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Physiology References

This is a list of references cited throughout Flutopedia that relate to physiology.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

Physiology References

[Acharya 2006] U. Rajendra Acharya, K. Paul Joseph, N. Kannathal, Choo Min Lim, and Jasjit S. Suri. “Heart Rate Variability: A Review”, Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, Volume 44, 2006, pages 1031–1051, doi:10.1007/s11517-006-0119-0 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions. Heart rate (HR) is a nonstationary signal; its variation may contain indicators of current disease, or warnings about impending cardiac diseases. The indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random—during certain intervals of the day. It is strenuous and time consuming to study and pinpoint abnormalities in voluminous data collected over several hours. Hence, HR variation analysis (instantaneous HR against time axis) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system. Computer based analytical tools for in-depth study of data over daylong intervals can be very useful in diagnostics. Therefore, the HRV signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. In this paper, we have discussed the various applications of HRV and different linear, frequency domain, wavelet domain, nonlinear techniques used for the analysis of the HRV.

[Aftanas 2002] L. I. Aftanas and S. A. Golocheikine. “Non-linear Dynamic Complexity of the Human EEG During Meditation”, Neuroscience Letters, Volume 330, Number 2, September 20, 2002, pages 143–146. Publication 12231432 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We used non-linear analysis to investigate the dynamical properties underlying the EEG in the model of Sahaja Yoga meditation. Non-linear dimensional complexity (DCx) estimates, indicating complexity of neuronal computations, were analyzed in 20 experienced meditators during rest and meditation using 62-channel EEG. When compared to rest, the meditation was accompanied by a focused decrease of DCx estimates over midline frontal and central regions. By contrast, additionally computed linear measures exhibited the opposite direction of changes: power in the theta-1 (4–6 Hz), theta-2 (6–8 Hz) and alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) frequency bands was increased over these regions. The DCx estimates negatively correlated with theta-2 and alpha-1 and positively with beta-3 (22–30 Hz) band power. It is suggested that meditative experience, characterized by less complex dynamics of the EEG, involves ‘switching off’ irrelevant networks for the maintenance of focused internalized attention and inhibition of inappropriate information. Overall, the results point to the idea that dynamically changing inner experience during meditation is better indexed by a combination of non-linear and linear EEG variables.

[Agelink 2001] M. W. Agelink, R. Malessa, B. Baumann, T. Majewski, F. Akila, T. Seit, and D. Ziegler. “Standardized Tests of Heart Rate Variability: Normal Ranges Obtained from 309 Healty Humans, and Effects of Age, Gender, and Heart Rate”, Clinical Autonomic Research, Volume 11, Number 2, April 2001, pages 99–108. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The authors undertook this study to determine the effects of age, gender, and heart rate (HR) on the results of cardiac autonomic function tests for measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 309). Conventional tests (deep breathing, maximum/minimum 30:15 ratio), and a standardized 5-minute resting study, including spectral analysis of HR, were used. The main findings included (1) the indices of all tests, except for the ratio of the low- (LF) to high-frequency (HF) spectral power (LF/HF ratio) and HR itself, are inversely related to age in both sexes; (2) the 5-minute spectral bands (except for the LF/HF ratio), the variation coefficient, expiratory-inspiratory ratio during deep breathing, and the maximum/minimum 30:15 ratio are independent of HR; (3) women up to the age of 55 years have a higher resting HR compared with men; (4) young and middle-aged women show a significantly lower LF power and LF/HF ratio compared with age-matched men, whereas no significant gender differences are observed in the absolute HF power. The authors computed age- and gender-dependent normal values for each of the HRV indices studied here and discuss the clinical consequences arising from gender differences in HRV.

[Agelink 2002] M. W. Agelink, C. Boz, H. Ullrich, and J. Andrich. “Relationship Between Major Depression and Heart Rate Variability. Clinical Consequences and Implications for Antidepressive Treatment”, Psychiatry Research, Volume 113, Number 1–2, December 15, 2002, pages 139–149. Publication 12467953 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A high sympathetic and/or a low cardiovagal activity in patients with major depression (MD) may contribute to the higher cardiac morbidity and mortality of MD patients. Standardized tests of heart rate variability (HRV) allow a quantitative estimation of autonomic nervous system function. However, previous studies on the relationship between HRV and MD have revealed conflicting results. Our study compared time and frequency domain HRV indices (5-min resting study, deep breathing test, Valsalva test) between 32 patients with MD (DSM-III-R) and 64 non-depressed controls. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D); patients were divided into subgroups with moderate (M-HAM-D<25) or severe depressive symptoms (S-HAM-D>or=25). After controlling for age, gender and smoking, S-HAM-D patients showed a higher heart rate and a significantly lower modulation of cardiovagal activity compared to controls. Although some of the HRV indices of the M-HAM-D group did not differ significantly from controls, they were in the expected direction. There was a significantly negative correlation between the HAM-D scores and the vagal HRV indices, suggesting a direct association between the severity of depressive symptoms and the modulation of cardiovagal activity. Clinical consequences arising from these findings and possible implications for treatment are discussed.

[Allen-J 2007] John Allen. “Photoplethysmography and its Application in Clinical Physiological Measurement”, Physiological Measurement, Volume 28, Number 3, 2007, pages R1–R39, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/3/R01 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a simple and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the microvascular bed of tissue. It is often used non-invasively to make measurements at the skin surface. The PPG waveform comprises a pulsatile ('AC') physiological waveform attributed to cardiac synchronous changes in the blood volume with each heart beat, and is superimposed on a slowly varying ('DC') baseline with various lower frequency components attributed to respiration, sympathetic nervous system activity and thermoregulation. Although the origins of the components of the PPG signal are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that they can provide valuable information about the cardiovascular system. There has been a resurgence of interest in the technique in recent years, driven by the demand for low cost, simple and portable technology for the primary care and community based clinical settings, the wide availability of low cost and small semiconductor components, and the advancement of computer-based pulse wave analysis techniques. The PPG technology has been used in a wide range of commercially available medical devices for measuring oxygen saturation, blood pressure and cardiac output, assessing autonomic function and also detecting peripheral vascular disease. The introductory sections of the topical review describe the basic principle of operation and interaction of light with tissue, early and recent history of PPG, instrumentation, measurement protocol, and pulse wave analysis. The review then focuses on the applications of PPG in clinical physiological measurements, including clinical physiological monitoring, vascular assessment and autonomic function.

[Allen-JJB 2007] John J.B. Allen, Andrea S. Chambers, David N. Towers. “The Many Metrics of Cardiac Chronotropy — A Pragmatic Primer and a Brief Comparison of Metrics”, Biological Psychology, Volume 74, Number 2, February 2007, pages 243–262. Publication 17070982 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper focuses on pragmatic issues in obtaining measures of cardiac vagal control, and overviews a set of freely available software tools for obtaining several widely used metrics that putatively reflect sympathetic and/or parasympathetic contributions to cardiac chronotropy. After an overview of those metrics, and a discussion of potential confounds and extraneous influences, an empirical examination of the relationships amongst these metrics is provided. This study examined 10 metrics in 96 unselected college students under conditions of resting baseline and serial paced arithmetic. Intercorrelations between metrics were very high. Factor analyses were conducted on the metrics reflecting variability in cardiac rate, once at baseline and again during mental arithmetic. Factor structure was highly stable across tasks, and included a factor that had high loadings of all variables except Toichi’s ‘‘cardiac sympathetic index’’ (CSI), and a second factor that was defined predominantly by the CSI. Although generally highly correlated, the various metrics responded differently under challenge.

[Anderson-L 2012] Lauren Anderson. The Use of Singing and Playing Wind Instruments to Enhance Pulmonary Function and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis, M.M.E. dissertation – University of Kansas, November 27, 2012, 68 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Although Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is one of the most fatal and devastating lung diseases in the world, treatments to enhance lung capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) are still in their infancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy, specifically singing or playing a wind instrument, on pulmonary function and QOL in children and adolescents with CF. Three participants with CF participated in this two week study, which consisted of two, thirty minute sessions a day, for a total of twenty sessions per person. The sessions for one week of the study included singing, playing the recorder or kazoo, and the other week included just talking, playing board games or playing video games. The Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) results and the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ) results were used in this descriptive study as outcome variables. These data were collected three times throughout the study: pre-study, mid-study and post-study. For two participants, PFT results showed a higher increase during the music week than during the non-music week. For the third participant, he did not complete the study and only participated in the full non-music week and two days of the music week. His PFT results increased more during the non-music week. No significant trends were found when comparing the CFQ results. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

[Andreassi 2006] John L. Andreassi. Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response, Fifth edition, published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, 2006, 560 pages, ISBN 0-8058-4951-3 (978-0-8058-4951-6). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ansakorpi 2002] H. Ansakorpi, J. T. Korpelainen, H. V. Huikuri, U. Tolonen, V. V. Myllylä, and J. I. Isojärvi. “Heart Rate Dynamics in Refractory and Well Controlled Temporal Lobe Epilepsy”, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, Volume 72, 2002, pages 26–30. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objectives: Disorders of cardiovascular and other autonomic nervous system functions are often found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cardiovascular dysregulation in TLE has previously been quantified assessing traditional time and frequency domain measures of heart rate (HR) variability from short term ECG recordings. However, new complexity and fractal measures of HR variability based on non-linear dynamics and fractals ("chaos theory") may disclose certain patterns of HR dynamics that cannot be detected using only conventional measures.
Methods: In addition to the traditional spectral and non-spectral components of HR variability, fractal correlation properties, approximate entropy (ApEn) of RR interval dynamics, and the slope of the power law relation were measured from 24 hour ambulatory ECG recordings to evaluate interictal autonomic cardiovascular regulatory function in 19 patients with refractory TLE, 25 patients with well controlled TLE, and in 34 healthy age and sex matched control subjects.
Results: The traditional time and frequency domain measures were lower in patients with TLE than in controls (p<0.05). In addition, the power law slope (p<0.005) and ApEn (p<0.05) were also reduced in TLE patients. Furthermore, ApEn was smaller in patients with refractory TLE than in patients with well-controlled TLE ( p<0.01), whereas the long term fractal correlation value alpha2 was lower in patients with well controlled TLE (p<0.05). An altered HR variation was not associated with any particular AED regimen.
Conclusions: In addition to reduced overall HR variability, the long term fractal organisation and complexity of HR dynamics seem to be altered in TLE. These abnormalities in HR behaviour may partly contribute to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events, such as life threatening arrhythmias in patients with TLE.

[Antoniadou 2012] Maria Antoniadou, Vasilios Michaelidis, and Venetia Tsara. “Lung Function in Wind Instrument Players”, Pneumon, Volume 25, Number 2, April–June 2012, pages 180–183. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Wind instrument playing requires adequate respiratory function and continuous control of air flow for the production of sound. Professional playing of a wind instrument may be considered to be continuous respiratory muscle training, with resultant improvement in lung function. Playing wind instruments, however, involves increased intra-abdominal and intrathoracic pressures that may predispose to chronic respiratory, or other diseases and cerebrovascular events. This review summarizes the literature concerning the lung function of wind instrument players, the diseases related to wind instrument playing and the use of wind instruments for the prevention and therapy of chronic airway diseases such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome and asthma.

[Aubert 1996] A. E. Aubert, D. Ramaekers, Y. Cuche, R. Lysens, J. Ector, F. van de Werf. “Effect of Long Term Physical Training on Heart Rate Variability”, Computers in Cardiology, September 8–11, 1996, 1996, pages 17–20, doi:10.1109/CIC.1996.542462 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of physical training on the autonomic nervous system in healthy subjects. The authors compared 28 trained athletes and 28 sedentary subjects and divided them into two age groups: 18 to 34 and 35 to 55 years of age. ECG was recorded during 2 minutes while the subjects were breathing periodically under metronome control. RR tachograms were obtained and heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated. In the younger subgroup (18-34 years of age) only the standard deviation of mean RR interval and the frequency content were significantly different. In the older subgroup (35-55 years of age), all measured parameters were significantly different. A clear peak around 0.083 Hz, in coherence with respiratory rate, was observed in athletes and was present to a much smaller amplitude in sedentary subjects. These results show that regular physical training enhances the synchronization between heart rate and respiratory frequency, with a more pronounced effect at a higher age. The fact that physical training has a distinct impact on HRV in healthy subjects, infers that exercising may be of value in the modification of cardiac autonomic activity in cardiac patients.

[Aysin-B 2006] Benhur Aysin and Elif Aysin. “Effect of Respiration in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Analysis”, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society / 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, New York, NY, August 30, 2006 – September 3, 2006, Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:1776-9., Volume 1, 2006, pages 1776–1779, doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260773. Publication 17946068 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Beat-to-beat changes in cardiac signals or heart rate variability (HRV) are controlled by the two branches of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in a very complex manner. Although traditional HRV (tHRV) analysis has shown to provide information on cardiac ANS control, it often fails to isolate the effect of two branches in HRV signals. This problem becomes more obvious especially at low respiratory rates since parasympathetic activity shifts into lower frequencies and overlaps the frequency interval where sympathetic region is defined. To investigate the effect of respiration in HRV analysis we have analyzed the data of 17 healthy subjects while they were performing normal breathing (NB) and deep breathing (DB). Data were analyzed and compared using both tHRV analysis and enhanced HRV (eHRV) analysis where we used respiration to locate the frequency interval of parasympathetic activity in HRV signal. eHRV analysis provided proper isolation and more accurate detection of parasympathetic and sympathetic control of the heart.

[Bao 2013] Katherine Jacobs Bao and Sonja Lyubomirsky. “The Rewards of Happiness”, Chapter 9 in [David 2013], 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bazanova 2013] O.M. Bazanova and D. Vernon. “Interpreting EEG Alpha Activity”, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.05.007 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes ‘alpha activity’ or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it.

To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha “auto-rhythmicity” indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness.

Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

[Berman 2001] Marvin H. Berman. EEG Biofeedback Training for Children Seen in the Public Mental Health System with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Quietmind Foundation internal report, November 28, 2001, retrieved May 29, 2012. See the Microsoft Word file from the Quietmind Foundation website Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A pilot study of sixty children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from within the public mental health outpatient and residential care systems was designed to assess the efficacy of two protocols of brainwave biofeedback or neurofeedback (NFB) as a means for reducing the complex of symptoms associated with this disorder. Thirty-nine subjects (32 treatment and 7 control) completed in the assessment and training protocol. The treatment consisted of forty, thirty-minute twice weekly sessions of brainwave biofeedback training. Based on studies indicating anomalous brainwave frequency profiles of ADHD as compared to normal children. The objective of this study was either to reduce the overall amplitude of brainwave activity across the full brainwave spectrum (.5-30hz) or to selectively increase one frequency band (beta 13-22hz) while decreasing another (theta 4-7hz) in order to create a frequency profile similar to children without ADHD symptoms. Pre and post measures of nonverbal intelligence, attention, and distractibility were gathered to assess the impact of the training. No adverse events ocurred during this study related to brainwave biofeedback training. Significant improvement in non-verbal intelligence was noted for the treatment group and not the controls. Positive trends were noted based on neuropsychological assessment data indicating improved executive functioning and for reduced hyperactivity for the treatment group and not controls that were supported by parent observation measures of ADHD symptoms. Finally, post hoc review of mental health service utilization by participants in this study showed a reduction in the need for other more expensive treatment modalities including individual and family therapy.

[Bernardi 2001] Luciano Bernardi, Peter Sleight, Gabriele Bandinelli, Simone Cencetti, Lamberto Fattorini, Johanna Wdowczyc-Szulc, and Alfonso Lagi. “Effect of Rosary Prayer and Yoga Mantras on Autonomic Cardiovascular Rhythms: Comparative Study”, British Medical Journal, Volume 323, December 22–29, 2001, pages 1446–1449. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: To test whether rhythmic formulas such as the rosary and yoga mantras can synchronise and reinforce inherent cardiovascular rhythms and modify baroreflex sensitivity.
Design: Comparison of effects of recitation of the Ave Maria (in Latin) or of a mantra, during spontaneous and metronome controlled breathing, on breathing rate and on spontaneous oscillations in RR interval, and on blood pressure and cerebral circulation.
Setting: Florence and Pavia, Italy.
Participants: 23 healthy adults.
Main outcome measures: Breathing rate, regularity of breathing, baroreflex sensitivity, frequency of cardiovascular oscillations.
Results: Both prayer and mantra caused striking, powerful, and synchronous increases in existing cardiovascular rhythms when recited six times a minute. Baroreflex sensitivity also increased significantly, from 9.5 (SD 4.6) to 11.5 (4.9) ms/mm Hg, P<0.05.
Conclusion: Rhythm formulas that involve breathing at six breaths per minute induce favourable psychological and possibly physiological effects.

[Berntson 1997] Gary G. Berntson, Thomas Bigger, Jr., Dwain L. Eckberg, Paul Grossman, Peter G. Kaufmann, Marek Malik, Haikady N. Nagaraja, Stephen W. Porges, J. Philip Saul, Peter H. Stone, and Maurits W. Van Der Molen. “Heart Rate Variability: Origins, Methods, and Interpretive Caveats”, Psychophysiology, Volume 34, Number 6, published by Cambridge University Press, 1997, pages 623–648, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1997.tb02140.x. Publication 9401419 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Components of heart rate variability have attracted considerable attention in psychology and medicine and have become important dependent measures in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability, however, remain complex issues and are fraught with pitfalls. The present report (a) examines the physiological origins and mechanisms of heart rate variability, (b) considers quantitative approaches to measurement, and (c) highlights important caveats in the interpretation of heart rate variability. Summary guidelines for research in this area are outlined, and suggestions and prospects for future developments are considered.

[Bettermann 2002] H. Bettermann, D. von Bonin, M. Frühwirth, D. Cysarz, M. Moser. “Effects of Speech Therapy with Poetry on Heart Rate Rhythmicity and Cardiorespiratory Coordination”, International Journal of Cardiology, Volume 84, Number 1, July 2002, pages 77–88. Publication 12104068 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Our objective was to study the effects of guided rhythmic speech with poetry, referred to as anthroposophical therapeutic speech (ATS), on binary differential heart rate dynamics (also called musical heart rate rhythmicity or HRR) as well as on classical spectral parameters during the 15 min after a speech exercise had ended. A total of 105 1-h sessions with speech or control exercises were performed in seven healthy subjects, with 15 sessions each. Heart rate was recorded with ambulatory solid state recorders. Sessions were divided into a 15-min baseline measurement (S1), 30 min of exercise and a 15-min effect measurement (S2). The overall binary pattern predominance (PP) as well as the frequency of predominant and cyclically recurrent cardiorespiratory phase locking patterns were calculated from HRR and their changes from S1 to S2 were compared with the changes in low and high frequency heart rate variability. The results showed that: (i) ATS provokes alterations in heart rate dynamics which are different from those after control exercises and which persist at least for 15 min following exercise; (ii) in comparison to spectral parameters of heart rate variability, pattern predominance discloses the effects of rhythmic speech exercises best; and (iii) cardiorespiratory phase locking patterns, which contribute most to the rhythm pattern predominance, are more prominent after ATS.

[Bhat-N 1999] N. Bhat and K. Bhat. “Anger Control Using Biofeedback: A Clinical Model for Heart Patients”, Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 4, 1999, pages 15–17. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bhave 2010] Swati Y. Bhave and Sunil Saini (editors). The AHA-Syndrome and Cardiovascular Diseases, published by Anamaya Publishers, New Delhii, India, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Binder 1992] T. Binder, B. Frey, G. Porenta, G. Heinz, M. Wutte, G. Kreiner, H. Gössinger, H. Schmidinger, R. Pacher, H. Weber. “Prognostic Value of Heart Rate Variability in Patients Awaiting Cardiac Transplantation”, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Volume 15, Number 11, Part 2, November 1992, pages 2215–2220. Publication 1279628 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined in patients with severe endstage heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation (HTX). These parameters were then correlated with mortality to investigate the performance of HRV in discriminating between groups with high and low risk of death. The standard deviation of five consecutive RR intervals (SDANN) was found to be the parameter with the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (91%). Patients with SDANN values of < 55 msec had a twenty-fold increased risk of death (90% confidence limits: 4-118, P < 0.001). The results furthermore suggest that measurements of HRV are superior to other prognostic markers such as left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, cardiac index, and serum sodium levels. We conclude that HRV is a powerful, noninvasive tool to assess the risk of death in candidates for HTX. HRV measurements can therefore be used as a supplement to other markers of risk to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

[Bonnet 1998] M. H. Bonnet and D. L Arand. “Heart Rate Variability in Insomniacs and Matched Normal Sleepers”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 60, 1998, pages 610–615. Publication 9773766 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: It was hypothesized that psychophysiological insomniacs, who have been shown to have elevated heart rate, body temperature, and whole body metabolic rate, would also have increased low frequency and decreased high frequency power in the spectral analysis of their heart period data.
Method: Groups of 12 objectively defined insomniacs and age-, sex-, and weight-matched controls with normal sleep were evaluated on sleep and EKG measures over a 36-hour sleep laboratory stay.
Results: Heart period was decreased (ie, heart rate was increased) and its SD was decreased in all stages of sleep in the insomniacs compared with the controls. Spectral analysis revealed significantly increased low frequency power and decreased high frequency power in insomniacs compared with controls across all stages of sleep.
Conclusions: Because increased low frequency spectral power is an indicator of increased sympathetic nervous system activity, these data imply that chronic insomniacs could be at increased risk for the development of disorders, such as coronary artery disease, that are related to increased sympathetic nervous system activity.

[Braun-M 2003] Martin Braun. Pitch and harmony detection in the auditory midbrain, 2003. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Bray 2005] Robert L Bray and Monica Pignotti. “Heart Rate Variability in Verifying Treatment Efficacy of Thought Field Therapy™”, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has now been supported, not only by the client’s self report but also by an independent, objective physiological measure known as Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV is gaining increasing popularity for use in both clinical and research settings as a measure of treatment success. Being stable and placebo-fee, it has the potential to meet this need. Twenty eight cases are presented from the clinical practices of the authors and one other TFT trained psychotherapist where HRV was used pre and post TFT treatment. The cases included TFT treatments which addressed a wide variety of problems including phobias, anxiety, trauma, depression, fatigue, learning difficulties, compulsions, obsessions, food craving, anger, and physical pain. A lowering of Subjective Units of Distresses (SUD) as reported by subjects was related to an improvement in HRV SDNN measurement in all cases.

[Brown-RP 2005] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part II - Clinical Applications and Guidelines”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, Number 4, August 2005, pages 711–717. Publication 16131297 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Part I of this series presented a neurophysiologic theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY). Part II will review clinical studies, our own clinical observations, and guidelines for the safe and effective use of yoga breath techniques in a wide range of clinical conditions.
Although more clinical studies are needed to document the benefits of programs that combine pranayama (yogic breathing) asanas (yoga postures), and meditation, there is sufficient evidence to consider Sudarshan Kriya Yoga to be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. SKY has been used as a public health intervention to alleviate PTSD in survivors of mass disasters. Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention, mental focus, and stress tolerance. Proper training by a skilled teacher and a 30-minute practice every day will maximize the benefits. Health care providers
play a crucial role in encouraging patients to maintain their yoga practices.

[Brown-RP 2005a] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: Part I - Neurophysiologic Model”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Volume 11, Number 1, April 2005, pages 189–201. Publication 15750381 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Mind-body interventions are beneficial in stress-related mental and physical disorders. Current research is finding associations between emotional disorders and vagal tone as indicated by heart rate variability. A neurophysiologic model of yogic breathing proposes to integrate research on yoga with polyvagal theory, vagal stimulation, hyperventilation, and clinical observations. Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Many studies demonstrate effects of yogic breathing on brain function and physiologic parameters, but the mechanisms have not been clarified. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY), a sequence of specific breathing techniques (ujjayi, bhastrika, and Sudarshan Kriya) can alleviate anxiety, depression, everyday stress, post-traumatic stress, and stress-related medical illnesses. Mechanisms contributing to a state of calm alertness include increased parasympathetic drive, calming of stress response systems, neuroendocrine release of hormones, and thalamic generators. This model has heuristic value, research implications, and clinical applications.

[Brown-RP 2009] Richard P. Brown and Patricia L. Gerbarg. “Yoga Breathing, Meditation and Longevity”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1172, August 2009, pages 54–62, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04394.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Yoga breathing is an important part of health and spiritual practices in Indo-Tibetan traditions. Considered fundamental for the development of physical well-being, meditation, awareness, and enlightenment, it is both a form of meditation in itself and a preparation for deep meditation. Yoga breathing (pranayama) can rapidly bring the mind to the present moment and reduce stress. In this paper, we review data indicating how breath work can affect longevity mechanisms in some ways that overlap with meditation and in other ways that are different from, but that synergistically enhance, the effects of meditation. We also provide clinical evidence for the use of yoga breathing in the treatment of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and for victims of mass disasters. By inducing stress resilience, breath work enables us to rapidly and compassionately relieve many forms of suffering.

[Calabrese 2000] Calabrese P, Perrault H, Dihn TP, Eberhard H, Benchetrit G. “Cardiorespiratory Interactions During Resistive Load Breathing”, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Volume 279, Number 6, December 2000, pages R2208–R2213. Publication 11080087 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

[Cappo 1984] B. Cappo and D. Holmes. “The utility of prolonged respiratory exhalation for reducing physiological and psychological arousal in non-threatening and threatening situations”, J Psychosom Res, Volume 28, Number 4, 1984, pages 265–273. Publication 6481661 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To determine whether slowing and altering the respiratory pattern is an effective means for reducing physiological and psychological arousal, subjects participated in one of three treatment conditions in which they reduced their respiration rate to 6 cpm and either inhaled quickly and exhaled slowly, inhaled slowly and exhaled quickly, or spent equal amounts of time inhaling and exhaling. Other subjects participated in a distraction control condition or in a no-treatment control condition. Arousal was measured during a practice period, a threat (electrical shocks) anticipation period, and a threat confrontation period. The results indicated that the breathing manipulations were not effective in reducing arousal during the practice period, but that inhaling quickly and exhaling slowly was consistently effective for reducing physiological (skin resistance) and psychological (subjective cognitive) arousal during the anticipation and confrontation periods.

[CastroSotos 2009] Ana Elisa Castro Sotos, Stijn Vanhoof, Wim Van Den Noortgate, and Patrick Onghena. “The Transitivity Misconception of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient”, Statistics Education Research Journal, Volume 8, Number 2, 2009, pages 33–55. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite the relevance of correlational studies for most research domains, many students, teachers, and researchers alike hold misconceptions concerning the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. One of these, the transitivity misconception, has not yet been documented in a systematic way. This paper summarizes the first empirical study, using 279 university students, and examines the relationship between student-based and task-based factors and the appearance of this misconception. In particular, two task-based factors seemed to have a significant effect on its appearance. In addition, the respondents’ level of confidence in their answer to the transitivity item was significantly lower than for most other times.

[Cervellin 2011] Gianfranco Cervellin and Giuseppe Lippi. “From Music-beat to Heart-beat: A Journey in the Complex Interactions Between Music, Brain and Heart”, European Journal of Internal Medicine, Volume 22, Number 4, 2011, pages 371–374, doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2011.02.019. Publication 21767754 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Although the potential influence of music in eliciting organic reactions has been appreciated since the ancient Assyrian and Greek cultures, its relationship with body responses has been believed for long to belong to the field of magic. Growing experimental evidence now attests that some kind of music might indeed modulate several cardiac and neurological functions, as well as trigger biochemical measurable stress-reducing effects in certain individuals, mostly depending on their subjective musical education. On this basis, music has been increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different diseases in healthy and ill subjects over recent years (e.g., the so called "Mozart effect"), although the underlying scientific background is still poorly understood. The aim of this article is to review the current scientific evidences about the complex and multifaceted interactions between music and human biology.

[Chaumeil 1997] Jean-Pierre Chaumeil. “Les Os, les Flûtes, les Morts. Mémoire et Traitement Funéraire en Amazonie «Bones, flutes and the dead. Memory and funeral customs in the Amazon»”, Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Volume 83, in French, 1997, pages 83–110, doi:10.3406/jsa.1997.1672 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Bones, flutes and the dead. Memory and funeral customs in the Amazon A close examination of empirical data related to funeral customs in the Amazon reveals that there are two distinct, contrasting ways of coping with dead. Some groups try to erase the memory of their dead, whereas others strive to keep contact with them. This research thus partly contradicts the common wisdom that the archetypal form of mourning in the Lowlands involves an abrupt break with spirits of the dead. We also suggest a possible link between the possession of sacred flutes — found in several Amazonian societies — , the conservation of bones, and the memorization of the defunct. The conjuncture of these three elements should encourage investigation regarding the very specific form of historical memory developed by these societies.

[Clark-ME 1990] M. E. Clark and R. Hirschman. “Effects of Paced Respiration on Anxiety Reduction in a Clinical Population”, Biofeedback Self Regulation, Volume 15, Number 3, 1990, pages 273–284. Publication 2223892 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paced respiration on autonomic and self-report indices of affect within a clinical population. Thirty-six alcohol-dependent inpatients scoring high in trait anxiety were randomly assigned to either a pacing or attention control group. The paced subjects received 10 minutes of slow-breathing training during the first experimental session, while control subjects simply counted the pacing tones. In a second session, paced subjects were asked to breathe at the same lowered rate (10 cycles per minute) on their own, while the remaining subjects were instructed to relax. Prior to and following each session, self-ratings of tension level and state anxiety were collected. As expected, paced subjects evidenced greater reductions in self-rated tension, state anxiety, and skin conductance levels compared to the control subjects. It was concluded that respiratory pacing is an easily learned self-control strategy and potentially may be a useful therapeutic tool.

[Clifford 2002] Gari D. Clifford. Signal Processing Methods for Heart Rate Variability, Doctoral dissertation – St. Cross College, University of Oxford, England, Fall 2002, 244 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Combatalade 2010] Didier C. Combatalade. Basics of Heart Rate Variability Applied to Psychophysiology, February 2010, 36 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cormier 2010] Yvon Cormier. “Wind-instruments Lung: A Foul Note”, Chest, Volume 138, Number 3, September 2010, pages 467–468, doi:10.1378/chest.10-0868 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Cowan 2001] M. J. Cowan, K. C. Pike, and H. K. Budzynski. “Psychosocial Nursing Therapy Following Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Impact on two-year survival”, Nursing Research, Volume 50, 2001, pages 68–76. Publication 11302295 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Although psychosocial therapy has been shown to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction, it is unknown whether the benefits of psychosocial therapy on mortality reduction extend to out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest, a main cause of cardiovascular mortality.
Objective: Describe efficacy of psychosocial therapy on two-year cardiovascular mortality in sudden cardiac arrest survivors.
Method: Survivors of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation or asystole (N = 129), documented by electrocardiograms from registries of a citywide Medic One unit and two countywide emergency units, were randomized into a two group, experimental, longitudinal design. The intervention consisted of 11 individual sessions, implementing three components: physiologic relaxation with biofeedback training focused on altering autonomic tone; cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at self-management and coping strategies for depression, anxiety, and anger; and cardiovascular health education. The primary outcome measure was cardiovascular mortality.
Results: Risk of cardiovascular death was significantly reduced 86% by psychosocial therapy, p = .03. Six of the seven cardiovascular deaths in the control group were caused by ventricular arrhythmias. The cardiovascular death in the therapy group was due to stroke. Controlling for depression, previous myocardial infarction, low ejection fraction, decreased heart rate variability, and ventricular ectopic beats had little impact on estimated treatment effect. The risk of all-cause mortality was reduced by 62% in the therapy group, p = .13. There were a total of three deaths in the therapy group and eight deaths in the control group.
Conclusions: Psychosocial therapy significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death in sudden cardiac arrest survivors.

[Cysarz 2004] Dirk Cysarz, Dietrich von Bonin, Helmut Lackner, Peter Heusser, Maximilian Moser, and Henrik Bettermann. “Oscillations of Heart Rate and Respiration Synchronize during Poetry Recitation”, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, Volume 287, 2004, pages H579–H587, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01131.2003. Oscillations of Heart Rate and Respiration Synchronize during Poetry Recitation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the synchronization between low-frequency breathing patterns and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate during guided recitation of poetry, i.e., recitation of hexameter verse from ancient Greek literature performed in a therapeutic setting. Twenty healthy volunteers performed three different types of exercises with respect to a cross-sectional comparison: 1) recitation of hexameter verse, 2) controlled breathing, and 3) spontaneous breathing. Each exercise was divided into three successive measurements: a 15-min baseline measurement (S1), 20 min of exercise, and a 15-min effect measurement (S2). Breathing patterns and RSA were derived from respiratory traces and electrocardiograms, respectively, which were recorded simultaneously using an ambulatory device. The synchronization was then quantified by the index , which has been adopted from the analysis of weakly coupled chaotic oscillators. During recitation of hexameter verse, was high, indicating prominent cardiorespiratory synchronization. The controlled breathing exercise showed cardiorespiratory synchronization to a lesser extent and all resting periods (S1 and S2) had even fewer cardiorespiratory synchronization. During spontaneous breathing, cardiorespiratory synchronization was minimal and hardly observable. The results were largely determined by the extent of a low-frequency component in the breathing oscillations that emerged from the design of hexameter recitation. In conclusion, recitation of hexameter verse exerts a strong influence on RSA by a prominent low-frequency component in the breathing pattern, generating a strong cardiorespiratory synchronization.

[David 2013] Susan A. David, Ilona Boniwell, and Amanda Conley Ayers (editors). “Oxford Handbook of Happiness”, Oxford Library of Psychology, published by the Oxford University Press, 2013, 1,097 pages, ISBN 0-19-955725-X (978-0-19-955725-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Dougherty 1992] Cynthia M. Dougherty and Robert L. Burr. “Comparison of heart rate variability in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 70, Number 4, 1992, pages 441–448, doi:10.1016/0002-9149(92)91187-9. Publication 1642181 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Imbalances in autonomic nervous system function have been posed as a possible mechanism that produces ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest in patients with cardiovascular disease. Heart rate (HR) variability is described in survivors and nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest within 48 hours after resuscitation using time and frequency domain analytic approaches. HR data were collected using 24-hour ambulatory electro-cardiograms in 16 survivors and 5 nonsurvivors of sudden cardiac arrest, and 5 control subjects. Survivors of sudden cardiac arrest were followed for 1 year, with recurrent cardiac events occurring in 4 patients who died within that year. Analysis of 24-hour electrocardiograms demonstrated that control subjects had the highest HR variability (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 155.2 +/- 54 ms), with nonsurvivors demonstrating the lowest HR variability (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 52.3 +/- 6.1 ms) and survivors of sudden cardiac arrest falling between the other 2 groups (standard deviation of all RR intervals = 78 +/- 25.5 ms, p less than or equal to 0.0000). Two other indexes of HR variability (mean number of beat to beat differences in RR intervals greater than 50 ms/hour and root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals) did not demonstrate the expected pattern in this sample, indicating that perhaps patterns of HR variability differ between groups of patients with cardiovascular disorders. Spectral analytic methods demonstrated that survivors of sudden cardiac arrest had reduced low- and high-frequency spectral power, whereas nonsurvivors demonstrated a loss of both low- and high-frequency spectral power. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly correlated with standard deviation of all RR intervals and standard deviation of the mean of RR intervals for 5-minute segments. One-year mortality in the survivor group of cardiac arrest was inversely related to several variables including age, standard deviation of all RR intervals, and low frequency power.

[Eley 2008] Robert Eley and Don Gorman. “Music Therapy to Manage Asthma”, Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, Volume 32, Number 1, published by the Centre for Rural and Remote Area Health, University of Southern Queensland, January/Februay 2008, pages 9–10. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study looked at whether a programme of teaching didgeridoo playing and singing to Aboriginal people would be effective in helping to manage their asthma. Whilst there were difficulties with retention of some participants the overall results were positive and participants enjoyed the programme.

[Elliot-AJ 2011] Andrew J. Elliot, Vincent Payen, Jeanick Brisswalter, Francois Curry, and Julian F. Thayer. “A Subtle Threat Cue, Heart Rate Variability, and Cognitive Performance”, Psychophysiology, Volume 48, published by Wiley Periodicals, 2011, pages 1340–1345, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01216.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This research was designed to extend the literature on heart rate variability (HRV) in cognitive performance contexts by examining whether a subtle threat cue (the color red) in a test environment influences HRVreactivity and whether HRV reactivity is associated with change in cognitive performance. Thirty-three participants took an IQ test, briefly viewed red or a chromatic or achromatic control color, and then took a parallel form of the IQ test. High frequency (HF)-HRV (often referred to as respiratory sinus arrhythmia), was assessed before and after the color manipulation. Results indicated that participants who viewed red (relative to a control color) exhibited a decrease in HF-HRVand that decreased HF-HRV was associated with worse IQ performance. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of HRV as an index of effective and efficient emotion regulation in an achievement context.

[Elliot-S 2006] S. Elliot and D. Edmonson. The New Science of Breath, Second Edition, Coherence Press, Allen, Texas, 2006, 158 pages, ISBN 0-9786399-0-1 (978-0-9786399-0-7). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Elliot-WJ 2004] W. J. Elliot, J. L. Izzo, Jr., W. B. White, D. R. Rosing, C. S. Snyder, A. Alter, B. Gavish, and H. R. Black. “Graded Blood Pressure Reduction in Hypertensive Outpatients Associated with Use of a Device to Assist with Slow Breathing”, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Volume 6, 2004, pages 553–559. Publication 15470284 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To study the effects of device-guided breathing on office systolic blood pressure (SBP), five centers randomized 149 untrained hypertensives (50% male, age 59+/-10 years, baseline blood pressure 150+/-9/86+/-9 mm Hg, 77% taking drug therapy). One half received a device to guide slow breathing; all received a home blood pressure monitor and only simple, written instructions. The changes in office SBP (adjusted for office-to-home difference in baseline SBP and accumulated time spent in slow breathing, guided and measured by the device) were significantly (p<0.001 for trend) correlated with accumulated time spent in slow breathing. Greater decreases in SBP (-15.0+/-1.8 vs. -7.3+/-1.9 mm Hg) were observed for those who spent more (vs. less) than 180 minutes over 8 weeks in slow breathing, as well as those who just monitored their blood pressure at home (-9.2+/-1.6 mm Hg). Thus, even without training, hypertensive patients who receive a device to guide slow breathing significantly lowered their office SBP if the total time spent in slow breathing over 8 weeks exceeded a "threshold" value of 180 minutes.

[Ellis-RJ 2005] Robert J. Ellis and Robert F. Simons. “The Impact of Music on Subjective and Physiological Indices of Emotion while Viewing Films”, Psychomusicology, Volume 19, Number 1, 2005, pages 15–40. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite continued acknowledgment ofthc importance of music in viewing films, empirical studies investigating the interaction of music with film are conspicuously absent. Evidence from a few isolated cognitive studies suggests that the relationship between music and film is additive. Little is known, however, about the physiology of emotional response to viewing filmmusic stimuli. The present study utilized both selfreport as well as physiological indices to investigate the nature ofthe film and music relationship. Six-second films (having either negative orpositive valence and low- or high-arousal) were paired with excerpts from instrumental classical music (pretested for valence and arousal). Results indicate a fairly straight-forward, additive relationship in terms of emotion self report. The modulating role of music on physiological reactions to film, however, was more complex. This study corroborates previous evidence regarding the subjective experience ofviewing images with music. Physiological evidence. however, suggests that the interactions between music and film not always are predictable.

[Ellis-RJ 2008] Robert J. Ellis, John J. Sollers III, Eve A. Edelstein, and Julian F. Thayer. “Data Transforms for Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability”, Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium & International ISA Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium, Copper Mountain, Colorado, April 4–6, 2008, 2008, pages 392–397. Publication 19141947 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Autoregressive and fast Fourier transform spectral analyses of high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) result in exponentially-distributed values that make standard parametric statistical analyses problematic. In this paper, we evaluate three transforms of raw HF-HRV spectral power. Two occur commonly in the literature (a natural log [ln] transform and a reactivity transform); a third is novel (a “percent deviation from the mean” transform). A single data set was used, with each subject providing two data points and for which we predicted a significant difference in HF-HRV power. We quantified the effect size of each transform by noting the percentage of (non)overlap between the ± 1 standard errors surrounding the two period means, with less overlap indicating a stronger effect. Overlap was 19.2% in the raw data (Fig 1b.), 3.7% in the ln transform (Fig. 2b), –57.1% in the reactivity transform (Fig. 3b), and –70.2% in the percent deviation transform (Fig. 4b). The percent deviation transform resulted in more normally-distributed data than the reactivity transform and more tightlydistributed data than the ln transform, making it a favorable choice for investigators.

[Ellis-RJ 2010] Robert J. Ellis and Julian F. Thayer. “Music and Autonomic Nervous System (Dys)function”, Music Perception, Volume 27, Number 4, April 2010, pages 317–326, doi:10.1525/mp.2010.27.4.317. Publication 21197136 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Despite a wealth of evidence for the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in health and disease and the ability of music to affect ANS activity, few studies have systematically explored the therapeutic effects of music on ANS dysfunction. Furthermore, when ANS activity is quantified and analyzed, it is usually from a point of convenience rather than from an understanding of its physiological basis. After a review of the experimental and therapeutic literatures exploring music and the ANS, a “Neurovisceral Integration” perspective on the interplay between the central and autonomic nervous systems is introduced, and the associated implications for physiological, emotional, and cognitive health are explored. The construct of heart rate variability is discussed both as an example of this complex interplay and as a useful metric for exploring the sometimes subtle effect of music on autonomic response. Suggestions for future investigations using musical interventions are offered based on this integrative account.

[Ellis-RJ 2011] Robert J. Ellis. Music at the Heart of the Matter, contained in In J. P. Finley (Ed.), Teaching heart auscultation to health professionals (pp. 82–95). Toronto: Hospital for Sick Children., 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Ellis-RJ 2012] Robert J. Ellis, Julian Koenig, and Julian F. Thayer. “Getting to the Heart: Autonomic Nervous System Function in the Context of Evidence-Based Music Therapy”, Music and Medicine, Volume 4, Number 2, 2012, pages 90–99, doi:10.1177/1943862112437766 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: As evidence-based music therapy turns its attention to physiological responses, it will need outcome measures that are grounded in an understanding of mechanisms which drive physiological activity. Despite strong indications for the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in health and disease and its response to music, few studies have systematically explored the therapeutic or interventional effects of music on ANS dysfunction. After reviewing the experimental and interventional literatures on music and ANS response, a ‘‘neurovisceral integration’’ perspective on the interplay between the central nervous system and ANS is introduced, and the associated implications for physiological, emotional, and cognitive health are explored. The construct of heart rate variability is discussed both as an example of this complex interplay and as a useful metric for exploring the sometimes subtle effect of music on autonomic response. Suggestions for future investigations using musical interventions are offered based on this integrative account.

[Ellis-RJ 2013] Robert J. Ellis, Bente Bruijn, Andrea C. Norton, Ellen Winner, Gottfried Schlaug. “Training-Mediated Leftward Asymmetries During Music Processing: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal fMRI Analysis”, NeuroImage, Volume 75, July 15, 2013, pages 97–107. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Practicing a musical instrument has a profound impact on the structure and function of the human brain. The present fMRI study explored how relative hemispheric asymmetries in task-related activity during music processing (same/different discrimination) are shaped by musical training (quantified as cumulative hours of instrument practice), using both a large (N = 84) cross-sectional data set of children and adults, and a smaller (N = 20) two time-point longitudinal data set of children tracked over 3 to 5 years. The cross-sectional analysis revealed a significant leftward asymmetry in task-related activation, with peaks in Heschl's gyrus and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The SMG peak was further characterized by a leftward asymmetry in the partial correlation strength with subjects' cumulative hours of practice, controlling for subjects' age and task performance. This SMG peak was found to exhibit a similar pattern of response in the longitudinal data set (in this case, with subjects' cumulative hours of practice over the course of the study), controlling for age, scan interval, and amount of instrument practice prior to the first scan. This study presents novel insights into the ways musical instrument training shapes task-related asymmetries in neural activity during music processing.

[Fensli 2005] Rune Fensli, Einar Gunnarson, and Torstein Gundersen. “A Wearable ECG-recording System for Continuous Arrhythmia Monitoring in a Wireless Tele-Home-Care Situation”, Computer-Based Medical Systems, Dublin, Ireland, June 23–24, 2005, 2005. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: New wireless technology for tele-home-care purposes gives new possibilities for monitoring of vital parameters with wearable biomedical sensors, and will give the patient the freedom to be mobile and still be under continuously monitoring and thereby to better quality of patient care. This paper describes a new concept for wireless and wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor transmitting signals to a diagnostic station at the hospital, and this concept is intended for detecting rarely occurrences of cardiac arrhythmias and to follow up critical patients from their home while they are carrying out daily activities.

[Fishbein 1988] Martin Fishbein, Susan E. Middlestadt, Victor Ottati, Susan Straus, and Alan Ellis. “Medical Problems Among ICSOM Musicians: Overview of a National Survey”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1988, pages 1–8. ICSOM = International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A national survey of professional orchestra musicians reveals a high prevalence of medical problems: 82% reported experiencing a medical problem, and 76% listed at least one problem severe enough to affect performance.

[Fitzgibbon-SP 2013] Sean P. Fitzgibbon, Trent W. Lewis, David M. W. Powers, Emma W. Whitham, John O. Willoughby, and Kenneth J. Pope. “Surface Laplacian of Central Scalp Electrical Signals is Insensitive to Muscle Contamination”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Volume 60, Number 1, 2013, pages 4–9, doi:10.1109/TBME.2012.2195662 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of surface Laplacian processing on gross and persistent electromyographic (EMG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in electrical scalp recordings.Wemade scalp recordings during passive and active tasks, on awake subjects in the absence and in the presence of complete neuromuscular blockade. Three scalp surface Laplacian estimators were compared to left ear and common average reference (CAR). Contamination was quantified by comparing power after paralysis (brain signal, B) with power before paralysis (brain plus muscle signal, B+M). Brain:Muscle (B:M) ratios for the methods were calculated using B and differences in power after paralysis to represent muscle (M). There were very small power differences after paralysis up to 600 Hz using surface Laplacian transforms (B:M > 6 above 30 Hz in central scalp leads). Scalp surface Laplacian transforms reduce muscle power in central and pericentral leads to less than one sixth of the brain signal, two to three times better signal detection than CAR. Scalp surface Laplacian transformations provide robust estimates for detecting high-frequency (gamma) activity, for assessing electrophysiological correlates of disease, and also for providing a measure of brain electrical activity for use as a standard in the development of brain/muscle signal separation methods.

[Frederick 2005] Jon A. Frederick, DeAnna L. Timmermann, Harold L. Russell, and Joel F. Lubar. “EEG Coherence Effects of Audio-visual Stimulation (AVS) at Dominant and Twice Dominant Alpha Frequency”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 8, Number 4, 2005, pages 25–42, doi:10.1300/J184v08n04_03 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effects of a single session of audio-visual stimulation (AVS) at the dominant alpha rhythm and twice-dominant alpha frequency on EEG coherence were studied in 23 subjects. An eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subject's dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at their dominant alpha frequency or at twice dominant alpha frequency for twenty minutes, while EEG was recorded in 5-minute intervals. A post-session baseline was recorded 30 minutes after each session. AVS decreased coherence in the intrahemispheric projections from the occipital region and the parietal midline, and generally increased coherence, with few exceptions, among all other longitudinal pairs. Interhemispheric coherence increased posteriorily and high frequencies, and tended to decrease frontally and low frequencies. Alpha AVS was more effective than twice-alpha AVS at producing interhemispheric synchronization, and tended to produce more effects overall. Although main effects of frequency and time were observed, when individual coherence pairs changed, they almost always changed in only one direction. Overall coherence was greater during the first ten minutes than the last ten minutes, and greatest in the beta 1 and delta 2 bands, and lowest in the alpha and delta 1 bands. Few, if any, significant effects persisted into the post-stimulation baseline. A new method of assessing the effects of multiple comparisons on experimentwise error, based on randomization theory, is proposed and implemented.

[Friedman 1998] Bruce H. Friedman and Julian F. Thayer. “Anxiety and Autonomic Flexibility: A cardiovascular approach”, Biological Psychology, Volume 49, Number 3, November 1998, pages 303–323, doi:10.1016/S0301-0511(97)00027-6. Publication 9858059 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Autonomic characteristics of panickers, blood phobics, and nonanxious controls were compared with a variety of cardiovascular measures, including spectral analysis of the cardiac inter-beat interval time series (derived from the electrocardiogram). Responses to laboratory stressors (shock avoidance and cold face stress) of 16 participants who reported recent occurrences of frequent severe panic attacks, 15 participants who reported strong somatic reactions and fainting to the sight of blood, and 15 controls, were recorded. Results suggested distinct autonomic patterns among the three groups. Across conditions, panickers displayed the highest heart rates (HR) coupled with the least HR variability, which indicates low levels of cardiac vagal tone. Blood phobics showed more vagally mediated HR variability than panickers, with a significant association between cardiac rate and mean arterial pressure. Controls generally showed the most HR variability and 'spectral reserve' (a quality that indicates flexible responsivity). Results are discussed in the context of traditional models of anxiety and autonomic activity in contrast to contemporary notions of stability and change in biological systems.

[Friedman 2007] Bruce H. Friedman. “An Autonomic Flexibility-neurovisceral Integration Model of Anxiety and Cardiac Vagal Tone”, Biological Psychology, Volume 74, Number 2, February 2007, pages 185–199, doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.009. Publication 17069959 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Research on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac vagal tone, and their relationship to anxiety is reviewed in the context of the autonomic flexibility and neurovisceral integration models of adaptive functioning. These perspectives address the qualities of response flexibility and inhibition across multiple levels, incorporating central and autonomic nervous system mechanisms of environmental engagement, as well as principles derived from non-linear dynamics. These models predict reduced HRV and vagal tone in anxiety, and the literature has generally supported this prediction, with exceptions as are noted. State, trait, and clinical expressions of anxiety are considered, along with the clinical, methodological, and theoretical implications of this research. A portrayal of anxiety as a restricted response range across biological and behavioral realms of functioning is drawn from the literature on anxiety and HRV.

[Fukuta 2003] Hidekatsu Fukuta, Junichiro Hayano, Shinji Ishihara, Seiichiro Sakata, Seiji Mukai, Nobuyuki Ohte, Kazuhito Ojika, Keiko Yagi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Sinken Sohmiya, and Genjiro Kimura. “Prognostic Value of Heart Rate Variability in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease on Chronic Haemodialysis”, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Volume 18, 2003, pages 318–325. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gevirtz 2008] Richard Gevirtz and Constance Dalenberg. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in the Treatment of Trauma Symptoms”, Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 1, Spring 2008, pages 22–23. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in the Treatment of Trauma Symptoms Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Recent research in the neurobiology of trauma supports the likelihood of more effective treatment with the inclusion of somatic techniques such as heart rate variability biofeedback. In this article, an argument is made for integration of heart rate variability biofeedback with cognitive behavioral techniques in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Some preliminary results are reported together with a detailed case history.

[Gevirtz 2011] R. Gevirtz. Cardio-respiratory Psychophysiology: Gateway to Mind-body Medicine, BFE conference workshop, Munich, Germany, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Giardino 2004] Nicholas D. Giardino, Leighton Chan, and Soo Borson. “Combined Heart Rate Variability and Pulse Oximetry Biofeedback for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Preliminary Findings”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 2, June 2004, pages 121–133, doi:10.1023/B:APBI.0000026638.64386.89. Publication 15208975 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of an intervention that included heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and walking with pulse oximetry feedback to improve functioning and quality of life for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty patients with COPD participated in 5 weekly sessions of HRV biofeedback and 4 weekly sessions of walking practice with oximetry feedback, with instructions for daily home practice. Primary outcomes measures were the distance walked in 6 min (6MWD) and overall quality of life, as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Secondary outcomes included measures of self-efficacy, self-reported disability, anxiety, depression, dyspnea before and after the 6MWD, and HRV at the frequency of respiration during spontaneous and paced breathing. After 10 weeks of training, participants showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in 6MWD and quality of life. Significant changes were also seen in self-efficacy, disability, dyspnea before and after the 6MWD, and HRV amplitude during spontaneous breathing. We conclude that our intervention is feasible for patients with COPD and that further research using a randomized controlled design is warranted.

[Gil 2010] E. Gil, M. Orini, R. Bailón, J. M. Vergara, L. Mainardi, and P. Laguna. “Photoplethysmography Pulse Rate Variability as a Surrogate Measurement of Heart Rate Variability During Non-stationary Conditions”, Physiological Measurement, Volume 31, 2010, pages 1271–1290, doi:10.1088/0967-3334/31/9/015. Publication 20702919 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this paper we assessed the possibility of using the pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from the photoplethysmography signal as an alternativemeasurement of the HRV signal in non-stationary conditions. The study is based on analysis of the changes observed during a tilt table test in the heart rate modulation of 17 young subjects. First, the classical indices of HRV analysis were compared to the indices from PRV in intervals where stationarity was assumed. Second, the time-varying spectral properties of both signals were compared by timefrequency (TF) and TF coherence analysis. Third, the effect of replacing PRV with HRV in the assessment of the changes of the autonomic modulation of the heart rate was considered. Time-invariant HRV and PRV indices showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) and high correlation (> 0.97). Time-frequency analysis revealed that the TF spectra of both signals were highly correlated (0.99 ± 0.01); the difference between the instantaneous power, in the LF and HF bands, obtained from HRV and PRV was small (< 10−3 s−2) and their temporal patterns were highly correlated (0.98 ± 0.04 and 0.95 ± 0.06 in the LF and HF bands, respectively) and TF coherence in the LF and HF bands was high (0.97 ± 0.04 and 0.89 ± 0.08, respectively). Finally, the instantaneous power in the LF band was observed to significantly increase during head-up tilt by both HRV and PRV analysis. These results suggest that although some differences in the time-varying spectral indices extracted from HRV and PRV exist, mainly in the HF band associated with respiration, PRV could be used as a surrogate of HRV during non-stationary conditions, at least during the tilt table test.

[Gladwell 2011] Valerie Gladwell, Pekka Kuoppa, Mika Tarvainen, Jules Pretty, and Daniel Brown. Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: Night-time Heart Rate Variability is Increased Following a Lunchtime Walk in Nature, published by University of Essex, 2011, 1 page. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gladwell 2012] Valerie F. Gladwell, Daniel K. Brown, J. L. Barton, Mika P. Tarvainen, Pekka Kuoppa, Jules Pretty, J. M. Suddaby, and Gavin R. H. Sandercock. “The Effect of Views of Nature on Autonomic Control”, European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume 112, Issue 9, September 2012, pages 3379–3386, doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2318-8 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Previously studies have shown that nature improves mood and self-esteem and reduces blood pressure. Walking within a natural environment has been suggested to alter autonomic nervous system control, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive method of assessing autonomic control and can give an insight into vagal modulation. Our hypothesis was that viewing nature alone within a controlled laboratory environment would induce higher levels of HRV as compared to built scenes. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured during viewing different scenes in a controlled environment. HRV was used to investigate alterations in autonomic activity, specifically parasympathetic activity. Each participant lay in the semi-supine position in a laboratory while we recorded 5 min (n = 29) of ECG, BP and respiration as they viewed two collections of slides (one containing nature views and the other built scenes). During viewing of nature, markers of parasympathetic activity were increased in both studies. Root mean squared of successive differences increased 4.2 ± 7.7 ms (t = 2.9, p = 0.008) and natural logarithm of high frequency increased 0.19 ± 0.36 ms2 Hz−1 (t = 2.9, p = 0.007) as compared to built scenes. Mean HR and BP were not significantly altered. This study provides evidence that autonomic control of the heart is altered by the simple act of just viewing natural scenes with an increase in vagal activity.

[Goldberger 1988] Ary L. Goldberger, D. R. Rigney, J. Mietus, E. M. Antman, and S. Greenwald. “Nonlinear Dynamics in Sudden Cardiac Death Syndrome: Heartrate Oscillations and Bifurcations”, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Volume 44, Number 11–12, December 1, 1988, pages 983–987, doi:10.1007/BF01939894 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death show evidence of nonlinear heartrate dynamics, including abrupt spectral changes (bifurcations) and sustained low frequency (.01–.04 Hz) oscillations in heartrate.

[Goldberger 1991] Ary L. Goldberger. “Is the Normal Heartbeat Chaotic or Homeostatic?”, News in Physiological Science, Volume 6, April 1991, pages 87–91. Publication 11537649 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Limits to the usefulness of homeostasis as a guiding physiological principle are revealed by new mechanisms derived from study of nonlinear systems that generate a type of variability called chaos. Loss of complex physiological variability may occur in certain pathological conditions including heart rate dynamics before sudden death and with aging.

[Goncharova 2003] I. I. Goncharova, D. J. McFarland, T. M., Vaughan, and J. R. Wolpaw. “EMG Contamination of EEG: Spectral and Topographical Characteristics”, Clinical Neurophysiology,, Volume 114, Number 9, 2003, pages 1580–1593, doi:10.1016/S1388-2457(03)00093-2 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: Electromyogram (EMG) contamination is often a problem in electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, particularly, for those applications such as EEG-based brain–computer interfaces that rely on automated measurements of EEG features. As an essential prelude to developing methods for recognizing and eliminating EMG contamination of EEG, this study defines the spectral and topographical characteristics of frontalis and temporalis muscle EMG over the entire scalp. It describes both average data and the range of individual differences.
Methods: In 25 healthy adults, signals from 64 scalp and 4 facial locations were recorded during relaxation and during defined (15, 30, or 70% of maximum) contractions of frontalis or temporalis muscles.
Results: In the average data, EMG had a broad frequency distribution from 0 to .200 Hz. Amplitude was greatest at 20–30 Hz frontally and 40–80 Hz temporally. Temporalis spectra also showed a smaller peak around 20 Hz. These spectral components attenuated and broadened centrally. Even with weak (15%) contraction, EMG was detectable ðP , 0:001Þ near the vertex at frequencies .12 Hz in the average data and .8 Hz in some individuals.
Conclusions: Frontalis or temporalis muscle EMG recorded from the scalp has spectral and topographical features that vary substantially across individuals. EMG spectra often have peaks in the beta frequency range that resemble EEG beta peaks.
Significance: While EMG contamination is greatest at the periphery of the scalp near the active muscles, even weak contractions can produce EMG that obscures or mimics EEG alpha, mu, or beta rhythms over the entire scalp. Recognition and elimination of this contamination is likely to require recording from an appropriate set of peripheral scalp locations.

[Goss 2013a] Clinton F. Goss and Eric B. Miller. “Dynamic Metrics of Heart Rate Variability”, August 29, 2013, 4 pages, arXiv:1308.6018. Dynamic Metrics of Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Numerous metrics of heart rate variability (HRV) have been described, analyzed, and compared in the literature. However, they rarely cover the actual metrics used in a class of HRV data acquisition devices – those designed primarily to produce real-time metrics. This paper characterizes a class of metrics that we term dynamic metrics. We also report the results of a pilot study which compares one such dynamic metric, based on photoplethysmographic data using a moving sampling window set to the length of an estimated breath cycle (EBC), with established HRV metrics. The results show high correlation coefficients between the dynamic EBC metrics and the established static SDNN metric (standard deviation of Normal-to-Normal) based on electrocardiography. These results demonstrate the usefulness of data acquisition devices designed for real-time metrics.

[Goss 2014] Clint Goss and Eric B. Miller. Flute Playing Physiology — A Collection of Papers on the Physiological Effects of the Native American Flute, June 6, 2014, 54 pages, doi:10.13140/2.1.4064.0643. Flute Playing Physiology Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Summary: This collection of five papers reflects various aspects of research done on the physiological effects of the Native American flute. Versions of each of these papers have been published elsewhere.

[Goswami 2011] Damodar Prasad Goswami, Dewaki Nandan Tibarewala, and Dilip Kumar Bhattacharya. “Analysis of Heart Rate Variability Signal in Meditation Using Second-order Difference Plot”, Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 109, Number 114703, 2011, 6 pages, doi:10.1063/1.3586270 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this article, the heart rate variability signal taken from subjects practising different types of meditations have been investigated to find the underlying similarity among them and how they differ from the non-meditative condition. Four different groups of subjects having different meditation techniques are involved. The data have been obtained from the Physionet and also collected with our own ECG machine. For data analysis, the second order difference plot is applied. Each of the plots obtained from the second order differences form a single cluster which is nearly elliptical in shape except for some outliers. In meditation, the axis of the elliptical cluster rotates anticlockwise from the cluster formed from the premeditation data, although the amount of rotation is not of the same extent in every case. This form study reveals definite and specific changes in the heart rate variability of the subjects during meditation. All the four groups of subjects followed different procedures but surprisingly the resulting physiological effect is the same to some extent. It indicates that there is some commonness among all the meditative techniques in spite of their apparent dissimilarity and it may be hoped that each of them leads to the same result as preached by the masters of meditation. The study shows that meditative state has a completely different physiology and that it can be achieved by any meditation technique we have observed. Possible use of this tool in clinical setting such as in stress management and in the treatment of hypertension is also mentioned.

[Gruzelier 2005] John Gruzelier and Tobias Egner. “Critical Validation Studies of Neurofeedback”, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Volume 14, 2005, pages 83–104, doi:10.1016/j.chc.2004.07.002. Publication 15564053 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

[Gruzelier 2009] John Gruzelier. “A Theory of Alpha/Theta Neurofeedback, Creative Performance Enhancement, Long Distance Functional Connectivity and Psychological Integration”, Cognitive Processes, Volume 10, Supplement 1, February 2009, pages S101–S109, doi:10.1007/s10339-008-0248-5. Publication 19082646 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Professionally significant enhancement of music and dance performance and mood has followed training with an EEG-neurofeedback protocol which increases the ratio of theta to alpha waves using auditory feedback with eyes closed. While originally the protocol was designed to induce hypnogogia, a state historically associated with creativity, the outcome was psychological integration, while subsequent applications focusing on raising the theta-alpha ratio, reduced depression and anxiety in alcoholism and resolved post traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). In optimal performance studies we confirmed associations with creativity in musical performance, but effects also included technique and communication. We extended efficacy to dance and social anxiety. Diversity of outcome has a counterpart in wide ranging associations between theta oscillations and behaviour in cognitive and affective neuroscience: in animals with sensory-motor activity in exploration, effort, working memory, learning, retention and REM sleep; in man with meditative concentration, reduced anxiety and sympathetic autonomic activation, as well as task demands in virtual spatial navigation, focussed and sustained attention, working and recognition memory, and having implications for synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. Neuroanatomical circuitry involves the ascending mescencephalic-cortical arousal system, and limbic circuits subserving cognitive as well as affective/motivational functions. Working memory and meditative bliss, representing cognitive and affective domains, respectively, involve coupling between frontal and posterior cortices, exemplify a role for theta and alpha waves in mediating the interaction between distal and widely distributed connections. It is posited that this mediation in part underpins the integrational attributes of alpha-theta training in optimal performance and psychotherapy, creative associations in hypnogogia, and enhancement of technical, communication and artistic domains of performance in the arts.

[Gumilla 1741] José Gumilla. El Orinoco Ilustrado: Historia Natural, Civil, y Geographica, de Este Gran Rio y de sus Caudalosas Vertientes «The Orinoco Ilustrated: Natural History, Civil, and Geography, of this Great River and its Mighty Banks», published by Manuel Fernandez, Madrid, Spain, in French and Spanish, 1741, 580 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gumilla 1758] José Gumilla. Historie Naturelle, Civile et Geographique de L'Orenoque, et des princípales Riviéres qui s'y jettent «Natural History, Civil and Geographical, of the Orinoco, and the Main Rivers Flowing Into (Volume One)», Tome Premier, published by Chez Jean Mossy Libraire, Canebiere, Spain, in French, 1758, 428 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Gumilla 1791] José Gumilla. Historia Natural, Civil y Geografica de las Naciones Situadas en las Riveras del Rio Orinoco «Natural History, Civil and National Geographic, Located on the Orinoco Rivers (Volume 1)», Tomo I, published by Carlos Gilbert y Tutó, Barcelona, Spain, in Spanish, 1758, 398 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Haapaniemi 2001] Tarja Haapaniemi. Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease and its Correlates to Medication and Dopamine Transporter Binding, Doctoral dissertation – University of Oulu, Finland, April 9, 2001, 87 pages, ISBN 951-42-5963-7. Autonomic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease and its Correlates to Medication and Dopamine Transporter Binding Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) may suffer from autonomic nervous system dysfunction even in the early phase of the disease. We assessed the autonomic cardiovascular and sudomotor regulation in de novo PD patients with and without medication. We also measured the dopamine (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) uptake in the PD patients using 2β-carboxymethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane (β-CIT) SPECT and studied the clinical correlates of the uptake. Sixty PD patients were included in the study and randomised to receive levodopa, bromocriptine or selegiline (n=20 in each) as their treatment. Thirty patients were examined with β-CIT SPECT. The results of the patients were compared with those of healthy controls and within the subgroups at different time points.

Cardiovascular autonomic regulation was assessed using standard cardiovascular reflex tests at baseline, after six months' medication and following a 6-week washout period. The heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) regulation was impaired in PD patients at baseline, and PD medications modified the responses further. Bromocriptine and selegiline, in contrast to levodopa, increased the orthostatic BP fall and suppressed the BP response to isometric exercise. The long-term cardiovascular autonomic function was evaluated from ambulatory ECG recordings by analysis of traditional spectral and non-spectral components of HR fluctuation together with two-dimensional vector analysis and power-law relationship analysis of the HR dynamics. All spectral measures and the slope of the power-law relationship demonstrated impaired tonic cardiovascular regulation in the PD patients.

Sympathetic sudomotor activity was evaluated using the sympathetic skin response (SSR). The major finding was suppression of the SSR amplitudes with an inverse correlation to clinical disability, whereas PD medication seemed to have only minor effects. The changes in amplitude and repetitiveness of the SSRs with normal adaptation suggest deficits at several levels of the SSR reflex arc.

DAT uptake, assessed by β-CIT SPECT, was diminished in the striatum and especially the putamen of the PD patients, and correlated with the results of the cardiovascular reflex tests and ambulatory ECG recordings. Simultaneous measurement of SERT binding demonstrated decreased SERT availability in the thalamic and frontal areas.

The results demonstrate disturbances of the reflectory and tonic cardiovascular autonomic regulation caused by PD itself. PD medications further modify the reflectory responses. The degenerative process in PD also involves the sympathetic sudomotor pathway. β-CIT SPECT provides a useful method for simultaneous assessment of DAT and SERT binding, demonstrating the deficit of serotonin metabolism in PD.

[Habibi 2013] Assal Habibi, Vinthia Wirantana, and Arnold Starr. “Cortical Activity During Perception of Musical Pitch”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 30, Number 5, June 2013, pages 463–479, doi:10.1525/mp.2013.30.5.463. Publication 10.1525/mp.2013.30.5.463 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study investigates the effects of music training on brain activity to violations of melodic expectancies. We recorded behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) responses of musicians and nonmusicians to discrepancies of pitch between pairs of unfamiliar melodies based on Western classical rules. Musicians detected pitch deviations significantly better than nonmusicians. In musicians compared to nonmusicians, auditory cortical potentials to notes but not unrelated warning tones exhibited enhanced P200 amplitude generally, and in response to pitch deviations enhanced amplitude for N150 and P300 (P3a) but not N100 was observed. P3a latency was shorter in musicians compared to nonmusicians. Both the behavioral and cortical activity differences observed between musicians and nonmusicians in response to deviant notes were significant with stimulation of the right but not the left ear, suggesting that left-sided brain activity differentiated musicians from nonmusicians. The enhanced amplitude of N150 among musicians with right ear stimulation was positively correlated with earlier age onset of music training. Our data support the notion that long-term music training in musicians leads to functional reorganization of auditory brain systems, and that these effects are potentiated by early age onset of training.

[Halbmayer 2008] Ernst Halbmayer. “Meanings of Suicide and Conceptions of Death Among the Yukpa and Other Amerindians of Lowland South America «Die Bedeutung des Selbstmords und Konzeptionen des Todes bei den Yupka und anderen Indigenen des südamerikanischen Tieflandes»”, Curare, Volume 31, Number 1, in English and German, 2008, pages 72–86. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hallman 2011] Hallman DM, Olsson EM, von Schéele B, Melin L, Lyskov E. “Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Subjects with Stress-related Chronic Neck Pain: A Pilot Study”, 2011, doi:10.1007/s10484-011-9147-0. Publication 21365308 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Recent studies focusing on autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunctions, together with theoretical pathophysiological models of musculoskeletal disorders, indicate the involvement of ANS regulation in development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain. Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback (BF) in increasing HRV and reducing the symptoms of different disorders characterized by ANS aberration. The study investigated the effects of resonance frequency HRV BF on autonomic regulation and perceived health, pain, stress and disability in 24 subjects with stress-related chronic neck-shoulder pain. Twelve subjects participated in 10 weekly sessions of resonant HRV BF and were compared to a control group. Subjective reports and HRV measures during relaxation and in response to a standardized stress protocol were assessed for both groups pre- and post-intervention. Group × time interactions revealed a significantly stronger increase over time in perceived health (SF-36) for the treatment group, including vitality, bodily pain and social functioning. Interactions were also seen for HRV during relaxation and reactivity to stress. The present pilot study indicates improvement in perceived health over a 10 week intervention with HRV-biofeedback in subjects with chronic neck-pain. Increased resting HRV as well as enhanced reactivity to hand grip and cold pressor tests might reflect beneficial effects on ANS regulation, and suggest that this intervention protocol is suitable for a larger controlled trial.

[Harmat 2010] László Harmat and Töres Theorell. “Heart Rate Variability During Singing and Flute Playing”, Music and Medicine, Volume 2, Number 1, January 2010, pages 10–17, doi:10.1177/1943862109354598 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The authors tested five professional singers' and four flute players' physiological performance arousal (4 male, 5 female) by means of Actiheart® recordings. In addition, they used a 5-point Likert-type scale to assess the subjects' nervousness. Every musician performed a relaxed and a strenuous piece with (concert) and without (rehearsal) an audience. A one-way analysis of variance in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) showed a significant difference across the four different conditions (easy/rehearsal, strenuous/rehearsal, easy/concert, and strenuous/concert) within subjects. There were no significant differences in heart rate reaction patterns between subjects. With regard to HRV, on the other hand, low frequency (LF) power and high frequency (HF) power reaction patterns in the four situations varied significantly between subjects. In addition, the authors found a significantly lower LF power during the concert in those who were nervous before the concert compared with those who were not nervous.

[Harmat 2011] László Harmat, Fredrik Ullén, Örjan de Manzano, Erik Olsson, Ulf Elofsson, Bo von Schéele, and Töres Theorell. “Heart Rate Variability During Piano Playing: A Case Study of Three Professional Solo Pianists Playing a Self-Selected and a Difficult Prima Vista Piece”, Music and Medicine, Volume 3, Number 2, April 2011, pages 102–107, doi:10.1177/1943862110387158 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine self-rated emotions and psychophysiological reactions during two contrasting professional experiences of piano playing. Three internationally well-known professional solo pianists were the study participants. They performed a self-selected piece and a difficult prima vista piece. Heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) as well as breathing were measured. Psychological reactions were assessed before and after the performance by means of visual analogue scale (VAS). There was a higher HR during the self-selected piece than during the prima vista piece. Respiration rate on the other hand was higher and End tidal CO2 (ETCO2) was lower during the prima vista piece. The difficult playing was characterized by an increase in breathing and by an initially more pronounced (but not sustained) activation of the vagal nerve as well as a more sustained activation of the sympathetic system in the assigned piece than in the self-selected situation. In this study of 3 cases, there were indications that professional piano players may activate the parasympathetic system during a cognitively demanding task. Further studies should investigate the physiological differences between attention with mental effort and effortless attention during music performances.

[Harmon-Jones 2009] Eddie Harmon-Jones and Jennifer S. Beer (editors). Methods in Social Neuroscience, published by the Guilford Press, New York, 2009, 353 pages, ISBN 1-60623-040-9 (978-1-60623-040-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hassett 2007] Afton L. Hassett, Diane C. Radvanski, Evgeny G. Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Leonard H. Sigal, Maria Katsamanis Karavidas, Steven Buyske, and Paul M. Lehrer. “A Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback in Patients with Fibromyalgia”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 32, 2007, pages 1–10, doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9028-0. Publication 17219062 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a non-inflammatory rheumatologic disorder characterized by musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, depression, cognitive dysfunction and sleep disturbance. Research suggests that autonomic dysfunction may account for some of the symptomatology of FM. An open label trial of biofeedback training was conducted to manipulate suboptimal heart rate variability (HRV), a key marker of autonomic dysfunction.
Methods: Twelve women ages 18-60 with FM completed 10 weekly sessions of HRV biofeedback. They were taught to breathe at their resonant frequency (RF) and asked to practice twice daily. At sessions 1, 10 and 3-month follow-up, physiological and questionnaire data were collected.
Results: There were clinically significant decreases in depression and pain and improvement in functioning from Session 1 to a 3-month follow-up. For depression, the improvement occurred by Session 10. HRV and blood pressure variability (BPV) increased during biofeedback tasks. HRV increased from Sessions 1-10, while BPV decreased from Session 1 to the 3 month follow-up.
Conclusions: These data suggest that HRV biofeedback may be a useful treatment for FM, perhaps mediated by autonomic changes. While HRV effects were immediate, blood pressure, baroreflex, and therapeutic effects were delayed. This is consistent with data on the relationship among stress, HPA axis activity, and brain function.

[Henriques 2011] Gregg Henriques, Steven Keffer, Craig Abrahamson, and S. Jeanne Horst. “Exploring the Effectiveness of a Computer-based Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Program in Reducing Anxiety in College Students”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 2, June 2011, pages 101–112. Publication 21533678 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Given the pervasiveness of stress and anxiety in our culture it is important to develop and implement interventions that can be easily utilized by large numbers of people that are readily available, inexpensive and have minimal side effects. Two studies explored the effectiveness of a computer-based heart rate variability biofeedback program on reducing anxiety and negative mood in college students. A pilot project (n = 9) of highly anxious students revealed sizable decreases in anxiety and negative mood following utilizing the program for 4 weeks. A second study (n = 35) employing an immediate versus delayed treatment design replicated the results, although the magnitude of the impact was not quite as strong. Despite observing decreases in anxiety, the expected changes in psychophysiological coherence were not observed.

[Hill-JD 2011] J. D. Hill and J.-P. Chaumeil (editors). Burst of Breath: Indigenous Ritual Wind Instruments in Lowland South America, published by the University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Hoshiyama-M 2008] M. Hoshiyama and A. Hoshiyama. “Heart Rate Variability Associated with Experienced Zen Meditation”, Computers in Cardiology, Volume 35, 2008, pages 569–572, doi:10.1109/CIC.2008.4749105. See the Computing in Cardiology web site. Heart Rate Variability Associated with Experienced Zen Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To understand the control of hemodynamic events elicited by deep Zen meditation during Zazen, we studied heart rate in 5 experienced Zen meditators and 5 beginners. The study took place over 4 sets of Zen meditations in a quiet, Zen practice hall in Kamakura or Tokyo. Each set of Zazen lasted for 25 minutes which was preceded by specific respiratory exercise. The first sets were used for habituation, and the ECG data obtained from the following three sets were used for analysis. Power spectrum analysis showed distinctive change in frequency components. Low and high frequency components increased for experienced meditators. Most notably, detrended fluctuations analysis (DFA) of HRV were around 1/2 for experienced meditators and 0.78 for beginners. We attribute the decrease of DFA exponent in experienced meditators to the effective regulation of mind during meditation toward the edge of sleep, but not quite over it.

[Hoshiyama-M 2010] Masaki Hoshiyama and Asagi Hoshiyama. “Repeatability Value in Heart Rate Associated with Experienced Zen Meditation”, Proceedings of Computing in Cardiology, Belfast, United Kingdom, September 26–29, 2010, Computers in Cardiology, Volume 37, 2010, pages 709–712. ISSN 0276−6574. See the Computing in Cardiology web site. Repeatability Value in Heart Rate Associated with Experienced Zen Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: To understand the repeatability of hemodynamic events elicited by deep Zen meditation during Zazen, we studied heart rate in 5 experienced Zen meditators and beginners. The study took place over 8 sets of Zen meditations in a quiet, Zen practice hall. Each set of Zazen lasted at least for 25 minutes. The first sets were used for habituation, and the data obtained from the following seven sets were used for analysis. Power spectrum analysis showed distinctive change in frequency components. Very low frequency (VLF) components decreased for experienced meditators. Most notably, standard deviations from 7 sets of measurements within each subjects were significantly low for experienced meditators, showing increased repeatability. We attribute the decrease in VLF components to the less easily distracted meditation, and the increase in repeatability to the effective regulation of mind and body movement during experienced Zen meditation.

[Humphreys 2000] P. A. Humphreys and R. N. Gevirtz. “Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Components Analysis of Four Treatment Protocols”, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Volume 31, Number 1, 2000, pages 47–51. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Iwanaga 2005] Makoto Iwanaga, Asami Kobayashi, and Chie Kawasaki. “Heart Rate Variability with Repetitive Exposure to Music”, Biological Psychology, Volume 70, Number 1, September 2005, pages 61–66, doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.11.015. Publication 16038775 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Previous studies of physiological responses to music showed inconsistent results, which might be attributable to methodological differences. Heart rate variability has been used to assess activation of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The present study aimed to examine heart rate variability with repetitive exposure to sedative or excitative music. The participants were 13 undergraduate or graduate students who were each exposed to three conditions sedative music (SM), excitative music (EM), and no music (NM) on different days. Each participant underwent four sessions of one condition in a day. Sedative music and no music each induced both high relaxation and low tension subjectively. However, excitative music decreased perceived tension and increased perceived relaxation as the number of sessions increased. The low-frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) and the LF/HF (high-frequency) ratio increased during SM and EM sessions but decreased during NM sessions. The HF component of HRV during SM was higher than that during EM but the same as that during NM. These findings suggest that excitative music decreased the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.

[Jenkins 2001] J. S. Jenkins. “The Mozart Effect”, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 94, Number 4, April 2001, pages 170–172. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Jensen-O 2005] O. Jensen, P. Goel, N. Kopell, M. Pohja, R. Hari, and B. Ermentrout. “On the Human Sensorimotor-cortex Beta Rhythm: Sources and Modeling”, NeuroImage, Volume 26, Number 2, 2005, pages 347–355, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.008. Publication 15907295 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Cortical oscillations in the beta band (13–35 Hz) are known to be modulated by the GABAergic agonist benzodiazepine. To investigate the mechanisms generating the approximately 20-Hz oscillations in the human cortex, we administered benzodiazepines to healthy adults and monitored cortical oscillatory activity by means of magnetoencephalography. Benzodiazepine increased the power and decreased the frequency of beta oscillations over rolandic areas. Minimum current estimates indicated the effect to take place around the hand area of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Given that previous research has identified sources of the beta rhythm in the motor cortex, our results suggest that these same motor-cortex beta sources are modulated by benzodiazepine. To explore the mechanisms underlying the increase in beta power with GABAergic inhibition, we simulated a conductance-based neuronal network comprising excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The model accounts for the increase in the beta power, the widening of the spectral peak, and the slowing down of the rhythms with benzodiazepines, implemented as an increase in GABAergic conductance. We found that an increase in IPSCs onto inhibitory neurons was more important for generating neuronal synchronization in the beta band than an increase in IPSCs onto excitatory pyramidal cells.

[Kalakutsky 2010] L. Kalakutsky and A. Fedotov. “Estimation of Arterial Stiffness Based on Analysis of Heart Rate”. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A hemodynamic model of human cardiovascular system has been proposed. This model allowed us to establish the relationship between index of arterial stiffness and pulse rate variability.

A new approach to estimation of arterial stiffness by assessing the relative spectral power of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability (beat-to-beat R-R intervals) was suggested.

A group of volunteers, consisting of 20 healthy people aged from 20 to 65 years was examined. The difference in magnitude of total spectral power of pulse rate variability and total spectral power of heart rate variability decreases with increasing age of subjects, which corresponds to the model evaluation and can be explained by age-related changes in arterial stiffness.

Comparative estimation between the proposed diagnostic index and arterial stiffness index, which defined by contour analysis of digital volume pulse, was presented. Correlation coefficient was 0.92; p <0.02.

[Kalda 2001] Jaan Kalda, M. Säkki, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “Zipf's Law in Human Heartbeat Dynamics”, October 26, 2001, 4 pages, arXiv:physics/0110075 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It is shown that the distribution of low variability periods in the activity of human heart rate typically follows a multi-scaling Zipf's law. The presence or failure of a power law, as well as the values of the scaling exponents, are personal characteristics depending on the daily habits of the subjects. Meanwhile, the distribution function of the low-variability periods as a whole discriminates efficiently between various heart pathologies. This new technique is also applicable to other non-linear time-series and reflects these aspects of the underlying intermittent dynamics, which are not covered by other methods of linear- and nonlinear analysis.

[Kalda 2003] Jaan Kalda, M. Säkki, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “Non-linear and Scale-invariant Analysis of the Heart Rate Variability”, March 10, 2003, 23 pages, arXiv:physics/0303041v1. Publication arxiv-physics0303041 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Human heart rate fluctuates in a complex and non-stationary manner. Elaborating efficient and adequate tools for the analysis of such signals has been a great challenge for the researchers during last decades. Here, an overview of the main research results in this field is given. The following question are addressed: (a) what are the intrinsic features of the heart rate variability signal; (b) what are the most promising non-linear measures, bearing in mind clinical diagnostic and prognostic applications.

[Karavidas 2007] Maria Katsamanis Karavidas, Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Humberto Marin, Steven Buyske, Igor Malinovsky, Diane Radvanski, and Afton Hassett. “Preliminary Results of an Open Label Study of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for the Treatment of Major Depression”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 32, 2007, pages 19–30, doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9029-z. Publication 17333315 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder that can result in significant discomfort as well as interpersonal and functional disability. A growing body of research indicates that autonomic function is altered in depression, as evidenced by impaired baroreflex sensitivity, changes in heart rate, and reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic arousal have been proposed as major contributors to the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in participants with MDD, and baroreflex gain is decreased.
Study Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using HRV biofeedback to treat major depression.
Design: This was an open-label study in which all eleven participants received the treatment condition. Participants attended 10 weekly sessions. Questionnaires and physiological data were collected in an orientation (baseline) session and Treatment Sessions 1, 4, 7 and 10.
Measurements and Results: Significant improvements were noted in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) by Session 4, with concurrent increases in SDNN, standard deviation of normal cardiac interbeat intervals) an electrocardiographic estimate of overall measure of adaptability. SDNN decreased to baseline levels at the end of treatment and at follow-up, but clinically and statistically significant improvement in depression persisted. Main effects for task and session occurred for low frequency range (LF) and SDNN. Increases in these variables also occurred during breathing at one's resonant frequency, which targets baroreflex function and vagus nerve activity, showing that subjects performed the task correctly.
Conclusions: HRV biofeedback appears to be a useful adjunctive treatment for the treatment of MDD, associated with large acute increases in HRV and some chronic increases, suggesting increased cardiovagal activity. It is possible that regular exercise of homeostatic reflexes helps depression even when changes in baseline HRV are smaller. A randomized controlled trial is warranted.

[Karavidas 2008] Maria Karavidas. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Major Depression”, Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 1, Spring 2008, pages 18–21. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability for the treatment of major depression is a novel, alternative approach that can offer symptom reduction with minimal-to-no noxious side effects. The following material will illustrate some of the work being conducted at our laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of heart rate variability. Namely, results will be presented regarding our published work on an initial open-label study and subsequent results of a small, unfinished randomized controlled trial.

[Khattab 2007] Kerstin Khattab, Ahmed A. Khattab, Jasmin Ortak, Gert Richardt, and Hendrik Bonnemeier. “Iyengar Yoga Increases Cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous Modulation Among Healthy Yoga Practitioners”, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 4, Number 4, 2007, pages 511–517, doi:10.1093/ecam/nem087 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Relaxation techniques are established in managing of cardiac patients during rehabilitation aiming to reduce future adverse cardiac events. It has been hypothesized that relaxation-training programs may significantly improve cardiac autonomic nervous tone. However, this has not been proven for all available relaxation techniques. We tested this assumption by investigating cardiac vagal modulation during yoga.We examined 11 healthy yoga practitioners (7 women and 4 men, mean age: 43 ± 11; range: 26–58 years). Each individual was subjected to training units of 90 min once a week over five successive weeks. During two sessions, they practiced a yoga program developed for cardiac patients by B.K.S. Iyengar. On three sessions, they practiced a placebo program of relaxation. On each training day they underwent ambulatory 24 h Holter monitoring. The group of yoga practitioners was compared to a matched group of healthy individuals not practicing any relaxation techniques. Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were determined hourly by a blinded observer. Mean RR interval (interval between two R-waves of the ECG) was significantly higher during the time of yoga intervention compared to placebo and to control (P < 0.001 for both). The increase in HRV parameters was significantly higher during yoga exercise than during placebo and control especially for the parameters associated with vagal tone, i.e. mean standard deviation of NN (Normal Beat to Normal Beat of the ECG) intervals for all 5-min intervals (SDNNi, P < 0.001 for both) and root mean square successive difference (rMSSD, P < 0.01 for both). In conclusion, relaxation by yoga training is associated with a significant increase of cardiac vagal modulation. Since this method is easy to apply with no side effects, it could be a suitable intervention in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

[Kleiger 1987] R. E. Kleiger, J. P. Miller, J. T. Bigger, Jr., A. J. Moss. “Decreased Heart Rate Variability and its Association with Increased Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 59, Number 4, February 1, 1987, pages 256–262. Publication 3812275 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A high degree of heart rate (HR) variability is found in compensated hearts with good function, whereas HR variability can be decreased with severe coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, aging and diabetic neuropathy. To test the hypothesis that HR variability is a predictor of long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Holter tapes of 808 patients who survived AMI were analyzed. Heart rate variability was defined as the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in a 24-hour continuous electrocardiogram recording made 11 +/- 3 days after AMI. In all patients demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were measured at baseline. Mean follow-up time was 31 months. Of all Holter variables measured, HR variability had the strongest univariate correlation with mortality. The relative risk of mortality was 5.3 times higher in the group with HR variability of less than 50 ms than the group with HR variability of more than 100 ms. HR variability remained a significant predictor of mortality after adjusting for clinical, demographic, other Holter features and ejection fraction. A hypothesis to explain this finding is that decreased HR variability correlates with increased sympathetic or decreased vagal tone, which may predispose to ventricular fibrillation.

[Koenig 2014] Julian Koenig, M. N. Jarczok, Robert J. Ellis, T. K. Hillecke, and Julian F. Thayer. “Heart Rate Variability and Experimentally Induced Pain in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review”, European Journal of Pain, Volume 18, Issue 3, March 2014, pages 301–314, doi:10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00379.x. Publication 23922336 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Reactivity of the autonomic nervous system to experimental pain stimuli has been extensively studied using measures of heart rate and blood pressure. Heart rate variability (HRV) attempts to tease out the relative contributions of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the autonomic control of the heart and may therefore be more appropriate to investigate autonomic response to short-term nociceptive stimulation in detail. The current evidence on HRV and experimentally induced pain has not yet been synthesized within a systematic review.
Method: English articles indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, Psyndex, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were reviewed for eligibility under pre-specified inclusion criteria. Studies were included when they reported empirical work on autonomic response (specifically, HRV) to experimentally induced pain in healthy adults. The method of pain induction, the methodological features of HRV analysis (time domain and frequency domain measures), as well as pain and HRV-related findings were derived from the studies.
Results: The search revealed a total of 20 publications eligible for inclusion. Key results demonstrate an increase in sympathetic-baroreflex activity and a decrease in vagal-parasympathetic activity as reflected by changes in frequency domain measures of HRV.
Conclusion: HRV has several advantages compared to other measures of autonomic reactivity in studies investigating physiological response to nociceptive stimulation. Future studies should focus on comparisons between different methods of pain induction, interindividual variability in pain sensitivity by baseline autonomic activity, and the implications of both on the use of HRV within routine clinical evaluations.

[Komarkova 2012] Zdislava Komárková. Rehabilitace chronických respiračních poruch formou hry na dechové nástroje «Rehabilitation of chronic respiratory problems by playing a wind instruments», Bachelor's dissertation – Univerzita Palackého in Olomouci, Czech Republic, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2012. Rehabilitace chronických respiračních poruch formou hry na dechové nástroje Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na využití hry na hudební dechové nástroje jakožto specifického druhu respirační fyzioterapie při léčbě chronických respiračních poruch. Cílem bylo vytvořit rešerši z dostupných poznatků. V práci je uvedena fyziologie a kineziologie dýchání, specifika obstrukčních a restrikčních plicních poruch s důrazem na astma bronchiale a chronickou obstrukční plicní nemoc, jež jsou dvě nejčastější chronická respirační onemocnění. Hlavní část je věnována hudebním nástrojům, jejich specifikům a především samotné léčbě pomocí dechových nástrojů. Nastíněna jsou i kritéria volby dechového nástroje.

The purpose of this Bachelor Thesis is to present a use of wind instruments as a specific sort of respiratory physiotherapy; as a treatment of chronic respiratory problems. It is a review which summarizes available materials on this theme. In this thesis is described physiology and kinesiology of breathing, specifics of obstructive and restrictive lung diseases with attention to bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which are the two most common chronic respiratory diseases. The main part focuses on musical instruments, their specifics and especially on treatments by using wind instruments. There are also briefly described criteria for choice of wind instruments.

[Kraemer 2005] David J. M. Kraemer, C. Neil Macrae, Adam E. Green, and William M. Kelley. “Musical Imagery: Sound of Silence Activates Auditory Cortex”, Nature, Volume 434, March 10, 2005, page 158, doi:10.1038/434158a Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Auditory imagery occurs when one mentally rehearses telephone numbers or has a song 'on the brain' — it is the subjective experience of hearing in the absence of auditory stimulation, and is useful for investigating aspects of human cognition1. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and characterize the neural substrates that support unprompted auditory imagery and find that auditory and visual imagery seem to obey similar basic neural principles.

[Kuss 2004] M. Kuss (editor). Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Encyclopedic History, Volume 1, published by the University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 2004. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lagos 2008] Leah Lagos, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, Marsha Bates, and Robert Pandina. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback as a Strategy for Dealing with Competitive Anxiety: A Case Study”, Biofeedback, Volume 36, Number 3, 2008, pages 109–115. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback (BFB) is a relatively new approach for helping athletes to regulate competitive stress. To investigate this phenomenon further, a qualitative case study examined the impact of HRV BFB on the mood, physiology, and sport performance of a 14-year-old golfer. The golfer met once per week at a university lab for 10 consecutive sessions of HRV BFB training that included breathing at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The format and duration of sessions followed the HRV BFB protocol outlined previously by Lehrer, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo. Acute increases in total HRV, low-frequency HRV, and amplitude of oscillation at 0.1 Hz were observed during biofeedback practice. This effect became stronger across sessions, suggesting increases in baroreflex gain. Following HRV BFB, the golfer achieved his personal record score for 18 holes of golf, and his mean golf score (total number of shots per 18 holes of golf) was 15 shots lower than in his previous golf season. The golfer received no golf instructions during HRV BFB training. The results of this case study suggest that HRV BFB training may help the athlete cope with the stress of competition and/or improve neuromuscular function.

[Lagos 2011] Leah Lagos, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Paul Lehrer, Marsha Bates, and Robert Pandina. “Virtual Reality-Assisted Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback as a Strategy to Improve Golf Performance: A Case Study”, Biofeedback, Volume 39, Number 1, 2011, pages 15–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that Heart Rate Variability (HRV) biofeedback (BFB) may improve sport performance by helping athletes cope with the stress of competition. This study sought to identify whether HRV BFB procedure impacted psychological, physiological, and sport performance of a collegiate golfer. This individual was randomly selected to participate in 10 weeks of HRV BFB training according to the protocol developed by Leher, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo (2000). During the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth weeks of the study, the golfer and principal investigator met at a virtual reality golf center to practice skills for breathing at resonance frequency during golf performance. Results of the golf performance and HR were recorded during nine holes of virtual reality golf before and after 10 weeks of HRV BFB training. Self-report questionnaires were administered also before and after HRV BFB training to measure symptoms of anxiety, stress, and sensation seeking. Physiological measures, including HRV and respiration rate, were recorded in the lab during the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth weeks of the study. Golf performance and HRV were recorded during nine holes of virtual reality golf. Reduction in symptoms of anxiety, stress, and sensation seeking and increases in total HRV, low-frequency HRV, and amplitude of oscillation at .1 Hz and sport performance improving were observed. This effect became stronger across 10 weeks of HRV BFB training, suggesting that HRV BFB may improve sport performance by helping athletes to cope with sport stress. A larger-scale study was conducted and is in the process of analysis to confirm these findings.

[Langford 2001] Eric Langford, Neil Schwertman, and Margaret Owens. “Is the Property of Being Positively Correlated Transitive?”, The American Statistician, Volume 55, Number 4, November 2001, pages 322–325, doi:10.1198/000313001753272286 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Suppose that X, Y, and Z are random variables and that X and Y are positively correlated and that Y and Z are likewise positively correlated. Does it follow that X and Z must be positively correlated? As we shall see by example, the answer is (perhaps surprisingly) "no." We prove, though, that if the correlations are sufficiently close to 1, then X and Z must be positively correlated. We also prove a general inequality that relates the three correlations. The ideas should be accessible to students in a first (postcalculus) course in probability and statistics.

[Lee-KM 2015] Kyung Myun Lee, Erika Skoe, Nina Kraus, and Richard Ashley. “Neural Transformation of Dissonant Intervals in the Auditory Brainstem”, Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Volume 32, Number 5, June 2015, pages 445–459, doi:10.1525/mp.2015.32.5.445. Publication 10.1525/mp.2015.32.5.445 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Acoustic periodicity is an important factor for discriminating consonant and dissonant intervals. While previous studies have found that the periodicity of musical intervals is temporally encoded by neural phase locking throughout the auditory system, how the nonlinearities of the auditory pathway influence the encoding of periodicity and how this effect is related to sensory consonance has been underexplored. By measuring human auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to four diotically presented musical intervals with increasing degrees of dissonance, this study seeks to explicate how the subcortical auditory system transforms the neural representation of acoustic periodicity for consonant versus dissonant intervals. ABRs faithfully reflect neural activity in the brainstem synchronized to the stimulus while also capturing nonlinear aspects of auditory processing. Results show that for the most dissonant interval, which has a less periodic stimulus waveform than the most consonant interval, the aperiodicity of the stimulus is intensified in the subcortical response. The decreased periodicity of dissonant intervals is related to a larger number of nonlinearities (i.e., distortion products) in the response spectrum. Our findings suggest that the auditory system transforms the periodicity of dissonant intervals resulting in consonant and dissonant intervals becoming more distinct in the neural code than if they were to be processed by a linear auditory system.

[Lee-MS 2002] Myeong Soo Lee, Hwa Jeong Huh, Byung Gi Kim, Hoon Ryu, Ho-Sub Lee, Jong-Moon Kim, and Hun-Tae Chung. “Effects of Qi-Training on Heart Rate Variability”, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Volume 30, Number 4, 2002, pages 463–470, doi:10.1142/S0192415X02000491. Publication 12568274 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study investigates changes in autonomic nervous function through Qi-training. The power spectrum of heart rate variability (HRV) was examined in 20 sedentary healthy subjects and 20 Qi-trainees. It was found that Qi-training in healthy young subjects during controlled respiration increases the high frequency (HF) power and decreases the low frequency / high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of HRV. These results support the hypothesis that Qi-training increases cardiac parasympathetic tone. In addition, Qi-trainees were found to have higher parasympathetic heart modulation compared with their age-matched, sedentary counterparts. This augmented HRV in Qi-trainees provides further support for long-term Qi-training as a possible non-pharmacological cardio-protective maneuver. In conclusion, Qi-training may stabilize the autonomic nervous system by modulating the parasympathetic nervous system.

[Legramante 2002] J. M. Legramante, A. Galante, M. Massaro, A. Attanasio, G. Raimondi, F. Pigozzi, and F. Iellamo. “Hemodynamic and Autonomic Correlates of Postexercise Hypotension in Patients with Mild Hypertension”, American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Volume 282, Number 4, April 2002, pages R1037–R1043. Publication 11893607 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We investigated the interplay of neural and hemodynamic mechanisms in postexercise hypotension (PEH) in hypertension. In 15 middle-aged patients with mild essential hypertension, we evaluated blood pressure (BP), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR), forearm (FVR) and calf vascular resistance (CVR), and autonomic function [by spectral analysis of R-R interval and BP variabilities and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)] before and after maximal exercise. Systolic and diastolic BP, TPR, and CVR were significantly reduced from baseline 60-90 min after exercise. CO, FVR, and HR were unchanged. The low-frequency (LF) component of BP variability increased significantly after exercise, whereas the LF component of R-R interval variability was unchanged. The overall change in BRS was not significant after exercise vs. baseline, although a significant, albeit small, BRS increase occurred in response to hypotensive stimuli. These findings indicate that in hypertensive patients, PEH is mediated mainly by a peripheral vasodilation, which may involve metabolic factors linked to postexercise hyperemia in the active limbs. The vasodilator effect appears to override a concomitant, reflex sympathetic activation selectively directed to the vasculature, possibly aimed to counter excessive BP decreases. The cardiac component of arterial baroreflex is reset during PEH, although the baroreflex mechanisms controlling heart period appear to retain the potential for greater opposition to hypotensive stimuli.

[Lehrer 1997] Paul Lehrer, Richard E. Carr, Alexander Smetankine, Evgeny Vaschillo, Erik Peper, Stephen Porges, Robert Edelberg, Robert Hamer, and Stuart Hochron. “Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Versus Neck/Trapezius EMG and Incentive Inspirometry Biofeedback for Asthma: A Pilot Study”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 22, Number 2, June 1997, pages 95–109. Publication 9341966 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This pilot study compared biofeedback to increase respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) with EMG and incentive inspirometry biofeedback in asthmatic adults. A three-group design (Waiting List Control n = 5, RSA biofeedback n = 6, and EMG biofeedback n = 6) was used. Six sessions of training were given in each of the biofeedback groups. In each of three testing sessions, five min. of respiratory resistance and EKG were obtained before and after a 20-min biofeedback session. Additional five-min epochs of data were collected at the beginning and end of the biofeedback period (or, in the control group, self-relaxation). Decreases in respiratory impedance occurred only in the RSA biofeedback group. Traub-Hering-Mayer (THM) waves (.03-.12 Hz) in heart period increased significantly in amplitude during RSA biofeedback. Subjects did not report significantly more relaxation during EMG or RSA biofeedback than during the control condition. However, decreases in pulmonary impedance, across groups, were associated with increases in relaxation. The results are consistent with Vaschillo's theory that RSA biofeedback exercises homeostatic autonomic reflex mechanisms through increasing the amplitude of cardiac oscillations. However, deep breathing during RSA biofeedback is a possible alternate explanation.

[Lehrer 2000] Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, and Bronya Vaschillo. “Resonant Frequency Biofeedback Training to Increase Cardiac Variability: Rationale and Manual for Training”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 25, Number 3, September 2000, pages 177–191. Publication 10999236 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate and blood pressure, as well as other physiological systems, among healthy people, show a complex pattern of variability, characterized by multifrequency oscillations. There is evidence that these oscillations reflect the activity of homeostatic reflexes. Biofeedback training to increase the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) maximally increases the amplitude of heart rate oscillations only at approximately 0.1 Hz. To perform this task people slow their breathing to this rate to a point where resonance occurs between respiratory-induced oscillations (RSA) and oscillations that naturally occur at this rate, probably triggered in part by baroreflex activity. We hypothesize that this type of biofeedback exercises the baroreflexes, and renders them more efficient. A manual is presented for carrying out this method. Supporting data are provided in Lehrer, Smetankin, and Potapova (2000) in this issue.

[Lehrer 2004] Paul M. Lehrer, Evgeny Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, Shou-En Lu, Anthony Scardella, Mahmood Siddique, and Robert H. Habib. “Biofeedback Treatment for Asthma”, Chest, Volume 126, August 2004, pages 352–361, doi:10.1378/chest.126.2.352. Publication 15302717 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Biofeedback Treatment for Asthma Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Study Objectives: We evaluated the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback as a complementary treatment for asthma.
Patients: Ninety-four adult outpatient paid volunteers with asthma.
Setting: The psychophysiology laboratory at The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and the private outpatient offices of participating asthma physicians.
Interventions: The interventions were as follows: (1) a full protocol (ie, HRV biofeedback and abdominal breathing through pursed lips and prolonged exhalation); (2) HRV biofeedback alone; (3) placebo EEG biofeedback; and (4) a waiting list control.
Design: Subjects were first prestabilized using controller medication and then were randomly assigned to experimental groups. Medication was titrated biweekly by blinded asthma specialists according to a protocol based on National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines, according to symptoms, spirometry, and home peak flows.
Measurements: Subjects recorded daily asthma symptoms and twice-daily peak expiratory flows. Spirometry was performed before and after each weekly treatment session under the HRV and placebo biofeedback conditions, and at triweekly assessment sessions under the waiting list condition. Oscillation resistance was measured approximately triweekly.
Results: Compared with the two control groups, subjects in both of the two HRV biofeedback groups were prescribed less medication, with minimal differences between the two active treatments. Improvements averaged one full level of asthma severity. Measures from forced oscillation pneumography similarly showed improvement in pulmonary function. A placebo effect influenced an improvement in asthma symptoms, but not in pulmonary function. Groups did not differ in the occurrence of severe asthma flares.
Conclusions: The results suggest that HRV biofeedback may prove to be a useful adjunct to asthma treatment and may help to reduce dependence on steroid medications. Further evaluation of this method is warranted.

[Lehrer 2007] P. M. Lehrer, R. L. Woolfolk, and W. E. Sime (editors). Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition, published by Guilford Press, New York, 2007. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lehrer 2014] Paul M. Lehrer and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: How and Why Does it Work?”, Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 5, Article 756, July 2014, 9 pages, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00756 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Licht 2009] Carmilla M. M. Licht, Eco. J. C. de Geus, Richard van Dyck, and Brenda W. J. H. Penninx. “Association Between Anxiety Disorders and Heart Rate Variability in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)”, Psychosomatic Medicine, Volume 71, 2009, pages 508–518. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lin-DC 2004] Der Chyan Lin. “Discrete Scale Invariance in the Cascade Heart Rate Variability Of Healthy Humans”, November 4, 2004, 22 pages, arXiv:physics/0411039. Publication arxiv-physics0411039 on Archive.org (open access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Evidence of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in daytime healthy heart rate variability (HRV) is presented based on the log-periodic power law scaling of the heart beat interval increment. Our analysis suggests multiple DSI groups and a dynamic cascading process. A cascade model is presented to simulate such a property.

[Lin-GH 2005] Geng Hong Lin, Yuh Huu Chang, and Kang Ping Lin. “Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Measured by ECG in Different Signal Lengths”, Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Volume 25, Number 2, 2005, pages 67–71. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The measurement of heart rate variability, HRV, provides a noninvasive measurement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. HRV can be measured with the variation of RR intervals exhibited in a sequence of ECG sample. For a short-term HRV, the measuring time is usually five minutes. However, there are still many expectations of shortening the measuring time to evaluate the ANS. In this paper we analyzed and compared three minute HRV measurement to five minute standard short-term HRV. In order to evaluate the measurement results based on three minute and five minute HRVs, four major measurements were calculated in this study. The first is the standard deviation of normal-beat to normal-beat intervals (SDNN). The second is the square root of the mean squared differences of successive difference normal-beat to normal-beat intervals (RMSSD). The third is the proportion of interval differences of successive normal-beat to normal-beat intervals greater than 50 ms (pNN50). The fourth is the ratio of low frequency energy to high frequency energy (LF/HF) based on Fourier analysis method. Results show that the HRV presented by both SDNN and LF/HF using the three-minute measuring data differs significantly from that using the five-minute measuring data. In addition, the characteristics of HRV under different heart rate conditions shows that faster heart rate will come out smaller HRV. In conclusion, the HRV analyzed based on three minutes measuring data would not be equaled to that of five minutes measuring data. At the same time, the conditions of heart rate need to be considered when heart rate variability was analyzed.

[Lindh 2009] W. Lindh, M. Pooler, C. Tamparo, and B. M. Dahl. Delmar's Comprehensive Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, Fourth edition, published by Cengage Learning, Clifton Park, New Jersey, 2009, ISBN 1-4354-1914-6 (978-1-4354-1914-8). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lodha 1988] Suresh Lodha and Om P. Sharma. “Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Saxophone Player”, Chest, Volume 93, Number 6, June 1988, page 1322, doi:10.1378/chest.93.6.1322. Publication 3371127 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lotufo 2012] Paulo A. Lotufo, Leandro Valiengo, Isabela M. Benseñor, and Andre R. Brunoni. “A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Epilepsy and Antiepileptic Drugs”, Epilepsia, Volume 53, Number 2, 2012, pages 272–282, doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03361.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lubar 1976] J. F. Lubar and M. N. Shouse. “EEG and Behavioral Changes in a Hyperkinetic Child Concurrent with Training of the Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) — A Preliminary Report”, Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Volume 1, Number 3, 1976, pages 293–306. Publication 990355 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Reduced seizure incidence coupled with voluntary motor inhibition accompanied conditioned increases in the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR), a 12- 14 Hz rhythm appearing over rolandic cortex. Although SMR biofeedback training has been successfully applied to various forms of epilepsy in humans, its potential use in decreasing hyperactivity has been limited to a few cases in which a seizure history was also a significant feature. The present study represents a first attempt to explore the technique's applicability to the problem of hyperkinesis independent of the epilepsy issue. The results of several months of EEG biofeedback training in a hyperkinetic child tend to corroborate and extend previous findings. Feedback presentations for SMR were contingent on the production of 12- 14-Hz activity in the absence of 4- 7-Hz slow-wave activity. A substantial increase in SMR motor inhibition, as gauged by laboratory measures of muscular tone (chin EMG) and by a global behavioral assessment in the classroom. Opposite trends in motor inhibition occurred when the training procedure was reversed and feedback presentations were contingent on the production of 4- 7 Hz in the absence of 12- 14-Hz activity. Although the preliminary nature of these results is stressed, the subject population has recently been increased to establish the validity and generality of the findings and will include the use of SMR biofeedback training after medication has been withdrawn.

[Lucking 1970] C. H. Lücking, O. D. Creutzfeldt, and U. Heinemann. “Visual Evoked Potentials of Patients with Epilepsy and of a Control Group”, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 29, 1970, pages 557–566, doi:10.1016/0013-4694(70)90098-2 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Lufti 2011] Mohamed Faisal Lutfi and Mohamed Yosif Sukkar. “The Effect of Gender on Heart Rate Variability in Asthmatic and Normal Healthy Adults”, International Journal of Health Sciences, Qassim University, Vol. 5, No. 2 (July 2011/Rajab 1432H), July 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Mandel 2003] Dorothy Marie Mandel. “Psychophysiological Resilience: A Theoretical Construct Based on Threat Perception and Early Programming of Restorative and Arousal Based Adaptive Mechanisms”, Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, Volume 17, Number 3, March 2003, pages 235–250. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Why can some people be exposed to toxins, stressors, or traumatic events and be significantly less affected than others? The author conducts a review of research, constructs a theoretical model psychophysiological resilience, and examines the impact of prenatal and early childhood events on the formation of neural regulatory circuits. Psychophysiological resilience involves psychological, physiological, emotional, and spiritual resilience. Research is cited to support the theory that events occurring during gestation and birth offer clues to sustained adaptive programming that supports species preservation. Research relating the impacts of adaptive vs. maladaptive neurodevelopmental programming on currently relevant issues including psychosocial violence, functional intelligence, and somatic disease processes is cited. Emerging research on the role of the heart and the use of guided imagery and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) biofeedback in rebuilding physiological and emotional adaptive processes of resilience is articulated.

[Manzano 2010] Örjan de Manzano, Töres Theorell, László Harmat, and Fredrik Ullén. “The Psychophysiology of Flow During Piano Playing”, Emotion, Volume 10, Number 3, June 2010, pages 301–311, doi:10.1037/a0018432. Publication 20515220 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). The Psychophysiology of Flow During Piano Playing Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Expert performance is commonly accompanied by a subjective state of optimal experience called flow. Previous research has shown positive correlations between flow and quality of performance and suggests that flow may function as a reward signal that promotes practice. Here, piano playing was used as a flow-inducing behavior in order to analyze the relationship between subjective flow reports and psychophysiological measures. Professional classical pianists were asked to play a musical piece and then rate state flow. The performance was repeated five times in order to induce a variation in flow, keeping other factors constant, while recording the arterial pulse pressure waveform, respiration, head movements, and activity from the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major facial muscles. A significant relation was found between flow and heart period, blood pressure, heart rate variability, activity of the zygomaticus major muscle, and respiratory depth. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of emotion, attention, and expertise, and flow is proposed to be a state of effortless attention, which arises through an interaction between positive affect and high attention.

[Matzner 2003] Shari A. Matzner. Heart Rate Variability During Meditation, ECE 510 Statistical Signal Processing, 2003, 4 pages. Heart Rate Variability During Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper describes a study of heart rate variability, specifically how the variability differs in a subject before and during meditation. The results clearly show that the heart rate sequence of all subjects exhibited increased mean value, increased variability, and increased power in the Low Frequency band. This can be interpreted as evidence of a change in the balance of the autonomic nervous system induced by meditation.

[Mayo 2014a] Mayo Clinic Staff. Fitness, March 4, 2014, retrieved March 18, 2015. Fitness Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Mayo 2014b] Mayo Clinic Staff. Meditation, July 19, 2014, retrieved March 18, 2015. Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McCraty 2001] Rollin McCraty, Mike Atkinson, Dana Tomasino, and William P. Stuppy. “Analysis of Twenty-four Hour Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Panic Disorder”, Biological Psychology, Volume 56, May 2001, pages 131–150. Publication 11334700 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that alterations in autonomic function contribute to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD). This retrospective study employed 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of Holter records to compare autonomic function in PD patients (n=38) with healthy, age- and gender-matched controls. Both time and frequency domain measures were calculated, and a circadian rhythm analysis was performed. The SDNN index, 5-min total power, very low frequency (VLF) and low frequency (LF) power were significantly lower in panic patients relative to controls over the 24-h period. Hourly means were significantly lower during some of the waking hours as well as the latter part of the sleep cycle. In contrast, the mean RR interval, RMSSD and high frequency (HF) power were comparable in patients and controls. Results suggest that sympathetic activity is depressed in PD patients under usual life conditions, leading to a relative predominance of vagal tone. Findings of low HRV in PD patients are consistent with the high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population, as well as with the emerging view of panic as a disorder involving reduced flexibility and adaptability across biological, affective and behavioral dimensions.

[McGrady 2007] Angele McGrady. “Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Stress: A Foundation for the Stress Management Therapies”, contained in [Lehrer 2007], 2007, pages 16–37. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Medeiros 2010] José Miguel Medeiros. Development of a Heart Rate Variability Analysis Tool, M.B.E. dissertation – Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, September 2010, 92 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) concerns the analysis of the phenomenon underlying the variability between consecutive heartbeats. During the last three decades, significant effort has been made to understand its physiological basis and implications in different pathologies. Such studies have revealed, among other aspects, that HRV its a mirror of the control actions exerted by the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in the Sinoatrial (SA) node. Since the SA node is responsible for setting the heartbeat, the two branches comprising the ANS, sympathetic and parasympathetic, have a special role in controlling such variability.

The main goals behind this work were: to develop an open source, reliable and easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI) able to perform a complete HRV analysis; to investigate and possibly implement alternative methods to perform an HRV analysis; and also to validate the developments achieved.

As a result of the work carried out, we have manage to develop a cross platform and full featured Python based GUI for HRV computation using the standard procedure based on ECG signals and another alternative methodology based on PPG signals. We have also conducted three different studies in order to analyze the validity of our tool. The first study aimed to validate our HRV GUI and revealed the absence of any significant differences between our GUI and a reference tool. The second study evaluated both specificity and sensitivity of the algorithm that we have developed to detect systolic peaks in PPG signals, where high performance levels were attained. Finally, the third study, aimed to validate the use of PPG signals as an alternative to ECG signals for computing HRV, revealed high levels of correlation between the same parameters computed from ECG and PPG signals acquired simultaneously.

[Mendes 2009] Wendy Berry Mendes. “Assessing Autonomic Nervous System Activity”, contained in [Harmon-Jones 2009], 2009, pages 118–147. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[MenezesBastos 2007] Rafael José de Menezes Bastos; David Allan Rodgers (translation). “Música nas Sociedades Indígenas das Terras Baixas da América do Sul: Estado da Arte «Music in the Indigenous Societies of Lowland South America: The State of the Art»”, Mana, Volume 13, Number 2, October 2007, pages 293–316, retrieved May 30, 2012. See the SciELO web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The last thirty years have seen a remarkable growth in the ethnomusicology of the South American lowlands. The region has emerged from relative obscurity — a state in which it languished for decades, despite possessing some of the world's oldest descriptions of ‘primitive’ music — through the publication of a wide variety of texts on the musical production of its indigenous peoples, along with various attempts at regional and sub-regional comparison. This ethnomusicological output — much of it originating in Brazil from the early 1990s onwards — has been complimented by monographs and regional comparative studies from anthropologists specialized in other areas, whose work has frequently highlighted the importance of music (typically in connection with other art forms, cosmology, shamanism and philosophy) for a clearer understanding of the region. The resulting panorama is promising. However it also requires analysis, a fundamental element in determining paths for future research. Divided into two parts, the article approaches this endeavour by focusing on written production, making secondary use of phonographic, videographic and other documental forms. The first part of the text surveys the literature produced on the region's music over the period. In the second part, I reflect on the main features of indigenous music to emerge from the literature and propose a number of working hypotheses for future investigations.

[Metersky 2010] Mark L. Metersky, Scott B. Bean, John D. Meyer, Miriam Mutambudzi, Barbara A. Brown-Elliott, Michael E. Wechsler, and Richard J. Wallace, Jr. “Trombone Player’s Lung: A Probable New Cause of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis”, Chest, Volume 138, Number 3, September 2010, pages 754–756, doi:10.1378/chest.10-0374. Publication 20823006 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Metzger-F 2010] Flora Metzger, Amaryllis Haccuria, Gabriel Reboux, Nicole Nolard, Jean-Charles Dalphin, and Paul De Vuyst. “Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Due to Molds in a Saxophone Player”, Chest, Volume 138, Number 3, September 2010, pages 724–726, doi:10.1378/chest.09-2991. Publication 20822994 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Due to Molds in a Saxophone Player Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This 48-year-old patient was evaluated for an interstitial pneumonia. An open-lung biopsy showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The CT scan appearance, showing mosaic ground-glass opacities in the ventilated parts of the lung, the centrolobular predominance of inflammation on the lung sections, and the presence of a lymphocytic alveolitis at BAL suggested a hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The patient was a white-collar worker and had no contact with pets, birds, drugs, or molds at home. He used to play the saxophone as a hobby. Two molds, Ulocladium botrytis and Phoma sp, were detected in the saxophone. Precipitating antibodies to these molds were present in his serum. An additional study confirmed the frequent colonization of saxophones with potentially pathogenic molds, such as Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, and Cladosporium sp. Respiratory physicians should be aware of the risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in saxophone or perhaps other wind instrument players.

[Meymandi 2009] Assad Meymandi. “Music, Medicine, Healing, and the Genome Project”, Psychiatry (Edgemont), Volume 6, Number 9, September 2009, pages 43–49. Publication 19855860 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Mietus 2002] J. E. Mietus, C. K. Peng, I. Henry, R. L. Goldsmith, and A. L. Goldberger. “The pNNx Files: Re–examining a Widely Used Heart Rate Variability Measure”, Heart, Volume 88, 2002, pages 378–380, doi:10.1136/heart.88.4.378 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: To re-examine the standard pNN50 heart rate variability (HRV) statistic by determining how other thresholds compare with the commonly adopted 50 ms threshold in distinguishing physiological and pathological groups.
Design: Retrospective analysis of Holter monitor databases.
Subjects: Comparison of HRV data between 72 healthy subjects and 43 with congestive heart failure (CHF); between sleeping and waking states in the 72 healthy subjects; and between 20 young and 20 healthy elderly subjects.
Main outcome measures: Probability values for discriminating between groups using a family of pNN values ranging from pNN4 to pNN100.
Results: For all three comparisons, pNN values substantially less than 50 ms consistently provided better separation between groups. For the normal versus CHF groups, p < 10-13 for pNN12 versus p < 10-4 for pNN50; for the sleeping versus awake groups, p < 10-21 for pNN12 versus p < 10-10 for pNN50; and for the young versus elderly groups, p < 10-6 for pNN28 versus p < 10-4 for pNN50. In addition, for the subgroups of elderly healthy subjects versus younger patients with CHF, p < 0.007 for pNN20 versus p < 0.17 for pNN50; and for the subgroup of New York Heart Association functional class I–II CHF versus class III–IV, p < 0.04 for pNN10 versus p < 0.13 for pNN50.
Conclusions: pNN50 is only one member of a general pNNx family of HRV statistics. Enhanced discrimination between a variety of normal and pathological conditions is obtained by using pNN thresholds as low as 20 ms or less rather than the standard 50 ms threshold.

[Miller-EB 2011] Eric B. Miller. Bio-guided Music Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide to the Clinical Integration of Music and Biofeedback, published by Jessica Kingsley, London, 2011, 256 pages, ISBN 1-84905-844-X (978-1-84905-844-5). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Bio-Guided Music Therapy explores the clinical integration of music and biofeedback, providing the practitioner with a rationale, historical context and detailed step-by-step instructions for implementing real-time physiological data driven music therapy. This practical guide introduces the fundamental principles of biofeedback and explores the use of music therapy interventions within the context of achieving skills in self-regulation of physiological response. This book looks at the primary modalities of biofeedback, in conjunction with the assignment of digitally sampled musical voices to specific body functions. Music therapy interventions covered include guided imagery to music, toning, mantra meditation, drumming and improvisation. This book clearly demonstrates how these techniques can be successfully applied to the treatment of stress, high blood pressure, back pain, insomnia, migraine, neuromuscular deficiencies and depression, as well as being an effective therapy for clients with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit disorder. Instructive and accessible, this book will prove an essential resource for students and practitioners of music therapy, biofeedback practitioners, social workers, psychologists and healing arts professionals.

[Miller-EB 2014] Eric B. Miller and Clinton F. Goss. “An Exploration of Physiological Responses to the Native American Flute”, ISQRMM 2013, Athens, Georgia, July 26, 2013, January 24, 2014, 17 pages, arXiv:1401.6004. An Exploration of Physiological Responses to the Native American Flute Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Three citations: Your Brain on Flute (3)

Abstract: This pilot study explored physiological responses to playing and listening to the Native American flute. Autonomic, electroencephalographic (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics were recorded while participants (N = 15) played flutes and listened to several styles of music. Flute playing was accompanied by an 84% increase in HRV (p < .001). EEG theta (4–8 Hz) activity increased while playing flutes (p = .007) and alpha (8–12 Hz) increased while playing lower-pitched flutes (p = .009). Increase in alpha from baseline to the flute playing conditions strongly correlated with experience playing Native American flutes (r = +.700). Wide-band beta (12–25 Hz) decreased from the silence conditions when listening to solo Native American flute music (p = .013). The findings of increased HRV, increasing slow-wave rhythms, and decreased beta support the hypothesis that Native American flutes, particularly those with lower pitches, may have a role in music therapy contexts. We conclude that the Native American flute may merit a more prominent role in music therapy and that a study of the effects of flute playing on clinical conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension, anxiety, and major depressive disorder, is warranted.

[Monastra 2005] Vincent J. Monastra, Steven Lynn, Michael Linden, Joel F. Lubar, John Gruzelier, and Theodore J. LaVaque. “Electroencephalographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 30, Number 2, June 2005, pages 95–114, doi:10.1007/s10484-005-4305-x. Publication 16013783 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Historically, pharmacological treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been considered to be the only type of interventions effective for reducing the core symptoms of this condition. However, during the past three decades, a series of case and controlled group studies examining the effects of EEG biofeedback have reported improved attention and behavioral control, increased cortical activation on quantitative electroencephalographic examination, and gains on tests of intelligence and academic achievement in response to this type of treatment. This review paper critically examines the empirical evidence, applying the efficacy guidelines jointly established by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation (ISNR). On the basis of these scientific principles, EEG biofeedback was determined to be “probably efficacious” for the treatment of ADHD. Although significant clinical improvement was reported in approximately 75% of the patients in each of the published research studies, additional randomized, controlled group studies are needed in order to provide a better estimate of the percentage of patients with ADHD who will demonstrate such gains in clinical practice.

[Moraveji 2011] Neema Moraveji, Ben Olson, Truc Nguyen, Mahmoud Saadat, Yaser Khalighi, Roy Pea, and Jeffrey Heer. “Peripheral Paced Respiration: Influencing User Physiology during Information Work”, ACM User Interface Software & Technology (UIST) 2011, Santa Barbara, California, October 16–19, 2011, 2011, 5 pages. Peripheral Paced Respiration Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We present the design and evaluation of a technique for influencing user respiration by integrating respirationpacing methods into the desktop operating system in a peripheral manner. Peripheral paced respiration differs from prior techniques in that it does not require the user’s full attention. We conducted a within-subjects study to evaluate the efficacy of peripheral paced respiration, as compared to no feedback, in an ecologically valid environment. Participant respiration decreased significantly in the pacing condition. Upon further analysis, we attribute this difference to a significant decrease in breath rate while the intermittent pacing feedback is active, rather than a persistent change in respiratory pattern. The results have implications for researchers in physiological computing, biofeedback designers, and human-computer interaction researchers concerned with user stress and affect.

[Moss 2004] Donald Moss. “Heart Rate Variability and Biofeedback”, Psychophysiology Today: The Magazine for Mind-Body Medicine, Volume 1, 2004, pages 4–11. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a critical marker of a healthy organism. Low HRV predicts greater morbidity and mortality after heart attack, and also predicts death by all causes. HRV biofeedback can increase the adaptive and coherent variability in heart rate, and moderate the symptoms of asthma, COPD, and other autonomically mediated medical conditions. Diaphragmatic breathing, cognitive relaxation, and positive emotion are conducive to optimal increases in HRV.

[Moss-D 2010] Donald Moss. “Two Hearts on the Path to Heartful Living”, contained in [Bhave 2010], 2010, pages 201–210. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present chapter describes two hearts, viz. the bio-electric pump of anatomy and the human heart of poetry and philosophy. This latter heart is the centre of the soul, the abode of love, caring and emotion. The chapter introduces phenomenology as an approach aiming to illuminate the individual's immediate experience of the body of life, and of health and illness. It describes the intertwining of the scientific heart and the human heart in emotion and in illness. The human lives are swept in Immediate emotion and feeling, and this subjective emotion impacts the medical and the poetic heart at once. Living heart-fully as a pathway toward heart health is advocated.

[Nakahara 2009] Hidehiro Nakahara, Shinichi Furuya, Satoshi Obata, Tsutomu Masuko, and Hiroshi Kinoshita. “Emotion-related Changes in Heart Rate and its Variability During Performance and Perception of Music”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1169, Number 1, 2009, pages 359–362, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04788.x. Publication 19673808 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigated the differential effects of emotions evoked by music on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) during the playing of music on the piano compared to those in persons listening to the same music. Thirteen elite pianists underwent experiments under expressive piano playing, nonexpressive piano playing, expressive listening, and nonexpressive listening conditions. The expressive conditions produced significantly higher levels of HR and low-frequency component of HRV, as well as a lower level of its high-frequency component. A greater modulation of these was also revealed for performance than perception. The findings suggested that musical performance would lead to a greater effect of emotion-related modulation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity than musical perception.

[Nashoni 2004] Eitan Nahshoni, Dan Aravot, Dov Aizenberg, Mayanit Sigler, Gil Zalsman, Boris Strasberg, Shula Imbar, Edgar Adler, and Abraham Weizman. “Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Major Depression”, Psychosomatics, Volume 45, Number 2, March–April 2004, pages 129–134. Publication 15016926 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Major Depression Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study compared cardiac autonomic modulation in physically healthy patients with major depressive disorder to that in mentally healthy heart transplant recipients and physically and mentally healthy comparison subjects by using a nonlinear measure and a conventional measure of heart rate variability. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic modulation were noted between the depressive group and the transplant recipients, but both of those groups had significantly lower mean values for heart rate variability measures relative to the healthy comparison subjects. The results support the hypothesis that cardiac autonomic imbalance (reduced vagal modulation) to the extent of cardiac neuropathy is present in depression.

[Norris 1993] Richard N. Norris. The Musician's Survival Manual — A Guide to Preventing and Treating Injuries In Instrumentalists, First edition, published by the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians (ICSOM), 1993, 134 pages, ISBN 0-918812-74-7 (978-0-918812-74-2). See the Musician Survival web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Norris 2011] Richard N. Norris. The Musician's Survival Manual — A Guide to Preventing and Treating Injuries In Instrumentalists, Fifth Edition, published by the author, Northampton, Massachussets, May 2011, 101 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4657-0938-7. See the Musician Survival web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Okada 2009] K. Okada, A. Kurita, B. Takase, T. Otsuka, E. Kodani, Y. Kusama, H. Atarashi, and K. Mizuno. “Effects of Music Therapy on Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Incidence of Heart Failure Events, and Plasma Cytokine and Catecholamine Levels in Elderly Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease and Dementia”, International Heart Journal, Volume 50, Number 1, January 2009, pages 95–110. Publication 19246850 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Music therapy (MT) has been used in geriatric nursing hospitals, but there has been no extensive research into whether it actually has beneficial effects on elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and dementia. We investigated the effects of MT on the autonomic nervous system and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with CVD and dementia, since these are related to aging and chronic geriatric disease. We also investigated the effects of MT on congestive heart failure (CHF) events.Eighty-seven patients with pre-existing CVD were enrolled in the study. We assigned patients into an MT group (n = 55) and non-MT group (n = 32). The MT group received MT at least once per week for 45 minutes over 10 times. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). We measured plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in both the MT group and non-MT group. We compared the incidence of CHF events between these two groups. In the MT group, rMSSD, pNN50, and HF were significantly increased by MT, whereas LF/HF was slightly decreased. In the non-MT group, there were no significant changes in any HRV parameters. Among cytokines, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MT group was significantly lower than those in the non-MT group. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower in the MT group than in the non-MT group. CHF events were less frequent in the MT group than in the non-MT group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that MT enhanced parasympathetic activities and decreased CHF by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels.

[Olsen-GD 1995] G. Douglas Olsen. “Creating the Contrast: The Influence of Silence and Background Music on Recall and Attribute Importance”, Journal of Advertising, Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 1995, pages 29–44. Publication 4188987 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: The author investigates the ways in which advertisers can use silence in radio commercials to increase attention to, and subsequent retention of, information in an advertisement. It is argued here that, when music is used in an advertisement, listener attention can be focused on specific pieces of information by cutting to silence just before presenting the crucial information and by continuing the underlying silence as the information is presented. An experiment is reported in which silence effectively increases the listener retention of ad information, in comparison with the use of either background music or background silence throughout. The effect was greatest when the highlighted information was the last item of a series. However, counter to expectations, advertisements with no background music whatsoever did not induce greater overall recall than ads with background music throughout.

[Peng 2004] C.-K. Peng, Isaac C. Henry, Joseph E. Mietus, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Gurucharan Khalsa, Herbert Benson, and Ary L. Goldberger. “Heart Rate Dynamics During Three Forms of Meditation”, International Journal of Cardiology, Volume 95, Number 1, May 2004, pages 19–27, doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.02.006. Publication 15159033 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Dynamics During Three Forms of Meditation Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: This study was designed to quantify and compare the instantaneous heart rate dynamics and cardiopulmonary interactions during sequential performance of three meditation protocols with different breathing patterns.
Background: We analyzed beat-to-beat heart rate and continuous breathing signals from 10 experienced meditators (4 females; 6 males; mean age 42 years; range 29-55 years) during three traditional interventions: relaxation response, breath of fire, and segmented breathing.
Results: Heart rate and respiratory dynamics were generally similar during the relaxation response and segmented breathing. We observed high amplitude, low frequency (approximately 0.05-0.1 Hz) oscillations due to respiratory sinus arrhythmia during both the relaxation response and segmented breathing, along with a significantly (p<0.05) increased coherence between heart rate and breathing during these two maneuvers when compared to baseline. The third technique, breath of fire, was associated with a different pattern of response, marked by a significant increase in mean heart rate with respect to baseline (p<0.01), and a significant decrease in coherence between heart rate and breathing (p<0.05).
Conclusions: These findings suggest that different meditative/breathing protocols may evoke common heart rate effects, as well as specific responses. The results support the concept of a "meditation paradox," since a variety of relaxation and meditative techniques may produce active rather than quiescent cardiac dynamics, associated with prominent low frequency heart rate oscillations or increases in mean resting heart rate. These findings also underscore the need to critically assess traditional frequency domain heart rate variability parameters in making inferences about autonomic alterations during meditation with slow breathing.

[Peper 1999] Erik Peper and Vicci Tibbitts. “Protocol for the Treatment of Asthma”, The Healing Breath: A Journal of Breathwork Practice, Psychology and Spirituality, Volume 1, Number 2, 1999. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This paper describes a training protocol to reduce the onset and severity of asthmatic symptoms. Subjects with asthmatic symptoms were initially trained to master effortless diaphragmatic breathing with surface electrolyographic and incentive inspirometer feedback. Inhalation volume was the physiological parameter used to measure skill acquisition. The protocol consisted of a pre-desensitization phase (mastering effortless diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation, peripheral hand warming and generalizing effortless diaphragmatic breathing while performing daily tasks). The desensitization-training phase consisted of inhalation awareness and desensitization exercises to promote effortless breathing under most conditions (abdominal versus thoracic awareness, volume awareness, purposeful wheezing, imagery rehearsal of stressors, role rehearsal and actual exposure to allergens. The methodology and helpful hints are described for each practice. Most subjects mastered the skills, inhibited their automatic escalation of dysfunctional breathing, and demonstrated the ability to continue to breathe diaphragmatically under a variety of conditions. Although this protocol was used with patients with asthma, it could be adapted as a treatment approach to other disorders (e.g., hyperventilation syndrome, anxiety or panic).

[Peper 2007] Erik Peper, Rick Harvey, I-Mei Lin, Hana Tylova, and Donald Moss. “Is There More to Blood Volume Pulse Than Heart Rate Variability, Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, and Cardiorespiratory Synchrony?”, Biofeedback, Volume 35, Issue 2, Summer 2007, pages 54–61. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A growing body of research reports the health benefits of training heart rate variability (HRV), and the clinical use of HRV training protocols has increased dramatically in recent years. Many of the home training devices and many of the sophisticated biofeedback instrumentation systems rely on the blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor, or photoplethysmograph, because it is more user friendly than the electrocardiogram used in medical settings. However, the BVP signal is valuable in its own right, not merely as a convenient measure of HRV. This article explores the methodology of BVP recording, the underlying physiology, and the potential benefits from BVP treatment and training protocols. For example, the shape of the BVP waveform reflects arterial changes correlated with hypertension. In addition, BVP training offers promise for the treatment of migraine and the monitoring of human sexual arousal.

[Pepping 2009] Amanda Pepping. “A Look at the Role of Musical Wind Instruments in Asthma Therapy”, International Trumpet Guild Journal, January 2009, pages 17–20. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Perticone 1990] F. Perticone, R. Ceravolo, R. Maio, C. Cosco, and P. L. Mattioli. “Heart Rate Variability and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Volume 13, Number 12, Part 2, December 1990, pages 2096–2099, doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.1990.tb06949.x. Publication 1704600 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death in infancy. The pathophysiological mechanism leading to SIDS is still obscure. In the QT hypothesis, the mechanism must be an arrhythmogenic sympathetic imbalance: the infants die suddenly of cardiac arrhythmia. Recently, it has been suggested that analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), expressed as standard deviation or variance analysis, can provide adequate information on sympathovagal interaction. We studied 150 newborns enrolled in a previous prospective electrocardiographic study to evaluate the predictive value of QT interval for SIDS. We analyzed the ECGs recorded with infants alert on the fourth day of life and after 2 months. For each ECG, the HRV was calculated using the first standard deviation of of RR intervals (ms) measured for 1 minute. The average RR interval was 441 +/- 71 ms at the fourth day and 410 +/- 39 ms at the second month. The QTc and HRV mean values were 396 +/- 23 and 23 +/- 12 ms at the fourth day, 412 +/- 19 and 15 +/- 7 msec at the second month. Therefore, the SD values of heart rate were correlated with QTc in order to assess a possible relationship between the two variables. The correlation coefficient and regression equation were: -0.639 and y = 423.67 - 1.18*X (P less than 0.001) at the fourth day, -0.146 and y = 418.09 - 0.37*X (NS) at the second month. In conclusion, our data seems to confirm a delayed maturation or impaired functioning of the autonomic nervous system in the first weeks of life, reflecting a direct correlation with QT prolongation.

[Perticone 1994] Francesco Perticone, Raffaele Maio, Carmela Cosco, Fabiola Pugliese, Cosima Cloro, Domenico A Borelli, and Pier L Mattioli. Heart Rate Variability and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Pediatric Research, Volume 36, 1994, page 61A, doi:10.1203/00006450-199407000-00353 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We studied 465 newborns enrolled in a previous prospective electrocardiographic study to evaluate the predictive value of QT interval for SIDS. We analyzed the ECGs recorded with babies alert on the 4th day of life and after 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. For each ECG, the HRV was calculated using the first standard deviation of RR intervals (ms) measured for 2 minutes. Besides, the HRV values were correlated with QTc values in order to asses a possible relationship between the 2 variables. Data are reported in table:

Our data seems to confirm a delayed maturation or impaired fuctioning of the autonomic nervous system in the first months of life, reflecting a direct correlation with QT prolongation.

[Petru 1993] Vit Petrů, Alžběta Carbolová, and V. Kloc. “Zobcová flétna jako pomůcka při léčbě respiračních onemocnění «The Fipple Flute as a Treatment Aid in Respiratory Diseases»”, Československá Pediatrie, Volume 48, Number 7, in Czech, 1993, pages 441–442. Publication 8374986 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Zobcová flétna jako pomůcka při léčbě respiračních onemocnění Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Piedade 2004] Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade. O Canto do Kawoká: Música, Cosmologia e Filosofia Entre os Wauja do Alto Xingu «The Song of Kawoká: Music, Cosmology and Philosophy among the Upper Xingu Wauja», Doctoral dissertation – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil, in Portuguese, 2004, 254 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Esta tese é uma etnografia do ritual das flautas kawoká entre os índios Wauja do Alto Xingu. Elas fazem parte do chamado “complexo das flautas sagradas”, observado em várias sociedades amazônicas e em outras partes do mundo. A investigação da música das flautas kawoká envolve o estudo da cosmologia e do xamanismo, e igualmente questões da socialidade, tais como relações de gênero e política. Seguindo pistas do discurso nativo, o trabalho focaliza o sistema motívico, entendido como cerne da música de kawoká. Neste nível, estão em operação princípios de repetição e diferenciação que constituem a base do pensamento musical nativo, um dos pilares de sua cosmologia e filosofia.

This dissertation is an ethnography of the kawoká flute ritual amongst the Wauja Indians of Upper Xingu. These flutes are part of the so-called “sacred flutes complex”, which is observed in various Amazonian societies and in other parts of the world. The investigation of the kawoká flute music involves the study of cosmology and shamanism, and also of questions of sociality, typically gender relationships and politics. Following the clues of the native discourse, this dissertation focuses the motivic system, central in kawoká music. At this level, principles of repetition and differentiation constitutes the fundamental operational rules, which designs the basis of native musical thought, one of the crucial nexus of Wauja cosmology and philosophy.

[Piedade 2006] Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade. “Reflexões a partir da etnografia da música dos índios Wauja «Reflections from the Ethnography of Music of the Wauja Indians»”, Revista Anthropológicas, Volume 17, Number 1, in Portuguese, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Este artigo trata de aspectos de pesquisa de campo entre os índios Wauja do alto Xingu, Mato Grosso. Gira em torno de dois tópicos principais: as relações entre complexo das flautas sagradas, xamanismo e mundo sobrenatural, sistema musical e musicalidade nativa; e o pensamento wauja sobre tradição e mudança, e as relações entre os Wauja e o mundo da sociedade envolvente.

This article deals with aspects of my field research among the Wauja Indians from the upper Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The article comments two main topics: the relationship between the sacred flutes complex, shamanism and the supernatural world, musical system and native musicality; and also the relationship between the Wauja and the surrounding society, the Wauja thought on tradition and change.

[Pishbin 2012] T. Pishbin, S. M. P. Firoozabadi, N. Jafarnia Dabanloo, F. Mohammadi, and S. Koozehgari. “Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Volume 2, Number 12, December 2012, pages 452–456. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart’s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person’s ECG signal can be registered in other person’s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p<0.05) and decreases sympathetic activity, as indicate by decrease LF power (p<0.01) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.05).

[Puhan 2006] Milo A Puhan, Alex Suarez, Christian Lo Cascio, Alfred Zahn, Markus Heitz, and Otto Braendli. “Didgeridoo Playing as Alternative Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: Randomised Controlled Trial”, British Medical Journal, Volume 332, Number 7536, February 4, 2006, pages 266–270, doi:10.1136/bmj.38705.470590.55. Publication 16377643 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the effects of didgeridoo playing on daytime sleepiness and other outcomes related to sleep by reducing collapsibility of the upper airways in patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and snoring.
Design: Randomised controlled trial.
Setting: Private practice of a didgeridoo instructor and a single centre for sleep medicine.
Participants: 25 patients aged > 18 years with an apnoea-hypopnoea index between 15 and 30 and who complained about snoring.
Interventions: Didgeridoo lessons and daily practice at home with standardised instruments for four months. Participants in the control group remained on the waiting list for lessons.
Main Outcome Measure: Daytime sleepiness (Epworth scale from 0 (no daytime sleepiness) to 24), sleep quality (Pittsburgh quality of sleep index from 0 (excellent sleep quality) to 21), partner rating of sleep disturbance (visual analogue scale from 0 (not disturbed) to 10), apnoea-hypopnoea index, and health related quality of life (SF-36).
Results: Participants in the didgeridoo group practised an average of 5.9 days a week (SD 0.86) for 25.3 minutes (SD 3.4). Compared with the control group in the didgeridoo group daytime sleepiness (difference -3.0, 95% confidence interval -5.7 to -0.3, P = 0.03) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (difference -6.2, -12.3 to -0.1, P = 0.05) improved significantly and partners reported less sleep disturbance (difference -2.8, -4.7 to -0.9, P < 0.01). There was no effect on the quality of sleep (difference -0.7, -2.1 to 0.6, P = 0.27). The combined analysis of sleep related outcomes showed a moderate to large effect of didgeridoo playing (difference between summary z scores -0.78 SD units, -1.27 to -0.28, P < 0.01). Changes in health related quality of life did not differ between groups.
Conclusion: Regular didgeridoo playing is an effective treatment alternative well accepted by patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Trial registration ISRCTN: 31571714.

[Ramshur 2010] John T. Ramshur. Design, Evaluation, and Application of Heart Rate Variability Analysis Software (HRVAS), Masters dissertation – University of Memphis, Tennessee, July 2010, 119 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular and important tool for studying many disease pathologies in the past twenty years. HRV analyses are methods used to non-invasively quantify variability within heart rate. Purposes of this study were to design, evaluate, and apply an easy to use and open-source HRV analysis software package (HRVAS). HRVAS implements four major categories of HRV techniques: statistical and time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, nonlinear analysis, and time-frequency analysis. Software evaluations were accomplished by performing HRV analysis on simulated and public congestive heart failure (CHF) data. Application of HRVAS included studying the effects of hyperaldosteronism on HRV in rats. Simulation and CHF results demonstrated that HRVAS was a dependable HRV analysis tool. Results from the rat hyperaldosteronism model showed that mean IBI, mean HR, RMSSD, SDNN, and SD were statistically significant (p<0.05). HRVAS provides a useful tool for HRV analysis to researchers.

[Renaud 1926] Etienne B. Renaud. “Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest»”, Bulletin de la Société préhistorique de France, Volume 23, Issue 7–8, in French, 1926, pages 168–178, doi:10.3406/bspf.1926.5910. Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: Le Musée de l'Université de l'Etat du Colorado, à Boulder, contient des collections importantes d'archéologie indienne préhistorique. Parmi les trésors de ce petit Musée se trouvent les objets nombreux et très intéressants rapportés par Mr. Earl Morris de son expédition de 1924 dans la région du Canon del Muerto, au nordest de l'Arizona. Alors que j'enseignais l'anthropologie à l'Université du Colorado pendant l'été de 1925, j'ai eu l'avantage, grâce à l'aimable permission du curateur, Prof. J. Henderson, d'étudier une partie de cette collection et d'en mesurer et dessiner un certain nombre d'objets. J'ai décrit et discuté ailleurs les « atlatls » ou pro pulseurs et les flèches préhistoriques de même provenance. Dans la présente note je désire parler de quatre flûtes indiennes précolumbiennes et discuter quelques points se rapportant à leur usage.
Translation: The Museum of the State University of Colorado at Boulder contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are the many interesting objects brought by Mr. Earl Morris of his expedition of 1924 in the region of Canon del Muerto, to the northeast of Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado during the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, thanks to the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and prehistoric arrows from the same source. In this note I want to mention four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Renaud 2012] Etienne B. Renaud; Clint Goss (translation). Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest, in French and English, 2012, 16 pages. English translation of [Renaud 1926] Flûtes indiennes préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest Américain «Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest». Indian Flutes of the Prehistoric American Southwest Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: The Development of Flutes in North America

Introduction: The Museum of the University of Colorado, Boulder, contains important collections of prehistoric Indian archeology. Among the treasures of this small museum are objects and many very interesting reported by Mr. Earl Morris in his 1924 expedition in the region of the Canon del Muerto in northeast Arizona. While I was teaching anthropology at the University of Colorado in the summer of 1925, I had the advantage, with the kind permission of the curator, Prof. J. Henderson, to study a part of this collection and to measure and draw a number of objects. I have described and discussed elsewhere the "atlatls" or pro kickers and even from prehistoric arrows. In this note I wish to speak of four pre-Columbian Indian flutes and discuss some points related to their use.

[Revesz 1953] G. Révész. Einführung in die Musikpsychologie «Introduction to Music Psychology», published by A. Frank Ag. Verlag, Bern, Switzerland, 1953. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Rich-MW 1988] Michael W. Rich, Jasbir S. Saini, Robert E. Kleiger, Robert M. Carney, Adrienne teVelde, and Kenneth E. Freedland. “Correlation of Heart Rate Variability with Clinical and Angiographic Variables and Late Mortality After Coronary Angiography”, American Journal of Cardiology, Volume 62, Number 10, Part 1, October 1, 1988, pages 714–717, doi:10.1016/0002-9149(88)91208-8. Publication 3421170 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased heart rate (HR) variability is associated with increased mortality after myocardial infarction, but the prognostic value of HR variability in patients without recent myocardial infarction and its correlation with other clinical and angiographic data have not previously been reported. In the present study, detailed clinical assessments and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were performed prospectively on 100 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. HR variability was inversely correlated with HR (r = −0.38, p = 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (r = −0.22, p = 0.025) and digoxin use (r = −0.29, p = 0.004), but not with left ventricular ejection fraction, extent of coronary artery disease or other clinical, electrocardiographic or angiographic variables. All patients were followed for 1 year. Major clinical events after initial discharge occurred in 10 patients and included 6 deaths and 4 coronary bypass operations. Left ventricular ejection fraction was the only variable that correlated with the occurrence of a clinical event (p = 0.002). Decreased HR variability and ejection fraction were the best predictors of mortality (both p < 0.01), and the contribution of HR variability to mortality was independent of ejection fraction, extent of coronary artery disease and other variables. Furthermore, 11 patients with HR variability <50 ms had an 18-fold increase in mortality compared with patients with HR variability >50 ms (36 vs 2%, p = 0.001). Thus, decreased HR variability is a potent independent predictor of mortality in the 12 months following elective coronary angiography in patients without recent myocardial infarction.

[Roach 2004] Daniel Roach, Wendy Wilson, Debbie Ritchie, and Robert Sheldon. “Dissection of Long-range Heart Rate Variability”, Journal of the Americn College of Cardiology, Volume 43, Number 12, June 2004, pages 2271–2277, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.01.050 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objectives: We sought to determine whether the long-range measures of heart rate variability (HRV)—the standard deviation of sequential 5-min heart period mean values (SDANN) and the heart period spectral amplitude in the ultra-low frequency band <0.0033 Hz (ULF)—had their origins partly in physical activity.
Background: The SDANN and ULF are prognostic HRV factors whose physiologic origins are obscure. Their discontinuous presence throughout the day suggested that they arise from changes in heart period due to activity.
Methods: Heart period sequences were recorded from 14 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and 14 control subjects during an unrestricted 24-h day, 4-h supine rest, and 4-h epoch with scripted activities.
Results: The SDANN was higher during activity than during rest (74 ± 23 ms vs. 43 ± 17 ms, p < 0.0001), as were ULF magnitudes (p < 0.0001). The increase in SDANN was due to specific activities that contributed heavily (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance); for example, a 10-min walk and 90-min rest each contributed 22% of total SDANN. Patients with heart disease had a lower SDANN and ULF and a higher mean heart rate than control subjects during all recordings. The proportional ranges in heart period were the same in the two groups during controlled, scripted activities but were wider in control subjects than in patients during ambulatory recordings, suggesting decreased activity by patients.
Conclusions: Activity increases SDANN by increasing the range of heart periods. Patients with diminished ventricular function have a reduced SDANN on ambulatory electrocardiograms, possibly and partly because of a higher mean heart rate and reduced variations in physical activity.

[Rossiter 1998] Thomas R. Rossiter. “Patient-directed Neurofeedback for AD/HD”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 2, Number 4, Spring 1998, pages 54–63, doi:10.1300/J184v02n04_04 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The study reports on Patient-Directed neurofeedback for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Therapist involvement was limited to 10 treatment sessions used to train the patient or parents of younger children to use the equipment, to monitor treatment, and to make changes in the treatment protocol as necessary. The remaining 50 sessions were conducted at home using inexpensive, easy to operate, 1 or 2 channel Lexicor PODs. Results from the initial 6 patients, ages 7 to 45, are reported. Thirteen of 24 Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) measures (attention, impulsivity, reaction time and variability) were below average (SS < 90) at baseline. After 30 neurofeedback sessions, only 5 TOVA variables remained below average. It is concluded that Patient-Directed neurofeedback may be an effective alternative to Therapist-Directed treatment for many AD/HD patients and can be delivered at substantially less cost.

[Rossiter 2004a] Thomas R. Rossiter. “The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of Methodological Issues”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 2, June 2004, pages 95–112. Publication 15208973 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The paper examines major criticisms of AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) neurofeedback research using T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) as an exemplar and discusses relevant aspects of research methodology. J. Lohr, S. Meunier, L. Parker, and J. P. Kline (2001), D. A. Waschbusch and G. P. Hill (2001), and J. P. Kline, C. N. Brann, and B. R. Loney (2002) criticized Rossiter and La Vaque for (1) using an active treatment control; (2) nonrandom assignment of patients; (3) provision of collateral treatments; (4) using nonstandardized and invalid assessment instruments; (5) providing artifact contaminated EEG feedback; and (6) conducting multiple non-alpha protected t tests. The criticisms, except those related to statistical analysis, are invalid or are not supported as presented by the authors. They are based on the critics' unsubstantiated opinions; require redefining Rossiter and La Vaque as an efficacy rather than an effectiveness study; or reflect a lack of familiarity with the research literature. However, there are broader issues to be considered. Specifically, what research methodology is appropriate for studies evaluating the effectiveness of neurofeedback and who should make that determination? The uncritical acceptance and implementation of models developed for psychotherapy, pharmacology, or medical research is premature and ill-advised. Neurofeedback researchers should develop models that are appropriate to the technology, treatment paradigms, and goals of neurofeedback outcome studies. They need to explain the rationale for their research methodology and defend their choices.

[Rossiter 2004b] Thomas R. Rossiter. “The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Stimulant Drugs in Treating AD/HD: Part II. Replication”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 29, Number 4, December 2004, pages 233–243, doi:10.1007/s10484-004-0383-4. Publication 15707253 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study replicated T. R. Rossiter and T. J. La Vaque (1995) with a larger sample, expanded age range, and improved statistical analysis. Thirty-one ADIHD patients who chose stimulant drug (MED) treatment were matched with 31 patients who chose a neurofeedback (EEG) treatment program. EEG patients received either office (n = 14) or home (n = 17) neurofeedback. Stimulants for MED patients were titrated using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). EEG (effect size [ES] = 1.01-1.71) and MED (ES = 0.80-1.80) groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvement on TOVA measures of attention, impulse control, processing speed, and variability in attention. The EEG group demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement on behavioral measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children, ES = 1.16-1.78, and Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scales, ES = 1.59). TOVA gain scores for the EEG and MED groups were not significantly different. More importantly, confidence interval and nonequivalence null hypothesis testing confirmed that the neurofeedback program produced patient outcomes equivalent to those obtained with stimulant drugs. An effectiveness research design places some limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn.

[Russoniello 2010] C. V. Russoniello, V. Pougtachev, E. Zhirnov, and M. T. Mahar. “A Measurement of Electrocardiography and Photoplethesmography in Obese Children”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Issue 3, September 2010, pages 257–259, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9136-8. Publication 20552266 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish heart rate variability normative data on obese children and to comparing the accuracy of two medical technologies photoplethesmography (PPG) with electrocardiography (ECG) while measuring heart rate variability (HRV). PPG is a relatively new technique that holds promise for health care practitioners as an evaluative tool and biofeedback instrument due to its cost and easy administration. This study involved ten children who were recruited for an after-school program designed to reduce obesity. Three-five-minute recordings of HRV were collected while the children were lying in the supine position on a therapy bed. PPG was measured from a thumb sensor and ECG from sensors placed under wristbands on both wrists. The results indicate that PPG is as effective as ECG in measuring the eleven parameters of heart rate variability.

[Russoniello 2013] Carmen V. Russoniello, Yevgeniy N. Zhirnov, Vadim I. Pougatchev, and Evgueni N. Gribkov. “Heart Rate Variability and Biological Age: Implications for Health and Gaming”, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Volume 16, Number 4, April 2013, pages 302–308, doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.1505. Publication 23574369 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Accurate and inexpensive psychophysiological equipment and software are needed to measure and monitor the autonomic nervous system for gaming and therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) derived from photoplethesmography (PPG) technology was predictive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) aging or biological age. Second, we sought to determine which HRV variable was most predictive of ANS change and aging. To test our hypotheses, we first conducted a criterion related validity study by comparing parameters of a 5 minute resting HRV test obtained from electrocardiography (ECG), the current "gold standard," with PPG technologies, and found them to be significantly correlated (r≥0.92) on all parameters during a resting state. PPG was strongly correlated to ECG on all HRV parameters during a paced six breaths per minute deep breathing test (r≥0.98). Further analysis revealed that maximum variation of heart rate had the highest negative correlation (r=-0.67) with age. We conclude that PPG is comparable to ECG in accuracy, and maximum variation of heart rate derived from a paced breathing test can be considered a marker of biological aging. Therapeutic interventions and games designed to reduce dysfunction in the ANS can now be developed using accurate physiological data.

[Sabatini 2011] Fabio Sabatini. “The Relationship between Happiness and Health: Evidence from Italy”, published by University of York, Health, Econometrics and Data Group, May 2011, 21 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We test the relationship between happiness and self-rated health in Italy. The analysis relies on a unique dataset collected through the administration of a questionnaire to a representative sample (n = 817) of the population of the Italian Province of Trento in March 2011. Based on probit regressions, instrumental variables estimates and structural equations modelling, we find that happiness is strongly correlated with perceived good health, after controlling for a number of relevant socio-economic phenomena. Health inequalities based on income, work status and education are relatively contained in respect to the rest of Italy. As expected, this scales down the role of social capital.

[Sakki 2003] M. Säkki, Jaan Kalda, M. Vainu, and M. Laan. “What Does the Correlation Dimension of the Human Heart Rate Measure?, Version 2”, January 8, 2003, 5 pages 4 figures, arXiv:physics/0112031 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: It is shown that in the case of human heart rate, the scaling behaviour of the correlation sum (calculated by the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm) is a result of the interplay of various factors: finite resolution of the apparatus (finite-size effects), a wide dynamic range of mean heart rate, the amplitude of short-time variability being a decreasing function of the mean heart rate. The value of the scaling exponent depends on all these factors and is a certain measure of short-time variability of the signal.

[Salem 2006] Harry Salem and Sidney A. Katz. Inhalation Toxicology, Second edition, published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2006. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Sammler 2007] Daniela Sammler, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas Fritz, and Stefan Koelsch. “Music and Emotion: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Processing of Pleasant and Unpleasant Music”, Psychomusicology, Volume 44, 2007, pages 293–304, doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00497.x Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Human emotion and its electrophysiological correlates are still poorly understood. The present study examined whether the valence of perceived emotions would differentially influence EEG power spectra and heart rate (HR). Pleasant and unpleasant emotions were induced by consonant and dissonant music. Unpleasant (compared to pleasant) music evoked a significant decrease of HR, replicating the pattern of HR responses previously described for the processing of emotional pictures, sounds, and films. In the EEG, pleasant (contrasted to unpleasant) music was associated with an increase of frontal midline (Fm) theta power. This effect is taken to reflect emotional processing in close interaction with attentional functions. These findings show that Fm theta ismodulated by emotionmore strongly than previously believed.

[Sandercock 2005] Gavin R. H. Sandercock, Paul D. Bromley, and David A. Brodie. “Effects of Exercise on Heart Rate Variability: Inferences from Meta-Analysis”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 37, Number 3, March 2005, pages 433–439, doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000155388.39002.9D. Publication 15741842 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic exercise training produces a resting bradycardia that is thought to be due partly to enhanced vagal modulation.
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of exercise training on heart rate and measures of heart rate variability associated with vagal cardiac modulation and to quantify the relationship between changes in these measures.
Methods: A random effects model of effect size (d) for change in high frequency (HF) power and RR interval was calculated. Within-group heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic. Where heterogenous effects were found, subgroup analyses were performed using the between-group Q statistic.
Results: A meta-analysis of 13 studies measuring HF (N=322 cases) produced an overall effect size of d=0.48 (C.I. 0.26-0.70, P=0.00003). Twelve studies (298 cases) reported a change in RR interval with an overall effect size of d=0.75 (C.I. 0.51-0.96, P<0.00001). Effect sizes for RR interval data were significantly heterogenous. Subgroup analysis revealed significantly smaller responses of RR interval to training in older subjects (P<0.1). Effect sizes for change in HF were homogenous, although a trend toward an attenuated response to training was exhibited in older subjects (P>0.10). Linear, quadratic, and cubic fits all revealed weak (P>0.05) relationships between effect sizes for change in HF and RR interval.
Discussion: Exercise training results in significant increases in RR interval and HF power. These changes are influenced by study population age. The smaller effect size for HF and weak relationship between HF and RR interval suggest factors additional to increased vagal modulation are responsible for training bradycardia.

[Sato-S 2010] S. Sato, S. Makita, R. Uchida, S. Ishihara, and M. Masuda. “Effect of Tai Chi training on baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in patients with coronary heart disease”, International Heart Journal, Volume 51, Number 4, July 2010, pages 238–241. Publication 20716839 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese conditioning exercise that has been used to integrate slow movements, controlled breathing, and mental concentration. The aim of the study was to determine whether Tai Chi training in addition to cardiac rehabilitation would result in a shift toward increased vagal activity of autonomic markers, such as baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) (male/female: 13/7, mean age: 67.8 +/- 4.2 years, mean interval time after a coronary event: 19.8 months) completed this study. The Tai Chi group (n = 10) practiced supervised Tai Chi training once a week and home-based Tai Chi training three times a week together with conventional cardiac rehabilitation for one-year. The control group (n = 10) conducted the conventional cardiac rehabilitation only. BRS and HRV were evaluated at the baseline and after one-year of Tai Chi training. Compared with the controls, patients in the Tai Chi group showed statistically significant improvement in BRS (P = 0.036). These associations persisted after adjustment for age and other covariates. On the other hand, there were no significant trends seen in HRV. Additional Tai Chi training during cardiac rehabilitation may augment reflex vagal regulation, which adds importantly to knowledge of cardiac rehabilitation on autonomic regulation and clinical management of CHD.

[Schechtman 1989] Vicki L. Schechtman, Ronald M. Harper, Karen A. Kluge, Adrian J. Wilson, Howard J. Hoffman, and David P. Southall. “Heart Rate Variation in Normal Infants and Victims of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”, Early Human Development, Volume 19, Number 3, June 1989, pages 167–181, doi:10.1016/0378-3782(89)90077-7. Publication 2776682 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Infants who later succumb to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) exhibit lower overall heart rate variability during waking than do other infants. This study attempts to determine which type or types of heart rate variation are reduced in SIDS victims. Long-term recordings of heart rate and respiration were obtained from normal infants and infants who later died of SIDS, and heart rate variation in three frequency bands was examined: respiratory sinus arrhythmia (periods 0.9–3.0 s), ‘mid-frequency’ (periods 4.0–7.5 s) and ‘low-frequency’ (periods 12–30 s). All three types of heart rate variation were diminished in SIDS victims under 1 month of age during waking and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with controls. Partitioning heart rate effects showed that in waking, and to a lesser extent in REM sleep, the reduction in all types of heart rate variation exceeded that which would have been predicted based on higher heart rates in SIDS victims. No heart rate-independent reduction in any type of heart rate variation was observed in quiet sleep. This state-dependent reduction in three types of heart rate variation could indicate an abnormality of autonomic control mechanisms during waking and REM sleep in infants who later succumb to SIDS.

[Schipke 1999] J. D. Schipke, G. Arnold, and M. Pelzer. “Effect of Respiration Rate on Short-term Heart Rate Variability”, Journal of Clinical and Basic Cardiology, Volume 2, Number 1, 1999, pages 92–95. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Schmid 2010] K. Schmid, J. Schönlebe, H. Drexler, and M. Mueck-Weymann. “The Effects of Cannabis on Heart Rate Variability and Well-being in Young Men”, Pharmacopsychiatry, Volume 43, Number 4, June 2010, pages 147–150, doi:10.1055/s-0030-1248314. Publication 20191442 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: The effects of cannabis use on the autonomic regulation of the heart had been identified in tests with volunteers. We studied these effects of cannabis use on young adults in everyday life.
Methods: We measured heart rate variability (HRV) and well-being (WHO-5 score) in young men during a routine medical examination. Seventy-two men were identified with a positive drug screening test solely for tetrahydrocannabinol. The comparison group consisted of 72 men, matched according to age and body mass index, who used no illicit drugs or pharmaceuticals.
Results: In the cannabis group, HRV was significantly increased compared to the control group. The median value of root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) at rest was 56.2 ms in the drug users and 48.6 ms in the controls (p<0.05). The ratio of low-to-high frequency was higher in the controls (median 1.87 vs. 1.62; p<0.05). Psychological well-being, measured by WHO-5 score was significantly lower in cannabis users.
Discussion: Our data support the hypothesis that the use of cannabis leads to a change in cardiovascular sympathovagal balance.

[Seifert 2013] Georg Seifert, Jenny-Lena Kanitz, Kim Pretzer, Günter Henze, Katharina Witt, Sina Reulecke, and Andreas Voss. “Improvement of Circadian Rhythm of Heart Rate Variability by Eurythmy Therapy Training”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013, Article ID 564340, published by Hindawi Publishing, 2013, 9 pages, doi:10.1155/2013/564340 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Impairment of circadian rhythm is associated with various clinical problems. It not only has a negative impact on quality of life but can also be associated with a significantly poorer prognosis. Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is an anthroposophic movement therapy aimed at reducing fatigue symptoms and stress levels.
Objective: This analysis of healthy subjects was conducte to examine whether the improvement in fatigue symptoms was accompanied by improvements in the circadian rhythm of heart rate variability (HRV).
Design: Twenty-three women performed 10 hours of EYT over six weeks. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after the EYT trial. HRV was quantified by parameters of the frequency and time domains and the nonlinear parameters of symbolic dynamics.
Results: The day-night contrast with predominance of vagal activity at night becomes more pronounced after the EYT training, and with decreased Ultralow and very low frequencies, the HRV shows evidence of calmer sleep. During the night, the complexity of the HRV is significantly increased indicated by nonlinear parameters.
Conclusion: The analysis of the circadian patterns of cardiophysiological parameters before and after EYT shows significant improvements in HRV in terms of greater day-night contrast caused by an increase of vagal activity and calmer and more complex HRV patterns during sleep.

[Selvaraj 2008] N. Selvaraj, A. Jaryal, J. Santhosh, K. K. Deepak, and S. Anand. “Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Derived from Finger-tip Photoplethysmography as Compared to Electrocardiography”, Volume 32, Number 6, November–December 2008, pages 479–484, doi:10.1080/03091900701781317. Publication 18663635 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is traditionally derived from RR interval time series of electrocardiography (ECG). Photoplethysmography (PPG) also reflects the cardiac rhythm since the mechanical activity of the heart is coupled to its electrical activity. Thus, theoretically, PPG can be used for determining the interval between successive heartbeats and heart rate variability. However, the PPG wave lags behind the ECG signal by the time required for transmission of pulse wave. In this study, finger-tip PPG and standard lead II ECG were recorded for five minutes from 10 healthy subjects at rest. The results showed a high correlation (median = 0.97) between the ECG-derived RR intervals and PPG-derived peak-to-peak (PP) intervals. PP variability was accurate (0.1 ms) as compared to RR variability. The time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot HRV parameters computed using RR interval method and PP interval method showed no significant differences (p < 0.05). The error analysis also showed insignificant differences between the HRV indices obtained by the two methods. Bland-Altman analysis showed high degree of agreement between the two methods for all the parameters of HRV. Thus, HRV can also be reliably estimated from the PPG based PP interval method.

[Seps 2001] B. Seps, F. Beckers, D. Ramaekers, and A. E. Aubert. “The Influence of Training on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Older Adults”, Memorias II Congreso Latinoamericano de Ingeniería Biomédica, La Habana, Cuba, May 23–25, 2001, 2001. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The effect of one-year physical training on heart rate variability in older adults was evaluated in 14 healthy men (age > 55 year). Measures of heart rate variability were obtained in both time and frequency domain. Ten-minute ECG recordings were made in supine position and in standing position. A progressive climbing exertion test till exhaustion was performed to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ) and maximal wattage level (Wmax ). Results show a small gain in maximal oxygen consumption and no changes in HRV parameters during the first 6 months of training. In the last six months of training there was a trend towards a decreasing HRV, Also VO2max and Wmax showed a small decrease at 1 year of training. A correlation between changes in physiological and HRV parameters, suggest an accordance between VO2max and power spectral analysis. It can be concluded that heart rate variability does not change by physical training in elderly population.

[Shackman 2009] Alexander J. Shackman, Brenton W. McMenamin, Heleen A. Slagter, Jeffrey S. Maxwell, Lawrence L. Greischar, and Richard J. Davidson. “Electromyogenic Artifacts and Electroencephalographic Inferences”, Brain Topography, Volume 22, Number 1, June 2009, pages 7–12, doi:10.1007/s10548-009-0079-4. Publication 19214730 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Muscle or electromyogenic (EMG) artifact poses a serious risk to inferential validity for any electroencephalography (EEG) investigation in the frequency-domain owing to its high amplitude, broad spectrum, and sensitivity to psychological processes of interest. Even weak EMG is detectable across the scalp in frequencies as low as the alpha band. Given these hazards, there is substantial interest in developing EMG correction tools. Unfortunately, most published techniques are subjected to only modest validation attempts, rendering their utility questionable. We review recent work by our laboratory quantitatively investigating the validity of two popular EMG correction techniques, one using the general linear model (GLM), the other using temporal independent component analysis (ICA). We show that intra-individual GLM-based methods represent a sensitive and specific tool for correcting on-going or induced, but not evoked (phase-locked) or source-localized, spectral changes. Preliminary work with ICA shows that it may not represent a panacea for EMG contamination, although further scrutiny is strongly warranted. We conclude by describing emerging methodological trends in this area that are likely to have substantial benefits for basic and applied EEG research.

[Shaffer 2013] Fred Shaffer. BCIA HRV Biofeedback Certificate of Completion Didactic Workshop — Strategies to Achieve Clean HRV Biofeedback Recordings, 2013. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shaffer-F 2011] Fred Shaffer and Donald Moss. “Clinical Efficacy of HRV Biofeedback”, 2011. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Shi 2009] Ping Shi. Photoplethysmography in Noninvasive Cardiovascular Assessment, Doctoral dissertation – Loughborough University, Leicestershire, England, May 2009, 151 pages, retrieved June 19, 2012. See the Loughborough Institutional Repository web site. Photoplethysmography in Noninvasive Cardiovascular Assessment Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The electro-optic technique of measuring the cardiovascular pulse wave known as photoplethysmography (PPG) is clinically utilised for noninvasive characterisation of physiological components by dynamic monitoring of tissue optical absorption. There has been a resurgence of interest in this technique in recent years, driven by the demand for a low cost, compact, simple and portable technology for primary care and community-based clinical settings, and the advancement of computer-based pulse wave analysis techniques. PPG signal provides a means of determining cardiovascular properties during the cardiac cycle and changes with ageing and disease. This thesis focuses on the photoplethysmographic signal for cardiovascular assessment. The contour of the PPG pulse wave is influenced by vascular ageing. Contour analysis of the PPG pulse wave provides a rapid means of assessing vascular tone and arterial stiffness. In this thesis, the parameters extracted from the PPG pulse wave are examined in young adults. The results indicate that the contour parameters of the PPG pulse wave could provide a simple and noninvasive means to study the characteristic change relating to arterial stiffness. The pulsatile component of the PPG signal is due to the pumping action of the heart, and thus could reveal the circulation changes of a specific vascular bed. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents one of the most promising quantitative markers of cardiovascular control. Calculation of HRV from the peripheral pulse wave using PPG, called pulse rate variability (PRV), is investigated. The current work has confirmed that the PPG signal could provide basic information about heart rate (HR) and its variability, and highly suggests a good alternative to understanding dynamics pertaining to the autonomic nervous system (ANS) without the use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) device. Hence, PPG measurement has the potential to be readily accepted in ambulatory cardiac monitoring due to its simplicity and comfort. Noncontact PPG (NPPG) is introduced to overcome the current limitations of contact PPG. As a contactless device, NPPG is especially attractive for physiological monitoring in ambulatory units, NICUs, or trauma centres, where attaching electrodes is either inconvenient or unfeasible. In this research, a prototype for noncontact reflection PPG (NRPPG) with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) as a light source and a high-speed PiN photodiode as a photodetector is developed. The results from physiological experiments suggest that NRPPG is reliable to extract clinically useful information about cardiac condition and function. In summary, recent evidence demonstrates that PPG as a simple noninvasive measurement offers a fruitful avenue for noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring. Key words: Photoplethysmography (PPG), Cardiovascular assessment, Pulse wave contour analysis, Arterial stiffness, Heart rate (HR), Heart rate variability (HRV), Pulse rate variability (PRV), Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Electrocardiogram (ECG).

[Siepmann 2008] Martin Siepmann, Volkan Aykac, Jana Unterdörfer, Katja Petrowski, and Michael Mueck-Weymann. “A Pilot Study on the Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Patients with Depression and in Healthy Subjects”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 33, 2008, pages 195–201, doi:10.1007/s10484-008-9064-z. Publication 18807175 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic arousal have been proposed as major contributors to the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with depression. It was aim of the present study to assess the feasibility of using heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback to treat moderate to severe depression. This was an open-label study in which 14 patients with different degrees of depression (13 f, 1 m) aged 30 years (18-47; median; range) and 12 healthy volunteers attended 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback over two weeks. Another 12 healthy subjects were observed under an active control condition. At follow up BDI was found significantly decreased (BDI 6; 2-20; median 25%-75% quartile) as compared to baseline conditions (BDI 22;15-29) in patients with depression. In addition, depressed patients had reduced anxiety, decreased heart rate and increased HRV after conduction of biofeedback (p < 0.05). By contrast, no changes were noted in healthy subjects receiving biofeedback nor in normal controls. In conclusion, HRV biofeedback appears to be a useful adjunct for the treatment of depression, associated with increases in HRV.

[Silber 2007] Michael H. Silber, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Michael H. Bonnet, Sudhansu Chokroverty, Madeleine M. Grigg-Damberger, Max Hirshkowitz, Sheldon Kapen, Sharon A. Keenan, Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Penzel, Mark R. Pressman, and Conrad Iber. “The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Adults”, Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Volume 3, Number 2, March 2007, pages 121–131. Publication 17557422 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Adults Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The 1968 Rechtschaffen and Kales (R & K) sleep scoring manual was published 15 years after REM sleep was discovered. Advances in the ensuing 28 years warranted a re-look at visual scoring of sleep stages. This paper describes the work of the AASM Visual Scoring Task Force, including methodology, a literature review and the rationale behind the new rules. Reliability studies of R & K scoring were reviewed; reliability was low for stage one and moderate for slow wave sleep. Evidence indicated that K complexes and slow waves are expressed maximal frontally, spindles centrally and alpha rhythm over the occipital region. Three derivations of EEG, two of electro-oculography, and one of chin EMG were recommended. Scoring by 30-second epochs was retained. New terminology for sleep stages was proposed. Attenuation of alpha rhythm was determined to be the most valid electrophysiological marker of sleep onset. Alternative measures were proposed for non-alpha generating subjects. K complexes associated with arousals were determined to be insufficient alone to define the new stage N2. No evidence was found to justify dividing slow wave sleep into two stages. No reasons were found to alter the current slow wave amplitude criteria at any age. The phenomena of REM sleep were defined. The rules for defining onset and termination of REM sleep periods were simplified. Movement time was eliminated and major body movements defined. Studies are needed to test the reliability of the new rules. Future advances in technology may require modification of these rules with time.

[Sleigh 1999] J. W. Sleigh and J. Donovan. “Comparison of Bispectral Index, 95% Spectral Edge Frequency and Approximate Entropy of the EEG, with Changes in Heart Rate Variability during Induction of General Anaesthesia”, British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 82, Number 5, May 1999, pages 666–671, doi:10.1093/bja/82.5.666. Publication 10536540 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: We have compared bispectral index (BIS), 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and approximate entropy (ApEn) in 37 patients during induction and recovery from a short general anaesthetic. Heart rate variability (HRV) was also compared during induction only. These indices were noted at the start of induction, when a syringe held between the thumb and fingertips was dropped, at insertion of a laryngeal mask or tracheal tube (tube insertion), at incision, at the end of surgery, on return of the gag reflex and when the patient could follow a verbal command. When indices at the start of induction were compared with those at tube insertion, all four decreased significantly. BIS decreased from a mean of 95.38 (SEM 1.02) to 44.22 (1.05), mean SEF from 20.91 (1.19) to 14.14 (0.70) Hz, mean HRV from 37.1 (7.75) to 17.9 (3.6) bpm2 and ApEn from 0.90 (0.06) to 0.65 (0.04). Using logistic regression, the indices were compared both individually and in combination as to the power of distinguishing awake (at pre-induction) from asleep (at tube insertion) states. BIS had the best predictive power, with a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity 94.4%, positive predictive value 94.7% and negative predictive value 97.1%. A combination of the indices conferred no additional predictive advantage.

[Smith-M 2015] Melinda Smith, Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal. “Alzheimer's and Dementia Prevention”, February 2015, retrieved March 18, 2015. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Song 2003] Hye-Sue Song and Paul M. Lehrer. “The Effects of Specific Respiratory Rates on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 28, Number 1, March 2003, pages 13–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this study respiratory rates of 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 breaths per minute were employed to investigate the effects of these rates on heart rate variability (HRV). Data were collected 16 times at each respiratory rate on 3 female volunteers, and 12 times on 2 female volunteers. Although mean heart rates did not differ among these respiratory rates, respiratory-induced trough heart rates at 4 and 6 breaths per minute were significantly lower than those at 14 breaths per minute. Slower respiratory rates usually produced higher amplitudes of HRV than did faster respiratory rates. However, the highest amplitudes were at 4 breaths per minute. HRV amplitude decreased at 3 breaths per minute. The results are interpreted as reflecting the possible effects of the slow rate of acetylcholine metabolism and the effect of negative resonance at 3 cycles per minute.

[Sowder 2010] Erik Sowder, Richard Gevirtz, Warren Shapiro, and Crystal Ebert. “Restoration of Vagal Tone: A Possible Mechanism for Functional Abdominal Pain”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Number 3, September 2010, pages 199–206, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9128-8. Publication 20229150 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) causes disruption of daily activities/missed school days, over utilization of healthcare, unnecessary surgeries, and anxiety in 10-15% of children. Its etiology is not clearly understood, however the success of several clinical protocols suggests that autonomic dysregulation is a factor. In this study autonomic activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), was compared between children with FAP and a comparison group. Twenty children with FAP and 10 children without FAP between the ages of 5 and 17 years old were compared on autonomic regulation using an ambulatory system at baseline and 8 weeks later. Children with FAP participated in 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback aimed at normalizing autonomic balance. At baseline, children with FAP appear to have more autonomic dysregulation than children without FAP. After completing HRV biofeedback, the FAP group was able to significantly reduce their symptoms in relation to significantly increasing their autonomic balance. In a sample of children with FAP, it appears that HRV biofeedback treatment improved their symptoms and that a change in vagal tone was a potential mediator for this improvement. The present study appears to point to excessive vagal withdrawal as an underlying mechanism of FAP.

[Spiegelhalder 2011] Kay Spiegelhalder, Lena Fuchs, Johannes Ladwig, Simon D. Kyle, Christoph Nissen, Ulrich Voderholzer, Bernd Feige, and Dieter Riemann. “Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Subjectively Reported Insomnia”, Journal of Sleep Research, Volume 20, Number 1, Part 2, March 2011, pages 137–145, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00863.x. Publication 20626615 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to epidemiological studies, insomnia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, it is yet to be determined whether this link is mediated by known cardiovascular risk factors. The current study aimed at investigating the association between primary insomnia, defined as subjectively reported sleep disturbance in the absence of any other pathology or substance intake, and alterations in polysomnographically determined nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 4,581 nocturnal short-term electrocardiographic recordings (5 min each) from 104 participants (58 with primary insomnia, 46 healthy controls) were evaluated for HR as well as for time and frequency domain measures of HRV. In the primary insomnia group, we found a lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and a lower standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) compared to healthy controls. However, between-group differences in resting HR were not found, and previous results of an increase in sympathovagal balance and a decrease in parasympathetic nocturnal activity in objectively determined insomnia could not be confirmed in our sample of self-report insomnia patients. When restricting our analyses to insomnia patients with objectively determined short sleep duration, we found reduced parasympathetic activity as indicated by decreased high frequency power of HRV, as well as decreased root mean square of successive RRI differences (RMSSD) and percentage of successive RRIs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) values. A lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and alterations in HRV variables might, at least partially, mediate the increased rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in insomnia patients.

[Stark-R 2000] Rudolf Stark, Anne Schienle, Bertram Walter, and Dieter Vaitl. “Effects of Paced Respiration on Heart Period and Heart Period Variability”, Psychophysiology, Volume 37, Number 3, May 2000, pages 302–309. Publication 10860408 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The present study investigated psychophysiological responses to paced respiration of different frequencies. Twenty men and 20 women (mean age: 24.3 years) underwent five breathing conditions (paced with 0.15 Hz, 0.20 Hz, 0.25 Hz, 0.30 Hz, and unpaced), each lasting 5 min. As dependent physiological measures heart period, and different heart period variability (HPV) parameters were assessed. Psychological variables consisted of mood estimates as well as rated accuracy and effort to follow the pacing rhythm. HPV decreased with higher breathing frequencies, under paced and unpaced conditions, whereas mood ratings did not change. Subjects indicated more effort and less accuracy in following the pacing signal, the more its frequency differed from their spontaneous breathing frequency. The comparison of a spontaneous breathing condition with a frequency-matched paced condition revealed that pacing per se provoked a reduction in heart period. Because this decrease was not accompanied by changes in any of the HPV frequency components, their validity as measures of autonomic control needs to be questioned.

[Stauss 2003] Harald M. Stauss. “Heart Rate Variability”, American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology, Volume 285, Number 5, November 2003, pages R927–R931, doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00452.2003 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Streeter 2012] C. C. Streeter, P, L. Gerbarg, R. B. Saper, D. A. Ciraulo, and R. P. Brown. “Effects of Yoga on the Autonomic Nervous System, Gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and Allostasis in Epilepsy, Depression, and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder”, Med Hypotheses, Volume 78, Number 5, May 2012, pages 571–579, doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.021. Publication 22365651 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is restored. It is hypothesized that stress induces (1) imbalance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, (2) underactivity of the gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter system, and (3) increased allostatic load. It is further hypothesized that yoga-based practices (4) correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and (5) reduce allostatic load. Depression, epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and chronic pain exemplify medical conditions that are exacerbated by stress, have low heart rate variability (HRV) and low GABAergic activity, respond to pharmacologic agents that increase activity of the GABA system, and show symptom improvement in response to yoga-based interventions. The observation that treatment resistant cases of epilepsy and depression respond to vagal nerve stimulation corroborates the need to correct PNS underactivity as part of a successful treatment plan in some cases. According to the proposed theory, the decreased PNS and GABAergic activity that underlies stress-related disorders can be corrected by yoga practices resulting in amelioration of disease symptoms. This has far-reaching implications for the integration of yoga-based practices in the treatment of a broad array of disorders exacerbated by stress.

[Surmeli 2007] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “EEG Neurofeedback Treatment of Patients with Down Syndrome”, Journal of Neurotherapy, Volume 11, Number 1, 2007, pages 63–68, doi:10.1300/J184v11n01_07 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Introduction: Down syndrome is the most common identifiable cause of intellectual disability, accounting for almost one third of cases and approximately 1 in 800 births. Neurofeedback (NF) is an operant conditioning method for retraining brain wave (EEG) patterns. An increasing number of clinicians use operant conditioning of EEG activity as a method of helping children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Generalized Learning Disability (ADHD/ADD or GLDO). Some Down syndrome children display symptoms of ADHD/ADD, GLDO or both. We believed that NF may have potential in helping children with Down syndrome.
Methodology: Eight children with Down Syndrome (ages 6–14) were evaluated through questionnaire, parent interview, and pre- and post-treatment quantitative EEG's. All eight children were seen by the first author and by the special educator at the baseline, and at the 20th, 40th and 60th treatment sessions. Pre-treatment QEEGs were analyzed using the NxLink normative database and generally showed excess delta and theta EEG patterns. None of the subjects were able to speak more than one word sentences and they had very limited vocabulary (between 5–10 words). They usually pointed a finger to communicate and were not able to engage in basic conversation. All children displayed very poor attention and concentration, poor memory, impulsivity, behavior problems, in some cases balance problems. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate whether QEEG guided, bipolar montage NF training is effective in developing speech, improving attention and concentration, improving learning, decreasing behavioral problems or impulsivity, and alleviating balance problems in Down Syndrome children. All subjects were medication-free during treatment. NF training was conducted using Lexicor Biolex software with electrode placement guided by QEEG findings, seeking to normalize abnormal QEEG patterns. Training continued until the subjects demonstrated improvement and there were significant improvements in the reports of parents, or until a total of 60 treatment sessions were provided. Scores derived from a combination of questionnaire and parental ratings were obtained pre- and post-treatment in the areas of memory, speech and language, attention, behavior, and balance.
Results: One subject dropped out after eight sessions. All seven children who completed NF training showed significant (p < .02) improvement in all areas evaluated based on the questionnaire and parent interviewing, and changes were found in QEEGs. Further study with a control group and additional outcome measures is warranted.

[Surmeli 2009] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Therapy in Personality Disorders: 13 Case Studies”, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 40, Number 1, January 2009, pages 5–10, doi:10.1177/155005940904000107. Publication 19278127 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to DSM-IV, personality disorder constitutes a class only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress. Classical treatment of choice for personality disorders has been psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy. Our study is to determine if subjects with antisocial personality disorders will benefit from quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback treatment. Thirteen subjects (9 male, 4 female) ranged in age from 19 to 48 years. All the subjects were free of medications and illicit drugs. We excluded subjects with other mental disorders by clinical assessment. Psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy or any other treatment model was not introduced to any of the subjects during or after neurofeedback treatment. For the subject who did not respond to neurofeedback, training was applied with 38 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback training without success. Evaluation measures included qEEG analysis with Nx Link data base, MMPI, T.O.V.A tests and SA-45 questionaries at baseline, and at the end of neurofeedback treatment. Lexicor qEEG signals were sampled at 128 Hz with 30 minutes-neurofeedback sessions completed between 80-120 sessions depending on the case, by Biolex neurofeedback system. At baseline and after every 20 sessions, patients were recorded with webcam during the interview. Twelve out of 13 subjects who received 80-120 sessions of neurofeedback training showed significant improvement based on SA-45 questionaries, MMPI, T.O.V.A. and qEEG/Nx Link data base (Neurometric analysis) results, and interviewing by parent/family members. Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders. Further study with controls is warranted.

[Surmeli 2010] Tanju Sürmeli and Ayben Ertem. “Post WISC-R and TOVA Improvement with QEEG Guided Neurofeedback Training in Mentally Retarded: A Clinical Case Series of Behavioral Problems”, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 41, Number 1, January 2010, pages 32–41, doi:10.1177/155005941004100108. Publication 20307014 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: According to the DSM-IV, Mental Retardation is significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two of the following skill areas: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health and safety. In pilot work, we have seen positive clinical effects of Neurofeedback (NF) applied to children with Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) and other forms of mental retardation. Given that many clinicians use NF in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Generalized Learning Disability cases, we studied the outcomes of a clinical case series using Quantitative EEG (QEEG) guided NF in the treatment of mental retardation. All 23 subjects received NF training. The QEEG data for most subjects had increased theta, alpha, and coherence abnormalities. A few showed increased delta over the cortex. Some of the subjects were very poor in reading and some had illegible handwriting, and most subjects had academic failures, impulsive behavior, and very poor attention, concentration, memory problems, and social skills. This case series shows the impact of QEEG-guided NF training on these clients' clinical outcomes. Fourteen out of 23 subjects formerly took medications without any improvement. Twenty-three subjects ranging from 7-16 years old attending private learning centers were previously diagnosed with mental retardation (severity of degree: from moderate to mild) at various university hospitals. Evaluation measures included QEEG analysis, WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised) IQ test, TOVA (Test of Variables of Attention) test, and DPC-P (Developmental Behaviour Checklist) were filled out by the parents. NF trainings were performed by Lexicor Biolex software. NX-Link was the commercial software reference database used to target the treatment protocols, along with the clinical judgment of the first author. QEEG signals were sampled at 128 samples per second per channel and electrodes were placed according to the International 10-20 system. Between 80 and 160 NF training sessions were completed, depending on the case. None of the subjects received any special education during NF treatment. Two subjects with the etiology of epilepsy were taking medication, and the other 21 subjects were medication-free at the baseline. Twenty-two out of 23 patients who received NF training showed clinical improvement according to the DPC-P with QEEG reports. Nineteen out of 23 patients showed significant improvement on the WISC-R, and the TOVA. For the WISC-R test, 2 showed decline on total IQ due to the decline on some of the subtests, 2 showed no improvement on total IQ although improvement was seen on some of the subtests, however even these cases showed improvement on QEEG and DPC-P. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of NF treatment in mental retardation. The results of this study encourage further research.

[Sutarto 2010] Auditya Purwandini Sutarto, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, and Nora Mat Zin. “Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Biofeedback: A New Training Approach for Operator’s Performance Enhancement”, Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, Volume 3, Number 1, 2010, pages 176–198, doi:10.3926/jiem.2010.v3n1.p176-198 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min) to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators.

[Swanson 2009] Kimberly S. Swanson, Richard N. Gevirtz, Milton Brown, James Spira, Ermina Guarneri, and Liset Stoletniy. “The Effect of Biofeedback on Function in Patients with Heart Failure”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pages 71–91. Publication 19205870 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Decreased HRV has been consistently associated with increased cardiac mortality and morbidity in HF patients. The aim of this study is to determine if a 6-week course of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and breathing retraining could increase exercise tolerance, HRV, and quality of life in patients with New York Heart Association Class I-III heart failure (HF). Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to either the treatment group consisting of six sessions of breathing retraining, HRV biofeedback and daily practice, or the comparison group consisting of six sessions of quasi-false alpha-theta biofeedback and daily practice. Exercise tolerance, measured by the 6-min walk test (6MWT), HRV, measured by the standard deviation of normal of normal beats (SDNN), and quality of life, measured by the Minnesota Living with Congestive Heart Failure Questionnaire, were measured baseline (week 0), post (week 6), and follow-up (week 18). Cardiorespiratory biofeedback significantly increased exercise tolerance (p = .05) for the treatment group in the high (>or=31%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) category between baseline and follow-up. Neither a significant difference in SDNN (p = .09) nor quality of life (p = .08), was found between baseline and follow-up. A combination of HRV biofeedback and breathing retraining may improve exercise tolerance in patients with HF with an LVEF of 31% or higher. Because exercise tolerance is considered a strong prognostic indicator, cardiorespiratory biofeedback has the potential to improve cardiac mortality and morbidity in HF patients.

[Takase 2004] Bonpei Takase, Takashi Akima, Kimio Satomura, Fumitaka Ohsuzu, Takemi Mastui, Masayuki Ishihara, and Akira Kurita. “Effects of Chronic Sleep Deprivation on Autonomic Activity by Examining Heart Rate Variability, Plasma Catecholamine, and Intracellular Magnesium Levels”, 4th International Symposium Workshop on Circadian Rhythms and Clinical Chronotherapy, Tokyo, Japan, November 8, 2003, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 58, Supplement 1, October 2004, pages S35–S39, doi:10.1016/S0753-3322(04)80007-6. Publication 15754837 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22±1 years; mean±SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events.

[Tan 2011] Gabriel Tan, Tam K. Dao, Lorie Farmer, Roy John Sutherland, and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Pilot Study”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 36, March 2011, pages 27–35, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9141-y Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Exposure to combat experiences is associated with increased risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy have garnered a significant amount of empirical support for PTSD treatment; however, they are not universally effective with some patients continuing to struggle with residual PTSD symptoms. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the autonomic nervous system functioning and reflects an individual's ability to adaptively cope with stress. A pilot study was undertaken to determine if veterans with PTSD (as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and the PTSD Checklist) would show significantly different HRV prior to an intervention at baseline compared to controls; specifically, to determine whether the HRV among veterans with PTSD is more depressed than that among veterans without PTSD. The study also aimed at assessing the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of providing HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD. The findings suggest that implementing an HRV biofeedback as a treatment for PTSD is effective, feasible, and acceptable for veterans. Veterans with combat-related PTSD displayed significantly depressed HRV as compared to subjects without PTSD. When the veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either HRV biofeedback plus treatment as usual (TAU) or just TAU, the results indicated that HRV biofeedback significantly increased the HRV while reducing symptoms of PTSD. However, the TAU had no significant effect on either HRV or symptom reduction. A larger randomized control trial to validate these findings appears warranted.

[Tarvainen 2012] Mika P. Tarvainen and Juha-Pekka Niskanen. Kubios HRV Version 2.1 — User's Guide, published by the Biosignal Analysis and Medical Imaging Group (BSAMIG), Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, July 6, 2012, 44 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Overview: Kubios HRV is an advanced tool for studying the variability of heart beat intervals. Due to its wide variety of di erent analysis options and the easy to use interface, the software is suitable for researchers and clinicians with varying premises. The software is mainly designed for the analysis of normal human HRV, but can also be used e.g. for animal research.

[TaskForce 1996] Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. “Heart Rate Variability: Standards of measurements, physiological interpretation, and clinical use”, European Heart Journal, Volume 17, March 1996, pages 354–381. Publication 8737210 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[TaskForce 1996a] Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. “Heart Rate Variability: Standards of measurements, physiological interpretation, and clinical use”, Circulation, Volume 93, Number 5, March 1996, pages 1043–1065, doi:10.1161/​01.CIR.93.5.1043. Publication 8598068 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Teplan 2006] Michal Teplan, A. Krakovská, and S. Štolc. “EEG Responses to Long-term Audio-visual Stimulation”, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 59, Number 2, February 2006, pages 81–90, doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.02.005. Publication 15936103 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In this study, linear and nonlinear electroencephalogram (EEG) changes due to long-term audio-visual stimulation (AVS) were investigated. In the course of 2 months, 25 repetitions of a 20-min AVS program with stimulation frequencies in the range 2-18 Hz were applied to six healthy volunteers. EEG data were recorded from six head locations during relaxed wakefulness prior to AVS. Then linear spectral measures (total power, frequency band powers, spectral edge frequency, and spectral entropy), nonlinear measures of complexity (histogram-based entropy and correlation dimension), interdependency measures (linear correlation coefficient, mutual information, and coherence), and measures of subjective assessment were estimated. Evolution of these measures during the whole experiment period was analyzed with respect to the significance of their linear regression. Our results confirm that repetitive training with audio-visual stimulation does induce changes in the electro-cortical activity of the brain. Long-term AVS significantly increased power in theta-1, theta-2, and alpha-1 bands in the frontal and central cortex locations. Total power increased in the right central region. Interhemispheric coherence in alpha-1 band displayed a significant increase between frontal parts in contrast to the decrease of both linear correlation and mutual information. Correlation dimension significantly decreased in some locations while entropy displayed an ascending trend.

[Terathongkum 2004] Sangthong Terathongkum and Rita H. Pickler. “Relationships Among Heart Rate Variability, Hypertension, and Relaxation Techniques”, Journal of Vascular Nursing, Volume 22, Number 3, September 2004, pages 78–82, doi:10.1016/j.jvn.2004.06.003. Errata in Issue 4, December 2004, page 140. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a simple noninvasive measurement for investigating autonomic influence on the cardiovascular system. HRV, the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, may be evaluated by time domain and frequency domain methods. HRV can be used as a predictor of risk or warning sign of cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have shown that a reduced HRV can also be used as a predictor of hypertension, development of diabetic neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, and lethal arrhythmic complications after an acute myocardial infarction. A few studies have also revealed that relaxation techniques can increase HRV. This article reviews the literature about HRV measurement and the relationships among HRV, hypertension, and relaxation techniques. Limitations of the review literature have also been considered to identify areas for future research.

[Terathongkum 2006] Sangthong Terathongkum. Relationships Among Stress, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Meditators, Doctoral dissertation – Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, April 2006, 170 pages, retrieved June 8, 2012. See the VCU Digital Archives web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Problem Statement: Growing evidence indicates that psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases through complex neuroendocrine mechanisms. Psychological stress leads to several physiological responses including increased heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) as well as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) through alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), specifically increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and decreased parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Meditation is thought to induce an innate relaxation response leading to reduced psychological stress. Findings from past studies have provided inconclusive evidence regarding the direction and strength of relationships among stress, BP, HRV, and meditation practice.
Procedures: A cross-sectional descriptive-correlational design was used to examine relationships among perceived stress, BP, HRV and meditation practice in meditators. A convenience sample of 71 meditators at two meditation centers in the southeast United States was used. Sample size was based on a power analysis. Each participant was asked to complete meditation, perceived stress, and demographic questionnaires. Participants' BP was measured before meditation and HRV was recorded during a 30 minute meditation session. Finally, BP was recorded after meditation.
Results: Participants were predominantly female (55%), Caucasian/white (94%), and Buddhist (76%), with 93% having at least college graduate. Most participants practiced soto zen or vipassana meditation (45% and 30%, respectively). The average length of total meditation practice was 103.66 months. Participants practiced meditation an average of once a day for 4 days a week with mean session duration of 34 minutes. Most participants had a low level of perceived stress and normal HRV. There was a statistically significant decrease in mean systolic BP after meditation (t = 5.31, p < .0001) and a significant inverse relationship between the length of total meditation practice and perceived current stress. However, there were no statistically significant relationships among meditation practice, perceived stress and the ANS assessed through BP and HRV.
Conclusions: The results suggested meditators had low levels of perceived stress and that meditation had an effect on systolic BP and perceived current stress. Future research needs to include longitudinal studies to elucidate the cumulative effects of consistent meditation practice on psychological and physiological outcomes.

[Thatcher 2008] Robert W. Thatcher. NeuroGuide Manual and Tutorial, published by Applied Neuroscience, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2008, 504 pages, retrieved May 5, 2012. See the Applied Neuroscience web site. NeuroGuide Manual and Tutorial Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Thong 2003] Tran Thong, Kehai Li, James McNames, Mateo Aboy, and Brahm Goldstein. “Accuracy of Ultra-Short Heart Rate Variability Measures, Volume 3”, Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, September 17–21, 2003, 2003, pages 2424–2427, ISBN 0-7803-7789-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) measures have been used to assess autonomic cardiac regulation. The standard lengths used in HRV analyses are 5 minutes and 24 hours. In this paper we investigated the accuracy of three HRV measures for ultra-short record length, 10 seconds, which is the length of standard electrocardiograms. The measures chosen were: Standard Deviation Normal– Normal (SDNN), Root Mean Square of Successive Differences (RMSSD), frequency of the peak of the high-frequency (HF) spectra derived using a nonparametric spectrum method. Our analyses indicated that the RMSSD(10)s would be consistent estimates of the 5 minute RMSSD(300)s. The SDNN(10)s were found not to be accurate in our analyses. The HF peak, while promising, would require further studies

[Thurber 2006] Myron Ross Thurber. Effects of Heart-rate Variability Biofeedback Training and Emotional Regulation on Music Performance Anxiety in University Students, Doctoral dissertation – University of North Texas, December 2006, 94 pages, retrieved June 8, 2012. See the University of North Texas Digital Library web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Student musicians were recruited to participate in an experimental repeated measures research design study to identify effects of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback training and emotional self-regulation techniques, as recommended by HeartMath® Institute, on music performance anxiety (MPA) and music performance. Fourteen students were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group following a 5 minute unaccompanied baseline performance. Treatment group participants received 4-5 HRV training sessions of 30-50 minutes each. Training included bibliotherapy, using the computerized Freeze-Framer® 2.0 interactive training software, instruction in the Freeze-Frame® and Quick Coherence® techniques of emotional regulation, and also use of an emWave® portable heart rate variability training device for home training. Measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Performance Anxiety Inventory (PAI), Flow State Scale (FSS), average heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Quade’s rank transformed ANCOVA was used to evaluate treatment and no-treatment group comparisons. Combined MPA scores showed statistical significance at p=.05 level with large effect size of eta2=.320. Individual measurements of trait anxiety showed a small effect size of eta2=.001. State anxiety measurement showed statistical significance at the p=.10 level with a large effect size eta2=.291. FSS showed no statistical or effect size difference. PAI showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.149. HR showed no statistical significance and a large effect size eta2=.143. HRV showed statistical significance at p=.000 level and a large effect size eta2=.698. This study demonstrated practical/clinical significance of a relatively quick and inexpensive biofeedback training that had large effect at decreasing mental, emotional, and physiological symptoms of MPA for university students.

[Toichi 1997] Motomi Toichia, Takeshi Sugiurab, Toshiya Muraia, and Akira Sengoku. “A New Method of Assessing Cardiac Autonomic Function and its Comparison with Spectral Analysis and Coefficient of Variation of R–R Interval”, Journal of Autonomic Nervous System, Volume 62, Numbers 1/2, January 1997, pages 79–84, doi:10.1016/S0165-1838(96)00112-9. Publication 9021653 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

[Tripathi 2004] Lt. Col. KK Tripathi. “Respiration And Heart Rate Variability: A Review With Special Reference To Its Application In Aerospace Medicine”, Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine, Volume 48, Number 1, 2004, pages 64–75. Respiration And Heart Rate Variability Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices provide a non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular control mechanisms. The last few years have witnessed a burgeoning growth of research effort and literature on various HRV indices, encompassing a large cross section of cardiovascular and autonomic physiology/psychophysiology. The analysis finds varied applications in a multitude of fields including Aerospace Medicine. After presenting a brief summary of linear and nonlinear HRV indices, the present article reviews the effects of various respiratory influences on different HRV estimates with the mechanisms involved therein. Certain examples are given, from the field of Aerospace Medicine, of the application of HRV analysis wherein respiration could be a potential confounder. Concerns expressed regarding effects of controlling the respiratory variables on HRV indices are addressed and, finally, the issue of susceptibility of non-linear HRV estimates to breathing is dealt with.

[Tsai 2013] Jui-Feng Tsai, Shaw-Hwa Jou, WenChun Cho, and Chieh-Min Lin. “Electroencephalography when Meditation Advances: A Case-based Time-series Analysis”, Cognitive Processes, April 5, 2013, 6 pages, doi:10.1007/s10339-013-0563-3. Publication 23558913 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Increased alpha and theta activities in electroencephalography (EEG) have been found during various forms of meditation. However, advanced stage of meditation drew less attention to date. We aimed at exploring EEG characteristics during advanced meditation. Bilateral absolute alpha and theta EEG powers were recorded when a single meditator at rest, exercising breath meditation, and reaching the advanced meditative stage in 10 sessions of meditation. Averaged time-series data were analyzed using simulation modeling analysis to compare the powers during different meditative phases. During breath meditation, significantly higher activities compared with baseline were found only in bilateral theta (P = 0.0406, 0.0158 for left and right sides, respectively), but not in alpha (P = 0.1412, 0.0978 for left and right sides, respectively) bands. When meditation advanced, significantly increased activities were found both in bilateral alpha (P = 0.0218, 0.0258 for left and right sides, respectively) and theta (P = 0.0308, 0.0260 for left and right sides, respectively) bands compared against breath meditation. When advanced meditation compared against baseline, bilateral alpha (P = 0.0001, 0.0001 for left and right sides, respectively) and theta (P = 0.0001, 0.0001 for left and right sides, respectively) bands revealed significantly increased activities. Our findings support that internalized attention manifested as theta activity continuingly enhances significantly in sequential phases of meditation, while relaxation manifested as alpha activity is significant only after the advanced meditative phase is reached.

[Tulppo 2004] Mikko Tulppo and Heikki V. Huikuri. “Origin and Significance of Heart Rate Variability”, Journal of the Americn College of Cardiology, Volume 43, Number 12, June 2004, pages 2278–2280, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2004.03.034 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[vanDeursen 2008] J. A. van Deursen, E. F. P. M. Vuurman, F. R. J. Verhey, V. H. J. M. van Kranen-Mastenbroek, and W. J. Riedel. “Increased EEG Gamma Band Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment”, Journal of Neural Transmission, Volume 115, Number 9, September 2008, pages 1301–1311, doi:10.1007/s00702-008-0083-y. Publication 18607528 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: High frequency (30–70 Hz) gamma band oscillations in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG) are thought to reflect perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore interesting to study these measures in cognitive impairment and dementia. To evaluate gamma band oscillations as a diagnostic biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 15 psychoactive drug naïve AD patients, 20 MCI patients and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. Gamma band power (GBP) was measured in four conditions viz. resting state, music listening, story listening and visual stimulation. To evaluate test–retest reliability (TRR), subjects underwent a similar assessment one week after the first. The overall TRR was high. Elevated GBP was observed in AD when compared to MCI and control subjects in all conditions. The results suggest that elevated GBP is a reproducible and sensitive measure for cognitive dysfunction in AD in comparison with MCI and controls.

[Vaschillo-E 2006] Evgeny G. Vaschillo, Bronya Vaschillo, and Paul M. Lehrer. “Characteristics of Resonance in Heart Rate Variability Stimulated by Biofeedback”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 31, Number 2, June 2006, pages 129–142, doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9009-3. Publication 16838124 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: As we previously reported, resonant frequency heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow in healthy individuals and has positive effects in treatment of asthma patients. Biofeedback readily produces large oscillations in heart rate, blood pressure, vascular tone, and pulse amplitude via paced breathing at the specific natural resonant frequency of the cardiovascular system for each individual. This paper describes how resonance properties of the cardiovascular system mediate the effects of heart rate variability biofeedback. There is evidence that resonant oscillations can train autonomic reflexes to provide therapeutic effect. The paper is based on studies described in previous papers. Here, we discuss the origin of the resonance phenomenon, describe our procedure for determining an individual's resonant frequency, and report data from 32 adult asthma patients and 24 healthy adult subjects, showing a negative relationship between resonant frequency and height, and a lower resonant frequency in men than women, but no relationship between resonant frequency and age, weight, or presence of asthma. Resonant frequency remains constant across 10 sessions of biofeedback training. It appears to be related to blood volume.

[Vernon 2005] David J. Vernon. “Can Neurofeedback Training Enhance Performance? — An Evaluation of the Evidence with Implications for Future Research”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 30, Number 4, December 2005, pages 347–364, doi:10.1007/s10484-005-8421-4. Publication 16385423 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: There have been many claims regarding the possibilities of performance enhancement training. The aim of such training is for an individual to complete a specific function or task with fewer errors and greater efficiency, resulting in a more positive outcome. The present review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies to enhance performance in a particular area. Previous research has documented associations between specific cortical states and optimum levels of performance in a range of tasks. This information provides a plausible rationale for the use of neurofeedback to train individuals to enhance their performance. An examination of the literature revealed that neurofeedback training has been utilised to enhance performance from three main areas; sport, cognitive and artistic performance. The review examined evidence from neurofeedback training studies within each of these three areas. Some suggestive findings have been reported with regard to the use of neurofeedback training to enhance performance. However, due to a range of methodological limitations and a general failure to elicit unambiguous changes in baseline EEG activity, a clear association between neurofeedback training and enhanced performance has yet to be established. Throughout, the review highlights a number of recommendations to aid and stimulate future research.

[Viola 2008] Antoine U. Viola, Lynette M. James, Simon N. Archer, and Derk-Jan Dijk. “PER3 Polymorphism and Cardiac Autonomic Control: Effects of Sleep Debt and Circadian Phase”, American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Volume 295, Number 5, November 1, 2008, pages H2156–H2163, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00662.2008 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the coding region of the circadian clock PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been shown to affect sleep. Because circadian rhythms and sleep are known to modulate sympathovagal balance, we investigated whether homozygosity for this PER3 polymorphism is associated with changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity during sleep and wakefulness at baseline and after sleep deprivation. Twenty-two healthy participants were selected according to their PER3 genotype. ANS activity, evaluated by heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) indexes, was quantified during baseline sleep, a 40-h period of wakefulness, and recovery sleep. Sleep deprivation induced an increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS), a decrease in the global variability, and an unbalance of the ANS with a loss of parasympathetic predominance and an increase in sympathetic activity. Individuals homozygous for the longer allele (PER35/5) had more SWS, an elevated sympathetic predominance, and a reduction of parasympathetic activity compared with PER34/4, in particular during baseline sleep. The effects of genotype were strongest during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and absent or much smaller during REM sleep. The NREM-REM cycle-dependent modulation of the low frequency-to-(low frequency + high frequency) ratio was diminished in PER35/5 individuals. Circadian phase modulated HR and HRV, but no interaction with genotype was observed. In conclusion, the PER3 polymorphism affects the sympathovagal balance in cardiac control in NREM sleep similar to the effect of sleep deprivation.

[Wade-MA 2008] Mark Alan Wade. An Annotated Bibliography of Current Research in the Field of the Medical Problems of Trumpet Playing, D.M.A. dissertation – Ohio State University, 2008, xi + 121 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The very nature of the lifestyle of professional trumpet players is conducive to the occasional medical problem. The life-hours of diligent practice and performance that make a performer capable of musical expression on the trumpet also can cause a host of overuse and repetitive stress ailments. Other medical problems can arise through no fault of the performer or lack of technique, such as the brain disease Task-Specific Focal Dystonia. Ailments like these fall into several large categories and have been individually researched by medical professionals. Articles concerning this narrow field of research are typically published in their respective medical journals, such as the Journal of Applied Physiology. Articles whose research is pertinent to trumpet or horn, the most similar brass instruments with regard to pitch range, resistance and the intrathoracic pressures generated, are often then presented in the instruments’ respective journals, ITG Journal and The Horn Call. Most articles about the medical problems affecting trumpet players are not published in scholarly music journals such as these, rather, are found in health science publications. Herein lies the problem for both musician and doctor; the wealth of new information is not effectively available for dissemination across fields. The purpose of this exhaustive literature search was to produce a single document that collects and annotates current and pertinent research in the field of medical problems of the trumpet player and make it available for the trumpet playing community, music educators, conductors and physicians. The bibliography is divided into sections by topic and entries include a bibliography and abstract. Whenever possible, the abstracts by the original authors are used, as they are the experts on their own research.

[Wainapel 1988] Stanley F. Wainapel and Jeffrey L. Cole. “The Not-So-Magic Flute: Two Cases of Distal Ulnar Nerve Entrapment”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 3, June 1988, pages 63–65. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wang-HM 2012] Hui-Min Wang and Sheng-Chieh Huang. “SDNN/RMSSD as a Surrogate for LF/HF: A Revised Investigation”, Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Volume 2012, Article ID 931943, 2012, 8 pages, doi:10.1155/2012/931943 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Thousands of papers involved in heart rate variability (HRV).However, little was known about one important measure of HRV, the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (RMSSDs). Another fundamental measure SDNN indicates standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals, where R is the peak of a QRS complex (heartbeat). Compared with SDNN, RMSSD is a short-term variation of heart rate. Through a time-frequency transformation, the ratio of low- and high-frequency power LF/HF represents the sympatho-vagal balance of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Some research claimed that SDNN/RMSSD was a good surrogate for LF/HF. However, only two special cases supported this hypothesis in the literature survey. The first happened in resting supine state and the other was a group of prefrontal cortex patients. Both of their Pearson correlation coefficients reached 0.90, a reasonable criterion. In our study, a 6-week experiment was performed with 32 healthy young Asian males. The Pearson correlation coefficients had a normal distribution with average values smaller than 0.6 for 3 and 5-minute epochs, respectively. Our findings suggest this surrogate aspect could remain as a hypothesis.

[Wang-L 2011] Lu Wang, Guangyu Cheng, Zemin Sheng, Qianqian Niu, Weiping Cheng, Xiao Feng, Jan Valentini, Ingrid Gaischek, Xinyan Gao, Haixue Kuang, Gerhard Litscher. “Clinical Teleacupuncture Between China and Austria Using Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Depression”, Chinese Medicine, Volume 2, 2011, pages 71–76, doi:10.4236/cm.2011.22013 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: In previous studies by the same research group it has been shown in post-stroke patients that the autonomic system can be affected by acupuncture. Within this study, teleacupuncture between China and Austria is used for quantifying the effects of heart rate variability (HRV) in Chinese patients suffering from depression. In 22 Chinese depression patients (17 f, 5 m; mean age ± SD 52.3 ± 10.6 years; range 31 - 70 years) electrocardiographic signals before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Jianshi (PC 5) were recorded in Harbin and analyzed in Graz using teleacupuncture via internet. HRV data were analyzed in the time and frequency domain and a protocol from Austria was sent to the team in China immediately after the treatment and recording session. Mean heart rate decreased significantly (p < 0.001) during and after acupuncture, whereas total HRV increased significantly during (p ≤ 0.034) and after (p < 0.001) acupuncture, always immediately following manual needle stimulation. Furthermore, there is a marked decrease in balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (low frequency/high frequency HRV ratio) during treatment. This study shows that HRV could be a useful parameter for quantifying clinical effects of acupuncture on the autonomic nervous system. Teleacupuncture between China and Austria over a distance of more than 8,500 km has been successfully used.

[Wheat 2010] Amanda L. Wheat and Kevin T. Larkin. “Biofeedback of Heart Rate Variability and Related Physiology: A Critical Review”, Applied Phychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 35, Number 3, 2010, pages 229–242, doi:10.1007/s10484-010-9133-y. Publication 20443135 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Your Brain on Flute

Abstract: Low heart rate variability (HRV) characterizes several medical and psychological diseases. HRV biofeedback is a newly developed approach that may have some use for treating the array of disorders in which HRV is relatively low. This review critically appraises evidence for the effectiveness of HRV and related biofeedback across 14 studies in improving (1) HRV and baroreflex outcomes and (2) clinical outcomes. Results revealed that HRV biofeedback consistently effectuates acute improvements during biofeedback practice, whereas the presence of short-term and long-term carry-over effects is less clear. Some evidence suggests HRV biofeedback may result in long-term carry-over effects on baroreflex gain, which is an area most promising for future investigations. On the other hand, concerning clinical outcomes, there is ample evidence attesting to efficacy of HRV biofeedback. However, because clinical and physiological outcomes do not improve concurrently in all cases, the mechanism by which HRV biofeedback results in salutary effects in unclear. Considerations for the field in addressing shortcomings of the reviewed studies and advancing understanding of the way in which HRV biofeedback may improve physiological and clinical outcomes are offered in light of the reviewed evidence.

[Whitman 2008] Emma M. Whitham, Trent Lewis, Kenneth Pope, Sean Fitzgibbon, Richard C. Clark, Stephen Loveless, Dylan DeLosAngeles, Angus Wallace, Marita Broberg, and John O. Willoughby. “Thinking Activates EMG in Scalp Electrical Recordings”, Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 119, Number 5, May 2008, pages 1166–1175, doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2008.01.024. Publication 18329954 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: Fast electrical rhythms in the gamma range (30-100Hz) in scalp (but not intracranial) recordings are predominantly due to electromyographic (EMG) activity. We hypothesized that increased EMG activity would be augmented by mental tasks in proportion to task difficulty and the requirement of these tasks for motor or visuo-motor output.
Methods: EEG was recorded in 98 subjects whilst performing cognitive tasks and analysed to generate power spectra. In four other subjects, neuromuscular blockade was achieved pharmacologically providing EMG-free spectra of EEG at rest and during mental tasks.
Results: In comparison to the paralysed condition, power of scalp electrical recordings in the gamma range varied in distribution, being maximal adjacent to cranial or cervical musculature. There were non-significant changes in mean gamma range activity due to mental tasks in paralysed subjects. In normal subjects, increases in scalp electrical activity were observed during tasks, without relationship to task difficulty, but with tasks involving limb- or eye-movement having higher power.
Conclusions: Electrical rhythms in the gamma frequency range recorded from the scalp are inducible by mental activity and are largely due to EMG un-related to cognitive effort. EMG varies with requirements for somatic or ocular movement more than task difficulty.
Significance: Severe restrictions exist on utilizing scalp recordings for high frequency EEG.

[Wilson-HL 1997] Heston L. Wilson. “Asthma and the Clarinet”, Clarinet, Volume 24, Number 2, February/March 1997, page 26. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The article discusses how playing woodwind instruments such as clarinets can help treat asthma. It depicts the similarities between the method used in enhancing the role of the abdominal muscles in breathing for asthmatics and the technique used to train the brass and woodwind instrumentalist. It highlights the article "Musical Wind Instruments in Rehabilitation of Asthmatic Children," by Meyer B. Marks which stresses the use of wind instruments in the treatment of the allergy.

[Wright-LD 2006] Leonard D. Wright. “Meditation: A New Role for an Old Friend”, American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Volume 23, Number 4, August–September 2006, pages 323–327, doi:10.1177/1049909106289101. Publication 17060297 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Meditation has been a spiritual and healing tradition for centuries. In 1972, Keith Wallace and Herbert Benson published a landmark article looking at meditation from a scientific perspective. The author reviewed their article, plus selected scientific literature on meditation since that time, to see if there was enough evidence to warrant the inclusion of meditation in the treatment protocols of serious disease. This review, plus an illustrative case study, demonstrated that such inclusion is warranted and further research is necessary.

[Xiangcai 2000] Xu Xiangcai. Qigong for Treating Common Ailments: The Essential Guide to Self Healing, Second edition, published by the YMAA Publication Center, Boston, Massachussets, 2000, 144 pages, ISBN 1-886969-70-1 (978-1-886969-70-4). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Yang 2008] Zhi-xian Yang, Xiang Cai, Xiao-yan Liu, and Jiong Qin. “Relationship Among Eye Condition Sensitivities, Photosensitivity and Epileptic Syndromes”, Chinese Medical Journal, Volume 121, Number 17, September 5, 2008, pages 1633–1637. Publication 19024089 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in normal subjects and epileptic patients is often closely related to the eye's status such as eye opened (EO), eye closure (ECL) and eyes closed (EC). ECL is the period immediately after closing of the eyes and only lasts for less than 3 seconds if the eyes remain closed. EC is the period as long as the eyes are closed. Epileptiform changes on EEG induced by ECL or EC are called the changes of ECL sensitivity (ECLS) or EC sensitivity (ECS). ECLS occurs mainly but not exclusively in photosensitive patients and ECS has been seen rarely in photosensitive patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationships among ECLS, ECS, photosensitivity and epilepsy syndromes in children.
Methods: EEG records from child patients in the EEG Department of Peking University First Hospital during the period of May 2005 to May 2007 were examined for the presence of ECLS or ECS. Open-close eye tests and intermittent photic stimulations were carried out during video-EEG monitoring for examining ECLS, ECS and photosensitivity.
Results: Based on ECLS and ECS on their EEGs, 30 patients were divided into ECLS group (16 cases) and ECS group (14 cases). There were more boys than girls in the two groups. The mean age of initial detection of ECLS and ECS was 10 years, and the average onset age of seizures was 9 years. The epilepsy syndromes in the ECLS group included idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, eyelid myoclonia with absences, epilepsy with grand mal on awakening and pure photosensitive epilepsy with mainly generalized tonic clonic seizures. Those in the ECS group were juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy, Panayiotopoulos syndrome and Gastaut type-idiopathic children occipital epilepsy. Photosensitivity was detected in 88% of patients with ECLS and 29% of patients with ECS.
Conclusions: ECLS and ECS are relatively common in females. Comparing with ECS, ECLS is found in more epilepsy syndromes. However, ECS and ECLS could exist in the same epilepsy syndrome. ECLS and ECS can be associated or dissociated with photosensitivity. The rate of ECLS with photosensitivity is higher than that of ECS with photosensitivity, suggesting that mechanisms for ECLS, ECS and photosensitivity may be different but correlated.

[Yousef 2012] Q. Yousef, M. B. I. Reaz, and M. A. M. Ali. “The Analysis of PPG Morphology: Investigating the Effects of Aging on Arterial Compliance”, Measurement Science Review, Volume 12, Number 6, 2012, pages 266–271, doi:10.2478/v10048-012-0036-3 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: This study presents the variations of photoplethysmogram (PPG) morphology with age. PPG measurement is done noninvasively at the index finger on both right and left hands for a sample of erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects. Some parameters are derived from the analysis of PPG contour showed in association with age. The age is found to be an important factor that affects the contour of PPG signals which accelerates the disappearance of PPG’s dicrotic notch and PPG’s inflection point as well. Arterial compliance is found to be degraded with age due to the fall of arterial elasticity. This study approaches the establishment of usefulness of PPG’s contour analysis as an investigator to the changes in the elastic properties of the vascular system, and as a detector of early sub-clinical atherosclerosis.

[Zhang-J 2006] John Zhang, Douglas Dean, Dennis Nosco, Dennis Stratholopus, and Minas Floros. “Effect of Chiropractic Care on Heart Rate Variability and Pain in Multisite Clinical Study”, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 29, Number 4, May 2006, pages 267–274, doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.03.010. Publication 16690380 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of chiropractic care in a multiclinic setting on sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activities using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis.
Methods: Physicians of chiropractic in private practice were provided with an HRV device to perform analysis before and after chiropractic adjustments on 10 subjects. At each site, 8 subjects were monitored before and after a single chiropractic adjustment, and 2 additional patients were followed for a 4-week period with 2 HRV recordings per week. Patient information forms and a visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaire were completed both before and after each chiropractic adjustment.
Results: Data from 96 physicians were divided into single-visit and 4-week groups. After 1 chiropractic adjustment, pain as analyzed by VAS was reduced significantly from 3.7 +/- 2.2 to 2.1 +/- 2.0 (P < .001). The mean heart rate reduced from 76.7 +/- 12.7 to 74.3 +/- 12.4 (P < .01), the SD of normal-to-normal QRS increased from a range of 55.8 to 44.6 to a range of 60.6 to 47.2 (P < .001), the high-frequency component increased from 359 +/- 968 to 444 +/- 1069 (P < .01), the low-frequency component increased from 403 +/- 753 to 465 +/- 755 (P < .05), and the total power increased from 1063 +/- 1886 to 1265 +/- 2048 (P < .01). After 4 weeks of chiropractic adjustments, pain measured by the VAS was reduced significantly before and after each visit as analyzed by t tests, but the significant changes were not found using analysis of variance analysis. The reduction of pain from each treatment was not maintained over the 4 weeks of study period. The analysis of variance on the HRV 4-week data found that changes in the SD of normal-to-normal QRS, total power, and low-frequency components reached statistically significant levels (P < .05). The heart rate and the high-frequency component did not change significantly (P > .05).
Conclusion: In this study, HRV and VAS changed in patients as a result of chiropractic care.

[Zilka 1993] V. Žilka. Veselé Pískání – Zdravé Dýchání «Merry Whistling – Healthy Breathing», published by Panton, Prague, Czech Republic, in Czech, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Dostáváte do ruky velice zajímavou knížku. Není to pouze učebnice, ale vlastně také návod, jak se dobře naučit hrát na zobcovou flétnu a jak správně cvičit a dýchat. Tato škola hry se liší od ostatních především tím, že nabízí žákům také cvičení dechové gymnastiky. Dobře může hrát na flétnu pouze ten žák, který umí dobřé dýchat. Příjemný a srozumitelný titul, ve kterém si místo etud zahrajte spoustu známých českých lidových písní.

This very interesting book is not only a textbook, but also how well learn to play the flute and how to properly train and breathe. This school game differs from others mainly by also offering students practice breathing gymnastics. Only the child who knows how to breathe well can play the flute. This is a friendly and clear book which also teaches you to play a lot of famous Czech folk songs.

[Zucker 2009] Terri L. Zucker, Kristin W. Samuelson, Frederick Muench, Melanie A. Greenberg, and Richard N. Gevirtz. “The Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Biofeedback on Heart Rate Variability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study”, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 34, Number 2, June 2009, pages 135–143, doi:10.1007/s10484-009-9085-2. Publication 19396540 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Recent studies have found a significant association between PTSD and low heart rate variability (HRV), a biomarker of autonomic dysregulation. Research indicates that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) biofeedback increases HRV while reducing related pathological symptoms. This controlled pilot study compared RSA biofeedback to progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as adjunctive interventions for 38 persons with PTSD symptoms in a residential treatment facility for a substance use disorder. Both groups were assessed at pre-intervention and 4-week post-intervention. Group x time interactions revealed significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms and increases in HRV indices for the RSA group. Both groups significantly reduced PTSD and insomnia symptoms and a statistical trend was observed for reduced substance craving for the RSA group. Increases in HRV were significantly associated with PTSD symptom reduction. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of RSA biofeedback in improving physiological and psychological health for individuals with PTSD.

[Zuurman 2008] Lineke Zuurman. Clinical Pharmacology of Cannabinoids in Early Phase Drug Development, Doctoral dissertation – Universiteit Leiden, The Netherlands, 2008, 185 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Zuurman 2008a] Lineke Zuurman, Marieke L. de Kam, Adam F. Cohen, Joop M. A. van Gerven, and Jacobus Burggraaf. “Evaluation of THC-induced Tachycardia in Humans using Heart Rate Variability”, 2008, pages 87–96. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: Cannabis use induces tachycardia, but its mechanism is unexplained. Heart rate variability (hrv) can provide information concerning effects of drugs on parasympathetic and sympathetic tone. hrv data of healthy male volunteers were used from two separate double-blind and placebo-controlled studies. Rising doses of pure thc were administered by inhalation with or without co-administration of the selective cb1 antagonist ave1625. After thc administration, significant dose-related changes compared to placebo were seen in the ‘time domain’ on heart rate and sdsd. In the ‘frequency domain’ dose-related changes were seen on total power, low frequency power and high frequency power. Overall, normalized lf and hf and the lf/hf ratio did not change significantly. However, with the two highest thc doses, average values increased for lf and decreased for hf, leading to an average increase in lf/hf ratio. Co-administration of the selective cb1 antagonist ave1625 had no effect on hrv under placebo conditions, but completely antagonized thc-induced effects on hrv. This indicates that hrv is mediated by cb1 receptors. These findings confirm the involvement of cb1 receptors in thc-induced tachycardia and suggest that the increase in heart rate caused by acute thc administration may be caused by a peripheral mediated reduction in the vagal tone.

 
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