals (theory and practice) of music in the typical Egyptian way: simple, coherent, and comprehensive. See the fallacy of present-day musical theory and practice. Review a detailed description of the major Egyptian musical instruments, playing techniques, functions, etc. Recognise the human body as a musical orchestra in tune with the universe. Discover the Egyptian rhythmic practices in all aspects of their lives. This book will make your heart sing.

[Galpin 1937] F. W. {Francis William} Galpin. The Music of the Sumerians — And Their Immediate Successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, published by Cambridge University Press, 1937, ASIN B002N1WMZ0. Reissued in [Galpin 2011]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Galpin 2011] F. W. {Francis William} Galpin. The Music of the Sumerians — And Their Immediate Successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, published by Cambridge University Press, February 17, 2011, 160 pages, ISBN 0-521-18063-5 (978-0-521-18063-4). Originally published in 1937. Reissue of [Galpin 1937]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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Publisher's description: Its author, Francis Galpin, has produced a thorough and carefully researched account of the music of the Sumerians and their immediate predecessors, the Babylonians and Assyrians. On its publication, this book was one of the few studies to concentrate on the music of the ancient civilisations of modern-day Iraq. Today, it still holds great value for all interested in the study of the ancient production and use of music and musical instruments. The work's chapters focus in turn on percussion, wind and stringed instruments, before exploring the musical scales of these societies and the roles that music and performance have played in their history and culture. Numerous photographic plates also provide fascinating examples of Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian instruments, as well as documenting the ways in which the performance of music was represented on the tombs and tablets of these ancient societies.

[George-AR 1979] Andrew R. George. “Cuneiform Texts in the Birmingham City Museum”, Iraq, Volume 41, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1979, pages 121–140. Publication 4200108 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[George-AR 1999] Andrew R. George. “What’s New in the Gilgamesh Epic?”, Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies, Volume 34, 1999, pages 51–58. What’s New in the Gilgamesh Epic? Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

Summary: The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic exists in several different versions. There were at least two versions current during the Old Babylonian period, and no doubt a similar situation obtained later in the second millennium BC, when versions of the epic were copied out in Anatolia, Syria and Palestine, as well as in Mesopotamia proper. But the best-known version is the one called “He who saw the Deep”, which was current in the first-millennium libraries of Assyria and Babylonia. Because this text was so much copied out in antiquity we keep finding more of it, both in museums and in archaeological excavation. This means that editions and translations of the epic must regularly be brought up to date. Some of the more important new passages that are previously unpublished are presented here in translation.

[George-AR 2003] Andrew R. George. The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic — Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts, Volume 1, 2003, 986 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[George-AR 2003a] Andrew R. George. The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian, Reprint edition, published by Penguin, 2003, 228 pages, ISBN 0-14-044919-1 (978-0-14-044919-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: Miraculously preserved on clay tablets dating back as much as four thousand years, the poem of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, is the world's oldest epic, predating Homer by many centuries. The story tells of Gilgamesh's adventures with the wild man Enkidu, and of his arduous journey to the ends of the earth in quest of the Babylonian Noah and the secret of immortality. Alongside its themes of family, friendship and the duties of kings, the Epic of Gilgamesh is, above all, about mankind's eternal struggle with the fear of death.

[George-AR 2007] Andrew George. “Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian”, contained in [Postgate 2007], 2007, pages 31–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Goedicke 1971] Hans Goedicke (editor). Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright, published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, in German and English, 1971, 503 pages, ISBN 0-8018-1235-6 (978-0-8018-1235-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Goranson 2011] Casey Goranson. Hurrian Hymn No. 6, 2011, retrieved March 20, 2011. Hurrian Hymn No. 6 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Groneberg 2003] Brigitte Groneberg. “Searching for Akkadian Lyrics: From Old Babylonian to the "Liederkatalog" KAR 158”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 55, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003, pages 55–74. Publication 3515954 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Gruber 2004] Claudia Gruber. Möbeldekor aus Elfenbein Zur Rekonstruktion von Schnitzverzierungen an altorientalischen Möbeln, Doctoral dissertation – Fakultät für Kulturwissenschaften der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany, in German, 2004, 399 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gurney-OR 1968] O. R. Gurney. “An Old Babylonian Treatise on the Tuning of the Harp”, Iraq, Volume 30, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1968, pages 229–233. Publication 4199853 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Gurney-OR 1974] O. R. Gurney. Middle Babylonian Legal Documents and Other Texts, Ur Excavation Texts (UET), Volume VII, published by British Museum Publications Ltd for the British Museum, and the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 1974, ISBN 0-7141-1082-5 (978-0-7141-1082-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Gurney-OR 1994] O. R. Gurney. “A New Interpretation of the Nippur Music-Instruction Fragments”, Iraq, Volume 56, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1994, pages 101–106. Publication 4200387 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Gurney-OR 1994a] O. R. Gurney. “Babylonian Music Again”, Iraq, Volume 56, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1994, pages 101–106. Publication 4200387 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gurney-OR 1998] O. R. Gurney and M. L. West. “Mesopotamian Tonal Systems: A Reply”, Iraq, Volume 60, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1998, pages 223–227, doi:10.2307/4200460. Publication 4200460 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Guterbock 1970] H{ans} G{ustav} Güterbock. “Musical Notation in Ugarit”, Revue d’Assyriologie, Volume 64, published by Presses Universitaires de France, 1970, pages 45–52. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hagel 2006] Stefan Hagel. Music of the Ancient Near East, October 6, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hagel 2008] Stefan Hagel. “Re-evaluating the Pompeii Auloi”, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 128, published by The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 2008, pages 52–71. Publication 40651723 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The four best-preserved aulos pipes unearthed at Pompeii are examined and their original pitches are as far as possible determined by mathematical analysis. It is argued that the scales of the instruments as well as specific details of their mechanism fit well with our knowledge of music from the Roman Imperial period.

[Hagel 2009] Stefan Hagel. Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History, published by Cambridge University Press, 2009, 484 pages, ISBN 0-521-51764-8 (978-0-521-51764-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Offers a fundamental reworking of the history of Greek music from the classical period to Roman times. It explains anew the development of ancient melodic notation, embedding it in a context of professional music-making, in a musical culture determined mainly by the dominant instruments, the lyre and the aulos.

[Halloran 1999] John A. Halloran. Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0, August 11, 1999. See the Sumerian Lexicon web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Halperin 2008] David Halperin. “Musical Reconstruction of the Hurrian Material by Statistical Analysis”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 29–32. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hamilton 1953] Elsie Hamilton. The Modes of Ancient Greece, 1953, 20 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Harper 1992] Prudence Oliver Harper, Joan Aruz, Françoise Tallon, and Metropolitan Museum of Art (editors). The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre, Illustrated Edition, published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992, 316 pages, ISBN 0-87099-651-7 (978-0-87099-651-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's summary: The ancient city of Susa (biblical Shushan) lay at the edge of the Iranian plateau, not far from the great cities of Mesopotamia. A strategically located and vital center, Susa absorbed diverse influences and underwent great political fluctuations during the several thousand years of its history. When French archaeologists began to excavate its site in the nineteenth century, the astonishing abundance of finds greatly expanded our understanding of the ancient Near East. The artifacts were taken to Paris through diplomatic agreement and became a centerpiece of the Louvre's great collection of Near Eastern antiquities. These works are rarely loaned, but a remarkable selection that includes many undisputed masterpieces, brought to The Metropolitan Museum of Art for exhibition, is presented in this comprehensive publication. Susa was settled about 4000 B.C. and has yielded striking pottery finds from that prehistoric period. A rich production followed of objects for daily use, ritual, and luxury living, finely carved in various materials or fashioned of clay. Monumental sculpture was made in stone or bronze, and dramatic friezes were composed of brilliantly glazed bricks. Among the discoveries are tiny, intricately carved cylinder seals and splendid jewelry. Clay balls marked with symbols offer fascinating testimony to the very beginnings of writing; clay tablets from later periods bearing inscriptions in cuneiform record political history, literature, business transactions, and mathematical calculations. A very important group of finds from Susa is made up of objects brought back as booty from conquests in Mesopotamia. These works, many of them the royal monuments of Akkadian and Babylonian monarchs - for instance, the great stele of Naram-Sin - are among the best known of all objects from the ancient Near East. Altogether, the exhibition presents more than two hundred objects found at Susa, produced over a period of about 3500 years. They come from all periods of the site's settlement, from it earliest history to its adornment as a major city of the opulent Achaemenid Persian empire. Eighteen French and American scholars have contributed essays to this volume on subjects that include the history of art in ancient Iran from prehistoric settlement through the Achaemenid period; the history of the excavations at Susa; the development of writing; seals and sealings; royal and religious structures at Susa; objects brought from Mesopotamia; brick decoration; popular art; and cuneiform texts. Recent results of ongoing research into the archaeology of Susa are discussed. Analyses of specific techniques are included as well as reports on the conservation of objects. Each work in the exhibition is illustrated and fully described, with references to relevant publications.

[Harrison 1971] Lou Harrison. The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp, Recorded date February 12, 1957, total time 26:08, retrieved December 9, 2011. Publication AM_1971_02_12 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Harrison discusses the recent translation of an ancient Sumerian cuneiform tablet, in which the musical scale used by the Babylonian’s is described. This discovery has pushed back the origin of musical theory by at least 1,500 years. Harrison accompanies his talk with auditory illustrations of ancient scales and other plectrum pleasantries. The musical knowledge developed by the ancient Babylonians was passed on and refined by Pythagorus and Ptolemy and eventually influenced the Western musical tradition.

[Hasselbach 2005] Rebecca Hasselbach. Sargonic Akkadian — A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts, published by Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, 292 pages, ISBN 3-447-05172-8 (978-3-447-05172-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Heichelheim 1952] F. M. Heichelheim. “Toronto Scholar Believes Music Led to Alphabet”, The Globe and Mail, Toronto, Canada, February 22, 1952, pages 1–2. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Heidel 1963] Alexander Heidel. The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, First Phoenix Edition, published by The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1963, 280 pages. first published in 1946. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (3)

[Heimpel 2011] Wolfgang Heimpel and Gabriella Frantz-Szabó (editors). Strings and Threads — A Celebration of the Work of Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, published by Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Indiana, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Helvaci 2008] Zeynep Helvacı. Lirin Tarixi: Eski Ön Asya Ve Yunan Uyqarlıqlarında Kullanılan Lirlerin Karşılaşdırılması «Ancient Musical Instruments in Asia Minor», Doctoral dissertation – Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, Institute for Music Research, Germany, Ankara, in Turkish, 2007, 238 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hickmann-E 2001] Ellen Hickmann. “Archaeomusicology «Musikarchäologie», Volume 1, Second Edition”, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001, pages 848–854. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Hickmann-H 1952] Hans Hickmann. “The Egyptian 'Uffāṭah Flute”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 84, Issue 3–4, October 1952, pages 103–104, doi:10.1017/S0035869X00105350. Publication 25222568 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The long flute of ancient and modern Egypt is the well-known nāy (Fig. 1), so frequently represented since prehistoric times. A short flute which has a wide diameter, is the popular (Fig. 2), which has not hitherto been dealt with. The word 'uffāṭa is used in the Sharqīya province, as far, approximately, as Mīt Grhamr (west side), and means generally a short flute, but wide in diameter. The smallest 'uffāṭa is not longer than 20 cm. The instruments reproduced in Fig. 2 measure 42·3 cm., and the diameter varies between 18 and 20 mm. The longest nāy in Fig. 1 is 74·2 cm. long and 11 to 13 mm. in diameter.

[Hill-AE 2009] Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton. “A Survey of the Old Testament”, contained in Volume 5 of [Walton-JH 2009], published by Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2009. See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutopedia Image Detail: Sumerian Clay Tablet MS 2340 Describing Musical Tuning

[Horne-CF 1917] Charles Francis Horne. The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East;With an Historical Survey and Descriptions, published by Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb, Inc., New York and London, 1917, 464 pages. Publication sacredbooksearly01hornuoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Horowitz 2006] Wayne Horowitz. “A Late Babylonian Tablet with Concentric Circles from the University Museum (CBS 1766)”, Journal of The Ancient Near Eastern Society, Volume 30, 2006, pages 37–53. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Jackson-W 2004] Wayne Jackson. The Ras Shamra Discovery, published by Apologetics Press, Inc., Montgomery, Alabama, 2004. See the Apologetics web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Jastrow 1906] Morris Jastrow, Jr. “A Babylonian Parallel to the Story of Job”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 25, Number 2, published by The Society of Biblical Literature, 1906, pages 135–191. Publication 3260156 on JSTOR (subscription access). A Babylonian Parallel to the Story of Job Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Jastrow 1915] Morris Jastrow, Jr. The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria — Its remains, language, history, religion, commerce, law, art, and literature, published by the J. B. Lippincott Co., 1915, 515 pages. Publication cu31924028554271 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

[Jing 2003] M. Jing. “A Theoretical Study of the Vibration and Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 114, Number 3, September 2003, pages 1622–1628, doi:10.1121/1.1600727. Publication 14514215 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper, the acoustics of an ancient Chinese bell, which was made some 3000 years B.C., is studied theoretically. In ancient times, a set of the bells was used as a musical instrument. Unlike a western church bell and an ancient Indian bell, an ancient Chinese bell has two interesting acoustics. First, two tones can be heard separately as the bell is struck at two special points. The interval between the two pitches is always a minor or major third. Second, tones of the bell attenuate quickly, which is necessary for a musical instrument. So, an ancient Chinese bell is sometimes called a two-tone bell or a music bell. Although a three-dimensional model should be used to simulate the acoustics of the bell, a simplified model proposed in this paper does give some insight. Based on the lens-shaped cross section of an ancient Chinese bell, two tones of an ancient Chinese bell can be simulated by the vibration of a double-circular arch and the quick attenuation of tones can be simulated by acoustics of a cylinder with the lens-shaped cross section like a double-circular arch. Numerical results on the vibration and acoustics of the models are presented.

[Kemp 1991] Barry J. Kemp. “Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization”, published by Routledge, New York and London, 1991, 356 pages, ISBN 0-415-01281-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

Abstract: Utilizing new excavation evidence, Barry Kemp provides a comprehensive reassessment of Egyptian society from an archeological perspective. He explores the shaping forces of ancient Egyptian civilization: political myth and ideology, the bureaucratic utopia of universal provision of work and food, and the presentational devices of charismatic rule. The popular image of ancient Egypt as a place of extreme cultural conservatism and subservience to exotic religion in fact masks a society which not only changed considerably over the centuries, but also represents one intelligible early solution to a universal human question: how can groups of people understand their place in the world and interact to form stable communities? Barry Kemp presents ancient Egypt as a window on mankind and transforms our understanding of this remarkable civilization

[Kilmer 1965] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Strings of Musical Instruments: Their Names, Numbers, and Significance”, Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger, Assyriological Studies, Volume 16, 1965, pages 261–268. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kilmer 1971] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 115, Number 2, published by the American Philosophical Society, April 22, 1971, pages 131–149. Publication 985853 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

[Kilmer 1974] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. The Cult Song with Music from Ancient Ugarit: Another Interpretation, Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale, Volume 68, Number 1, 1974, pages 69–82. Publication 23282429 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1976] Anne D. Kilmer, Richard L. Crocker, and Robert R. Brown. Sounds from Silence: Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music, Bit Enki Publications, Berkeley, California, BTNK 101, 1976, 23 pages, ASIN B0006WYP4Y, 33⅓ rpm 12" vinyl audio disc and 23-page booklet. Library of Congress call number 76-16729. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

Description from the Johns Hopkins University Libraries Catalyst service: Lecture-demonstrations on ancient Near Eastern music; music transcribed and arr. by Anne Draffkorn Kilmer; performed and narrated by Kilmer and Richard L. Crocker, using replicas of ancient lyres constructed by Robert R. Brown.
Demonstration of old Babylonian tuning procedure for a lyre (ca. 1800 B.C.)
A Hurrian cult song from ancient Ugarit (ca. 1400 B.C.)
Notes on the research, musical theory, song text, and instruments, with bibliography (23 p. ill.) laid in container.

[Kilmer 1984] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “A Music Tablet from Sippar(?): BM 65217 + 66616”, Iraq, Volume 46, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1984, pages 69–80. Publication 4200216 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1985] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “A New Music Theory Fragment from Nippur”, American Oriental Society Proceedings, Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 15, 1985. conference presentation of the material in [Kilmer 1986]. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1986] A. D. {Anne Draffkorn} Kilmer and M. {Miguel} Civil. “Old Babylonian Musical Instructions Relating to Hymnody”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 38, Number 1, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, Spring 1986, pages 94–98, doi:10.2307/1359953. material from the conference proceedings in [Kilmer 1985]. Publication 1359953 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1996] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer and Steve Tinney. “Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 48, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1996, pages 49–56. Publication 1359769 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 1998a] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer and Steve Tinney. “Correction to Kilmer/Tinney 'Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts' JCS 48 (1996)”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 50, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1998, page 118. Publication 1359896 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kilmer 2000] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “Continuity and Change in the Ancient Mesopotamian Terminology for Music and Musical Instruments”, Orient-Archäologie, Volume 7, 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

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[Kilmer 2002] Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. “Die musikalische Ausformung von Tonalität und Genre in Mesopotamien «Modal Music, Tonality and Genre in Mesopotamian Musical Performance»”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], in German and English, 2002, pages 481–486. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Kilmer 2009] Anne D. Kilmer and Jeremie Peterson. “More Old Babylonian Music-Instruction Fragments from Nippur”, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 61, published by The American Schools of Oriental Research, January 2009, pages 93–96. ISSN 0022-0256 (print). Publication 25608634 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kim 1997] Patricia Costa Kim. “Transmission of Music in the Hebrew Tradition: Learning from the Songs of the Synagogue”, The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education, Volume 19, Number 1, published by Ithaca College, September 1997, pages 40–51. Publication 40214945 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kramer 1961] Samuel Noah Kramer. Sumerian Mythology — A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C., Revised Edition, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1961. Originally published in 1944. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Kramer 1963] Samuel Noah Kramer. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1963, 372 pages, ISBN 0-226-45238-7 (978-0-226-45238-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kramer 1988] Samuel Noah Kramer. History Begins at Sumer: Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, Third Edition, published by the University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988, 416 pages, ISBN 0-8122-1276-2 (978-0-8122-1276-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

Publisher's description: Which civilization had the first system of law? The first formal educational system? The first tax cut? The first love song? The answers were found in excavations of ancient Sumer, a society so developed, resourceful, and enterprising that it, in a sense, created history. The book presents a cross section of the Sumerian "firsts" in all the major fields of human endeavor, including government and politics, education and literature, philosophy and ethics, law and justice, agriculture and medicine, even love and family.

History Begins at Sumer is the classic account of the achievements of the Sumerians, who lived in what is now southern Iraq during the third millennium B.C. They were the developers of the cuneiform system of writing, perhaps their greatest contribution to civilization, which allowed laws and literature to be recorded for the first time.

[Krispijn 1990] T{heo} J. H. Krispijn. “Beitrage zur altorientalischen Musikforschung. 1. Sulgi und die Musik «Contributions to Ancient Oriental Music Research. 1. Shulgi and the Music»”, Akkadica, Volume 70, in German, November–December 1990, pages 1–27. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2003] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Musik in Keilschrift «Music in Cuneiform»”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2002], Volume 2, in German, 2003, pages 465–479. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2008] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Music in School and Temple in the Ancient Near East”, What Was Old Is New Again - A Meeting of Art and Scholarship, ZKM Center for Art and Technology, November 21–23, 2008, 14 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Twelve citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2), Flutopedia Image Detail: Reconstruction of the Silver Double-Flute of Ur, Flutopedia Image Detail: Excavated Fragments of the Silver Double-Flute of Ur, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (8)

Abstract: Many Sumerian texts written in cuneiform script from Mesopotamia belong to the genre of cultic songs. The oldest examples are from ± 2500 B.C. These texts often refer to singing, musical practice and musical instruments.
In my paper I shall give a survey of different sorts of cultic songs and their spread over the different periods of Sumerian literature. I shall pay special attention to the musicians, musical instruments, and musical terminology mentioned in these texts. As an illustration of musical practice, I will show pictures of the excavated instruments used in the cult, along with examples of Mesopotamian art that feature instrumentalists and singers.

[Krispijn 2008b] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Music and Healing for Someone Far Away from Home HS 1556, A Remarkable Ur III Incantation, Revisited”, Contained in Spek, R.J., van der (Ed.) Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society presented to Marten Stol on the occasion of his 65th birthday, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, 2008, pages 173–194. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Krispijn 2008c] Theo J. H. Krispijn. “Musical Ensembles in Ancient Mesopotamia”, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4–6, 2008, editors: ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 125–150. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Introduction: In Mesopotamian literature, especially in the context of religious festivals, ensembles of musical instruments are regularly mentioned. Furthermore, the playing of official as well as popular music is depicted fairly often in Mesopotamian visual art. It therefore seems plausible to compare the groups of names recorded in texts with the groups of instruments represented iconographically from similar periods. Archaeological excavations have found actual instruments, sometimes in groups, and these will also be taken into consideration. Not surprisingly there has been much learned discussion about the correct translation of Sumerian and Akkadian words for musical instruments and how best to relate them to the instruments depicted or excavated. In this paper I hope to contribute to the discussion by identifying names that are grouped together with some particular depictions of instruments in ensembles.

[Krispijn 2010] Theo Krispijn. “Music in the Syrian City of Elba in the Late Third Millennium B.C.”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 55–61, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: The texts from Tell Mardikh, ancient Ebla, a rich source of information for our subject, are dated to ± 2350 BC. Lexical lists and administrative texts mention musical instruments, musicians and singers. From the large collection of letters and administrative texts from Mari (± 1700 BC) we gain an almost complete image of the musical activities of women in the royal court. Many played musical instruments and participated in orchestras and choirs. The iconography of the late third and the beginning of the second millennium BC also fills out the picture of music in Syria. Occasional references to texts and iconography from Ugarit and Emar from late second millennium make apt comparisons.

[Kuhn 2010] Magdalena Kuhn. “Hand Positions of Musicians Before and After the Hyksos Kings”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 11–19, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kummel 1970] Hans Martin Kümmel. “Zur Stimmung der babylonischen Harfe «The Mood of the Babylonian Harp»”, Orientalia, Volume 39, published by Biblical Institute Press, in German, 1970, pages 252–263. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lambert 1971] W. G. Lambert. “The Converse Tablet: A Litany with Musical Instructions”, contained in [Goedicke 1971], 1971, pages 335–353. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Landels 1981] J. G. Landels. “The Reconstruction of Ancient Greek Auloi”, World Archaeology, Volume 12, Number 3, February 1981, pages 298–302, doi:10.1080/00438243.1981.9979804. Publication 124241 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this article, the four main problems involved in reconstructing ancient Greek auloi are discussed, namely (i) the remains are incomplete, damaged, and not a representative sample, (2) theoretical calculations from resonant lengths do not take account of the vagaries of reeds or playing techniques, (3) Schlesinger's theory of equidistant holes is not supported by good evidence, and (4) the tone quality of the instrument cannot be reproduced without accurate knowledge of the reed construction.

[Landels 1999] John Gray Landels. Music in Ancient Greece and Rome, First Edition, published by Psychology Press, 1999, 296 pages, ISBN 0-415-16776-0 (978-0-415-16776-5), hardcover. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Music in Ancient Greece and Romeis a comprehensive introduction to the study of music from Homeric times to the Roman emperor Trajan. John G. Landels offers the first scholarly overview of the practical and performance elements of music, rather than the moral and aesthetic discussion typified by the works of Plato. Illustrated with transcriptions of surviving musical scores, diagrams and line-drawings of instruments and performers, the book explores the contexts in which music played a role, such as mythology and poetry. Detailed discussion is also given to the instruments, including the aulos, the kithara and the lyre, as well as the ingenious notation system devised by the Greeks which enables us to read the few surviving scores.

[Langdon 1913] Stephen Langdon. Babylonian Liturgies — Sumerian Texts from the Early Period and from the Library of Ashurbanipal, for the most part Transliterated and Translated, published by the Librarie Paul Geuthner, Paris, 1913, li + 150 pages + 76 plates. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1917] Stephen Langdon. Sumerian Liturgical Texts, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 2, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1917, 161 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1919] Stephen Langdon. Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 4, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1919, 158 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Langdon 1923] Stephen Langdon. “Sumerian and Semitic Religious and Historical Texts, Volume 1 of The H. Weld-Blundell Collection in the Ashmolean Museum”, Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Inscriptions, published by the Oxford University Press, 1923, 60 pages + 45 plates. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Langdon 1923a] Stephen Langdon. “Two Sumerian Hymns from Eridu and Nippur”, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Volume 39, Number 3, published by the University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, April 1923, pages 161–186. Publication 528626 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

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[Lasserre 1988] Francois Lasserre. “Musica babilonese e musica greca «Babylonian and Greek Music»”, contained in La musica in Grecia, ed. Bruno Gentili & Roberto Pretagostini, Rome & Bari, in Italian, 1988, pages 72–95. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2000] Bo Lawergren. “Extant Silver Pipes from Ur, 2450 BC”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2000a], Studien zur Musikarchäologie, Volume 2, published by Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH, Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, 2000, pages 121–132. Orient-Archäologie Band 7. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (4)

[Lawergren 2000a] Bo Lawergren. “Strings”, contained in [So 2000], 2000, pages 65–85. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2007] Bo Lawergren. “Etruscan Musical Instruments and their Wider Context in Greece and Italy”, Etruscan Studies, Journal of the Etruscan Foundation, Volume 10, Issue 1, Article 10, January 1, 2007. Etruscan Musical Instruments and their Wider Context in Greece and Italy Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lawergren 2008] Bo Lawergren. “Bull Lyres, Silver Lyres, Silver Pipes and Animals in Sumer, Circa 2500 B.C.”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 83–88. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Legrain 1922] Léon Legrain. Historical Fragments, Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 13, published by The University Museum, 1922, 108 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lepsius 1849] Richard Lepsius. Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien nach den zeichnungen der von Seiner Majestaet dem koenige von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm IV «Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia after the Drawings of by His Majesty the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV», in German, 1849. Publication denkmaelerausaeg12leps on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lloyd-LS 1946] Ll. S. Lloyd. “The Myth of Equal-Stepped Scales in Primitive Music”, Music & Letters, Volume 27, Number 2, April 1946, pages 73–79. Publication 727434 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lurker 1987] Manfred Lurker. The Routledge Dictionary of Gods, Goddesses, Devils & Demons, 1987, 272 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Maas 1989] Martha Maas and Jane McIntosh Snyder. Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece, published by Yale University Press, London, 1989, 288 pages, ISBN 0-300-03686-8 (978-0-300-03686-2). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[MacGregor 2000] Arthur MacGregor. “The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford”, 2000, 95 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Macgregor 2003] Sherry Lou Macgregor. Women in the Neo-Assyrian World: Visual and Textual Evidence from Palace and Temple, Doctoral dissertation – University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2003, 296 pages. ProQuest Dissertation #3105304. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Manniche 1975] Lise Manniche. Ancient Egyptian Musical Instruments, published by Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1975, 111 pages, ISBN 3-422-00827-6 (978-3-422-00827-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Maor 2002] Eli Maor. Trigonometric Delights, published by Princeton University Press, 2002, 256 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-691-09541-7 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Marcetteau 2008] Myriam Marcetteau. “A Queen's Orchestra at the Court of Mari: New Perspectives on the Archaic Instrumentarium in the Third Millennium”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 67–75. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Masson 1999] Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson; Ahmad Hasan Dani and Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson (editors). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 1, published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1999, 535 pages, ISBN 81-208-1407-X (978-81-208-1407-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McClain 1978] Ernest G. McClain. The Pythagorean Plato — Prelude to the Song Itself, published by Nicolas-Hays, Inc., York Beach, Maine, 1978, 204 pages, ISBN 0-89254-010-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McClain 1981] Ernest G. McClain. Meditations through the Quran — Tonal Images in an Oral Culture, published by Nicolas-Hays, Inc., York Beach, Maine, 1981, 183 pages, ISBN 0-89254-010-9 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McClain 2008] Ernest G. McClain. “A Sumerian Text in Quantified Archaeomusicology”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 89–103. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: A cuneiform problem text dating about 2500 B.C. is about the partition of a grain constant. It is contended that it also defines a quantified musicology embodying the science of Pythagorean Greece, some 2000 years later.

[McClain 2010] Ernest G. McClain. “Egyptian Connections: Narmer Inscriptions as Sumerian Musicology”, Musical exchanges between Ancient Egypt and the Near East during, before and after the Hyksos Kings (ICONEA 2010), Chancellor's Hall, Senate House, University of London, December 15–17, 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McClain 2010a] Ernest McClain and Peter Blumsom. “Egyptian Connections: Narmer Instriptions as Sumerian Musicology”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 73–104, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: Interdisciplinary studies in archaeomusicology have been given a new direction by Richard Dumbrill's insight that theory evolved necessarily from scribal discipline rather than from Pythagorean fiction, and that ancient "god numbers" merit close inspection. Rapid advances in the understanding of cuneiform arithmetic during the last 20 years now give us new insight on scribal training and a universal competence with "octave doubling" that grounded "Egyptian duplatio", pervading the whole of ancient cosmology. The octave 2:1 was never "discovered", but always taken for granted—as routine as the alternation of day and night, and proved forever by Kilmer, Crocker and Brown: the seminal Babylonian: "Sounds From Silence" (album; 1976). Further consequences are explored in this paper.

[Melini 2008] Roberto Melini. “Possessed by the Great Mother: Music and Trance in Ancient Pompeii and in the Popular Tradition of Southern Italy”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 1–9. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Merlini 2008] Marco Merlini and Gheorghe Lazarovici. “Settling Discovery Circumstances, Dating and Utilization of the Tărtăria Tablets”, Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis, Number 7, published by the Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania, 2008, 232 pages. ISSN 1583-1817. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Messerschmidt 1911] L Messerschmidt. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts «Historical Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 1, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 16, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Michalowski 2008] Piotr Michalowski. “Traveler's Tales: Observations on Musical Mobility in Mesopotamia and Beyond”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2008, pages 117–124. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The study of music in the ancient world is an area most open to anachronistic intrusion and the interference of modernity. The practice, experience, and significance of music, before the spread of mass culture and communication, occupied very different cultural spaces than they do today, often mediating between what was narrowly local and the world at large and it is obviously difficult to establish the truly local, culturally salient elements of such practice in specific societies. Specialists who work on the subject have often been keen to reconstruct the sounds made in Near Eastern palaces, temples, and taverns millennia ago, a pursuit that may be harmless, but is, to my mind at least, nothing but folly. Even if we can reconstruct certain scales, that tells us nothing about music as such, because music is so much more than scales. To me music is organized sound that is embedded in specific social practices; we will never know the sounds and how they were structured, but we can learn something about the social realization and significance of this organized sound, and of its possible significance for the ways in which people imagined their own identities. As a small contribution to such a project, I would like to address a few issues concerning matters of local and global aspects of music in ancient Mesopotamia. Because such practices involve a constantly shifting tension between innovation and tradition, and because of space constraints, I will limit my inquiries to the earlier phases of Mesopotamian history.

[Michalowski 2010] Piotr Michalowski. “Learning Music: Schooling, Apprenticeship, and Gender in Early Mesopotamia”, contained in [Pruzsinszky 2010a], 2010, pages 199–240. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Miller-MK 2000] Mary K. Miller. “Music of the Neanderthals”, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2000 Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., February 17–22, 2000, Dispatches from the Field, February 21, 2000, retrieved September 27, 2011. Music of the Neanderthals Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Mirelman 2009] Sam Mirelman and Theo J. H. Krispijn. “The Old Babylonian Tuning Text UET VI/3 899”, Iraq, Volume 71, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 2009, pages 43–52, doi:10.1017/S0021088900000735. Publication 20779002 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Abstract: The text discussed here is one of only two identified fragments of Mesopotamian instructions for tuning a stringed instrument. Apart from its rarity, this text is important in several other respects. It confirms the reconstruction of the tuning cycle suggested by the other tuning fragment (UET VII 74), it appears to belong to a duplicate manuscript of the tuning cycle, it supports the argument for the presence of the verb nê'um (as opposed to enûm) in Akkadian terminology for tuning, and it offers a revised reading of the music-theoretical term nīš GABA.RI as nīš tuḫri(m).

[Mitchell 1992] T. C. Mitchell. “The Music of the Old Testament Reconsidered”, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, Volume 124, 1992, pages 124–143. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Abstract: Surviving examples of musical instruments and representations of them show that during the first half of the first millennium B.C. a considerable range of types was in use in Mesopotamia and Egypt, as well as in north Syria and south-east Asia Minor. Since there are numerous references in the Old Testament to music and musicians it is a reasonable assumption that, though there are few representations from Palestine, similar types were in use. The corpus derived from outside sources comprises: I. Strings: (a) harp, (b) lyre, (c) lute; II. Wind: (d) vertical flute (end blown like the modern recorder), (e) double-pipe, (f) horn, (g) trumpet; III. Percussion: (h) drum, (i) tambour (like a tambourine without the jingles), (j) cymbals, (k) clappers, (l) sistrum, (m) vibroframe.

[Monzo 2000] Joseph L. Monzo. A New Reconstruction of the Hurrian Hymn, Encyclopedia of Tuning, 2000, retrieved September 28, 2011. A New Reconstruction of the Hurrian Hymn Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Monzo 2002] Joseph L. Monzo. Speculations on Sumerian Tuning, Updated August 10, 2002, retrieved December 9, 2011. Speculations on Sumerian Tuning Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Morley 2003] Iain Morley. The Evolutionary Origins and Archaeology of Music: An Investigation into the Prehistory of Human Musical Capacities and Behaviours, Using Archaeological, Anthropological, Cognitive and Behavioural Evidence, Ph.D. dissertation – Cambridge University, England, Darwin College Research Report, DCRR-002, published by Cambridge Universith, Cambridge, October 2003, 265 pages. Electronic Edition January 12, 2006. Report DCRR-002. The Evolutionary Origins and Archaeology of Music Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia (2)

Excerpt from the Abstract: The research presented in this dissertation examines the evidence for the emergence of the capacities underlying musical behaviours, their interrelationship, development and ultimate manifestation in the Palaeolithic. A multidisciplinary approach is taken ... A synthesis of the findings from these various disciplines and sources of evidence concludes the thesis, proposing that musical capacities have their foundations in inter-specific tonal emotional vocal expression, and rhythmic-motor coordination of corporeal musculature in the execution of such vocalisations. These increased in complexity throughout the Homo lineage, and diverged from linguistic capacities with the development of lexicon and syntax; symbolic associations and diversity occurred with Homo sapiens, who were carrying out sophisticated instrumental musical behaviours upon their arrival in Europe.

[Nott 1886] John Fortuné Nott. Wild Animals Photographed and Described, published by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London, 1886, 568 pages. Publication cu31924024782561 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Nougayrol 1955] Jean Nougayrol, Georges Boyer, Emmanuel Laroche, and Claude-Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer. Textes accadiens et hourrites des archives Est, Ouest et centrales «Akkadian Texts and Hurrian Archives East, West and Central», Two Volumes, published by C. Klincksieck, Paris, France, in French, 1955. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Olsen 1967] Poul Rovsing Olsen. “An Aulos in The Danish National Museum”, Danish Yearbook of Musicology, Volume 5, 1966–1967, pages 3–9. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pohlmann 2001] Egert Pöhlmann and Martin Litchfield West. Documents of Ancient Greek Music: The Extant Melodies and Fragments, published by Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 2001, 234 pages, ISBN 0-19-815223-X (978-0-19-815223-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: This uniquely complete and up-to-date collection of the surviving remains of ancient Greek music will serve as the standard work of reference for decades to come. Since its appearance in 1970, Egert Pohlmann's Denkmaler altgriechischer Musik has been the standard collection of the surviving fragments of ancient Greek music. But the publication of many further texts in recent years has put it in urgent need of updating. In this new English edition, prepared in collaboration with Martin West, the number of items has risen to 61, of which 23 are additions to the content of the 1970 book. All the texts, new and old, have been carefully revised against the original documents or photographs, and many improved readings have been obtained as a result.

[Postgate 2007] J. Nicholas Postgate. Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern, published by the British School of Archaeology in Iraq, London, 2007, 187 pages, ISBN 0-903472-21-X (978-0-903472-21-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: For all five thousand years of its history, Iraq has been home to a mixture of languages, spoken and written, and the same is true today. In November 2003, to celebrate the country's rich diversity and long history as a centre of civilisation, the British School presented a series of talks by experts on each of the major languages of Iraq and their history, and this illustrated volume brings these now to a wider public. Iraq's languages come from different linguistic families - Semitic, Indo-European, and agglutinative languages like Sumerian, Hurrian and Turkish. Some, although long dead, have a prime place in the history of the Old World: Sumerian, probably the first language to be written and the vehicle of cuneiform scholarship for more than two millennia, and Akkadian, the language of Hammurapi and the Epic of Gilgamesh, and used across the Near East for administration and diplomacy. The history of Aramaic is even longer, stretching back to overlap with Akkadian before 1000 BC. It survives, precariously, in both written and spoken forms, being one of four languages spoken in Iraq today. Of these, Arabic as a major world language has often been described, but here we have an account of the vernacular Iraqi Arabic dialects, and the descriptions of Iraqi Kurdish and Turkman are unique, detailed and authoritative.

[Pruzsinszky 2010] Regine Pruzsinszky. “Singers, Musicians and their Mobility in the Ur III Period Cuneiform Texts”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 31–39, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Pruzsinszky 2010a] Regine Pruzsinszky and Dahlia Shehata. Musiker und Tradierung: Studien zur Rolle von Musikern bei der Verschriftlichung und Tradierung von literarischen Werken «Musicians and Tradition: Studies on the Role of Musicians in the Transcript, and Tradition of Literary Works», Volume 8 of Wiener Offene Orientalistik, published by LIT Verlag Münster, in German, 2010, 268 pages, ISBN 3-643-50131-5 (978-3-643-50131-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rachuta 2011] Robert Rachuta. Muzyka w Biblii «Music in the Bible», Ph.D. dissertation – Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, Poland, in Polish, October 24, 2011, 248 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract (translated from Polish): The paper aims to describe and explain musical phenomena in the Bible. By comparing source text and based on previous papers on this subject I made an attempt to arrive at correct understanding of the terms applying to the musical culture of Israelites, both in terms of instruments and other issues pertaining to this topic. The first chapter of my doctoral thesis signals the most important musical phenomena in the process of creation and operation of the Israelite state. The part presents the extraordinary relation between the music and the sacred in Israel's culture, fundamental to the process of creation of the utilized instruments and musical forms among the Israelites. The analysis of source text presented in the second chapter aims to compile a detailed and non-controversial map of instruments, where particular instruments are assigned to particular areas of life, their use in ensembles and for accompaniment, and the analysis of their presence in individual Books. Musical principles and phenomena present in the Bible have been described in order. The subjects found there have been analyzed from the point of view of biblical authors, including source texts from other cultures. The sensibility of the author or the audience cannot be strictly specified and classified. Undoubtedly, biblical sensitivity differs significantly from what prevails today. Hence, the musical principles and phenomena shaped and created by the ancient artists were made with different esthetic criteria. The biggest problem when deciphering the Israelites' musical activity was actually to find these criteria.

[Radau 1913] Hugo Radau. Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to God Dumu-Zi — Babylonian Lenten Songs from the Temple Library of Nippur, published by Rudolf Merkel, Munich, 1913, 109 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rahn 2011] Jay Rahn. “The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE, Part One - Notation and Analysis”, Analatical Approaches to World Music, Volume 1, Number 1, published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011, pages 93–151. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The least conjectural components of the earliest known system of musical notation (ca. 1850-500 BCE) are 14 names for pairs of strings. Each of these names designates a pair of numbered strings on a Mesopotamian harp or lyre. These numbered string-pairs provide a basis for analyzing the earliest musical scores that survive, 35 musical notations of Hurrian provenance ca. 1350 BCE. Of these 35 scores, only one, identified as ‘h.6’ by Assyriologists, appears to be intact from beginning to end, the remaining 34 being fragmentary because of damage during the past three and a half millennia. As well, like two of the other 34 scores, h.6 refers in its colophon to a numbered string-pair, namely, nitkibli, that plausibly designates a particular tuning of the 7 numbered strings. With a view to characterizing the repertoire as a whole and determining whether the three nitkibli pieces differ significantly from the other 32, the pieces’ numbered strings, string-pairs, and immediately successive string-pairs are analyzed in terms of relationships of sameness, adjacency and analogy. These relationships are defined within a framework of first-order logic. Analyzed statistically, the 35 pieces reveal considerable uniformity of idiom. Because it survives in a continuously notated form, h.6 can be analyzed in even greater detail and reveals a structure of great coherence that is quite consistent with tendencies among all 35 pieces.

[Rahn 2011a] Jay Rahn. “The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE, Part Two - From Numbered Strings to Tuned Strings”, Analatical Approaches to World Music, Volume 1, Number 2, published by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 2011, pages 93–151. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The first part of this study concluded that on the basis of numbered strings and their pairwise ordering (from left to right and top to bottom) on cuneiform tablets, one can identify within h.6, the earliest known piece of music that is notated from beginning to end, structural relationships of similarity, adjacency, and analogy as well as statistical tendencies. Further, most of these tendencies appear throughout the other 34 earliest pieces, which are highly fragmentary, and these tendencies can be understood in terms of the structural relationships identified in h.6. Moreover, structural and statistical anomalies in h.6 are cognate with the features that tend to be shared by all 35 Hurrian pieces.

This, the second part of the study, shows how the numbered strings were tuned and how relationships of similarity, adjacency and analogy can be understood in terms of Gestalt Grouping Principles, i.e., as relationships perceived among the sounds produced by the tuned strings. Decisive in narrowing the possibilities of Mesopotmian tuning to 12 general cases is its well-formed (WF), specifically '2-Gap,' structure. Consequences of 2 of the 12 kinds of 2-Gap structure include parallels with later music of ancient Greece and Europe as well as eastern and southeastern Asia. In both of these kinds of 2-Gap structure, the number of steps in the generating interval is (dm±1)/2, where dm is the number of steps in the modular interval.

These 2-Gap structures comprise a distinction between generic and specific intervals that amplifies relationships of sameness, analogy, and adjacency considered in the first part of the study. These relationships are further interpreted in terms of the Gestalt Grouping Principles of Similarity, Proximity, and Common Fate. In particular, Common Fate accounts for 'motion' among the string-pairs of h.6.

[Reynolds 2009] Dwight Reynolds. “The Re-creation of Medieval Arabo-Andalusian Music in Modern Performance”, Al-Masāq, Volume 21, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, 2009, pages 175–189, doi:10.1080/09503110902875442 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In recent decades more and more musical ensembles have begun performing “historicised” versions of medieval Arabo-Andalusian music. The impulse to produce such re-creations of medieval musical practices has come almost entirely from Western musicians and scholars influenced by the aesthetics of the European Early Music movement, rather than from Arab musicians. The historical resources available as the basis of such performances, however, are very different from those used in the re-creation of European Early Music. This article surveys the extant historical resources, offers a brief history of this new “medieval” style of performance of Arabo-Andalusian music, and provides descriptions and critiques of selected recordings.

[Rimmer 1969] Joan Rimmer. Ancient Musical Instruments of Western Asia in the British Museum, published by the Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1969, 51 pages, ISBN 0-7141-1045-0 (978-0-7141-1045-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Robson 1999] Eleanor Robson. Mesopotamian Mathematics, 2100–1600 BC: Technical Constants in Bureaucracy and Education, Volume 14 of Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts, published by Oxford University Press, 1999, 334 pages, ISBN 0-19-815246-9 (978-0-19-815246-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

Publisher's description: Mathematics was integral to Mesopotamian scribal culture: indeed, writing was invented towards the end of the fourth millennium B.C. for the express purpose of recording numericalatical information. The main body of this book is a mathematical and philological discussion of the two hundred technical constants, or "coefficients", found in early second millennium mathematics. Their names and mathematical functions are established, leading to improved interpretations of several large mathematical topics. The origins of many coefficients—and much of the more practical mathematics—are traced to late third millennium accounting and quantity surveying practices. Finally, the coefficients are used to examine some aspects of mathematics education in early Mesopotamia.

[Robson 2000] Eleanor Robson. “Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in Philadelphia — Part 1: Problems and Calculations”, Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS), Volume 1, 2000, pages 11–48. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets (3)

[Robson 2002] Eleanor Robson. “Words and Pictures: New Light on Plimpton 322”, American Mathematical Monthly, Volume 109, Number 2, published by the Mathematical Association of America, February 2002, pages 105–120, doi:10.2307/2695324. Publication 2695324 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Robson 2004] Eleanor Robson. “Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford”, Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS), Volume 5, 2004, pages 3–65. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Roest 1999] Bert Roest and Herman L. J. Vanstiphout (editors). Aspects of Genre and Type in Pre-Modern Literary Cultures, published by Styx Publications, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rosellini 1840] Ippolito Rosellini; Carlo Lasinio (engraver); Giuseppe Angelell, Salvador Cherubini, and Gaetano Rosellini (artists). I Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia — disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto; distribuiti in ordine di materie interpretati ed illustrati dal dottore Ippolito Rosellini. «The Monuments of Egypt and Nubia - Drawn from Scientific Literature Tuscan Expedition to Egypt; Distributed in Order of Subjects Interpreted and Explained to the Doctor Ippolito Rosellini», 10 Volumes, published by Presso N. Capurro ec., in Italian, 1832–1840, 3300 pages. Publication cu31924024782561 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Sachs 1941] Curt Sachs. “The Mystery of the Babylonian Notation”, Musical Quarterly, Volume 27, Number 1, January 1941, pages 62–69, doi:10.1093/mq/XXVII.1.62. Publication 739367 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sachs 1943] Curt Sachs. The Rise of Music in the Ancient World, First Edition, published by W W Norton & Co., New York, June 1943, 321 pages, retrieved January 8, 2012, ISBN 0-393-09718-8 (978-0-393-09718-4), hardcover. Publication TheRiseOfMusicInTheAncientWorld on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

Publisher's description: In this groundbreaking, all encompassing work, an eminent musicologist explores the evolution of music, from the ecstatic singing and Shaman songs of early civilizations to the development of more structured styles in Egypt, East Asia, India, Greece, Rome, the Middle East, and Europe. Eight plates of illustrations depict players and orchestras

[Sayce 1898] A. H. Sayce. Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, Fifth Edition, published by Williams and Norgate, London, 1898, 565 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schaeffer 1968] Claude-Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer and Jean Nougayrol (editors). Nouveaux textes accadiens, hourrites et ugaritiques des archives et bibliothèques privées d'Ugarit «New Akkadian Texts, Hurrian and Ugaritic Archives and Private Libraries of Ugarit», Ugaritica 5; Bibliothèque archéologique et historique / Institut français d'archéologie de Beyrouth 80; Mission de Ras Shamra 16, published by P. Geuthner, Paris, France, in French, 1968, 806 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schlesinger 1938] Kathleen Schlesinger. “Correspondence”, Music & Letters, Volume 19, Issue 4, October 1938, pages 491–492, doi:10.1093/ml/XIX.4.491 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schlesinger 1939] Kathleen Schlesinger. The Greek Aulos — A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival or Rebirth in Folk-music, published by Methuen & Co., London, England, 1939, xlix + 577 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Schlesinger 1970] Kathleen Schlesinger. The Greek Aulos — A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival or Rebirth in Folk-music, published by Bouma's Boekhuis N.V., Groningen, The Netherlands, 1970, xlix + 577 pages, ISBN 90-6088-027-7. Unchanged reprint of the 1939 Methuen edition. Publication KathleenSchlesingerTheGreekAulos on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia, Flutopedia Image Detail: Excavated Fragments of the Silver Double-Flute of Ur, The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Schroeder 1920] O. Schroeder. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschieden Inhalts «Cuneiform Texts from Assur with Various Content», Volume 1, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 35, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Schroeder 1922] O. Schroeder. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts «Historical Cuneiform Texts from Assur», Volume 2, Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur), Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG), Volume 37, published by J. C. Hinrich, Leipzig, in German, 1919, 362 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Designations for Cuneiform and Ancient Mesopotamian Clay Tablets

[Shaffer 1981] Aaron Shaffer. “A New Musical Term in Ancient Mesopotamian Music”, Iraq, Volume 43, Number 1, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Spring 1981, pages 79–83, doi:10.2307/4200135. Publication 4200135 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shalev-Eyni 2006] Sarit Shalev-Eyni. “Solomon, his Demons and Jongleurs: The Meeting of Islamic, Judaic and Christian Culture”, Al-Masāq, Volume 18, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, 2006, pages 145–160, doi:10.1080/09503110600838635 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The legend of Solomon's special ability to control demons originated in Jewish-Hellenistic circles and became widespread in later Judaic, Islamic and Christian culture. In the Qur’ān, as well as in the earlier Babylonian Talmud and other rabbinic sources, the legend was adopted with a clear tendency to avoid the pragmatic demonic aspects of the story. In a similar vein, Qur’ānic commentators presented the relations between Solomon and the demons as an expression of the supernatural rule of the king over the cosmos and ignored his shameful end. The inclusion of the legend in the most sacred canonical text of Islam, and its connotation of eternity may explain the frequent representation in Muslim art. On the other hand, the avoidance by the Christian establishment authorities and the relegation to profane literature mocking the king may account for its absence in western official art. A combination between the high and low aspects of Solomon is seen in an illuminated medieval Hebrew Mahzor from South Germany. The divine aspect of Solomon as he appears in the Mahzor is paralleled in the Muslim examples. These similarities are the result of close textual traditions deriving from the same sources. Yet a possible pictorial testimony linking East and West may be discerned in the Ottoman illuminated Book of Suleiman, possibly based on a western tradition.

[Sharif-M 1999] M. Sharif and B. K. Thapar. “Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India”, contained in [Masson 1999], 1999, pages 128–137. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Shore 1965] A. F. Shore. “A Bronze Flute with Demotic Inscription”, The British Museum Quarterly, Volume 30, Number 1/2, published by the British Museum, Autumn 1965, pages 35–36. Publication 4422917 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-J 2000] Janet Smith and Anne Kilmer. “Laying the Rough, Testing the Fine”, contained in [Hickmann-E 2000], 2000, pages 127–140. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Author's description: Discusses the diatonic lyre tuning procedures on the tablet CBS10996 from Nippur, first millennium, B C., "The Mathematical Text," (so named because it refers to lyre strings by numbered pairs). A comparison is made between this ancient set of seven tunings and modern piano tuning procedure "Laying the Bearing Octave." Music notation and tablature examples given. Other aspects on the subject of basic diatonic tuning are discussed. (Temperament is still unknown for this system). Fourteen names for string pairs (two-note intervals or ditones) on the lyre form the basis for Hurrian Hymn notation and arrangement on “Sounds from Silence.”

[Smith-J 2003] Janet Smith. Seven Modes for an Ancient Lyre — Music in Seven Ancient Tunings Using Samples from a Replica of the Silver Lyre from Ur, Bella Roma Music, BRM 101, 14 tracks, 2003, audio CD. See the Bella Roma Music web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smith-J 2008] Janet Smith. Interview with Prof. Anne Kilmer, Tuscon Arizona, January 2008, 2008, retrieved February 22, 2011. Interview with Prof. Anne Kilmer, Tuscon Arizona, January 2008 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Smyth 2007] A. S. H. Smyth. “Pipe Work”, Early Music Today, August/September 2007, pages 16–17. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: When Barnaby Brown started researching the links between the triplepipes and the Sardinian launeddas he didn’t realise the cultural storm he was going to create. Adam Smyth joined him in experiencing a living part of an ancient Celtic-Mediterranean tradition.

[So 2000] Jenny F. So (editor). Music in the Age of Confucius, published by the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 2000, 152 pages, ISBN 0-295-97953-4 (978-0-295-97953-3). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Chinese archaeologists digging in central China in 1977 unexpectedly uncovered two of the earliest and most extensive groups of musical instruments in the entire ancient world, dating from nearly 2500 years ago. since these percussion, string, and wind instruments were in near-pristine condition - some still playable, others inscribed with musicological information - they provided hitherto unimagined possibilities for th study of music and the history of musical instruments in ancient China. Presented here are the insights of six specialists who describe these instruments' sophisticated tuning systems, techniques of manufacture and inscriptions revealing their musical and non-musical significance in ancient Chinese society. It has become apparent that different types of music existed in Bronze Age China (2000-500 BC) for state rituals as well as for private entertainment. The authors place this evidence in the context of recent archaeological discoveries and reassess it in light of classical history and the literature on Chinese music. The three main families of instruments are also examined in detail in individual chapters. Lovers of art and music, as well as enthusiast of archaeology, musicology, and cultural history, should find this a compelling and readable presentation of the latest research and ideas on one of the world's oldest and most profound artistic expressions.

[Stackert 2010] Jeffrey Stackert, Barbara Nevling Porter, and David P. Wright. Gazing on the Deep, Ancient Near Eastern and Other Studies in Honor of Tsvi Abusch, published by CDL Press, Bethesda, Maryland, 2010, 684 pages, ISBN 1-934309-26-5 (978-1-934309-26-1). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stainer 1900] John Stainer. The Music Of The Bible — With Some Account of the Development of Modern Musical Instruments from Ancient Types, published by Novello, Ewer & Co., London, 1900. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stern 2010] Max Stern. “Reconstructing the Voice of King David's Harps”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 161–174, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: For the composer of the 21st century even the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, in all their transpositions and permutations, have become passé. New spectral materials available through sound generators and processors attached to conventional instruments extend the contemporary musician’s sound palette into the unknown. Frequently micro-tones and indigenous tonalities from various ethnic traditions, once considered exotic, have been integrated into contemporary compositions, East and West, crossing over boundaries between folk and art music, though unbridgeable. In sharp contrast, when we gaze at iconographic representations of ancient instruments, particularly lyres and harps attributed to King David we see relatively primitive instruments of only a few strings, which can, with difficulty be tuned at all, to say nothing of changing tuning during performance. (Indeed the chromatic harp was one of the great innovations of the 19th century, enabling this folk instrument to enter the symphony orchestra.) The question all this raises seems to be - is an instrument of 3 or 4 or 5 strings, whose pitches are fixed (at least during the duration of a given selection) capable of music of any aesthetic value, whatsoever? It was this question which I attempted to solve, by posing a creative solution. What kind of music might the author of the Psalms have played?

[Strauven 2010] Peter Strauven and Jan M. F. Van Reeth. “Pythagoras, The Origins of Musical Modi and the Dactyls”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel, published by Iconea Publications, London, 2010, pages 63–71, ISBN-13 978-1-4632-0182-1. See the ICONEA web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conference summary: Music theory in the Christian and Muslim Mediterranean world is interconnected with philosophical considerations, indebted to theology, cosmology and mythology. The almost entire lack of musical source materials, however, hinders research relating to common grounds of these different, but interrelated systems. By taking as an example the philosophical considerations reflected by the multifaceted Eastern and Western music theory dealing with forms of (ordered) modality, we will show that a theoretical, philosophical and theological basis for modal systems preceded their respective musical applications. In our search to the remote origins of these philosophical considerations, we will follow the traces of Persian and Babylonian mythology. A comparison of these mythological accounts, be it in their Western, Levantine form, to the Greco-Minoan myth of the dactyles and to ancient Pythagorism, will not only show a philosophical continuity, but at the same time will reveal musico-theoretical fundamentals. Indeed, when we finally confront these results with musical theory again, we will try to retrace behind these ancient religious and mythological symbols, a musical meaning, with practical consequence.

[Tillyard 1916] H. J. W. Tillyard. “The Problem of Byzantine Neumes”, American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, Volume 20, published by Rumford Press for the Archaeological Institute of America, Concord, New Hampshire, 1916, pages 62–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vanderburgh 1908] Frederick Augustus Vanderburgh. Sumerian Hymns from Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum, published by Columbia University Press, 1908. Publication sumerianhymnsfro00vandiala on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Veldhuis 1999+A2936] Niek Veldhuis. “Continuity and Change in the Mesopotamian Lexical Tradition”, contained in [Roest 1999], 1999, pages 101–118. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Vitale 1982] R{aoul}. Vitale. “La Musique sumero-accadienne: gamme et notation musicale «Sumero-Akkadian Music - Range and Musical Notation»”, Ugarit-Forschungen, Volume 14, in French, 1982, pages 241–263. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Wallace-RW 2003] Robert W. Wallace. “An Early Fifth-Century Athenian Revolution in Aulos Music”, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Volume 101, published by the Department of the Classics, Harvard University, 2003, pages 73–92. Publication 3658525 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: After a brief opening section to recover one piece of information, the following pages reconstruct several revolutionary developments in the use of the aulos for music research and social playing in early fifth-century Athens, and the reaction against these developments that began around mid-century.

[Walton-JH 2009] John H. Walton (general editor). Illustrated Bible, Backgrounds, Commentary, five volumes, Third Edition, published by Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2009, 2928 pages, ISBN-13 978-0-310-25573-4, hardcover. See the Publisher's web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wang-Y 2004] Yuhwen Wang. “The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts”, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Volume 38, Number 1, Spring 2004, pages 89–104. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Watson-WGE 1997] Wilfred G. E. Watson. “The "Split Couplet" in Ugaritic Verse”, Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico, Volume 14, 1997, pages 29–42. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[West 1994] M{artin} L{itchfield} West. “The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic Texts”, Music and Letters, Volume 75, Number 2, May 1994, pages 161–179. Publication 737674 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Nine citations: Perfect Intervals, Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (8)

Abstract: Between 1960 and 1970 a happy sequence of discoveries and correlation of cuneiform texts disclosed the existence of a coherent body of Babylonian doctrine regarding tunings of the lyre (or harp), and a musical notation reflecting this theory. The fragmentary hymns whose music was recorded in this notation about 1250-1200 BC are by far the oldest known examples of notated melody in the world. These revelations have provoked a lively discussion, conducted partly in musicological bu mainly in Assyriological publications. Only in the last few years has it shown some signs of flagging. It is not that all the problems have been solved, bu rather that an impasse has been reached. On may important points there is a consensus. But on others, including the interpretation of the notation, widely divergent positions have been taken up.
At present we have four rival decipherments of the notation, each yielding entirely different results. It is the main purpose of the present article to propose a fifth which I believe to be superior to those advanced hitherto. It is impossible, of course, to extract more from a notation than was put into it in the first place. It may well be that this ancient oriental notation was only capable of expressing the basic outline of a melody, and that many details of execution went unrecorded. Nevertheless, if my interpretation is correct, it will bring us closer to an understanding of the nature of this music.

[West 1994a] Martin Litchfield West. Ancient Greek Music, published by Oxford University Press, April 14, 1994, 410 pages, ISBN 0-19-814975-1 (978-0-19-814975-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia, Classification of Flutes

Publisher's description: Ancient Greece was permeated by music, and the literature teems with musical allusions. Here at last is a clear, comprehensive, and authoritative account that presupposes no special knowledge of music. Topics covered include the place of music in Greek life, instruments, rhythm, tempo, modes and scales, melodic construction, form, ancient theory and notation, and historical development. Thirty surviving examples of Greek music are presented in modern transcription with analysis, and the book is fully illustrated. Besides being considered on its own terms, Greek music is here further illuminated by being considered in ethnological perspective, and a brief Epilogue sets it in its place in a border zone between Afro-Asiatic and European culture. The book will be of value both to classicists and historians of music.

[Westenholz 1975] Aage Westenholz. Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: Pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht-Sammlung vorderasiatischer Altertümer, Institut für Altertumswissenschaften der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena «Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht Collection of Near Eastern Antiquities, Department of Classical Studies at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena», published by Munksgaard, København, in English and German, 1975, 101 pages, ISBN 87-7304-043-6 (978-87-7304-043-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wheeler 2011] John Wheeler. Sacred Music in Antiquity, Updated September 6, 2011, retrieved December 9, 2011. Sacred Music in Antiquity Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wiggermann 2010] F. A. M. Wiggermann. “The Image of Dumuzi — A Diachronic Analysis”, contained in [Stackert 2010], 2010, pages 327–350. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Wilkinson 1878] J. G. Wilkinson; Samuel Birch (editor). The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, Three Volumes, 1878. Publications mannerscustomsof01wilk, mannerscustomsof02wilk, and mannerscustoms03wilk on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wolkstein 1983] Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer. Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth, published by Harper and Row, 1983, 227 pages, ISBN 0-06-090854-8 (978-0-06-090854-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia

[Woods 2010] Christopher Woods, Geoff Emberling, and Emily Teeter. Visible Language, Oriental Institute Museum Publications, Number 32, published by The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2010, 240 pages, ISBN 1-885923-76-7 (978-1-885923-76-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woolley 1921] Leonard Woolley, T. E. Lawrence, and D. G. Hogarth. Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, Volume 2: The Town Defenses, published by The British Museum, London, 1921. Publication carchemishreport02brit on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Woolley 1934] C. L{eonard}. Woolley. Ur Excavations, Volume 2: The Royal Cemetery - Text and Plates, published by The Joint Expedition of the British Museum and The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia, 1934, 604 pages + 273 plates. A Report on the Predynastic and Sargonid Graves Excavated between 1926 and 1931. Ur Excavations Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2), The Development of Flutes in Europe and Asia

[Woolley 1952] Leonard Woolley and R. D. Barnett. Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, Volume 3: The Excavations in the Inner Town, published by The British Museum, London, 1952, 290 pages. Publication carchemishreport03brituoft on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-FA 1914] F. A. Wright. “Greek Music”, The Edinburgh Review, Volume 220, published by the Leonard Scott Publication Co., 1914, pages 115–134. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wulstan 1968] David Wulstan. “The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp”, Iraq, Volume 30, Number 2, published by the British Institute for the Study of Iraq, Autumn 1968, pages 215–228. Publication 4199852 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Conclusion: We now know that the Babylonians had seven octave species similar to, but far antedating, those known from Greek sources. How far these represent theoretical, rather than practical, tunings we cannot at present tell. Nor can it be said, on the basis of the material available so far, what connection, if any, the tunings had with "modality" if such a concept existed. The indications are, however, that Greek musical thought owed some debt to the Babylonians.

[Wulstan 1971] David Wulstan. “The Earliest Musical Notation”, Music & Letters, Volume 52, Number 4, published by the Oxford University Press, October 1971, pages 365–382, doi:10.1093/ml/LII.4.365. Publication 734711 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

[Wulstan 2005] David Wulstan. “Bring on the Dancing-Girls — (a Gadibus usque auroram)”, Al-Masāq, Volume 17, Number 2, published by the Society for the Medieval Mediterranean, September 2005, pages 221–249, doi:10.1080/09503110500222344 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In Greece and Rome, Ionic rhythm appears to have been associated with erotic dances. A tune-type going with this rhythm is found in several of Alfonso's Cantigas (second half of the thirteenth century) and in folk music from around the Mediterranean, recorded from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. Could these tune-types (and their associated ground-basses) go back as far as Martial's Dancing-girls of Cádiz – and indeed to Euripides and Aristophanes? There is also a possible link with the kharjas of the Andalusian muwashsha.(h)āt, and a substantial connexion with the dance known from later sources as the Canaries. Not only is there evidence of a rhythm and associated melodic motive stretching over more than two millennia, but we can discern, even hear, parts of an unwritten tradition of improvised instrumental music and discover a harmonic vocabulary which mostly emerges on the written page only in the Renaissance.

[Wyatt 2012] Simon Wyatt. “Sound Production in Early Aerophones”, contained in [Eichmann 2012], 2012, pages 393–398. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: Im folgenden Beitrag, der erstmals auf der 32. Konferenz der Theoretical Archaeology Group (Bristol, Dezember 2010) präsentiert wurde, werden die Methoden der Klangerzeugung mit Blasinstrumenten aus den Höhlen von Hohlefels und Isturitz untersucht. Hierfür kommen hypothetisch drei unterschiedliche Techniken in Frage: Sie können ohne Hilfsmittel wie eine Flöte oder ein lip-buzzed aerophone (z.B. Trompete, Didgeridoo) angeblasen worden sein, oder mit Hilfsmittel, wie ein Rohrblattinstrument (Klarinette). Für die Überprüfung des Gebrauchs als Rohrblattinstrument, wird die experimentelle Herstellung von Rohrblättern besprochen.
Translation: In this paper, presented for the first time at the 32nd conference of the Theoretical Archaeology Group (Bristol, December 2010), the methods of sound production on wind instruments from the Hohle Fels and Isturitz caves are examined. Three different hypothetical playing techniques are proposed: like a flute, like a lip-vibrating aerophone (such as a trumpet or didgeridoo), or with the addition of a reed (such as a clarinet). For the case of a reed instrument, the experimental production of reeds are discussed.

[Yamauchi 1980] Edwin M. Yamauchi. “The Archaeological Background of Daniel”, Bibliotheca Sacra, Volume 137, January–March 1980, pages 3–16. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia (2)

 
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To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2017_refs_ancient"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title= Ancient Music References for the Native American Flute |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/refs_ancient.htm |date=3 February 2017 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>