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Breath Pressure References

This is a list of references related to the study of Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

Breath Pressure References

[Adduci 2011] Michael Douglas Adduci. Dynamic Measurement of Intraoral Pressure and Sound Pressure with Laryngoscopic Characterization during Oboe Performance, Doctoral dissertation – University of North Texas, December 2011, 105 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Measurements of intraoral pressure (IOP) and sound pressure level (SPL) were taken of four oboists as they performed two sets of musical exercises: (1) crescendo-decrescendo from pp to ff and back to pp on the pitches D4, G4, C5 and A5, and (2) straight and vibrato performances of the same four pitches at mf. Video images of the vocal tract were also made using flexible fiberoptic nasoendoscopy (FFN). IOP and SPL data were captured in real time by the WinDaq®/Lite software package, with the dB meter located 8-9 inches in directly front of the oboe bell.

The study yielded minimum and maximum values from 21.04 to 57.81 mm Hg and from 65.53 to 100.89 dB across all pitches examined. Discussion is included for the following topics: (1) the oboe’s sound envelope, or functional range of IOP and SPL values at different pitch levels, including the nonlinearity in the relationship between IOP and SPL on the oboe, (2) the static activation and kinetic maintenance thresholds for reed vibration, (3) the effect of vibrato on IOP/SPL, (4) the utilization of the vocal tract during execution of dynamic changes and vibrato, and (5) the impact of player experience on control of physical variables.

[Akgun 1967] N. Akgün and H. Ozgönül. “Lung Volumes in Wind Instrument (Zurna) Players”, The American Review of Respiratory Disease, Volume 96, Number 5, 1967, pages 946–951. Publication 6059203 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Baken 2000] Ronald R. Baken and Robert F. Orlikoff. Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice, Second Edition, published by Cengage Learning, 2000, 610 pages, ISBN 1-56593-869-0 (978-1-56593-869-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Bernardini 2010] Nicola Bernardini. The Role of Physical Impedance Matching in Music Playing, Sound is Motion Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, February 11, 2010, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bertschinger 2007] Dimiter Robert Bertschinger, Efstratios Mendrinos, and André Dosso. “Yoga Can be Dangerous—Glaucomatous Visual Field Defect Worsening Due to Postural Yoga”, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 91, Number 10, October 2007, pages 1413–1414, doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.114546. Publication 17895421 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Summary: The relationship between the head-down body position and increased IOP is well known. We present a 46-year old woman who presented with a worsening of glaucomatous visual field defects one year after starting to perform regularly a particular postural headstand yoga exercise, reversible after cessation of the exercise.

In 10 non-yoga-practising volunteers intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by Tono-Pen in sitting and immediately after assuming a headstand position. A more than twofold increase of the IOP was measured in the headstand position. Therefore postural (head-down) yoga exercises are clearly not recommended for patients suffering from glaucoma.

[Borch 2011] D. Zangger Borch and Johan Sundberg. “Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing”, Journal of Voice, Volume 25, Number 5, September 2011, pages 532–537, doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.07.014. Publication 20926250 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/ in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

[Bouhuys 1964] Arend Bouhuys. “Lung Volumes and Breathing Patterns in Wind-Instrument Players”, Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 19, September 1964, pages 967–975. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Pulmonary function at rest and physiological performance during play was studied in 42 professional wind players on 15 different instruments. Vital capacity was larger than expected from age and height in all brass players. Other lung function results were similar to or better than those in control subjects. Breathing patterns are qualitatively similar in players of nearly all instruments; rapid and deep inspirations are followed by prolonged expirations through the instrument. In some instruments nearly the whole vital capacity may be used during play. No gross changes in arterialized capillary blood pH, Pco2 and standard bicarbonate content occurred during frac12 hour's play. Mouth pressure on most instruments increased both with pitch and loudness and varied from 2.5 to 158 mm Hg. Air flow rates varied from less than 0.05 to over 1.6 liters/ sec. Performance on some, mainly brass, instruments is limited mechanically; on others, e.g., the oboe, breath-holding time is the limiting factor. Energy expended on the instrument (mouth pressure times flow rate) ranged from less than 0.1 up to 17 w.

[Bouhuys 1965] Arend Bouhuys. “Sound-Power Production in Wind Instruments”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 37, Number 3, March 1965, pages 453–456. Publication 14284611 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: This paper presents data for output sound power PO of wind instruments relation to input power PI supplied by the player. PI was calculated as pV̇, where p equals mouth pressure and V̇ air flow rate through the instrument. PO was calculated from sound-pressure level and measurements of reverberation time in a live room of known volume. A part of the data was obtained in a room of unknown characteristics; from 15 comparable measurements on 8 different instruments in both the live and the unknown room, data were obtained that allowed calculation of PO also from other experiments in the unknown room. Measurements were made on single notes, played both pp and ff, on each instrument; one low and one high note on the scale of each instrument were chosen. The ratio PO/PI, representing the mechanical efficiency of wind instruments as sources of sound power, varies from less than 0.001% to about 2%. It appears to increase with increasing PI and, in some instruments, with frequency. The consistent results obtained for 3 different flutes played by one performer suggest that the variability noted in the other data at least partially reflects individual differences in mechanical efficiency.

[Bouhuys 1968] Arend Bouhuys. “Pressure-Flow Events During Wind Instrument Playing”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 155, Number 1, November 1968, pages 264–275, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb56771.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bouhuys 1969] Arend Bouhuys. “Physiology and Musical Instruments”, Nature, Volume 221, Number 5187, March 29, 1969, pages 1199–1204, doi:10.1038/2211199a0. Publication 5773830 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Broadwater 2002] Kimberly Jaye Broadwater. The Effects of Singing on Blood Pressure in Classically Trained Singers, Doctoral dissertation – Louisiana State University, May 2002, 73 pages. See the Louisiana State University Electronic Thesis & Dissertation Collection Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Blood pressure readings were taken in four normotensive, classically trained singers of varying age and experience. The results show changes during the systolic and diastolic phases of blood pressure measurements while singing. While systolic blood pressure changes were individualized and random, diastolic blood pressure changes generally showed a direct correlation to changes in intrathoracic pressure. Additional research using a larger subject base involving normotensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive populations is warranted.

[BrutelVuilmet 2008] Claire Brutel-Vuilmet and Susanne Fuchs. “Rate Effects on Aerodynamics of Intervocalic Stops: Evidence from real speech data and model data”, Papers in Phonetics and Phonology, ZAS Papers in Linguistics, Volume 49, 2008, pages 1–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper is a first attempt towards a better understanding of the aerodynamic properties during speech production and their potential control. In recent years, studies on intraoral pressure in speech have been rather rare, and more studies concern the air flow development. However, the intraoral pressure is a crucial factor for analysing the production of various sounds.

In this paper, we focus on the intraoral pressure development during the production of intervocalic stops.

Two experimental methodologies are presented and confronted with each other: real speech data recorded for four German native speakers, and model data, obtained by a mechanical replica which allows reproducing the main physical mechanisms occurring during phonation. The two methods are presented and applied to a study on the influence of speech rate on aerodynamic properties.

[Coltman 1966] John W. Coltman. “Resonance and Sounding Frequencies of the Flute”, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Volume 40, Issue 1, 1966, pages 99–107, doi:10.1121/1.1910070 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: The passive resonance frequencies of the flute were measured with high precision and compared with the frequencies obtained by blowing. The differences, which vary from +20 to −25 cents over the scale, are wholly accounted for by air temperature and composition and by variation of coverage of the mouth hole. No frequency pulling due to the blowing mechanism was observed. Measurements of frequency and radiated power using an artificial blowing mechanism provide an explanation for the variations in lip configuration observed in photographs. The tapered head joint provides a partial compensation for lip-coverage variation, but irregularities in the resonant column give marked departures from calculated frequencies based on a smooth tube.

[Cossette 2008] Isabelle Cossette, Pierpaolo Monaco, Andrea Aliverti, and Peter T. Macklem. “Chest Wall Dynamics and Muscle Recruitment During Professional Flute Playing”, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 160, 2008, pages 187–195. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Respiratory parameters and sound were recorded during professional flute playing in order to assess what physiological processes were associated with the control of sound production that results in ‘breath support’ which in turn is associated with high quality playing. Four standing young professional flautists played flute excerpts with and without breath support. Recordings included optoelectronic plethysmographic measurements of chest wall volume (Vcw) and its compartments, surface electromyography of the scalene, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominus, parasternal and sternocleidomastoid muscles, mouth pressure, and sound. Flow was estimated from differentiating Vcw during playing. Results showed that flute support entails antagonistic contraction of non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles that tends to hold the rib cage at higher lung volume. This relieves the expiratory muscles from the task of producing the right mouth pressure, especially at the end of the phrases, so they can contribute more to the finer control of mouth pressure modulations required for high quality playing.

[Cros 2005] Anne Cros, Didier Demolin, Ana Georgina Flesia, and Antonio Galves. On the Relationship Between Intra-oral Pressure and Speech Sonority, Interspeech 2005, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We address the question of the relationship between two time series associated to the speech signal. The first one is the sonority function which was introduced in Galves et al. (2002) as an index of the local regularity of the speech signal. The second time series is the intra-oral pressure during the production of speech. We argue that the joint evolution of both time series can be well described by a simple probabilistic model. We show that our model is in good agreement with the results obtained by analyzing a linguistic corpus with recorded sentences in French and Kinyarwanda.

[Cuadra 2008] Patricio de la Cuadra, Benoît Fabre, Nicolas Montgermount, and Lauent De Ryck. “Analysis of Flute Control Parameters: A Comparison Between a Novice and an Experienced Flutist”, Acta Acustica united with Acustica, Volume 94, Number 5, October 2008, pages 740–749, doi:10.3813/AAA.918091 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sound produced by flutes depends no only on the physical characteristics of the instrument but also on the control exerted by the musician. The latter is very important in some instruments of the flute family, especially in those where the air jet is shaped with the lip of the player. Some of the most relevant parameters controlled by the flautist, such as the distance from the lips to the shapr edge, the shape of the lips hole and the speed of the jet, are experimentally measured in this paper. Data produced by an experienced and a novice flautist are collected, analyzed and compared. Subjects are studied under normal musical playing conditions, playing phrases made out of simple musical intervals with subjective dynamics. Images of performer's lips are taken together with measurements of the blowing pressure and the sound inside and outside the instrument. Data analysis shows remarkable differences between the two subjects. The optimized coordination of several parameters in order to obtain a desired musical response, coupling between performer's mouth and the instrument, as well as the effecient use of the available resources are some of the differences observed.

[Dalston 1988] Rodger M. Dalston, Donald W. Warren, Kathleen E. Morr, and Lynn R. Smith. “Intraoral Pressure and Its Relationship to Velopharyngeal Inadequacy”, Cleft Palate Journal, Volume 25, Number 3, July 1988, pages 210–219. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Intraoral pressure measurements were made during multiple productions of the word "hamper" by each of 267 patients who manifested differing degrees of velopharyngeal inadequacy. The results indicate that intraoral pressure diminishes as the extent of velopharyngeal impairment increases. However, pressure remained above 3 cm H20 in the majority of subjects, even when the impairment was such that intraoral and intranasal pressures were essentially equal. Comparison of these results with model simulations suggests that speakers make adjustments to velopharyngeal impairment that tend to maintain pressures at levels thought to be necessary for obstruent consonant production. Variations in pressure as a function of gender and age parallel those observed in normal children and adults.

[Dawson 2006] William J. Dawson. The Motions of Wind Instrument Performance, April 2006, 70 pages. See the Performing Arts Medicine Association (PAMA) web site. The Motions of Wind Instrument Performance Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Deniz 2006] O. Deniz, S. Savci, E. Tozkoparan, D. I. Ince, M. Ucar, and Faruk Ciftci. “Reduced Pulmonary Function in Wind Instrument Players”, Archives of Medical Research, Volume 37, Number 4, 2006, pages 506–510, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.09.015. Publication 16624650 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract:
Background: Wind instrument playing requires a strenuous respiratory activity. Previous studies investigating effect of wind instrument playing on pulmonary function are equivocal.
Methods: In the present study, 34 male, non-smoker wind players in a military band were compared with 44 healthy non-smoker males by pulmonary function testing.
Results: All spirometric values including forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate, forced expiratory flow in 25, 50, 75% of FVC, and during the middle half of the FVC were found significantly diminished in wind players. The class of wind instrument, brass or wood, showed no significant differences. FVC was significantly and negatively correlated with duration of practice.
Conclusions: It was concluded that pulmonary function in wind players might be diminished probably due to development of asthma or constant barotrauma during their playing. This fact should be considered in clinical evaluation of wind instrument players.

[Dibbell 1979] D. G. Dibbell, S. Ewanowski, W. L. Carter. “Successful Correction of Velopharyngeal Stress Incompetence in Musicians Playing Wind Instruments”, Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Volume 64, Number 5, November 1979, pages 662–664. Publication 504488 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Two professional musicians who played wind instruments developed velopharyngeal stress incompetence which prevented them from generating the high intraoral pressures required to play their instruments. In both cases, we did a V-Y pushback with a superiorly-based pharyngeal flap. At 1 1/2 and two years postoperatively, both patients remain free of velopharyngeal incompetence and are actively engaged in their musical careers.

[DiCarlo 2007] Nicole Scotto Di Carlo. “Effect of Multifactorial Constraints on Intelligibility of Opera Singing (I)”, Journal of Singing, Volume 63, Number 4, March/April 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Introduction: The criticism most often made of opera singers is that they are difficult to understand. Is the lack of intelligibility in lyric art due to the singer’s poor diction, as generally believed, or to other causes? What happens when the frequency, intensity, and duration of the sound are considerably greater as they are in singing as opposed to speech? Are the acoustic structures of vowels and consonants preserved? Is syllabic isochrony maintained? How much can phonemes be lengthened without losing their identity? What happens when a singer pays particular attention to diction in order to improve the intelligibility of the words being sung? Are linguistic factors the only ones that alter intelligibility?

To answer each of these questions, let us first examine the linguistic factors that lessen the intelligibility of sung vowels, consonants, and syllables, before looking at the extralinguistic factors.

[DiCarlo 2007a] Nicole Scotto Di Carlo. “Effect of Multifactorial Constraints on Intelligibility of Opera Singing (II)”, Journal of Singing, Volume 63, Number 5, May/June 2007, pages 559–567. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dimsdale 1995] Joel E. Dimsdale and Richard A. Nelesen. French-Horn Hypertension, New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 333, August 3, 1995, pages 326–327, doi:10.1056/NEJM199508033330522 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Elisberg 1951] Edward I Elisberg, Harry Goldberg, and Gordon L. Snider. “Value of Intraoral Pressure as a Measure of Intrapleural Pressure”, Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 4, Number 3, September 1951, pages 171–176. Publication 14897780 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Enflo 2009] Laura Enflo and Johan Sundberg. “Vocal Fold Collision Threshold Pressure: An Alternative to Phonation Threshold Pressure?”, Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, Volume 34, Number 4, 2009, pages 210–217. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), frequently used for characterizing vocal fold properties, is often diffi cult to measure. This investigation analyses the lowest pressure initiating vocal fold collision (CTP). Microphone, electroglottograph (EGG), and oral pressure signals were recorded, before and after vocal warm-up, in 15 amateur singers, repeating the syllable /pa:/ at several fundamental frequencies with gradually decreasing vocal loudness. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the p-occlusion, using the audio and the EGG amplitudes as criteria for PTP and CTP. The coeffi cient of variation was mostly lower for CTP than for PTP. Both CTP and PTP tended to be higher before than after the warm-up. The results support the conclusion that CTP is a promising parameter in investigations of vocal fold characteristics.

[Enflo 2009a] Laura Enflo, Johan Sundberg, and Friedemann Pabst. “Collision Threshold Pressure Before and After Vocal Loading”, Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2009. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study we compare PTP and collision threshold pressure (CTP) before and after vocal loading in singer and non-singer voices. Seven subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a,e,i,o,u/ at an SPL of at least 80 dB @ 0.3 m for 20 min. Before and after this loading the subjects’ voices were recorded while they produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa/. Oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion was used as a measure of subglottal pressure. Both CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading.

[Enflo 2010] Laura Enflo. Alternative Measures of Phonation: Collision Threshold Pressure & Electroglottographic Spectral Tilt, Licentiate dissertation – KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, School of Computer Science and Communication, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010, 92 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Evans-A 2009] Alison Evans, Bronwen Ackermann, and Tim Driscoll. “The Role of the Soft Palate in Woodwind and Brass Playing”, International Symposium on Performance Science (ISPS), New Zealand, 2009, pages 267–272, ISBN-13 978-94-90306-01-4. See the Performance Science web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Expired air provides the basis for sound production for musicians playing a wind instrument. This air stream must be controlled and directed into the mouthpiece of the instrument via a reed mechanism at the mouth. To be able to do this, firm velopharyngeal closure is required to prevent air leaking out through the nose from the oral cavity. In some musicians impairment of soft palate function may result in this air leak occurring, which is known as velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). A review of the functional anatomy of the soft palate and how it relates to wind and brass playing is discussed with a brief review of VPI as it is reported in musicians. A better understanding of the soft palate anatomy will assist students and music teachers to optimize their performance and prevent performance related medical problems.

[Evans-A 2010] Alison Evans, Bronwen Ackermann, and Tim Driscoll. “Functional Anatomy of the Soft Palate Applied to Wind Playing”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 25, Number 4, 2010, pages 183–189. Publication 21170481 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Wind players must be able to sustain high intraoral pressures in order to play their instruments. Prolonged exposure to these high pressures may lead to the performance-related disorder velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). This disorder occurs when the soft palate fails to completely close the air passage between the oral and nasal cavities in the upper respiratory cavity during blowing tasks, this closure being necessary for optimum performance on a wind instrument. VPI is potentially career threatening. Improving music teachers' and students' knowledge of the mechanism of velopharyngeal closure may assist in avoiding potentially catastrophic performance-related disorders arising from dysfunction of the soft palate. In the functional anatomy of the soft palate as applied to wind playing, seven muscles of the soft palate involved in the velopharyngeal closure mechanism are reviewed. These are the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, and salpingopharyngeus. These muscles contribute to either a palatal or a pharyngeal component of velopharyngeal closure. This information should guide further research into targeted methods of assessment, management, and treatment of VPI in wind musicians.

[Evans-A 2011] Alison Evans, Tim Driscoll, and Bronwen Ackermann. “Prevalence of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency in Woodwind and Brass Students”, Occupational Medicine, Volume 61, Number 7, October 2011, pages 480–482, doi:10.1093/occmed/kqr072. Publication 21697080 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Farland 2011] Michael Guy Farland. Under Pressure: Generic and Individual Intra-oral Pressure Profiles in Liquid Swallows, Doctoral dissertation – University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, August 12, 2011, 209 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fiz 1993] José Fiz, J. Aguilar, Ana Carreras, Ana Teixido, Manuel Haro, Daniel O. Rodenstein, and José Morera. “Maximum Respiratory Pressures in Trumpet Players”, Chest, Volume 104, Number 4, October 1993, pages 1203–1204. Publication 8404193 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We studied whether experienced trumpet players can develop higher pressures with their inspiratory and expiratory muscles than untrained subjects. Twelve male trumpet players (mean age, 22.4 +/- 3.3 years) participated in the study. All of them had played the trumpet for at least 4 years and were nonsmokers. Twelve healthy male subjects (mean age, 23.3 +/- 3.1 years) participated as a control group. There were no differences in spirometric parameters between both groups. Maximum respiratory pressures were higher in the trumpet player group (trumpet players: Pmax 151.3 +/- 19.8 cm H2O; Pemax, 234.6 +/- 53.9 cm H2O; control group: Pemax, 106.7 +/- 10.4 cm H2O; Pemax, 189.6 +/- 14.6 cm H2O). We concluded that in young trumpet players, maximum respiratory pressures are higher than in young people who do not play wind instruments. This is most probably a consequence of respiratory muscle training with a wind instrument.

[Fletcher-NH 1974] Neville H. Fletcher. “Some Acoustical Principles of Flute Technique”, The Instrumentalist, Volume 28, Number 7, February 1974, pages 57–61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1975] Neville H. Fletcher. “Acoustical Correlates of Flute Performance Technique”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 57, Issue 1, 1975, pages 233–237, doi:10.1121/1.380430 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

Abstract: Measurements of physical parameters of performance technique for a group of experienced flute players are reported. Blowing pressure is found to be consistent among the players and intermediate between previous measurements by Bouhuys [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 37, 453−456 (1965)] and by Coltman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 40, 99−107 (1966); 44, 983−992 (1968)]. Jet−length measurements agree with those of Coltman. Blowing pressure and jet length come near to satisfying the expected relationship but with some discrepancy which may be significant. Harmonic analysis of flute tone shows that amplitude variations from piano to forte are largely confined to the upper partials, particularly for notes in the low octave. A study of vibrato shows that this normally consists of an amplitude modulation of the upper partials of the tone with little change in the fundamental. The vibrato frequency is consistently about 5 Hz and is associated with a 10% variation in blowing pressure at that frequency. Physiological vibrato mechanisms are discussed and the acoustical nature of the vibrato is shown to be determined by the nonlinear jet excitation mechanism and the stabilizing effect of the narrow fundamental pipe resonance.

[Fletcher-NH 1991] Neville Horner Fletcher and Thomas Dean Rossing. The Physics of Musical Instruments, published by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991, 620 pages. reprinted 1991, 1994, and 1996. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1998] Neville Horner Fletcher and Thomas Dean Rossing. The Physics of Musical Instruments, Second Edition, published by Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998, 756 pages, ISBN 0-387-98374-0 (978-0-387-98374-5). reprinted 1999 and 2000. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Fletcher-NH 1999] Neville H. Fletcher and A. Tarnopolsky. “Blowing Pressure, Power, and Spectrum in Trumpet Playing”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 105, Number 2, Part 1, February 1999, pages 874–881. Publication 9972572 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Measurements of sound output as a function of blowing pressure are reported for a group of experienced trumpet players. The study identifies several common features, namely (1) a threshold blowing pressure approximately proportional to the frequency of the note being played, (2) an extended region in which the sound output rises by about 15 dB for each doubling of blowing pressure, and (3) a saturation region in which sound output rises by only about 3 dB for a doubling of blowing pressure. Some players are able to blow with maximum pressures as high as 25 kPa, which is significantly greater than normal systolic blood pressure. A simple theory is presented that provides a physical explanation for the acoustical behavior, but a detailed treatment requires solution of the nonlinear coupled equations both for the lip-valve mechanism and for nonlinear wave propagation in the instrument tube. Frequency analysis of the sound shows a basic spectral envelope determined by the resonance properties of the mouthpiece cup and the radiation behavior of the bell, supplemented by an extension to increasingly high frequencies as the blowing pressure is increased. This high-frequency behavior can be attributed to nonlinear wavefront steepening during sound propagation along the cylindrical bore of the instrument.

[Fletcher-NH 2000] Neville H. Fletcher. “The Physiological Demands of Wind Instrument Performance”, Acoustics Australia, Volume 28, Number 1, 2000, pages 53–56. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Requirements on blowing pressure and lip tension in the playing of woodwind and brass instruments are examined and related to the sound-producing mechanism in each case. Loud playing of high notes on brass instruments is found to be the most physIologIcally demanding situation, but all instruments have particular requirements for precise physiological control.

[Fuks 1996] Leonardo Fuks and Johan Sundberg. “Blowing Pressures in Reed Woodwind Instruments”, Department for Speech, Music and Hearing. Quarterly Progress and Status Reports (TMH-QPSR), Volume 37, Number 3, 1996, pages 41–56. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

Abstract: The blowing pressures during wind instruments playing has not been systematically measured in previous research, leaving the dependences of pitch and dynamic level as open questions. In the present investigation, we recorded blowing pressures in the mouth cavity of two professional players of each of four reed woodwinds (Bb clarinet, alto saxophone, oboe, bassoon). The players performed three different tasks: (1) a series of isolated tones at four dynamic levels, (2) the same series with a crescendo-diminuendo tones and (3) ascendingdescending musical arpeggio played legato at different dynamic levels (pp, mp, mf, ff). The results show that, within instruments, the players' pressures exhibit similar dependencies of pitch and dynamic levels. Between instruments, clear differences were found with regard to the dependence on pitch.

[Garcia 2010] Francisco Garcia Diaz-Castroverde. Acquisition and Study of Blowing Pressure Profiles in Recorder Playing, Masters dissertation – Universitat Pompeu, Fabra, Barcelona, 2010, 117 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Garcia 2011] Francisco Garcia, Leny Vinceslas, Josep Tubau, and Esteban Maestre. “Acquisition and Study of Blowing Pressure Profiles in Recorder Playing”, Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Oslo, Norway, May 30 – June 1, 2011, 2011, pages 124–127. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper presents a study of blowing pressure profiles acquired from recorder playing. Blowing pressure signals are captured from real performance by means of a a low-intrusiveness acquisition system constructed around commercial pressure sensors based on piezoelectric transducers. An alto recorder was mechanically modified by a luthier to allow the measurement and connection of sensors while respecting playability and intrusiveness. A multi-modal database including aligned blowing pressure and sound signals is constructed from real practice, covering the performance space by considering different fundamental frequencies, dynamics, articulations and note durations. Once signals were pre-processed and segmented, a set of temporal envelope features were defined as a basis for studying and constructing a simplified model of blowing pressure profiles in different performance contexts.

[GarnNunn 2004] Pamela G. Garn-Nunn and James M. Lynn. Calvert's Descriptive Phonetics Transcription Workbook, Third Edition, published by Thieme Medical Publishers, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gilbert 1998] T. B. Gilbert. “Breathing Difficulties in Wind Instrument Players”, Maryland Medical Journal, Volume 47, Number 1, January 1998. Publication 9448412 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Performance of a wind instrument requires appreciable lung volume and diaphragmatic mechanical force, skilled breath control, adequate patency and humidity of air passages, and precise coordination of the oropharyngeal cavity. Depending on the instrument class, variable rates of air flow, pressure, and duration are necessary to produce optimal tone quality. Wind players may be seriously impaired by respiratory diseases that, comparatively, might appear trivial to the nonperformer. The workplace environment should be assessed for occupational hazards when managing these patients, and smoking should be particularly discouraged. Controversy exists implicating wind instrument use in the exacerbation of respiratory disease, including bronchial, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and oral anatomic changes – a result of the constant barotrauma of performance. Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disorder among wind players, and therapeutic programs that include breath training and physical exercise improve symptoms, endurance, and general well-being.

[Gomez 2007] M. Arias Gomez. “Música y Neurología «Music and Neurology»”, Neurologia, Volume 22, Number 1, in Spanish, January–February 2007, pages 39–45. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Music perception and output are special functions of the human brain. Investigation in this field is growing with the support of modern neuroimaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Interest in the music phenomenon and the disorders regarding its processing has been limited. Music is not just an artistic activity but a language to communicate, evoke and reinforce several emotions. Although the subject is still under debate, processing of music is independent of common language and each one uses independent circuits. One may be seriously affected and the other practically unharmed. On the other hand, there may be separate channels within the processing of music for the temporary elements (rhythm), melodic elements (pitch, timbre, and melody), memory and emotional response. The study of subjects with absolute pitch, congenital and acquired amusias, musicogenic epilepsy and musical hallucinations has greatly contributed to the knowledge of how the brain processes music. Music training involves some changes in morphology and physiology of professional musicians' brains. Stress, chronic pain and professional dystonias constitute a special field of musicians' disturbances that concerns neurological practice. Listening to and playing music may have some educational and therapeutic benefits.

[Goss 2013] Clinton F. Goss. “Intraoral Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments”, August 21, 2013, 16 pages, arXiv:1308.5214. Intraoral Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Five citations: Flute Crafting Dimensions, Your Brain on Flute, Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2), Flutopedia Revision History

Abstract: High intraoral pressure generated when playing some wind instruments has been linked to a variety of health issues. Prior research has focused on Western classical instruments, but no work has been published on ethnic wind instruments. This study measured intraoral pressure when playing six classes of ethnic wind instruments (N = 149): Native American flutes (n = 71) and smaller samples of ethnic duct flutes, reed instruments, reedpipes, overtone whistles, and overtone flutes. Results are presented in the context of a survey of prior studies, providing a composite view of the intraoral pressure requirements of a broad range of wind instruments. Mean intraoral pressure was 8.37 mBar across all ethic wind instruments and 5.21 ± 2.16 mBar for Native American flutes. The range of pressure in Native American flutes closely matches pressure reported in other studies for normal speech, and the maximum intraoral pressure, 20.55 mBar, is below the highest subglottal pressure reported in other studies during singing. Results show that ethnic wind instruments, with the exception of ethnic reed instruments, have generally lower intraoral pressure requirements than Western classical wind instruments. This implies a lower risk of the health issues related to high intraoral pressure.

[Hahnengress 2012] Maria L. Hahnengress. Cardiopulmonary Changes During Clarinet Playing, 2012, 22 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Since wind instrument playing impedes normal respiratory functions, its effect on expiratory and blood gases as well as on cardiac function was investigated. In 15 skilled clarinettists expiratory PO2 and PCO2 were measured in gas drawn from a modified clarinet barrel when playing a composition (Robert Schumann’s “Phantasiestücke” Op.73 for clarinet and piano) with increasing difficulty from movement 1 to movement 3. Blood gases were measured in arterialized ear lobe blood at the end of each movement and the electrocardiogram was recorded continuously. From the expiratory gas pressures one may conclude that the most advanced players adapt their ventilation to the requirements of the composition and sustain expiration during difficult parts of the composition until hypoxic alveolar PO2 values are reached (minimum 77 mmHg). Less trained clarinettists tend to hyperventilation or shallow breathing. Oxygen saturation in arterialized blood showed a slight stepwise decrease from movement to movement (control 96.6 ± 0.5(SD)%, end of concert 95.6 ± 1.0 %). SO2 was significantly higher because of possibly more effective ventilation in instrumentalists with practise time exceeding 2h daily. Mean heart rate increased to values like during moderate to heavy physical exercise depending on artistic fitness and the difficulty of the movement (maximal individual value 173 beats/minute). Additionally, a large variation might be caused through intrathoracic pressure changes, changing exertion, respiratory influences and emotion. The electrocardiogram showed no pathological events. In general clarinet playing at a professional level imposes strain on ventilation and circulation but usually not on a pathophysiological level.

[Harris-LR 1996] Linda R. Harris. Horn Playing and Blood Pressure, The Lancet, Volume 348, Issue 9033, October 12, 1996, page 1042, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)64982-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hiss 2001] Susan G. Hiss, Kathleen Treole, and Andrew Stuart. “Effect of Age, Gender, and Repeated Measures on Intraoral Air Pressure in Normal Adults”, Journal of Voice, Volume 15, Number 2, 2001, pages 159–164. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effect of age, gender, and repeated measures on intraoral air pressure (P0) was examined. Sixty adults comprised of 10 males and 10 females in each of three age groups (i.e., 20-39, 40-59, and 60-83 years) participated. P0 was assessed during voiceless stop plosive /p/ productions in repeated vowel/consonant syllables. The three medial plosives of a seven-syllable train were averaged to comprise a token. Five tokens were obtained and averaged for each of three trials. Thus each participant contributed 105 syllables and a subsequent three P0s for analyses. There was no statistically significant difference in P0 as a function of age or gender (P > 0.05). These findings support the conception that P0 remains stable throughout adulthood and is not dependent on gender. Differences in repeated measures of P0 attained statistical significance (P = 0.03), however the mean differences between trials (0.23 cm H20) were negligible and deemed to be clinically insignificant. Thus, across a short sampling session, P0 is a relatively stable measurement and does not change as a function of age or gender. Key Words: Intraoral air pressure—Aerodynamic measurement—Age—Gender—Repeated measures.

[Hodge-FS 2001] F. Sean Hodge, Raymond H. Colton, and Richard T. Kelley. “Vocal Intensity Characteristics in Normal and Elderly Speakers”, Journal of Voice, Volume 15, Issue 4, December 2001, pages 503–511, doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(01)00050-9. Publication 11792026 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

Abstract: The relationship of lung pressure, fundamental frequency, peak airflow, open quotient, and maximal flow declination rate to vocal intensity for a normal speaking, young male control group and an elderly male group was investigated. The control group consisted of 17 healthy male subjects with a mean age of 30 years and the elderly group consisted of 11 healthy male subjects with a mean age of 77 years. Data were collected at three levels of vocal intensity: soft, comfortable, and loud, corresponding to 25%, 50%, and 75% of dynamic range, respectively. Phonational threshold pressure and lung pressure were obtained using the intraoral technique. The oral airflow waveform was inverse filtered to provide an approximation to the glottal airflow waveform from which measures of fundamental frequency, peak airflow, open quotient, and maximal flow declination rate were determined. Excess lung pressure was calculated as lung pressure minus estimated phonational threshold pressure. The results show for both groups an increase in sound pressure level across the conditions, with corresponding increases in lung pressure, excess lung pressure, fundamental frequency, peak airflow, and maximal flow declination rate. Open quotient decreased with increasing vocal intensity. Lung pressure, sound pressure level, and peak airflow were all found to be significantly greater for the control group than for the elderly group at each condition. Open quotient was found to be significantly lower in the control group than in the elderly group at each condition. No significant difference was observed for excess lung pressure, phonational threshold pressure, fundamental frequency, or maximal flow declination rate between the two groups. These results show that a difference in vocal intensity does exist between young and elderly voices and that this difference is the result of differences in lung pressure, peak airflow, and open quotient.

[Holmberg 1988] E. B. Holmberg, R. E. Hillman, and J. S. Perkell. “Glottal airflow and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female speakers in soft, normal, and loud voice”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 84, Number 2, August 1988, pages 511–529. Erratum in Volume 85, Number 4 of the same journal. Publication 3170944 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Measurements on the inverse filtered airflow waveform (the "glottal waveform") and of estimated average transglottal pressure and glottal airflow were made from noninvasive recordings of productions of syllable sequences in soft, normal, and loud voice for 25 male and 20 female speakers. Statistical analyses showed that with change from normal to loud voice, both males and females produced loud voice with increased pressure, accompanied by increased ac flow and increased maximum airflow declination rate. With change from normal voice, soft voice was produced with decreased pressure, ac flow and maximum airflow declination rate, and increased dc and average flow. Within the loudness conditions, there was no significant male-female difference in air pressure. Several glottal waveform parameters separated males and females in normal and loud voice. The data indicate higher ac flow and higher maximum airflow declination rate for males. In soft voice, the male and female glottal waveforms were more alike, and there was no significant difference in maximum airflow declination rate. The dc flow did not differ significantly between males and females. Possible relevance to biomechanical differences and differences in voice source characteristics between males and females and across loudness conditions is discussed.

[Ingrams 2000] D. R. Ingrams, D. J. McFerran, and J. M. Graham. “Velopharyngeal Incompetence in Wind Players”, Musical Performance, Volume 2, Part 4, 2000, pages 105–112. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Kirsch 1999] C. M. Kirsch, J. Shinn, R. Porzio, E. Trefelner, F. T. Kagawa, J. H. Wehner, W. A. Jensen. “Pneumoparotid Due to Spirometry”, Chest, Volume 116, Number 5, November 1999, pages 1475–1478, doi:10.1378/chest.116.5.1475. Publication 10559118 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Pneumoparotid has been described in patients who generate increased intraoral pressures when playing wind instruments, while coughing, and when undergoing dental work. Some patients have intentionally created pneumoparotid to avoid duties at school or in the military, or to gain attention. We describe a patient who developed pneumoparotid during pulmonary function testing. The diagnosis of pneumoparotid depends on a suggestive clinical situation and glandular swelling with or without crepitus. Observation of aerated saliva per Stensen's duct or air in the parotid duct and/or gland by any imaging study is diagnostic if infection with a gas-forming organism can be reasonably excluded. No specific treatment is required, other than the avoidance of predisposing activities.

[Klusek 2006] Jessica Klusek. Comparison of Speech and Practiced Nonspeech Intraoral Pressure Waveform Characteristics, Masters dissertation – University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2006, 86 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Kreuter 2008] M. Kreuter, C. Kreuter, F. Herth. “Pneumologische Aspekte des Musizierens auf einem Blasinstrument — physiologische, pathophysiologische und therapeutische Gesichtspunkte «Pneumological Aspects of Wind Instrument Performance - Physiological, Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Considerations»”, Pneumologie, Volume 52, Number 2, 2008, pages 83–87, doi:10.1055/s-2007-996164 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

Abstract: Wind instrument performance is a notable feature in pneumology under aspects of ventilatory physiology and respiratory diseases. It requires an adequate ventilatory function combined with precise control of air flow and the ability to generate sufficient mouth pressures. Depending on the type of wind instrument, the required rates of airway pressure and air flow differ significantly. The cause of respiratory disease in wind instrument players may be related to these increased airway pressures in terms of a barotrauma. Wind instrumentalists may suffer from hemoptysis, laryngoceles, velopharyngeal insufficiency and pneumoparotitis due to their musical performance. Even the development of lung cancer has been assumed to be related to wind instrument playing. Controversy exists about implicating wind instrument use as the cause of pulmonary emphysema or in changes of pulmonary function, which is, however, unlikely under physiological aspects. Furthermore, professional wind instrumentalists may be impaired in their work by the side effects of anti-obstructive medication and respiratory infection. On the other hand, the potential therapeutic effects of wind instrument performance have to be considered. For asthmatic teenagers a significant improvement of pulmonary function and of physical and emotional activities could be related to wind instrument playing. Last but not least, didgeridoo playing was shown to be a promising alternative treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

[Kroger 1997] Bernd J. Kröger. “On the Quantitative Relationship Between Subglottal Pressure, Vocal Cord Tension, and Glottal Adduction in Singing”, Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, Volume 19, Number 5, 1997, pages 479–484. See the Bernd J. Kröger web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Larger 1996] Etienne Larger, Séverine Ledoux. Cardiovascular Effects of French Horn Playing, The Lancet, Volume 348, Issue 9040, November 30, 1996, page 1528, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)65960-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Lee-GG 2012] Gang Gyu Lee, Jungbok Lee, Bo Young Kim, and Sang Duk Hong. “A Case of Pneumoparotid: Initially Presented with Viral Parotitis”, Korean Journal Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surgery, Volume 55, Number 11, November 2012, pages 721–723, doi:10.3342/kjorl-hns.2012.55.11.721 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

Abstract: There are multiple causes of acute parotid swelling, including viral and bacterial infections, duct obstruction, neoplasms and enlargement accompanying connective tissue disease. Another possible cause of parotid swelling is pneumoparotid. Patients with pneumoparotid typically present with painless swelling in the parotid region with crepitus on palpation. We present a rare case of pneumoparotid with initial presentation of viral parotitis in the epidemic area of mumps.

[Libeaux 2010] Angela Libeaux. The EGG Spectrum Slope in Speakers and Singers: Variations related to Voice Sound Pressure Level, Vowel and Fundamental Frequency «Spektrumlutning hos elektroglottografiska signaler relaterad till ljudnivå, vokal och grundtonsfrekvens i tal- och sångröst», Masters dissertation – The Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010, 55 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lucia 1994] R. Lucia. “Effects of Playing a Musical Wind Instrument in Asthmatic Teenagers”, Journal of Asthma, Volume 31, Number 5, 1994, pages 375–385, doi:10.3109/02770909409061317. Publication 7928933 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

Abstract: This study examines whether teenage asthmatic wind instrumentalists exhibit fewer bronchocon-strictive symptoms, panic-fear responses, changes of mood, and fatigue symptoms than non-wind instrument players. Eight teenage asthmatic wind instrument players and 10 asthmatic non-wind instrument players kept a diary of asthma symptoms. Panic-fear responses and mood changes were significantly higher in the non-wind players. A general health profile suggested that the wind instrumentalists present a significantly better “asthma health” picture, perceiving themselves better able to cope with the disease. Playing a musical wind instrument has the potential of being a long-term therapeutic agent for asthmatics.

[Malick 2007] Deonne Malick, Jerry Moon, and John Canady. “Stress Velopharyngeal Incompetence: Prevalence, Treatment, and Management Practices”, Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal, Volume 44, Number 4, July 2007, pages 424–433, doi:10.1597/06-176.1 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Marks 1974] Meyer Benjamin Marks. “Musical Wind Instruments in Rehabilitation of Asthmatic Children”, The 1974 Bela Schick Memorial Lecture, Annals of Allergy, Volume 33, Number 6, published by the American College of Allergists, December 1974, pages 313–319. Publication 4613211 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

[Mazon 2009] Wendy E. Mazon. The Effect of the Breath Builder™ on Various Lung Functions and Musical Performance Abilities of Clarinet Players, Doctoral dissertation – The University of Arizona, 2009, 66 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to focus on the efficacy of a dynamic breath exerciser called the Breath Builder™ and its effects on clarinet players’ performance abilities and/or lung functions. The study sample consisted of 15 clarinetists, a combination of undergraduate and graduates from the clarinet studio at the University of Arizona, ages 18 – 27. The eight-week study consisted of two phases. During Phase 1, subjects in experimental group 1 used the Breath Builder™ three times a day, five times a week. The control group was not given Breath Builders™ and continued with their normal practice routine. In Phase 2, the control group was given Breath Builders™ and relabeled as experimental group 2. Experimental group 1 stopped using the Breath Builder™ and was relabeled as experimental group 3. Following this cessation, the subjects in experimental group 3 were measured to note any change in lung function or performance. Some of the pulmonary lung function measurements used for this study were, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP), Maximal Inspiratory Pressure in 1 second (MIP1), and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP). Musical abilities measured were tone, note duration and phrase duration. A significant interaction effect was found regarding MIP and MIP1.

[McPherson 2006] Gary E. McPherson (editor). The Child as Musican: A Handbook of Musical Development, published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 2006, 528 pages, ISBN 0-19-853032-3 (978-0-19-853032-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Montgermont 2008] N. Montgermont, B. Fabre, and P. De La Cuadra. “Gesture Synthesis: Basic Control of a Flute Physical Model”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 123, Number 5, 2008, pages 5698–5702. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: In the flute family, the oscillation is due to the instability of a jet at the output of a channel coupled with an acoustic resonator. Recent physical models allows to simulate the behavior of the complete instrument, but we still lack a convincing way to drive them. The simulation of the isolated instrument must be completed with a modelization of the control exerted by the flutist. Depending of the instrument of the flute family, the number and type of control parameters are differents. For example, in a recorder the player blows inside a fixed channel built by the instrument maker and in the case of the transverse flute, the channel is shaped by the player's lips during the playing. This paper presents a simple model of flute player, based on measurements carried on instrumentalists playing on a recorder or a transverse flute. The model is generating the basic features of the instrument control in order to produce given pitches and dynamics. The coupling with a flute physical model allows to study its validity.

[Moore-RS 1991] Randall S. Moore. “Comparison of Children's and Adults' Vocal Ranges and Preferred Tessituras in Singing Familiar Songs”, Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, Number 107, Winter 1991, pages 13–22. Publication 40318417 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Two studies investigated children's and adults 1 potential vocal ranges and preferred tessituras in singing familiar songs. The first study tested 90 children's singing ranges and their chosen tonalities for singing "America." The second study recorded 100 pre-service teachers' singing ranges and their selected tonalities for singing familiar songs. Results indicated that both sets of subjects had nearly identical range spans for singing: children averaged 24.5 semitones and adults, 24.8 semitones. Children's mean range was higher (G₃ to G#₄) than adult females (E₃ to F₃). Mean tessitura findings revealed that all subjects regardless of age sang familiar songs in the bottom part of their potential singing range, that is, 5 semitones above their lowest vocal limit and 10 semitones below their highest vocal limit. Findings suggest that teachers and children may unwittingly sing in low tessituras unless reminded to lift their voices. Teacher education programs are encouraged to alert new teachers to perform songs in suitable ranges for children.

[Prairie 2006] Michael Prairie. Understanding the Acoustics of The Native American-Style Flute, October 4, 2006, 62 pages. See the Mike Prairie's acoustic of the flute web page. Understanding the Acoustics of The Native American-Style Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

From the Preface: This paper represents a compilation of my understanding of the physics of the flute so far, and is currently an evolving document. It is written from the perspective of the Native American style flute with a fixed sound hole configuration and a limited second-octave range. The treatment is appropriate for the penny whistle as well. Most of the treatment is also consistent with mouth-blown flutes like the simple-system Irish flute or the shakuhachi, but no effort is made to account for embouchure variations.

[Prairie 2011] Michael Prairie. Back Pressure, November 25, 2011, 3 pages. See the Mike Prairie's acoustic of the flute web page. Back Pressure Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Flute Crafting Dimensions (2), Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Summary: An article on how the back-pressure is related to some of the basic dynamics of the interaction between the jet and the air column in a flute.

[Rodgers 2010] Blake Rodgers and Susanne Fuchs. “How Intraoral Pressure Shapes the Voicing Contrast in American English and German”, ZAS Papers in Linguistics, Volume 52, 2010, pages 63–82. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study examines intraoral pressure for English and German stops in bilabial and alveolar place of articulation. Our subjects are two speakers of American English and three speakers of German. VOICING is the main phonological contrast under evaluation in both word initial and word final position. For initial stops, a few of the pressure characteristics showed differences between English and German, but on the whole the results point to similar production strategies at both places of articulation in the two different languages. Analysis of the pressure trajectory differences between VOICING categories in initial position raises questions about articulatory differences. In the initial closing gesture, time from start of gesture to closure is roughly equivalent for both categories, but the pressure change is significantly smaller on average for VOICED stops. Final stops, however, present a more complicated picture. German final stops are neutralized to a presumed VOICELESS phonological state. English final /p/ is broadly similar to German /p/, but English /t/ often shows no pressure increase at all which is at odds with the conventional account of phonation termination viapressure increase and loss of pressure differential. The results raise the question of whether the German final stops should be considered VOICELESS or some intermediate form, at least as compared to English final stops.

[Rothenberg 1987] Martin Rothenberg, Donald Miller, Richard Molitor, and Dolores Leffingwell. “The Control of Air Flow During Loud Soprano Singing”, Journal of Voice, Volume 1, Number 3, 1987, pages 262–268, doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(87)80010-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Previous research on the special characteristics of the professional singing voice has at least partially explained how singers can commonly use much higher lung pressures than nonsingers without vocal damage or excessive air flow during the voiced sounds. In this study, the control of air flow during the unvoiced consonants is examined for an operatic-style soprano. It was found that this singer could maintain a low average air flow during the consonants even though the lung pressure reached values over five times those used during normal conversational speech. The air flow was kept low primarily by the use of a number of mechanisms involving rapid, accurate, coordinated valving of the air flow at the point of articulation and at the glottis.

[Scavone 2005] Gary Scavone and Andrey da Silva. “Frequency Content of Breath Pressure and Implications for Use in Control”, Proceedings of the NIME 2005 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2005, pages 93–96. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The breath pressure signal applied to wind music instruments is generally considered to be a slowly varying function of time. In a context of music control, this assumption implies that a relatively low digital sample rate (100-200 Hz) is sufficient to capture and/or reproduce this signal. We tested this assumption by evaluating the frequency content in breath pressure, particularly during the use of extended performance techniques such as growling, humming, and flutter tonguing. Our results indicate frequency content in a breath pressure signal up to about 10 kHz, with especially significant energy within the first 1000 Hz. We further investigated the frequency response of several commercially available pressure sensors to assess their responsiveness to higher frequency breath signals. Though results were mixed, some devices were found capable of sensing frequencies up to at least 1.5 kHz. Finally, similar measurements were conducted with Yamaha WX11 and WX5 wind controllers and results suggest that their breath pressure outputs are sampled at about 320 Hz and 280 Hz, respectively.

[Schmidtmann 2011] Gunnar Schmidtmann, Susanne Jahnke, Egbert J. Seidel, Wolfgang Sickenberger, and Hans-Jürgen Grein. “Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations in Professional Brass and Woodwind Musicians During Common Playing Conditions”, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Volume 249, Number 6, 2011, pages 895–901, doi:10.1007/s00417-010-1600-x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Summary: Background We investigated the effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) of playing brass and woodwind instruments by monitoring IOP and BP in a representative group of professional musicians under a variety of common playing conditions. Methods IOP and BP measurements were recorded from 37 brass and 15 woodwind instrument players, before and after playing tones of low, middle and high frequency. We also measured IOP and BP before and during playing common exercises of 10 minutes duration, as well as after playing a sustained high-pitched tone, to test for changes in IOP under conditions of maximum effort. Results Playing tones on brass and woodwind instruments causes a temporary elevation in IOP and BP, depending on the tone frequency: brass instrument players showed a significant elevation after playing high and middle frequency tones (p<0.0001) whereas woodwind instrument players showed a significant increase only for high frequencies (e.g., oboe, 17±2.9 mm Hg to 21±4.4 mm Hg; p=0.017). Playing a typical exercise of 10 minutes temporarily increased IOP in both groups of musicians. Finally, playing a sustained tone of high pitch caused a significant elevation in IOP in brass instrument players only (16.6±3.5 mm Hg to 23.3±8.9 mm Hg; p<0.0001). Conclusions The temporary and sometimes dramatic elevations and fluctuations in IOP observed in this study, coupled with daily exposure to instrument play, puts professional wind instrument players at increased risk of developing glaucoma. Consequently, these musicians should be monitored for signs of glaucoma, especially those with co-existing risk factors.

[Schuman 2000] J. S. Schuman, E. C. Massicotte, S. Connolly, E. Hertzmark, B. Mukherji, and M. Z. Kunen. “Increased Intraocular Pressure and Visual Field Defects in High Resistance Wind Instrument Players”, Ophthalmology, Volume 107, Number 1, January 2000, pages 127–133. Publication 10647731 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Schutte 1980] Harm Kornelis Schutte. The Efficiency of Voice Production, Doctoral dissertation – University of Gröningen, The Netherlands, published by Kemper, Gröningen, Netherlands, 1980, 194 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schutte 2003] Harm K. Schutte, James A. Stark, and Donald G. Miller. “Change in Singing Voice Production, Objectively Measured”, Journal of Voice, Volume 17, Number 4, December 2003, pages 495–501. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Although subglottal pressures in conversational speech are relatively easily measured and thus known, the higher values that sometimes occur in singing (especially in tenors) have received little attention in the literature. Still more unusual is the opportunity to measure a large-scale change over decades in the application of pressure in singing production. This study compares measurements of subglottal pressure in a tenor/singing teacher (JS) at two points in his career: in his early thirties, when he was a subject in HS's dissertation study on the efficiency of voice production; and recently, in his fifties, in connection with JS's forthcoming book on the history of the pedagogy of Bel Canto. Although a single case study, its points of special interest include the high values initially measured (up to 100 cm H2O) and the reduction of this figure by more than 50% in the maximal values of the recent measurements. The study compares these values with those of other singers in the same laboratory (both with esophageal balloon and directly, with a catheter passed through the glottis) and in the literature, as well as discusses in detail the problems pertaining to the measurement (repeatability, correcting for lung volume, etc.). As a sophisticated subject, JS makes some pertinent observations about the changes in his use of subglottal pressure.

[Schwab 2004] B. Schwab and A. Schultze-Florey. “Velopharyngeal Insufficiency in Woodwind and Brass Players”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 19, Number 1, March 2004, pages 21–25. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the extent to which velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a problem for woodwind and brass musicians. Intraoral pressure measurements were performed to determine pressure peaks, mean pressure, and maximum attainable pressures. Of the pool of 148 symphony orchestra professionals and student musicians, 81 were aware of VPI and 24 showed symptoms; six reported that VPI occurred in association with colds, stress, or the playing of extremely high notes. One musician noted that VPI occurred only on return from vacation. Of the symptom-free musicians, 15% reported that they noticed symptoms of VPI during their training, but that these gradually dissipated. Despite reports in the medical literature that predominantly young musicians are affected, only 47% of symptomatic participants in this study were music students (41% of the subjects). Oboists and clarinetists were the most frequently affected, perhaps because they develop relatively high mean pressures. Music instructors are advised to perform pressure measurements during instruction.

[Schwab 2004a] B. Schwab and A. Schultze-Florey. “Intraorale Druckentwicklung bei Holz- und Blechbläsern «Investigations into Intraoral Pressure in Woodwind and Brass Musicians»”, Musikphysiologie und Musikermedizin, Volume 11, Number 4, in German, 2004, page 183. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sehmann 2000] Karin Harfst Sehmann. “The Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Performance of Elementary Brass Players”, Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume 48, Number 2, published by Sage Publications for MENC: The National Association for Music Education, Summer 2000, pages 136–150. Publication 3345572 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Stasney 2003] C. Richard Stasney, Mary Es Beaver, and Margarita Rodriguez. “Hypopharyngeal Pressure in Brass Musicians”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 18, Number 4, December 2003, pages 153–155. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Abstract: Brass instrument players are exposed to unique health risks due to increased pharyngeal pressures necessary for performance. One such risk is development of laryngoceles, or "blowout" of the larynx. This cross-sectional observational study was performed to determine the pressure required to play different frequencies in a variety of brass instruments. The hypothesis tested was that enharmonic frequencies require the same pharyngeal pressure regardless of the instrument. The brass instruments tested were high-pressure, low-flow instruments (trumpet or French horn) or low-pressure, high-flow instruments (tuba or trombone). We were not able to substantiate Jacobs' theory that enharmonic frequencies resulted in equal pressures regardless of instrument, but we did elicit some high pressures in the hypopharynx when playing the trumpet or horn at higher frequencies.

[Stone-WH 1874] W. H. Stone. “On Wind Pressure in the Human Lungs During Performance on Wind Instruments”, Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, Volume 1, 1874, pages 13–14, doi:10.1088/1478-7814/1/1/302. On Wind Pressure in the Human Lungs During Performance on Wind Instruments Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (3)

[Subtelny 1966] Joanne D. Subtelny, Joseph H. Worth, and Mamoru Sakuda. “Intraoral Pressure and Rate of Flow During Speech”, Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, Volume 9, December 1966, pages 498–518. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Two citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (2)

Abstract: Instrumentation and procedures are described for simultaneous recording and study of sound, oral and nasal pressure, and oral and nasal airflow during speech. The pressure and flow instruments were developed to minimize interference with articulatory movements and sound propagation. Amplitude and duration measures of intraoral pressures for 30 normal speakers are reported as a function of: subject grouping (age and sex), phoneme classification, articulatory position, and phonetic context. Measures of oral pressure, rate of oral flow, and sound power associated with stress and increased vocal effort (loudness) are included to illustrate graphically the interrelationships between oral pressure and flow parameters, and the effect of differences in vocal effort upon both values. Further investigations using the type of instrumentation described are recommended to gain simultaneous and faithful recording of both pressure and flow parameters, thus permitting independent and interdependent analyses to facilitate understanding of the physical bases of speech.

[Sundberg 1987] Johan Sundberg. The Science of the Singing Voice, published by the Northern Illinois University Press, Dekalb, Illinois, 1987, 227 pages, ISBN 0-87580-542-6 (978-0-87580-542-9). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sundberg 1991] Johan Sundberg, Ninni Elliot, and Patricia Gramming. “How Constant is Subglottal Pressure in Singing?”, Speech Transmission Laboratory. Quarterly Progress and Status Reports (STL-QPSR), Volume 1, 1991, pages 53–63. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to previous investigations by Leanderson, Sundberg, & von Euler, subglottal pressure in singing is adapted to pitch and loudness. Thus, wide musical intervals and great, sudden changes of loudness were found to be associated with substantial and precise pressure changes. In this study, we will focus on the significance to subglottal pressure of smaller, but equally important effects, namely those associated with musical expression, particularly alternations between stressed and unstressed syllables. We will use a GAELTEC pressure transducer introduced through the nose for measuring changes in subglottal pressure during vocal exercises and artistic performance of lieder and arias. Synchronous recordings are made of fundamental frequency and loudness. Professional singers will serve as subjects.

[VanMiddlesworth 1978] Jane L. Van Middlesworth. An Analysis of Selected Respiratory and Cardiovascular Characteristics of Wind Instrument Performers, Masters dissertation – Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, March 22, 1978, 56 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Little objective information on wind instrument performance physiology is available or accessible to musicians. Research on wind instrument performance physiology includes: measurements of specific airflow pressures while playing wind instruments, measurements of lung volumes and capacities, and electrocardiograms taken during wind instrument performance.

The purpose of this study was to examine selected respiratory and cardiovascular responses of wind instrumentalists and non-wind instrumentalists at the Eastman School of Music. Lung volumes, breathing patterns at rest, maximal airway pressures, peak flow rates, and pulse rate responses to thirty-second breath holds at increased airway pressures were determined. Equipment included a Wright Peak Flow Meter, a six-liter fast-recording spirometer, a six-liter recording respirometer, a photoelectric finger plethysmograph, a water manometer, and a polygraph.

The data indicated that: 1) Wind instrumentalists do not have greater vital capacities than predicted for their sex, height, and age; therefore, assumptions that wind instrumentalists need large vital capacities, and that wind instrument performance changes vital capacity are irrelevant to successful wind instrument performance. 2) At rest, some wind instrumentalists may breathe slightly slower, but not deeper, than controls. These results support results of earlier studies. 3) Male and female wind instrumentalists are able to produce significantly greater maximal airway pressures than controls, indicating a possible adaptation in the strength of respiratory muscles. This strength may be related to the demands of wind instrument performance. 4) Pulse rate responses of wind players and controls do not differ from each other significantly before, during, and after a thirty-second breath hold producing airway pressure of 40 cm H20. However, there is a significant difference in pulse rate responses of males when compared with those of females. Pulse rate of the female does not vary as greatly as the pulse rate of the male.

[Watson-AHD 2009] Alan H. D. Watson. The Biology of Musical Performance and Performance-Related Injury, published by Scarecrow Press, Inc., Plymouth, England, 2009, 392 pages, ISBN 0-8108-6359-6 (978-0-8108-6359-0). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

[Weber-J 1970] Jaroy Weber, Jr. and Robert A. Chase. “Stress Velopharyngeal Incopetence in an Oboe Player”, Cleft Palate Journal, Volume 7, October 1970, pages 858–861. Publication 5273877 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

Summary: A patient is presented with velopharyngeal incompetence which occurs only when playing the oboe. Results of standard test of velopharyngeal competence are given, and the physiological demands involved in playing wind instruments is discussed.

[Welch 2006] Graham F. Welch. “Singing and Vocal Development”, contained in [McPherson 2006], 2006, pages 311–329. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Williams-J 2010] Jenevora Williams. The Implications of Intensive Singing Training on the Vocal Health and Development of Boy Choristers in an English Cathedral Choir, Doctoral dissertation – Institute of Education, University of London, 2010, 364 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Four citations: Breath Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments (4)

[Wilson-P 2004] Pat Wilson. “On Singing Staws and Water Bottles: The Physics of Pressure”, Australian Voice, Volume 10, 2004, pages 16–19. On Singing Staws and Water Bottles Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wright-E 2011] Eric Wright. “Dynamic Breathing and Respiratory Mechanics for Brass Players and Teachers”, International Trumpet Guild Journal, Volume 35, Number 3, March 2011, pages 32–36. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yamazaki 2005] Masae Yamazaki and Noriko Sugimura. “A Motion Analysis of a Female Japanese Drum Playing Exercise”, ISBS 2005, Beijing, China, 2005, pages 342–345. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yeo 2002] D. K. L. Yeo, T. P. Pham, J. Baker, and S. A. T. Porter. “Specific Orofacial Problems Experienced by Musicians”, Australian Dental Journal, Volume 47, Number 1, 2002, pages 2–11. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

 
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