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[Wikipedia format] Ancient Music References

This is a list of references realted to ancient music cited throughout Flutopedia. These references have only tangential relationship to the Native American flute, but I've found them interesting when researching the earliest origins of music.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

[Wikipedia format] Ancient Music References

[Abraham-RH 2006] <ref name="Abraham-RH2006">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Ralph H. Abraham
| author2 = William Irwin Thompson
| title = The Canon of Lespugue
| journal = The Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers (ESOP)
| volume = 24
| year = 2006
| pages = 170-175
}}
</ref>

[Anderson-R 2005] <ref name="Anderson-R2005">
{{cite book
| author1 = Robert Anderson
| author2 = Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco
| author3 = Virginia Danielson
| title = Egypt, Ancient Music
| year = 2005
}}
</ref>

[Anderson-RD 1976] <ref name="Anderson-RD1976">
{{cite book
| author1 = R. D. Anderson
| author2 = Grace Huxtable
| title = Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum
| volume = Volume 3: Musical Instruments
| edition = Illustrated Edition
| publisher = British Museum Publications Limited
| year = 1976
| isbn = 978-0-7141-0919-0
}}
</ref>

[Andreopoulou 2008] <ref name="Andreopoulou2008">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Areti Andreopoulou
| title = Modeling the Greek Aulos
| type = M.Mus.
| publisher = The Steinhardt School, New York University
| date = May 14, 2008
}}
</ref>

[Aristoxenus 1902] <ref name="Aristoxenus1902">
{{cite book
| author1 = Aristoxenus
| author2 = Henry Stewart Macran
| title = Aristoxenou Harmonika Stoicheia
| publisher = Clarendon Press
| year = 1902
}}
</ref>

[Arroyo 2003] <ref name="Arroyo2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = Rafael Pérez Arroyo
| author2 = Syra Bonet
| title = Music in the Age of the Pyramids
| edition = English Edition
| publisher = Editorial Centro de Estudios Egipcios
| place = Madrid, Spain
| year = 2003
| isbn = 84-932796-1-7
}}
</ref>

[Arroyo 2006] <ref name="Arroyo2006">
{{cite book
| author1 = Rafael Pérez Arroyo
| author2 = Syra Bonet
| title = Music in the Age of the Pyramids
| publisher = Natural Acoustic Recordings
| date = October 30, 2006
}}
</ref>

[Badawi 1960] <ref name="Badawi1960">
{{cite book
| author1 = Ahmad Badawi
| author2 = Mohamed Gamal el-Din Mokhtar
| author3 = Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif Tanbuli
| author4 = Aly Hassan el-Ghazouli
| author5 = Abdel-Badie Abdel-Rahman
| author6 = Ahmad el-Gabouri
| title = Dresses in Ancient Egypt
| trans_title = Le costume dans l'Egypte ancienne / al-Azya fi Misr al-qadimah
| publisher = Le Caire: Centre de documentation sur l'ancienne Egypte
| language = English, French, and Arabic
| year = 1960
}}
</ref>

[Baines 1993] <ref name="Baines1993">
{{cite journal
| author1 = John Baines
| title = Symbolic Roles of Canine Figures on Early Monuments
| journal = Archéo-Nil
| date = May 1993
| pages = 57-74
}}
</ref>

[Bard 2007] <ref name="Bard2007">
{{cite book
| author1 = Kathryn A. Bard
| title = An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
| publisher = Blackwell Publishing
| year = 2007
| isbn = 978-1-4051-1148-5
}}
</ref>

[Barnett-RD 1976] <ref name="Barnett-RD1976">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard David Barnett
| title = Sculptures from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (668–627 B.C.)
| publisher = British Museum Press
| place = London
| year = 1976
| isbn = 978-0-7141-1046-2
}}
</ref>

[Barnett-RD 1982] <ref name="Barnett-RD1982">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard David Barnett
| title = Ancient Ivories in the Middle East and Adjacent Countries
| series = Volume 14 of Qedem: Monographs of the Institute of Archaeology
| publisher = Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
| year = 1982
}}
</ref>

[Barone 1960] <ref name="Barone1960">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Joseph A. Barone
| title = Patterns in Music
| journal = Expedition
| volume = 3
| issue = 1
| date = Fall 1960
| pages = 29-31
}}
</ref>

[Barton 1915] <ref name="Barton1915">
{{cite book
| author1 = George A. Barton
| title = Sumerian Business and Administrative Documents from the Earliest Times to the Dynasty fo Agade
| series = Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 9, Number 1
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
| place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
| year = 1915
}}
</ref>

[Beyhom 2008] <ref name="Beyhom2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Amine Beyhom
| title = A New Hypothesis for the Elaboration of Heptatonic Scales and Consequences in Understanding their Origins
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 151-209
}}
</ref>

[Bhayro 2008] <ref name="Bhayro2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Siam Bhayro
| title = Ancient Near Eastern and Early Jewish Lyre Traditions
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 77-82
}}
</ref>

[Bhayro 2010] <ref name="Bhayro2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Siam Bhayro
| title = On the Manipulation of the Planets by the Lyre Player in a 'Wine Song' by Khamis Bar Qardahe
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 41-44
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Brenner 2001] <ref name="Brenner2001">
{{cite book
| author1 = Athalya Brenner
| title = A Feminist Companion to Exodus-Deuteronomy
}}
</ref>

[Bromiley 1986] <ref name="Bromiley1986">
{{cite book
| author1 = Geoffrey W. Bromiley
| title = The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
| volume = Illustrated in Four Volumes
| edition = Revised Edition
| publisher = Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
| place = Grand Rapids, Michigan
| year = 1986
}}
</ref>

[Bromiley 2007] <ref name="Bromiley2007">
{{cite book
| author1 = Geoffrey W. Bromiley
| title = The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
| edition = Illustrated Edition
| publisher = Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
| place = Grand Rapids, Michigan
| year = 2007
| isbn = 978-0-8028-3785-1
}}
</ref>

[Brown-JP 2001] <ref name="Brown-JP2001">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Pairman Brown
| title = Israel and Hellas
| volume = Volume 3
| publisher = Walter de Gruyter
| year = 2001
| isbn = 978-3-11-014233-4
}}
</ref>

[Buccellati 2000] <ref name="Buccellati2000">
{{cite book
| author1 = Giorgio Buccellati
| author2 = Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati
| title = The Royal Palace and the Daughter of Naram-Sin
| journal = Urkesh Bulletin
| volume = 3
| date = April 2000
}}
</ref>

[Buccellati 2003] <ref name="Buccellati2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = G{iorgio} Buccellati
| title = Hurrian Music
| publisher = IIMAS (The International Institute for Mesopotamian Area Studies)
| year = 2003
| accessdate = September 28, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Burgh 2006] <ref name="Burgh2006">
{{cite book
| author1 = Theodore W. Burgh
| title = Listening to the Artifacts: Music Culture in Ancient Palestine
| edition = Illustrated Edition
| publisher = Continuum International Publishing Group
| year = 2006
| isbn = 978-0-567-02542-5
}}
</ref>

[CAD 2011] <ref name="CAD2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = Martha T. Roth
| title = The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD)
| volume = 21 Volumes (26 total parts)
| publisher = The Oriental Institute
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| date = June 2011
| accessdate = December 22, 2011
| origyear = Publication began 1921
}}
</ref>

[Cambel 2003] <ref name="Cambel2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = H. Çambel
| author2 = A. Özyar
| title = Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: Die Bildwerke
| trans_title = Karatepe - Aslantaş, Azatiwaya: The Image Works
| place = Mainz am Rhein
| language = German
| year = 2003
| isbn = 978-3-8053-3085-5
}}
</ref>

[Campbell 2011] <ref name="Campbell2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = Dennis R. M. Campbell
| title = Observations on the Lyric Structure of Hurrian Songs and the Fragment KBo 35.39
| year = 2011
}}
</ref>

[Caplice 1988] <ref name="Caplice1988">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard I. Caplice
| author2 = Daniel C. Snell
| title = Introduction to Akkadian
| publisher = Gregorian and Biblical Book Shop
| year = 1988
| isbn = 978-88-7653-566-6
}}
</ref>

[Cerny 1987] <ref name="Cerny1987">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Miroslav Karel Černý
| title = Das altmesopotamische Tonsystem, seine Organisation und Entwicklung im Lichte der neuerschlossenen Texte
| trans_title = The Mesopotamian Sound System, its Organization and Development in the Light of New Closed Texts
| journal = Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies
| volume = 55
| language = German
| year = 1987
| pages = 41-57
}}
</ref>

[Cerny 1988] <ref name="Cerny1988">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Miroslav Karel Černý
| title = Probleme der Musikaufzeichnung aus Ugarit — Versuch einer neuen Interpretation des "Hymnus h 6"
| trans_title = Problems of Recording Music from Ugarit - Attempt at a New Interpretation of the "Hymn H 6"
| journal = Sulmu / Vavrousek Petr. - Prague : Univerzita Karlova
| language = German
| year = 1988
| pages = 49-62
}}
</ref>

[Cerny 1994] <ref name="Cerny1994">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Miroslav Karel Černý
| title = Some Musicological Remarks on the Old Mesopotamian Music and its Terminology
| journal = Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies
| volume = 62
| issue = 1
| year = 1994
| pages = 17-26
}}
</ref>

[Cerny 2004] <ref name="Cerny2004">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Miroslav Karel Černý
| title = Another Look at the Mesopotamian "Tonal" System - Ascending or Descending?
| journal = Archiv Orientální - Quarterly Journal of African and Asian Studies
| volume = 72
| issue = 1
| year = 2004
| pages = 25-32
}}
</ref>

[Champollion 1876] <ref name="Champollion1876">
{{cite book
| author1 = M. Jacques-Joseph Champollion-Figeac
| title = Egypte Ancienne
| trans_title = Ancient Egypt
| language = French
| year = 1876
}}
</ref>

[Cheng 2009] <ref name="Cheng2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Jack Cheng
| title = A Review of Early Dynastic III Music: Man's Animal Call
| journal = Journal of Near Eastern Studies
| volume = 68
| issue = 3
| publisher = University of Chicago Press
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| year = 2009
| pages = 163-178
| doi = 10.1086/613988
}}
</ref>

[Cheung 2008] <ref name="Cheung2008">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Vincent C. K. Cheung
| title = Tudor Dedications to the Blessed Virgin: History, Style, and Analysis of Music from the Eton Choirbook
| year = 2008
}}
</ref>

[Civil 2008] <ref name="Civil2008">
{{cite book
| author1 = Miguel Civil
| title = ARES III: The Early Dynastic Practical Vocabulary A: Archaic HAR-ra A
| volume = Volume 4 of Archivi reali di Ebla: Studi, Missione archeologica italiana in Siria
| publisher = Missione Archeologica Italiana in Siria
| place = Rome
| year = 2008
}}
</ref>

[Civil 2010] <ref name="Civil2010">
{{cite book
| author1 = Miguel Civil
| title = The Lexical Texts in the Schøyen Collection
| series = Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology, Volume 12
| publisher = CDL Press
| place = Bethesda, Maryland
| date = July 15, 2010
| isbn = 978-1-934309-11-7
}}
</ref>

[Colburn 2009] <ref name="Colburn2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Jerome Colburn
| title = A New Interpretation of the Nippur Music-Instruction Fragments
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 61
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| date = January 2009
| pages = 97-109
| jstor = 25608635
}}
</ref>

[Colburn 2009a] <ref name="Colburn2009a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Jerome Colburn
| title = CBS 1766 as a Guide to String Pairs, Including Seconds
| journal = N. A. B. U.
| volume = 3
| year = 2009
}}
</ref>

[Collon 1990] <ref name="Collon1990">
{{cite book
| author1 = Dominique Collon
| title = Near Eastern Seals
| series = Volume 2 of Interpreting the Past
| publisher = University of Chicago Press
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| year = 1990
| isbn = 978-0-520-07308-1
}}
</ref>

[Collon 2008] <ref name="Collon2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Dominique Collon
| title = Playing in Concert in the Ancient Near East
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 47-65
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2003] <ref name="Crickmore2003">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A Re-valuation of the Ancient Science of Harmonics
| journal = Psychology of Music
| volume = 31
| issue = 4
| year = 2003
| pages = 391-403
| doi = 10.1177/03057356030314004
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2007] <ref name="Crickmore2007">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A New Hypothesis for the Construction and Tuning of Babylonian Musical Scales
| journal = Journal of Ancient Civilizations
| volume = 22
| year = 2007
| pages = 35-67
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2008] <ref name="Crickmore2008">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A Musical and Mathematical Context for CBS 1766
| journal = Music Theory Spectrum
| volume = 30
| issue = 2
| publisher = University of California Press
| place = Berkeley, California
| date = October 1, 2008
| pages = 327-338
| doi = 10.1525/mts.2008.30.2.327
| jstor = mts.2008.30.2.327
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2008a] <ref name="Crickmore2008a">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A New Light on the Babylonian Tonal System
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 11-22
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2008b] <ref name="Crickmore2008b">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = The Musicality of Plato
| journal = Hermathena
| volume = 180
| year = 2008
| pages = 19-43
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2009] <ref name="Crickmore2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A Possible Mesopotamian Origin for Plato's World Soul
| journal = Hermathena
| volume = 186
| publisher = Trinity College
| place = Dublin
| date = Summer 2009
| pages = 5-23
| jstor = 23041697
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2009a] <ref name="Crickmore2009a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = The Tonal Systems of Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece: Some Similarities and Differences
| journal = The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East
| volume = 1
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| date = April 2008
| pages = 1-16
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2009b] <ref name="Crickmore2009b">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = Harmonic Mythology — Nine Interdiciplinary Research Notes
| journal = The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East
| volume = 1
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| date = April 2008
| pages = 51-66
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2010] <ref name="Crickmore2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = Egyptian Fractions and the Ancient Science of Harmonics
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 1-8
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Crickmore 2012] <ref name="Crickmore2012">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Leon Crickmore
| title = A Musicological Interpretation of the Akkadian term siḫpu
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 64
| year = 2012
| pages = 57-64
| doi = 10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057
| jstor = 10.5615/jcunestud.64.0057
}}
</ref>

[Crocker 1977] <ref name="Crocker1977">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard L. Crocker
| title = Music and Archaeology
| journal = IMSCR
| volume = 12
| place = Berkeley, California
| year = 1977
| pages = 844-868
}}
</ref>

[Crocker 1978] <ref name="Crocker1978">
{{cite journal
| author1 = R{ichard} L. Crocker
| title = Remarks on the Tuning Text UET VII 74 (U.7/80)
| journal = Orientalia
| volume = 47
| publisher = Faculty of Ancient Oriental Studies, Pontifical Biblical Institute
| place = Rome, Italy
| year = 1978
| pages = 99-104
| jstor = 43074799
}}
</ref>

[Crocker 1984] <ref name="Crocker1984">
{{cite journal
| author1 = R{ichard} L. Crocker
| author2 = A{nn} D{raffkorn} Kilmer
| title = The Fragmentary Music Text from Nippur
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 46
| issue = 2
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Autumn 1984
| pages = 81-85
| jstor = 4200217
}}
</ref>

[Crocker 1997] <ref name="Crocker1997">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard L. Crocker
| title = Mesopotamian Tonal Systems
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 59
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| year = 1997
| pages = 189-202
| jstor = 4200443
}}
</ref>

[CUL 2004] <ref name="CUL2004">
{{cite book
| author1 = Columbia University Libraries
| title = Jewels in Her Crown — Treasures of Columbia University Libraries Special Collections
| year = 2004
}}
</ref>

[DEAA 1902] <ref name="DEAA1902">
{{cite book
| author1 = Department of Egyptian
| author2 = Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum
| title = Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum
| volume = Part XV (50 plates)
| year = 1902
}}
</ref>

[DEAA 1909] <ref name="DEAA1909">
{{cite book
| author1 = Department of Egyptian
| author2 = Assyrian Antiquities at the British Museum
| author3 = L. W. King
| author4 = E. A. Wallis Bidge
| title = Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Muesum
| volume = Part XXV (50 plates)
| year = 1909
}}
</ref>

[deSchauensee 1998] <ref name="deSchauensee1998">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Maude de Schauensee
| title = The "Boat-Shaped" Lyre — Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur
| journal = Expedition
| volume = 40
| issue = 2
| year = 1998
| pages = 20-8
}}
</ref>

[deSchauensee 2002] <ref name="deSchauensee2002">
{{cite book
| author1 = Maude de Schauensee
| title = Two Lyres from Ur
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
| year = 2002
| isbn = 978-0-924171-88-8
}}
</ref>

[Dietrich 1975] <ref name="Dietrich1975">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Manfried Dietrich
| author2 = Oswald Loretz
| title = Kollationen zum Musiktext aus Ugarit
| trans_title = Collations to Music Text from Ugarit
| journal = Ugarit-Forschungen
| volume = 7
| language = German
| year = 1975
| pages = 521-522
}}
</ref>

[Dowley 2011] <ref name="Dowley2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = Tim Dowley
| title = Christian Music: A Global History
| publisher = Augsburg Fortress Publishers
| year = 2011
| isbn = 978-0-8006-9841-6
}}
</ref>

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1963] <ref name="Duchesne-Guillemin1963">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin
| title = Découverte d'une Gamme Babylonienne
| trans_title = Discovery of a Babylonian Scale
| journal = Revue de Musicologie
| volume = 49
| issue = 126
| publisher = Société Française de Musicologie
| language = French
| date = July 1963
| pages = 3-17
| jstor = 927207
}}
</ref>

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1981] <ref name="Duchesne-Guillemin1981">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin
| title = Music in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
| journal = World Archaeology
| volume = 12
| issue = 3
| publisher = Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
| date = February 1981
| pages = 287-297
| doi = 10.1080/00438243.1981.9979803
| jstor = 124240
}}
</ref>

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984] <ref name="Duchesne-Guillemin1984">
{{cite book
| author1 = Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin
| title = A Hurrian Musical Score from Ugarit: The Discovery of Mesopotamian Music
| journal = Sources from the Ancient Near East
| volume = 2
| issue = 2
| publisher = Undena Publications
| place = Malibu, California
| year = 1984
| isbn = 978-0-89003-158-2
}}
</ref>

[Duchesne-Guillemin 1984a] <ref name="Duchesne-Guillemin1984a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Marcelle Duchesne-Guillemin
| title = Déchiffrement de la musique babylonienne
| trans_title = Decryption of Babylonian Music
| journal = Accademia dei Lincei, Quaderno
| volume = 236
| place = Rome, Italy
| language = French
| year = 1977
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 1997a] <ref name="Dumbrill1997a">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = Götterzahlen and Scale Structure
| year = 1997
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 1997b] <ref name="Dumbrill1997b">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = The Uruk Lute: Elements of Metrology
| year = 1997
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 1997c] <ref name="Dumbrill1997c">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = The Morphology of the Babylonian Scale
| year = 1997
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 1998] <ref name="Dumbrill1998">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill
| title = The Musicology and Organology of the Ancient Near East
| series = ANE Series
| publisher = Tadema Press
| place = London
| year = 1998
| isbn = 978-0-9533633-0-8
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2005] <ref name="Dumbrill2005">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard J. {Jean} Dumbrill
| author2 = Yumiko Higano
| title = The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East
| edition = Second Edition
| publisher = Trafford Publishing
| year = 2005
| isbn = 978-1-4120-5538-3
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2008a] <ref name="Dumbrill2008a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = Four Tables from the Temple Library of Nippur: A Source for 'Plato's Number' in Relation to the Quantification of Babylonian Tone Numbers
| journal = The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East
| volume = 1
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| date = April 2008
| pages = 27-38
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2008b] <ref name="Dumbrill2008b">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = Is the Heptagram in CBS 1766 a Dial?
| journal = The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East
| volume = 1
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| date = April 2008
| pages = 47-50
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2008c] <ref name="Dumbrill2008c">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = The Earliest Evidence of Heptatonism in a Late Old Babylonian Text: CBS 1766
| journal = The Archaeomusicological Review of the Ancient Near East
| volume = 1
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| date = April 2008
| pages = 1-18
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2008d] <ref name="Dumbrill2008d">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = Evidence and Inference in Texts of Theory in the Ancient Near East
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 105-116
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2009] <ref name="Dumbrill2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard J{ean} Dumbrill
| title = Babylonian Quantification of Pitches and its Influence on Music Theory of the Abbasids and the Renaissance
| journal = Musical Traditions in the Middle East: Reminiscences of a Distant Past, Conference on Ancient Near East Musicology, Leiden University, December 10-12, 2009
| year = 2009
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2010] <ref name="Dumbrill2010">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Richard Dumbrill
| title = Mesopotamian Origins of Heptatonism
| journal = Music and Numbers
| date = May 14-15, 2010
}}
</ref>

[Dumbrill 2010a] <ref name="Dumbrill2010a">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Richard Dumbrill
| title = Music Theorism in the Ancient World
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 107-132
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Ebeling 1919] <ref name="Ebeling1919">
{{cite book
| author1 = Erich Ebeling
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts
| trans_title = Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur
| volume = Volume 1
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 28
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1919
}}
</ref>

[Ebeling 1923] <ref name="Ebeling1923">
{{cite book
| author1 = Erich Ebeling
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts
| trans_title = Religious Cuneiform Texts from Assur
| volume = Volume 2
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 34
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1923
}}
</ref>

[Ebeling 1927] <ref name="Ebeling1927">
{{cite book
| author1 = Erich Ebeling
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur juristischen Inhalts
| trans_title = Legal Cuneiform Texts from Assur
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 50
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1927
}}
</ref>

[Effat 1996] <ref name="Effat1996">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Mahmoud Effat
| author2 = Robert Cribbs
| author3 = Fathi Saleh
| title = On the Discovery of the Ancient Egyptian Musical Scales
| journal = Informatica ed Egittologia all’inizio degli anni’ 90
| language = English and French versions available
| year = 1996
| pages = 119-140
}}
</ref>

[Ellermeier 1970] <ref name="Ellermeier1970">
{{cite book
| author1 = Friedrich Ellermeier
| title = Sibyllen, Musikanten, Haremsfrauen: Aufsätze
| trans_title = Sibyls, Musicians, Harem Women: Essays
| series = Volume 2 of Theologische und orientalistische Arbeiten
| publisher = Jungfer
| language = German
| year = 1970
| isbn = 978-3-921747-05-6
}}
</ref>

[Engel 1864] <ref name="Engel1864">
{{cite book
| author1 = Carl Engel
| title = The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt
| edition = First Edition
| publisher = J. Murray
| place = London
| year = 1864
}}
</ref>

[Engel 1870] <ref name="Engel1870">
{{cite book
| author1 = Carl Engel
| title = The Music of the Most Ancient Nations, Particularly of the Assyrians, Egyptians, and Hebrews: With Special Reference to Recent Discoveries in Western Asia and in Egypt
| edition = Second edition
| publisher = J. Murray
| place = London
| year = 1870
}}
</ref>

[Erman 1907] <ref name="Erman1907">
{{cite book
| author1 = Adolf Erman
| author2 = A. S. Griffith
| title = A Handbook of Egyptian Religion
| publisher = Archibald Constable & Co.
| place = London
| year = 1907
}}
</ref>

[Fink 2003] <ref name="Fink2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = Robert Fink
| title = Selected Essays & Readings: On the Origin of Music
| publisher = Greenwich Publishing
| place = Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
| year = 2003
}}
</ref>

[Finkel 1982] <ref name="Finkel1982">
{{cite book
| author1 = Irving L. Finkel
| author2 = M. Civil
| title = Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon
| volume = Volume 16
| series = SIG 7 ALAN
| publisher = Pontificium Institute Biblicum
| place = Rome
| year = 1982
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2002] <ref name="Franklin2002">
{{cite journal
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Musical Syncretism in the Greek Orientalizing Period
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2002]
| language = German and English
| year = 2002
| pages = 441-451
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2002a] <ref name="Franklin2002a">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Terpander: The Invention of Music in the Orientalizing Period
| type = Ph.D.
| publisher = University College
| year = 2002
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2002b] <ref name="Franklin2002b">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Diatonic Music in Greece: A Reassessment of its Antiquity
| journal = Mnemosyne
| volume = 55
| issue = 6
| year = 2002
| pages = 669-702
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2003] <ref name="Franklin2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = The Language of Musical Technique in Greek Epic Diction
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in Gaia. Revue interdisciplinaire sur la Grèce archaïque 7
| year = 2003
| pages = 295-307
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2004] <ref name="Franklin2004">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Structural Sympathies in Ancient Greek and South-Slavic Heroic Song
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2004]
| year = 2004
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2006] <ref name="Franklin2006">
{{cite journal
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Lyre Gods of the Bronze Age Musical Koine
| year = 2006
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2006a] <ref name="Franklin2006a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = The Wisdom of the Lyre: Soundings in Ancient Greece, Cyprus and the Near East
| language = English and German
| year = 2006
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2006c] <ref name="Franklin2006c">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = ‘Songbenders of Circular Choruses’: Dithyramb and the ‘Demise of Music’
| year = 2006
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2007] <ref name="Franklin2007">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = “A Feast of Music”: The Greco-Lydian Musical Movement on the Assyrian Periphery
| year = 2007
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2009] <ref name="Franklin2009">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Kinyras: The Divine Lyre
| year = 2009
}}
</ref>

[Franklin 2010] <ref name="Franklin2010">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Curtis Franklin
| title = Kinyras and the Musical Stratigraphy of Early Cyprus
| year = 2010
}}
</ref>

[Gadalla 2000] <ref name="Gadalla2000">
{{cite book
| author1 = Moustafa Gadalla
| title = Egyptian Harmony — The Visual Music
| publisher = Tehuti Research Foundation
| place = Greensboro, North Carolina
| year = 2000
}}
</ref>

[Gadalla 2002] <ref name="Gadalla2002">
{{cite book
| author1 = Moustafa Gadalla
| title = Egyptian Rhythm — The Heavenly Melodies
| publisher = Tehuti Research Foundation
| place = Greensboro, North Carolina
| year = 2002
| isbn = 978-1-931446-02-0
}}
</ref>

[Galpin 1937] <ref name="Galpin1937">
{{cite book
| author1 = F. W. {Francis William} Galpin
| title = The Music of the Sumerians — And Their Immediate Successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| year = 1937
}}
</ref>

[Galpin 2011] <ref name="Galpin2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = F. W. {Francis William} Galpin
| title = The Music of the Sumerians — And Their Immediate Successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| date = February 17, 2011
| isbn = 978-0-521-18063-4
| origyear = Originally published in 1937.
}}
</ref>

[George-AR 1979] <ref name="George-AR1979">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Andrew R. George
| title = Cuneiform Texts in the Birmingham City Museum
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 41
| issue = 2
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Autumn 1979
| pages = 121-140
| jstor = 4200108
}}
</ref>

[George-AR 1999] <ref name="George-AR1999">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Andrew R. George
| title = What’s New in the Gilgamesh Epic?
| journal = Bulletin of the Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies
| volume = 34
| year = 1999
| pages = 51-58
}}
</ref>

[George-AR 2003] <ref name="George-AR2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = Andrew R. George
| title = The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic — Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts
| volume = Volume 1
| year = 2003
}}
</ref>

[George-AR 2003a] <ref name="George-AR2003a">
{{cite book
| author1 = Andrew R. George
| title = The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian
| edition = Reprint edition
| publisher = Penguin
| year = 2003
| isbn = 978-0-14-044919-8
}}
</ref>

[George-AR 2007] <ref name="George-AR2007">
{{cite book
| author1 = Andrew George
| title = Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Postgate 2007]
| year = 2007
| pages = 31-71
}}
</ref>

[Goedicke 1971] <ref name="Goedicke1971">
{{cite book
| author1 = Hans Goedicke
| title = Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William Foxwell Albright
| publisher = The Johns Hopkins University Press
| language = German and English
| year = 1971
| isbn = 978-0-8018-1235-4
}}
</ref>

[Goranson 2011] <ref name="Goranson2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = Casey Goranson
| title = Hurrian Hymn No. 6
| year = 2011
| accessdate = March 20, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Groneberg 2003] <ref name="Groneberg2003">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Brigitte Groneberg
| title = Searching for Akkadian Lyrics: From Old Babylonian to the "Liederkatalog" KAR 158
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 55
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| year = 2003
| pages = 55-74
| jstor = 3515954
}}
</ref>

[Gruber 2004] <ref name="Gruber2004">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Claudia Gruber
| title = Möbeldekor aus Elfenbein Zur Rekonstruktion von Schnitzverzierungen an altorientalischen Möbeln
| type = Ph.D.
| publisher = Fakultät für Kulturwissenschaften der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
| language = German
| year = 2004
}}
</ref>

[Gurney-OR 1968] <ref name="Gurney-OR1968">
{{cite journal
| author1 = O. R. Gurney
| title = An Old Babylonian Treatise on the Tuning of the Harp
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 30
| issue = 2
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Autumn 1968
| pages = 229-233
| jstor = 4199853
}}
</ref>

[Gurney-OR 1974] <ref name="Gurney-OR1974">
{{cite book
| author1 = O. R. Gurney
| title = Middle Babylonian Legal Documents and Other Texts
| volume = Ur Excavation Texts (UET), Volume VII
| publisher = British Museum Publications Ltd for the British Museum, and the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania
| year = 1974
| isbn = 978-0-7141-1082-0
}}
</ref>

[Gurney-OR 1994] <ref name="Gurney-OR1994">
{{cite journal
| author1 = O. R. Gurney
| title = A New Interpretation of the Nippur Music-Instruction Fragments
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 56
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| year = 1994
| pages = 101-106
| jstor = 4200387
}}
</ref>

[Gurney-OR 1994a] <ref name="Gurney-OR1994a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = O. R. Gurney
| title = Babylonian Music Again
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 56
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| year = 1994
| pages = 101-106
| jstor = 4200387
}}
</ref>

[Gurney-OR 1998] <ref name="Gurney-OR1998">
{{cite journal
| author1 = O. R. Gurney
| author2 = M. L. West
| title = Mesopotamian Tonal Systems: A Reply
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 60
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| year = 1998
| pages = 223-227
| doi = 10.2307/4200460
| jstor = 4200460
}}
</ref>

[Guterbock 1970] <ref name="Guterbock1970">
{{cite journal
| author1 = H{ans} G{ustav} Güterbock
| title = Musical Notation in Ugarit
| journal = Revue d’Assyriologie
| volume = 64
| publisher = Presses Universitaires de France
| year = 1970
| pages = 45-52
}}
</ref>

[Hagel 2006] <ref name="Hagel2006">
{{cite book
| author1 = Stefan Hagel
| title = Music of the Ancient Near East
| date = October 6, 2006
}}
</ref>

[Hagel 2008] <ref name="Hagel2008">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Stefan Hagel
| title = Re-evaluating the Pompeii Auloi
| journal = The Journal of Hellenic Studies
| volume = 128
| publisher = The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies
| year = 2008
| pages = 52-71
| jstor = 40651723
}}
</ref>

[Hagel 2009] <ref name="Hagel2009">
{{cite book
| author1 = Stefan Hagel
| title = Ancient Greek Music: A New Technical History
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| year = 2009
| isbn = 978-0-521-51764-5
}}
</ref>

[Halloran 1999] <ref name="Halloran1999">
{{cite book
| author1 = John A. Halloran
| title = Sumerian Lexicon
| edition = Version 3.0
| date = August 11, 1999
}}
</ref>

[Halperin 2008] <ref name="Halperin2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = David Halperin
| title = Musical Reconstruction of the Hurrian Material by Statistical Analysis
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 29-32
}}
</ref>

[Hamilton 1953] <ref name="Hamilton1953">
{{cite book
| author1 = Elsie Hamilton
| title = The Modes of Ancient Greece
| year = 1953
}}
</ref>

[Harper 1992] <ref name="Harper1992">
{{cite book
| author1 = Prudence Oliver Harper
| author2 = Joan Aruz
| author3 = Françoise Tallon
| author4 = Metropolitan Museum of Art
| title = The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre
| edition = Illustrated Edition
| publisher = Metropolitan Museum of Art
| year = 1992
| isbn = 978-0-87099-651-1
}}
</ref>

[Harrison 1971] <ref name="Harrison1971">
{{cite book
| author1 = Lou Harrison
| title = The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp
| date = February 12, 1957
| accessdate = December 9, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Hasselbach 2005] <ref name="Hasselbach2005">
{{cite book
| author1 = Rebecca Hasselbach
| title = Sargonic Akkadian — A Historical and Comparative Study of the Syllabic Texts
| publisher = Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
| year = 2005
| isbn = 978-3-447-05172-9
}}
</ref>

[Heichelheim 1952] <ref name="Heichelheim1952">
{{cite journal
| author1 = F. M. Heichelheim
| title = Toronto Scholar Believes Music Led to Alphabet
| journal = The Globe and Mail
| place = Toronto, Canada
| date = February 22, 1952
| pages = 1-2
}}
</ref>

[Heidel 1963] <ref name="Heidel1963">
{{cite book
| author1 = Alexander Heidel
| title = The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels
| edition = First Phoenix Edition
| publisher = The University of Chicago Press
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| year = 1963
}}
</ref>

[Heimpel 2011] <ref name="Heimpel2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = Wolfgang Heimpel
| author2 = Gabriella Frantz-Szabó
| title = Strings and Threads — A Celebration of the Work of Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| publisher = Eisenbrauns
| place = Winona Lake, Indiana
| year = 2011
}}
</ref>

[Helvaci 2008] <ref name="Helvaci2008">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Zeynep Helvacı
| title = Lirin Tarixi: Eski Ön Asya Ve Yunan Uyqarlıqlarında Kullanılan Lirlerin Karşılaşdırılması
| trans_title = Ancient Musical Instruments in Asia Minor
| type = Ph.D.
| publisher = Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, Institute for Music Research
| place = Ankara
| language = Turkish
| year = 2007
}}
</ref>

[Hickmann-E 2001] <ref name="Hickmann-E2001">
{{cite book
| author1 = Ellen Hickmann
| title = Archaeomusicology
| volume = Volume 1
| edition = Second Edition
| journal = The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
| year = 2001
| pages = 848-854
}}
</ref>

[Hickmann-H 1952] <ref name="Hickmann-H1952">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Hans Hickmann
| title = The Egyptian 'Uffāṭah Flute
| journal = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
| volume = 84
| issue = 3-4
| date = October 1952
| pages = 103-104
| doi = 10.1017/S0035869X00105350
| jstor = 25222568
}}
</ref>

[Hill-AE 2009] <ref name="Hill-AE2009">
{{cite book
| author1 = Andrew E. Hill
| author2 = John H. Walton
| title = A Survey of the Old Testament
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in Volume 5 of [Walton-JH 2009]
| publisher = Zondervan Publishing House
| place = Grand Rapids, Michigan
| year = 2009
}}
</ref>

[Horne-CF 1917] <ref name="Horne-CF1917">
{{cite book
| author1 = Charles Francis Horne
| title = The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East;With an Historical Survey and Descriptions
| publisher = Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb, Inc.
| place = New York and London
| year = 1917
}}
</ref>

[Horowitz 2006] <ref name="Horowitz2006">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Wayne Horowitz
| title = A Late Babylonian Tablet with Concentric Circles from the University Museum (CBS 1766)
| journal = Journal of The Ancient Near Eastern Society
| volume = 30
| year = 2006
| pages = 37-53
}}
</ref>

[Jackson-W 2004] <ref name="Jackson-W2004">
{{cite book
| author1 = Wayne Jackson
| title = The Ras Shamra Discovery
| publisher = Apologetics Press, Inc.
| place = Montgomery, Alabama
| year = 2004
}}
</ref>

[Jastrow 1906] <ref name="Jastrow1906">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Morris Jastrow, Jr.
| title = A Babylonian Parallel to the Story of Job
| journal = Journal of Biblical Literature
| volume = 25
| issue = 2
| publisher = The Society of Biblical Literature
| year = 1906
| pages = 135-191
| jstor = 3260156
}}
</ref>

[Jastrow 1915] <ref name="Jastrow1915">
{{cite book
| author1 = Morris Jastrow, Jr.
| title = The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria — Its remains, language, history, religion, commerce, law, art, and literature
| publisher = J. B. Lippincott Co.
| year = 1915
}}
</ref>

[Jing 2003] <ref name="Jing2003">
{{cite journal
| author1 = M. Jing
| title = A Theoretical Study of the Vibration and Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells
| journal = Journal of the Acoustic Society of America
| volume = 114
| issue = 3
| date = September 2003
| pages = 1622-1628
| doi = 10.1121/1.1600727
| pmid = 14514215
}}
</ref>

[Kemp 1991] <ref name="Kemp1991">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Barry J. Kemp
| title = Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization
| publisher = Routledge
| place = New York and London
| year = 1991
| isbn = 0-415-01281-3
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1965] <ref name="Kilmer1965">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = The Strings of Musical Instruments: Their Names, Numbers, and Significance
| series = Studies in Honor of Benno Landsberger
| journal = Assyriological Studies
| volume = 16
| year = 1965
| pages = 261-268
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1971] <ref name="Kilmer1971">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = The Discovery of an Ancient Mesopotamian Theory of Music
| journal = Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
| volume = 115
| issue = 2
| publisher = American Philosophical Society
| date = April 22, 1971
| pages = 131-149
| jstor = 985853
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1974] <ref name="Kilmer1974">
{{cite book
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = The Cult Song with Music from Ancient Ugarit: Another Interpretation
| journal = Revue d'Assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale
| volume = 68
| issue = 1
| year = 1974
| pages = 69-82
| jstor = 23282429
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1976] <ref name="Kilmer1976">
{{cite book
| author1 = Anne D. Kilmer
| author2 = Richard L. Crocker
| author3 = Robert R. Brown
| title = Sounds from Silence: Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music
| publisher = Bit Enki Publications
| place = Berkeley, California
| year = 1976
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1984] <ref name="Kilmer1984">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = A Music Tablet from Sippar(?): BM 65217 + 66616
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 46
| issue = 2
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Autumn 1984
| pages = 69-80
| jstor = 4200216
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1985] <ref name="Kilmer1985">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = A New Music Theory Fragment from Nippur
| journal = American Oriental Society Proceedings
| place = Ann Arbor, Michigan
| date = April 15, 1985
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1986] <ref name="Kilmer1986">
{{cite journal
| author1 = A. D. {Anne Draffkorn} Kilmer
| author2 = M. {Miguel} Civil
| title = Old Babylonian Musical Instructions Relating to Hymnody
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 38
| issue = 1
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| date = Spring 1986
| pages = 94-98
| doi = 10.2307/1359953
| jstor = 1359953
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1996] <ref name="Kilmer1996">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| author2 = Steve Tinney
| title = Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 48
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| year = 1996
| pages = 49-56
| jstor = 1359769
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 1998a] <ref name="Kilmer1998a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| author2 = Steve Tinney
| title = Correction to Kilmer/Tinney 'Old Babylonian Music Instruction Texts' JCS 48 (1996)
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 50
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| year = 1998
| pages = 118
| jstor = 1359896
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 2000] <ref name="Kilmer2000">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = Continuity and Change in the Ancient Mesopotamian Terminology for Music and Musical Instruments
| journal = Orient-Archäologie
| volume = 7
| year = 2000
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 2002] <ref name="Kilmer2002">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne Draffkorn Kilmer
| title = Die musikalische Ausformung von Tonalität und Genre in Mesopotamien
| trans_title = Modal Music, Tonality and Genre in Mesopotamian Musical Performance
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2002]
| language = German and English
| year = 2002
| pages = 481-486
}}
</ref>

[Kilmer 2009] <ref name="Kilmer2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Anne D. Kilmer
| author2 = Jeremie Peterson
| title = More Old Babylonian Music-Instruction Fragments from Nippur
| journal = Journal of Cuneiform Studies
| volume = 61
| publisher = The American Schools of Oriental Research
| date = January 2009
| pages = 93-96
| jstor = 25608634
}}
</ref>

[Kim 1997] <ref name="Kim1997">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Patricia Costa Kim
| title = Transmission of Music in the Hebrew Tradition: Learning from the Songs of the Synagogue
| journal = The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education
| volume = 19
| issue = 1
| publisher = Ithaca College
| date = September 1997
| pages = 40-51
| jstor = 40214945
}}
</ref>

[Kramer 1961] <ref name="Kramer1961">
{{cite book
| author1 = Samuel Noah Kramer
| title = Sumerian Mythology — A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C.
| edition = Revised Edition
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Press
| place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
| year = 1961
| origyear = Originally published in 1944
}}
</ref>

[Kramer 1963] <ref name="Kramer1963">
{{cite book
| author1 = Samuel Noah Kramer
| title = The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character
| publisher = University of Chicago Press
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| year = 1963
| isbn = 978-0-226-45238-8
}}
</ref>

[Kramer 1988] <ref name="Kramer1988">
{{cite book
| author1 = Samuel Noah Kramer
| title = History Begins at Sumer: Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History
| edition = Third Edition
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Press
| year = 1988
| isbn = 978-0-8122-1276-1
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 1990] <ref name="Krispijn1990">
{{cite journal
| author1 = T{heo} J. H. Krispijn
| title = Beitrage zur altorientalischen Musikforschung. 1. Sulgi und die Musik
| trans_title = Contributions to Ancient Oriental Music Research. 1. Shulgi and the Music
| journal = Akkadica
| volume = 70
| language = German
| date = November-December 1990
| pages = 1-27
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 2003] <ref name="Krispijn2003">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Theo J. H. Krispijn
| title = Musik in Keilschrift
| trans_title = Music in Cuneiform
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2002]
| volume = 2
| language = German
| year = 2003
| pages = 465-479
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 2008] <ref name="Krispijn2008">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Theo J. H. Krispijn
| title = Music in School and Temple in the Ancient Near East
| journal = What Was Old Is New Again - A Meeting of Art and Scholarship, ZKM Center for Art and Technology
| date = November 21-23, 2008
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 2008b] <ref name="Krispijn2008b">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Theo J. H. Krispijn
| title = Music and Healing for Someone Far Away from Home HS 1556, A Remarkable Ur III Incantation, Revisited
| CONTAINED-IN = Contained in Spek, R.J., van der (Ed.) Studies in Ancient Near Eastern World View and Society presented to Marten Stol on the occasion of his 65th birthday
| publisher = CDL Press
| place = Bethesda, Maryland
| year = 2008
| pages = 173-194
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 2008c] <ref name="Krispijn2008c">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Theo J. H. Krispijn
| title = Musical Ensembles in Ancient Mesopotamia
| conference = ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008, ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4–6, 2008, editors: ICONEA 2008: Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology, held at the British Museum, December 4-6, 2008
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 125-150
}}
</ref>

[Krispijn 2010] <ref name="Krispijn2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Theo Krispijn
| title = Music in the Syrian City of Elba in the Late Third Millennium B.C.
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 55-61
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Kuhn 2010] <ref name="Kuhn2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Magdalena Kuhn
| title = Hand Positions of Musicians Before and After the Hyksos Kings
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 11-19
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Kummel 1970] <ref name="Kummel1970">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Hans Martin Kümmel
| title = Zur Stimmung der babylonischen Harfe
| trans_title = The Mood of the Babylonian Harp
| journal = Orientalia
| volume = 39
| publisher = Biblical Institute Press
| language = German
| year = 1970
| pages = 252-263
}}
</ref>

[Lambert 1971] <ref name="Lambert1971">
{{cite journal
| author1 = W. G. Lambert
| title = The Converse Tablet: A Litany with Musical Instructions
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Goedicke 1971]
| year = 1971
| pages = 335-353
}}
</ref>

[Landels 1981] <ref name="Landels1981">
{{cite journal
| author1 = J. G. Landels
| title = The Reconstruction of Ancient Greek Auloi
| journal = World Archaeology
| volume = 12
| issue = 3
| date = February 1981
| pages = 298-302
| doi = 10.1080/00438243.1981.9979804
| jstor = 124241
}}
</ref>

[Landels 1999] <ref name="Landels1999">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Gray Landels
| title = Music in Ancient Greece and Rome
| edition = First Edition
| publisher = Psychology Press
| year = 1999
| isbn = 978-0-415-16776-5
}}
</ref>

[Langdon 1913] <ref name="Langdon1913">
{{cite book
| author1 = Stephen Langdon
| title = Babylonian Liturgies — Sumerian Texts from the Early Period and from the Library of Ashurbanipal, for the most part Transliterated and Translated
| publisher = Librarie Paul Geuthner
| place = Paris
| year = 1913
}}
</ref>

[Langdon 1917] <ref name="Langdon1917">
{{cite book
| author1 = Stephen Langdon
| title = Sumerian Liturgical Texts
| series = Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 2
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
| place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
| year = 1917
}}
</ref>

[Langdon 1919] <ref name="Langdon1919">
{{cite book
| author1 = Stephen Langdon
| title = Sumerian Liturgies and Psalms
| series = Publications of the Babylonian Section, Volume 10, Number 4
| publisher = University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
| place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
| year = 1919
}}
</ref>

[Langdon 1923] <ref name="Langdon1923">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Stephen Langdon
| title = Sumerian and Semitic Religious and Historical Texts
| volume = Volume 1 of The H. Weld-Blundell Collection in the Ashmolean Museum
| series = Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Inscriptions
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| year = 1923
}}
</ref>

[Langdon 1923a] <ref name="Langdon1923a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Stephen Langdon
| title = Two Sumerian Hymns from Eridu and Nippur
| journal = The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures
| volume = 39
| issue = 3
| publisher = University of Chicago Press
| place = Chicago, Illinois
| date = April 1923
| pages = 161-186
| jstor = 528626
}}
</ref>

[Laroche 1955] <ref name="Laroche1955">
{{cite book
| author1 = Emmanuel Laroche
| title = Le palais royal d' Ugarit 3
| trans_title = The Royal Palace of Ugarit 3
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Nougayrol 1955]
| language = French
| year = 1955
| pages = 327-335
}}
</ref>

[Laroche 1968] <ref name="Laroche1968">
{{cite book
| author1 = Emmanuel Laroche
| title = Documents en langue hourrite provenant de Ras Shamra
| trans_title = Hurrian Documents from Ras Shamra
| CONTAINED-IN = Chapter 2 of [Schaeffer 1968]
| language = French
| year = 1968
| pages = 447-543
}}
</ref>

[Lasserre 1988] <ref name="Lasserre1988">
{{cite book
| author1 = Francois Lasserre
| title = Musica babilonese e musica greca
| trans_title = Babylonian and Greek Music
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in La musica in Grecia, ed. Bruno Gentili & Roberto Pretagostini, Rome & Bari
| language = Italian
| year = 1988
| pages = 72-95
}}
</ref>

[Lawergren 2000] <ref name="Lawergren2000">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Bo Lawergren
| title = Extant Silver Pipes from Ur, 2450 BC
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2000a]
| journal = Studien zur Musikarchäologie
| volume = 2
| publisher = Verlag Marie Leidorf, GmbH
| place = Rahden, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
| year = 2000
| pages = 121-132
}}
</ref>

[Lawergren 2000a] <ref name="Lawergren2000a">
{{cite book
| author1 = Bo Lawergren
| title = Strings
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [So 2000]
| year = 2000
| pages = 65-85
}}
</ref>

[Lawergren 2007] <ref name="Lawergren2007">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Bo Lawergren
| title = Etruscan Musical Instruments and their Wider Context in Greece and Italy
| journal = Etruscan Studies, Journal of the Etruscan Foundation
| volume = 10
| issue = 1, part 10
| date = January 1, 2007
}}
</ref>

[Lawergren 2008] <ref name="Lawergren2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Bo Lawergren
| title = Bull Lyres, Silver Lyres, Silver Pipes and Animals in Sumer, Circa 2500 B.C.
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 83-88
}}
</ref>

[Legrain 1922] <ref name="Legrain1922">
{{cite book
| author1 = Léon Legrain
| title = Historical Fragments
| journal = Publications of the Babylonian Section
| volume = 13
| publisher = The University Museum
| year = 1922
}}
</ref>

[Lepsius 1849] <ref name="Lepsius1849">
{{cite book
| author1 = Richard Lepsius
| title = Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien nach den zeichnungen der von Seiner Majestaet dem koenige von Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm IV
| trans_title = Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia after the Drawings of by His Majesty the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV
| language = German
| year = 1849
}}
</ref>

[Lloyd-LS 1946] <ref name="Lloyd-LS1946">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Ll. S. Lloyd
| title = The Myth of Equal-Stepped Scales in Primitive Music
| journal = Music & Letters
| volume = 27
| issue = 2
| date = April 1946
| pages = 73-79
| jstor = 727434
}}
</ref>

[Lurker 1987] <ref name="Lurker1987">
{{cite book
| author1 = Manfred Lurker
| title = The Routledge Dictionary of Gods, Goddesses, Devils & Demons
| year = 1987
}}
</ref>

[Maas 1989] <ref name="Maas1989">
{{cite book
| author1 = Martha Maas
| author2 = Jane McIntosh Snyder
| title = Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece
| publisher = Yale University Press
| place = London
| year = 1989
| isbn = 978-0-300-03686-2
}}
</ref>

[MacGregor 2000] <ref name="MacGregor2000">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Arthur MacGregor
| title = The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
| year = 2000
}}
</ref>

[Macgregor 2003] <ref name="Macgregor2003">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Sherry Lou Macgregor
| title = Women in the Neo-Assyrian World: Visual and Textual Evidence from Palace and Temple
| type = Ph.D.
| publisher = University of California, Berkeley
| date = Spring 2003
}}
</ref>

[Manniche 1975] <ref name="Manniche1975">
{{cite book
| author1 = Lise Manniche
| title = Ancient Egyptian Musical Instruments
| publisher = Deutscher Kunstverlag
| year = 1975
| isbn = 978-3-422-00827-4
}}
</ref>

[Maor 2002] <ref name="Maor2002">
{{cite book
| author1 = Eli Maor
| title = Trigonometric Delights
| publisher = Princeton University Press
| year = 2002
| isbn = 978-0-691-09541-7
}}
</ref>

[Marcetteau 2008] <ref name="Marcetteau2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Myriam Marcetteau
| title = A Queen's Orchestra at the Court of Mari: New Perspectives on the Archaic Instrumentarium in the Third Millennium
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 67-75
}}
</ref>

[Masson 1999] <ref name="Masson1999">
{{cite book
| author1 = Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson
| author2 = Ahmad Hasan Dani
| author3 = Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson
| title = History of Civilizations of Central Asia
| volume = Volume 1
| publisher = Motilal Banarsidass Publishers
| year = 1999
| isbn = 978-81-208-1407-3
}}
</ref>

[McClain 1978] <ref name="McClain1978">
{{cite book
| author1 = Ernest G. McClain
| title = The Pythagorean Plato — Prelude to the Song Itself
| publisher = Nicolas-Hays, Inc.
| place = York Beach, Maine
| year = 1978
| isbn = 0-89254-010-9
}}
</ref>

[McClain 1981] <ref name="McClain1981">
{{cite book
| author1 = Ernest G. McClain
| title = Meditations through the Quran — Tonal Images in an Oral Culture
| publisher = Nicolas-Hays, Inc.
| place = York Beach, Maine
| year = 1981
| isbn = 0-89254-010-9
}}
</ref>

[McClain 2008] <ref name="McClain2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Ernest G. McClain
| title = A Sumerian Text in Quantified Archaeomusicology
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 89-103
}}
</ref>

[McClain 2010] <ref name="McClain2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Ernest G. McClain
| title = Egyptian Connections: Narmer Inscriptions as Sumerian Musicology
| conference = Musical exchanges between Ancient Egypt and the Near East during, before and after the Hyksos Kings (ICONEA 2010), Chancellor's Hall, Senate House, University of London, December 15–17, 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
}}
</ref>

[McClain 2010a] <ref name="McClain2010a">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Ernest McClain
| author2 = Peter Blumsom
| title = Egyptian Connections: Narmer Instriptions as Sumerian Musicology
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 73-104
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Melini 2008] <ref name="Melini2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Roberto Melini
| title = Possessed by the Great Mother: Music and Trance in Ancient Pompeii and in the Popular Tradition of Southern Italy
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 1-9
}}
</ref>

[Merlini 2008] <ref name="Merlini2008">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Marco Merlini
| author2 = Gheorghe Lazarovici
| title = Settling Discovery Circumstances, Dating and Utilization of the Tărtăria Tablets
| journal = Acta Terrae Septemcastrensis
| volume = 7
| publisher = Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
| place = Sibiu, Romania
| year = 2008
}}
</ref>

[Messerschmidt 1911] <ref name="Messerschmidt1911">
{{cite book
| author1 = L Messerschmidt
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts
| trans_title = Historical Cuneiform Texts from Assur
| volume = Volume 1
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 16
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1919
}}
</ref>

[Michalowski 2008] <ref name="Michalowski2008">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Piotr Michalowski
| title = Traveler's Tales: Observations on Musical Mobility in Mesopotamia and Beyond
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4–6, 2008, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2008
| pages = 117-124
}}
</ref>

[Michalowski 2010] <ref name="Michalowski2010">
{{cite book
| author1 = Piotr Michalowski
| title = Learning Music: Schooling, Apprenticeship, and Gender in Early Mesopotamia
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Pruzsinszky 2010a]
| year = 2010
| pages = 199-240
}}
</ref>

[Miller-MK 2000] <ref name="Miller-MK2000">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Mary K. Miller
| title = Music of the Neanderthals
| conference = American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2000 Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., February 17–22, 2000
| journal = Dispatches from the Field
| date = February 21, 2000
| accessdate = September 27, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Mirelman 2009] <ref name="Mirelman2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Sam Mirelman
| author2 = Theo J. H. Krispijn
| title = The Old Babylonian Tuning Text UET VI/3 899
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 71
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| year = 2009
| pages = 43-52
| doi = 10.1017/S0021088900000735
| jstor = 20779002
}}
</ref>

[Mitchell 1992] <ref name="Mitchell1992">
{{cite journal
| author1 = T. C. Mitchell
| title = The Music of the Old Testament Reconsidered
| journal = Palestine Exploration Quarterly
| volume = 124
| year = 1992
| pages = 124-143
}}
</ref>

[Monzo 2000] <ref name="Monzo2000">
{{cite book
| author1 = Joseph L. Monzo
| title = A New Reconstruction of the Hurrian Hymn
| series = Encyclopedia of Tuning
| year = 2000
| accessdate = September 28, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Monzo 2002] <ref name="Monzo2002">
{{cite book
| author1 = Joseph L. Monzo
| title = Speculations on Sumerian Tuning
| date = August 10, 2002
| accessdate = December 9, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Morley 2003] <ref name="Morley2003">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Iain Morley
| title = The Evolutionary Origins and Archaeology of Music: An Investigation into the Prehistory of Human Musical Capacities and Behaviours, Using Archaeological, Anthropological, Cognitive and Behavioural Evidence
| type = Ph.D.
| journal = Darwin College Research Report, DCRR-002
| publisher = Cambridge Universith
| place = Cambridge
| date = October 2003
}}
</ref>

[Nott 1886] <ref name="Nott1886">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Fortuné Nott
| title = Wild Animals Photographed and Described
| publisher = Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington
| place = London
| year = 1886
}}
</ref>

[Nougayrol 1955] <ref name="Nougayrol1955">
{{cite book
| author1 = Jean Nougayrol
| author2 = Georges Boyer
| author3 = Emmanuel Laroche
| author4 = Claude-Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer
| title = Textes accadiens et hourrites des archives Est, Ouest et centrales
| trans_title = Akkadian Texts and Hurrian Archives East, West and Central
| volume = Two Volumes
| publisher = C. Klincksieck
| place = Paris, France
| language = French
| year = 1955
}}
</ref>

[Olsen 1967] <ref name="Olsen1967">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Poul Rovsing Olsen
| title = An Aulos in The Danish National Museum
| journal = Danish Yearbook of Musicology
| volume = 5
| year = 1967
| pages = 3-9
}}
</ref>

[Pohlmann 2001] <ref name="Pohlmann2001">
{{cite book
| author1 = Egert Pöhlmann
| author2 = Martin Litchfield West
| title = Documents of Ancient Greek Music: The Extant Melodies and Fragments
| publisher = Clarendon Press
| place = Oxford, England
| year = 2001
| isbn = 978-0-19-815223-1
}}
</ref>

[Postgate 2007] <ref name="Postgate2007">
{{cite book
| author1 = J. Nicholas Postgate
| title = Languages of Iraq, Ancient and Modern
| publisher = British School of Archaeology in Iraq
| place = London
| year = 2007
| isbn = 978-0-903472-21-0
}}
</ref>

[Pruzsinszky 2010] <ref name="Pruzsinszky2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Regine Pruzsinszky
| title = Singers, Musicians and their Mobility in the Ur III Period Cuneiform Texts
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 31-39
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Pruzsinszky 2010a] <ref name="Pruzsinszky2010a">
{{cite book
| author1 = Regine Pruzsinszky
| author2 = Dahlia Shehata
| title = Musiker und Tradierung: Studien zur Rolle von Musikern bei der Verschriftlichung und Tradierung von literarischen Werken
| trans_title = Musicians and Tradition: Studies on the Role of Musicians in the Transcript, and Tradition of Literary Works
| volume = Volume 8 of Wiener Offene Orientalistik
| publisher = LIT Verlag Münster
| language = German
| year = 2010
| isbn = 978-3-643-50131-8
}}
</ref>

[Rachuta 2011] <ref name="Rachuta2011">
{{cite thesis
| author1 = Robert Rachuta
| title = Muzyka w Biblii
| trans_title = Music in the Bible
| type = Ph.D.
| publisher = Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
| language = Polish
| date = October 24, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Radau 1913] <ref name="Radau1913">
{{cite book
| author1 = Hugo Radau
| title = Sumerian Hymns and Prayers to God Dumu-Zi — Babylonian Lenten Songs from the Temple Library of Nippur
| publisher = Rudolf Merkel
| place = Munich
| year = 1913
}}
</ref>

[Rahn 2011] <ref name="Rahn2011">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Jay Rahn
| title = The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE
| volume = Part One - Notation and Analysis
| journal = Analatical Approaches to World Music
| volume = 1
| issue = 1
| publisher = University of Massachusetts
| place = Amherst, Massachusetts
| year = 2011
| pages = 93-151
}}
</ref>

[Rahn 2011a] <ref name="Rahn2011a">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Jay Rahn
| title = The Hurrian Pieces, ca. 1350 BCE
| volume = Part Two - From Numbered Strings to Tuned Strings
| journal = Analatical Approaches to World Music
| volume = 1
| issue = 2
| publisher = University of Massachusetts
| place = Amherst, Massachusetts
| year = 2011
| pages = 93-151
}}
</ref>

[Reynolds 2009] <ref name="Reynolds2009">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Dwight Reynolds
| title = The Re-creation of Medieval Arabo-Andalusian Music in Modern Performance
| journal = Al-Masāq
| volume = 21
| issue = 2
| publisher = Society for the Medieval Mediterranean
| year = 2009
| pages = 175-189
| doi = 10.1080/09503110902875442
}}
</ref>

[Rimmer 1969] <ref name="Rimmer1969">
{{cite book
| author1 = Joan Rimmer
| title = Ancient Musical Instruments of Western Asia in the British Museum
| publisher = Trustees of the British Museum
| place = London
| year = 1969
| isbn = 978-0-7141-1045-5
}}
</ref>

[Robson 1999] <ref name="Robson1999">
{{cite book
| author1 = Eleanor Robson
| title = Mesopotamian Mathematics, 2100–1600 BC: Technical Constants in Bureaucracy and Education
| volume = Volume 14 of Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| year = 1999
| isbn = 978-0-19-815246-0
}}
</ref>

[Robson 2000] <ref name="Robson2000">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Eleanor Robson
| title = Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in Philadelphia — Part 1: Problems and Calculations
| journal = Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS)
| volume = 1
| year = 2000
| pages = 11-48
}}
</ref>

[Robson 2002] <ref name="Robson2002">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Eleanor Robson
| title = Words and Pictures: New Light on Plimpton 322
| journal = American Mathematical Monthly
| volume = 109
| issue = 2
| publisher = Mathematical Association of America
| date = February 2002
| pages = 105-120
| doi = 10.2307/2695324
| jstor = 2695324
}}
</ref>

[Robson 2004] <ref name="Robson2004">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Eleanor Robson
| title = Mathematical Cuneiform Tablets in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
| journal = Sources and Commentaries in Exact Sciences (SCIAMVS)
| volume = 5
| year = 2004
| pages = 3-65
}}
</ref>

[Roest 1999] <ref name="Roest1999">
{{cite book
| author1 = Bert Roest
| author2 = Herman L. J. Vanstiphout
| title = Aspects of Genre and Type in Pre-Modern Literary Cultures
| publisher = Styx Publications
| place = Groningen, The Netherlands
| year = 1999
}}
</ref>

[Rosellini 1840] <ref name="Rosellini1840">
{{cite book
| author1 = Ippolito Rosellini
| author2 = Carlo Lasinio
| author3 = Giuseppe Angelell
| author4 = Salvador Cherubini
| author5 = Gaetano Rosellini
| title = I Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia — disegnati dalla spedizione scientifico-letteraria toscana in Egitto; distribuiti in ordine di materie interpretati ed illustrati dal dottore Ippolito Rosellini.
| trans_title = The Monuments of Egypt and Nubia - Drawn from Scientific Literature Tuscan Expedition to Egypt; Distributed in Order of Subjects Interpreted and Explained to the Doctor Ippolito Rosellini
| volume = 10 Volumes
| publisher = Presso N. Capurro ec.
| language = Italian
| year = 1840
}}
</ref>

[Sachs 1941] <ref name="Sachs1941">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Curt Sachs
| title = The Mystery of the Babylonian Notation
| journal = Musical Quarterly
| volume = 27
| issue = 1
| date = January 1941
| pages = 62-69
| doi = 10.1093/mq/XXVII.1.62
| jstor = 739367
}}
</ref>

[Sachs 1943] <ref name="Sachs1943">
{{cite book
| author1 = Curt Sachs
| title = The Rise of Music in the Ancient World
| edition = First Edition
| publisher = W W Norton & Co.
| place = New York
| date = June 1943
| accessdate = January 8, 2012
| isbn = 978-0-393-09718-4
}}
</ref>

[Sayce 1898] <ref name="Sayce1898">
{{cite book
| author1 = A. H. Sayce
| title = Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians
| edition = Fifth Edition
| publisher = Williams and Norgate
| place = London
| year = 1898
}}
</ref>

[Schaeffer 1968] <ref name="Schaeffer1968">
{{cite book
| author1 = Claude-Frédéric-Armand Schaeffer
| author2 = Jean Nougayrol
| title = Nouveaux textes accadiens, hourrites et ugaritiques des archives et bibliothèques privées d'Ugarit
| trans_title = New Akkadian Texts, Hurrian and Ugaritic Archives and Private Libraries of Ugarit
| series = Ugaritica 5; Bibliothèque archéologique et historique / Institut français d'archéologie de Beyrouth 80; Mission de Ras Shamra 16
| publisher = P. Geuthner
| place = Paris, France
| language = French
| year = 1968
}}
</ref>

[Schlesinger 1938] <ref name="Schlesinger1938">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Kathleen Schlesinger
| title = Correspondence
| journal = Music & Letters
| volume = 19
| issue = 4
| date = October 1938
| pages = 491-492
| doi = 10.1093/ml/XIX.4.491
}}
</ref>

[Schlesinger 1939] <ref name="Schlesinger1939">
{{cite book
| author1 = Kathleen Schlesinger
| title = The Greek Aulos — A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival or Rebirth in Folk-music
| publisher = Methuen & Co.
| place = London, England
| year = 1939
}}
</ref>

[Schlesinger 1970] <ref name="Schlesinger1970">
{{cite book
| author1 = Kathleen Schlesinger
| title = The Greek Aulos — A Study of its Mechanism and of its Relation to the Modal System of Ancient Greek Music, Followed by a Survey of the Greek Harmoniai in Survival or Rebirth in Folk-music
| publisher = Bouma's Boekhuis N.V.
| place = Groningen, The Netherlands
| year = 1970
| isbn = 90-6088-027-7
}}
</ref>

[Schroeder 1920] <ref name="Schroeder1920">
{{cite book
| author1 = O. Schroeder
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur verschieden Inhalts
| trans_title = Cuneiform Texts from Assur with Various Content
| volume = Volume 1
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 35
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1919
}}
</ref>

[Schroeder 1922] <ref name="Schroeder1922">
{{cite book
| author1 = O. Schroeder
| title = Keilschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts
| trans_title = Historical Cuneiform Texts from Assur
| volume = Volume 2
| series = Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft in Assur (Excavations of the German Oriental Society in Assur)
| journal = Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (WVDOG)
| volume = 37
| publisher = J. C. Hinrich
| place = Leipzig
| language = German
| year = 1919
}}
</ref>

[Shaffer 1981] <ref name="Shaffer1981">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Aaron Shaffer
| title = A New Musical Term in Ancient Mesopotamian Music
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 43
| issue = 1
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Spring 1981
| pages = 79-83
| doi = 10.2307/4200135
| jstor = 4200135
}}
</ref>

[Shalev-Eyni 2006] <ref name="Shalev-Eyni2006">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Sarit Shalev-Eyni
| title = Solomon, his Demons and Jongleurs: The Meeting of Islamic, Judaic and Christian Culture
| journal = Al-Masāq
| volume = 18
| issue = 2
| publisher = Society for the Medieval Mediterranean
| year = 2006
| pages = 145-160
| doi = 10.1080/09503110600838635
}}
</ref>

[Sharif-M 1999] <ref name="Sharif-M1999">
{{cite journal
| author1 = M. Sharif
| author2 = B. K. Thapar
| title = Food-producing Communities in Pakistan and Northern India
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Masson 1999]
| year = 1999
| pages = 128-137
}}
</ref>

[Shore 1965] <ref name="Shore1965">
{{cite journal
| author1 = A. F. Shore
| title = A Bronze Flute with Demotic Inscription
| journal = The British Museum Quarterly
| volume = 30
| issue = 1/2
| publisher = British Museum
| date = Autumn 1965
| pages = 35-36
| jstor = 4422917
}}
</ref>

[Smith-J 2000] <ref name="Smith-J2000">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Janet Smith
| author2 = Anne Kilmer
| title = Laying the Rough, Testing the Fine
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Hickmann-E 2000]
| year = 2000
| pages = 127-140
}}
</ref>

[Smith-J 2003] <ref name="Smith-J2003">
{{cite book
| author1 = Janet Smith
| title = Seven Modes for an Ancient Lyre — Music in Seven Ancient Tunings Using Samples from a Replica of the Silver Lyre from Ur
| publisher = Bella Roma Music
| year = 2003
}}
</ref>

[Smith-J 2008] <ref name="Smith-J2008">
{{cite book
| author1 = Janet Smith
| title = Interview with Prof. Anne Kilmer, Tuscon Arizona, January 2008
| year = 2008
| accessdate = February 22, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Smyth 2007] <ref name="Smyth2007">
{{cite journal
| author1 = A. S. H. Smyth
| title = Pipe Work
| journal = Early Music Today
| date = August/September 2007
| pages = 16-17
}}
</ref>

[So 2000] <ref name="So2000">
{{cite book
| author1 = Jenny F. So
| title = Music in the Age of Confucius
| publisher = Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
| place = Washington, D. C.
| year = 2000
| isbn = 978-0-295-97953-3
}}
</ref>

[Stackert 2010] <ref name="Stackert2010">
{{cite book
| author1 = Jeffrey Stackert
| author2 = Barbara Nevling Porter
| author3 = David P. Wright
| title = Gazing on the Deep
| journal = Ancient Near Eastern and Other Studies in Honor of Tsvi Abusch
| publisher = CDL Press
| place = Bethesda, Maryland
| year = 2010
| isbn = 978-1-934309-26-1
}}
</ref>

[Stainer 1900] <ref name="Stainer1900">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Stainer
| title = The Music Of The Bible — With Some Account of the Development of Modern Musical Instruments from Ancient Types
| publisher = Novello, Ewer & Co.
| place = London
| year = 1900
}}
</ref>

[Stern 2010] <ref name="Stern2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Max Stern
| title = Reconstructing the Voice of King David's Harps
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 161-174
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Strauven 2010] <ref name="Strauven2010">
{{cite conference
| author1 = Peter Strauven
| author2 = Jan M. F. Van Reeth
| title = Pythagoras, The Origins of Musical Modi and the Dactyls
| conference = Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (ICONEA 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, editors: Richard Dumbrill and Irving Finkel
| publisher = Iconea Publications
| place = London
| year = 2010
| pages = 63-71
| isbn = 978-1-4632-0182-1
}}
</ref>

[Tillyard 1916] <ref name="Tillyard1916">
{{cite journal
| author1 = H. J. W. Tillyard
| title = The Problem of Byzantine Neumes
| journal = American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series
| volume = 20
| publisher = Rumford Press for the Archaeological Institute of America
| place = Concord, New Hampshire
| year = 1916
| pages = 62-71
}}
</ref>

[Vanderburgh 1908] <ref name="Vanderburgh1908">
{{cite book
| author1 = Frederick Augustus Vanderburgh
| title = Sumerian Hymns from Cuneiform Texts in the British Museum
| publisher = Columbia University Press
| year = 1908
}}
</ref>

[Veldhuis 1999+A2936] <ref name="Veldhuis1999+A2936">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Niek Veldhuis
| title = Continuity and Change in the Mesopotamian Lexical Tradition
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Roest 1999]
| year = 1999
| pages = 101-118
}}
</ref>

[Vitale 1982] <ref name="Vitale1982">
{{cite journal
| author1 = R{aoul}. Vitale
| title = La Musique sumero-accadienne: gamme et notation musicale
| trans_title = Sumero-Akkadian Music - Range and Musical Notation
| journal = Ugarit-Forschungen
| volume = 14
| language = French
| year = 1982
| pages = 241-263
}}
</ref>

[Wallace-RW 2003] <ref name="Wallace-RW2003">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Robert W. Wallace
| title = An Early Fifth-Century Athenian Revolution in Aulos Music
| journal = Harvard Studies in Classical Philology
| volume = 101
| publisher = Department of the Classics, Harvard University
| year = 2003
| pages = 73-92
| jstor = 3658525
}}
</ref>

[Walton-JH 2009] <ref name="Walton-JH2009">
{{cite book
| author1 = John H. Walton
| title = Illustrated Bible, Backgrounds, Commentary
| volume = five volumes
| edition = Third Edition
| publisher = Zondervan Publishing House
| place = Grand Rapids, Michigan
| year = 2009
| isbn = 978-0-310-25573-4
}}
</ref>

[Wang-Y 2004] <ref name="Wang-Y2004">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Yuhwen Wang
| title = The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts
| journal = Journal of Aesthetic Education
| volume = 38
| issue = 1
| date = Spring 2004
| pages = 89-104
}}
</ref>

[Watson-WGE 1997] <ref name="Watson-WGE1997">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Wilfred G. E. Watson
| title = The "Split Couplet" in Ugaritic Verse
| journal = Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico
| volume = 14
| year = 1997
| pages = 29-42
}}
</ref>

[West 1994] <ref name="West1994">
{{cite journal
| author1 = M{artin} L{itchfield} West
| title = The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic Texts
| journal = Music and Letters
| volume = 75
| issue = 2
| date = May 1994
| pages = 161-179
| jstor = 737674
}}
</ref>

[West 1994a] <ref name="West1994a">
{{cite book
| author1 = Martin Litchfield West
| title = Ancient Greek Music
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| date = April 14, 1994
| isbn = 978-0-19-814975-0
}}
</ref>

[Westenholz 1975] <ref name="Westenholz1975">
{{cite book
| author1 = Aage Westenholz
| title = Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: Pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht-Sammlung vorderasiatischer Altertümer, Institut für Altertumswissenschaften der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena
| trans_title = Early Cuneiform Texts in Jena: pre-Sargonic and Sargonic documents from Nippur and Fara in the Hilprecht Collection of Near Eastern Antiquities, Department of Classical Studies at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena
| publisher = Munksgaard
| place = København
| language = English and German
| year = 1975
| isbn = 978-87-7304-043-0
}}
</ref>

[Wheeler 2011] <ref name="Wheeler2011">
{{cite book
| author1 = John Wheeler
| title = Sacred Music in Antiquity
| date = September 6, 2011
| accessdate = December 9, 2011
}}
</ref>

[Wiggermann 2010] <ref name="Wiggermann2010">
{{cite journal
| author1 = F. A. M. Wiggermann
| title = The Image of Dumuzi — A Diachronic Analysis
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Stackert 2010]
| year = 2010
| pages = 327-350
}}
</ref>

[Wilkinson 1878] <ref name="Wilkinson1878">
{{cite book
| author1 = J. G. Wilkinson
| author2 = Samuel Birch
| title = The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians
| volume = Three Volumes
| year = 1878
}}
</ref>

[Wolkstein 1983] <ref name="Wolkstein1983">
{{cite book
| author1 = Diane Wolkstein
| author2 = Samuel Noah Kramer
| title = Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth
| publisher = Harper and Row
| year = 1983
| isbn = 978-0-06-090854-6
}}
</ref>

[Woods 2010] <ref name="Woods2010">
{{cite book
| author1 = Christopher Woods
| author2 = Geoff Emberling
| author3 = Emily Teeter
| title = Visible Language
| series = Oriental Institute Museum Publications, Number 32
| publisher = The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
| year = 2010
| isbn = 978-1-885923-76-9
}}
</ref>

[Woolley 1921] <ref name="Woolley1921">
{{cite book
| author1 = Leonard Woolley
| author2 = T. E. Lawrence
| author3 = D. G. Hogarth
| title = Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum
| volume = Volume 2: The Town Defenses
| publisher = The British Museum
| place = London
| year = 1921
}}
</ref>

[Woolley 1934] <ref name="Woolley1934">
{{cite book
| author1 = C. L{eonard}. Woolley
| title = Ur Excavations
| volume = Volume 2: The Royal Cemetery - Text and Plates
| publisher = The Joint Expedition of the British Museum and The Museum of the University of Pennsylvania to Mesopotamia
| year = 1934
}}
</ref>

[Woolley 1952] <ref name="Woolley1952">
{{cite book
| author1 = Leonard Woolley
| author2 = R. D. Barnett
| title = Carchemish: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum
| volume = Volume 3: The Excavations in the Inner Town
| publisher = The British Museum
| place = London
| year = 1952
}}
</ref>

[Wright-FA 1914] <ref name="Wright-FA1914">
{{cite journal
| author1 = F. A. Wright
| title = Greek Music
| journal = The Edinburgh Review
| volume = 220
| publisher = Leonard Scott Publication Co.
| year = 1914
| pages = 115-134
}}
</ref>

[Wulstan 1968] <ref name="Wulstan1968">
{{cite journal
| author1 = David Wulstan
| title = The Tuning of the Babylonian Harp
| journal = Iraq
| volume = 30
| issue = 2
| publisher = British Institute for the Study of Iraq
| date = Autumn 1968
| pages = 215-228
| jstor = 4199852
}}
</ref>

[Wulstan 1971] <ref name="Wulstan1971">
{{cite journal
| author1 = David Wulstan
| title = The Earliest Musical Notation
| journal = Music & Letters
| volume = 52
| issue = 4
| publisher = Oxford University Press
| date = October 1971
| pages = 365-382
| doi = 10.1093/ml/LII.4.365
| jstor = 734711
}}
</ref>

[Wulstan 2005] <ref name="Wulstan2005">
{{cite journal
| author1 = David Wulstan
| title = Bring on the Dancing-Girls — (a Gadibus usque auroram)
| journal = Al-Masāq
| volume = 17
| issue = 2
| publisher = Society for the Medieval Mediterranean
| date = September 2005
| pages = 221-249
| doi = 10.1080/09503110500222344
}}
</ref>

[Wyatt 2012] <ref name="Wyatt2012">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Simon Wyatt
| title = Sound Production in Early Aerophones
| CONTAINED-IN = contained in [Eichmann 2012]
| year = 2012
| pages = 393-398
}}
</ref>

[Yamauchi 1980] <ref name="Yamauchi1980">
{{cite journal
| author1 = Edwin M. Yamauchi
| title = The Archaeological Background of Daniel
| journal = Bibliotheca Sacra
| volume = 137
| date = January-March 1980
| pages = 3-16
}}
</ref>

 
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To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2017_refsW_ancient"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title=[Wikipedia format] Ancient Music References for the Native American Flute |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/refsW_ancient.htm |date=15 April 2017 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>