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Ergonomics

This is a list of references on the ergonomic issues related to playing flutes. These references are cited throughout Flutopedia.

The references on this page are a sub-set of the complete list of Flutopedia references.

For information on the format and other details of these citations, see the main references page.

Ergonomics

[Artigues-Cano 2014] Isabel Artigues-Cano and Howard A. Bird. “Hypermobility and Proprioception in the Finger Joints of Flautists”, Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, Volume 20, Number 4, June 2014, pages 203–208, doi:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000109. Publication 24847746 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: Ergonomically, the flute is especially complex among wind instruments, and flautists may therefore be at particular risk of performance-related musculoskeletal disorders. Yet little is known about injury prevalence among flute players, and even less in those flautists who are also hypermobile. Recent research has found hand and wrist pain to be common complaints among flautists. Understanding of the predictors of injury and pain is therefore crucial as the presence of pain decreases performance quality and causes unnecessary time loss. There is a strong relationship between hypermobility and impaired proprioception, although many musicians may acquire greater proprioception than the average population. We have compared flexibility and proprioception of the hand in a study of flautists.
Methods: Twenty flautists took part in the study. General hypermobility, the passive range of motion of the 3 specific joints most involved in flute playing, and proprioception acuity were all measured accurately for the first time in this awkward instrument that needs high levels of dexterity.
Results: Flautists' finger joints have a greater range of movement than in the general population. This group of flute players had especially large ranges of movement in the finger joints, which take the weight of the instrument. Although flautists have hypermobile finger joints, they are not generally hypermobile elsewhere as measured by the Beighton Scale. Flautists, even with very mobile finger joints, have very accurate proprioception, which may be acquired through training.
Conclusions: The study of instrumentalists may provide an ideal model for study of the interaction between localized joint flexibility and joint proprioception, both inherited and acquired.

[Bernardini 2010] Nicola Bernardini. The Role of Physical Impedance Matching in Music Playing, Sound is Motion Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, February 11, 2010, 2010. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Booker 2011] Erica Booker and Rhonda Boyle. “Piano Keyboards — One Size Does Not Fit All! Pianistic Health for the Next Generation”, Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, “Leading Notes to Effective Teaching: Resolving the past - Exploring the future”, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia, Proceedings of the 10th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, “Leading Notes to Effective Teaching: Resolving the past – Exploring the future”, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, published by the Australasian Piano Pedagogy Association (APPCA), July 4–8, 2011, ISBN-13 978-0-646-90142-8. Piano Keyboards Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The width of piano keys became standardised approximately 120 years ago, based on the needs of European male pianists. Only recently has piano keyboard size come into question, as more pianists experience the benefits of reduced-size keyboards. There is strong evidence that smallhanded pianists are more likely to suffer pain and injury than those with larger hands. Many pianists, particularly women and children, are unable to reach their full potential with the standard keyboard. The lecture/demonstration will include statistics, literature review, live and recorded performances, and a rationale for encouraging the use of smaller piano keyboards.

[Boyle-RB 2009] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard — Literature Review and a Survey of the Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists using Reduced-Size Keyboards in North America”, Proceedings of the 9th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, "Expanding Musical Thinking", The King’s School, North Parramatta, Sydney, Australia, published by the Australasian Piano Pedagogy Association (APPCA), July 13–17, 2009, ISBN-13 978-0-646-55411-2. Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Boyle-RB 2010] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard. Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists Using Reduced-Size Keyboards”, Journal of the Victorian Music Teachers' Association (VMTA), Volume 36, Number 1, March 2010, pages 17–35. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: For around 130 years, there has been a ‘one size fits all’ approach to the piano keyboard, despite the wide variation in hand sizes within the human population. Much of the literature relating hand size to piano playing is in the performing arts medicine field, identifying small hand size as one of the likely causes of pain and injury among pianists. Adopters of reduced-size keyboards, available since the mid-1990s, report relief from pain and tension, and other benefits, such as improvements in specific technical and musical skills, faster learning times, and greater comfort and security.

[Boyle-RB 2010a] Rhonda B. Boyle and Robin G. Boyle. “Hand Size and the Piano Keyboard — An Introduction to the Technical and Musical Benefits for Pianists using Reduced-Size Keyboards”, Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring 2010, pages 18–23. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Culf 1998] Nicola Culf. Musicians’ Injuries: A Guide to Their Understanding and Prevention, published by Parapress Ltd, Tunbridge Wells, U.K., 1998, ISBN 1-898594-62-7 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Danubio 2008] Maria Enrica Danubio, Gaetano Miranda, Maria Giulia Vinciguerra, Elvira Vecchi, and Fabrizio Rufo. “Comparison of Self-reported and Measured Height and Weight: Implications for Obesity Research among Young Adults”, Economics & Human Biology, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2008, pages 181–190, doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2007.04.002 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Background: The use of self-reported data in epidemiological surveys leads to misclassification of the prevalence of obesity as the participants overestimate or underestimate height, weight and/or both. Such misclassifications vary according to gender, age, status and ethnicity.
Objectives: To estimate on a sample of youth of both sexes (1) the difference between self-reported data and measured height and weight and (2) the extent of misclassification of BMI deriving from such differences.
Methods: Self-reporting in questionnaires and subsequent measurements of height and weight conducted by trained personnel. The mean values and the BMIs were calculated.
Results: Both sexes overestimate height (2.1 and 2.8 cm for males and females, respectively), and underestimate weight (1.5 and 1.9 kg for males and females, respectively). Consequently the BMI is underestimated (1.1 and 1.5 points for males and females, respectively). The classification of BMI from self-reported data shows underestimation of overweight in both sexes (8 percentage points) and of obese males (3.3 percentage points), an overestimation of normal weight (12.2 and 4.3 percentage points for males and females, respectively) and an excessive underweight in the girls (4.3 percentage points).
Conclusions: There is a difference between self-reported and measured data and self-reported biases are reflected in the classification of the participants in the 4 categories of BMI.

[Dube 2012] Richard Alain Dubé. “The Story of the One-Handed Northern Spirit Flute”, Voice of the Wind, Year 2012, Volume 2, published by the International Native American Flute Association, Suffolk, Virginia, 2012. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Furuya 2006] Shinichi Furuya, Hidehiro Nakahara, Tomoko Aoki, and Hiroshi Kinoshita. “Prevalence and Causal Factors of Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremity and Trunk among Japanese Pianists and Piano students”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 21, Number 3, 2006, pages 112–117. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) among Japanese female classical pianists of different age groups. The causal factors for PRMDs also were examined. A group of 203 senior pianists, including piano teachers and students with piano majors at high schools and colleges, were surveyed using questionnaires. Results showed that 77% of these pianists suffered from PRMDs in at least one of their body portions. This value was larger than those reported in Western countries. Forty-four percent of these were serious enough to warrant medical treatment, which was a lower rate than reported in Western countries. The difference in these numbers may reflect the current state of understanding of PRMDs among Japanese pianists and their educators. The prevalence of PRMDs was found to be age-dependent. In the student groups, the finger/hand had the highest rate of PRMDs, followed by the forearm and shoulder. The senior group, on the other hand, had the highest PRMD incidence at the neck/trunk, followed by the forearm and hand/finger. Care may need to be exercised for these differences. The results also indicated that prolonged daily practice (>4 hours), playing chords forcefully, eagerness about practice, and nervous traits were found to contribute to the development of PRMDs in these pianists. Hand size was, on the other hand, not a significant risk factor of PRMDs.

[Goss 2015] Clinton F. Goss. “Native American Flute Ergonomics, Revised version”, January 6, 2015, 13 pages, arxiv:1501.00910. Native American Flute Ergonomics Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics Survey

Abstract: This study surveyed ergonomic issues in 308 Native American flute players. It also correlated the physical measurements of a subgroup of 33 participants with the largest flute they found comfortable. The data was used to derive a predictive formula for the largest comfortable flute based on physical measurements. The median age of players was 63 years with a mean of 6.9 years playing Native American flute. Females reported significantly less time playing the instrument (p = .004), but significantly faster self-reported progress rates (p = .001). Physical discomfort was experienced by 47–64% of players at least some of the time. Over 10% of players reported moderate discomfort on an average basis. Females report significantly higher maximum and average physical discomfort than males (p < .001 and p = .015, respectively). Height, arm span, hand span, and reported length of time playing and experience level all correlated with the largest flute that the player found comfortable. Multivariate coefficient analysis on those factors yielded a formula with a strong correlation to the largest comfortable flute (r = +.650). However, the formula does not have sufficient correlation to have value in predicting flute design. Customization of Native American flutes with the goal of improving ergonomics is proposed as a worthwhile goal.

[Guptill 2010] Christine Guptill and Christine Zaza. “Injury Prevention: What Music Teachers Can Do”, Music Educators Journal, Volume 96, Number 4, published by MENC: The National Association for Music Education, June 2010, pages 28–34. Publication 40666426 on JSTOR (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Horvath 2010] Janet Horvath. Playing (Less) Hurt — An Injury Prevention Guide for Musicians, published by Hal Leonard, 2010, 256 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-4234-8846-0, ASIN 1423488466. See the Playing Less Hurt Web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Publisher's description: Making music at any level is a powerful gift. While musicians have endless resources for learning the basics of their instruments and the theory of music, few books have explored the other subtleties and complexities that musicians face in their quest to play with ease and skill. The demands of solitary practice, hectic rehearsal schedules, challenging repertoire, performance pressures, awkward postures, and other physical strains have left a trail of injured, hearing-impaired, and frustrated musicians who have had few resources to guide them. Playing Less Hurt addresses this need with specific tools to avoid and alleviate injury. Impressively researched, the book is invaluable not only to musicians, but also to the coaches and medical professionals who work with them. Everyone from dentists to orthopedists, audiologists to neurologists, massage therapists and trainers will benefit from Janet Horvath's coherent account of the physiology and psyche of a practicing musician. Writing with knowledge, sympathetic insight, humor, and aplomb, Horvath has created an essential resource for all musicians who want to play better and feel better.

[Lonsdale 2011] Karen Anne Lonsdale. Understanding Contributing Factors and Optimizing Prevention and Management of Flute Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders, D.M.A. dissertation – Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, August 2011, xxvii + 304 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

[Lonsdale 2013] Karen Anne Lonsdale. “Peak Performance: Understanding and Managing the Physical Challenges of Flute Playing”, NFA Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 2013, 43 pages. Peak Performance: Understanding and Managing the Physical Challenges of Flute Playing Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

[Lonsdale 2014] Karen Anne Lonsdale, E-Liisa Laakso, and V. Tomlinson. “Contributing Factors, Prevention, and Management of Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Flute Players Internationally”, Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Volume 29, Number 3, September 2014, pages 155–162. Publication 25194113 on PubMed/NCBI (subscription access). Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

Abstract: Major studies have shown that flutists report playing-related pain in the neck, middle/upper back, shoulders, wrists, and hands. The current survey was designed to establish the injury concerns of flute players and teachers of all backgrounds, as well as their knowledge and awareness of injury prevention and management. Questions addressed a range of issues including education, history of injuries, preventative and management strategies, lifestyle factors, and teaching methods. At the time of the survey, 26.7% of all respondents were suffering from flute playing-related discomfort or pain; 49.7% had experienced flute playing-related discomfort or pain that was severe enough to distract while performing; and 25.8% had taken an extended period of time off playing because of discomfort or pain. Consistent with earlier studies, the most common pain sites were the fingers, hands, arms, neck, middle/upper back, and shoulders. Further research is needed to establish possible links between sex, instrument types, and ergonomic set up. Further investigation is recommended to ascertain whether certain types of physical training, education, and practice approaches may be more suitable than current methods. A longitudinal study researching the relationship between early education, playing position, ergonomic set-up, and prevalence of injury is recommended.

[Lonsdale 2014a] Karen Anne Lonsdale and E-Liisa Laakso. “Preventing Flute Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Applying Ergonomic Principles in Individual and Ensemble Settings”, Malaysian Music Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, 2014. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

Abstract: Concerning levels of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) among flute players have been reported over a number of decades. However, recent research indicates that many flute players do not receive sufficient training in injury prevention during their studies. Identifying risks and preventing injuries is central to occupational, health and safety, yet there is little emphasis on this topic in instructional flute books and methods. Improving the ergonomic set-up of musicians is one way of minimising the risk of playing-related injuries occurring. This article recommends six injury prevention strategies based on ergonomic principles that flute teachers and band directors can apply in individual and ensemble teaching settings.

[McCaffery 1993] Margo McCaffery and Alexandra Beebe. Pain: Clinical Manual for Nursing Practice, published by the V. V. Mosby Company, Baltimore, Maryland, 1993. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[McDowell 2008] Margaret A. McDowell, Cheryl D. Fryar, Cynthia L. Ogden, and Katherine M. Flegal. “Anthropometric Reference Data for Children and Adults: United States, 2003–2006”, National Health Statistics Reports, Number 10, October 22, 2008, 48 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract:
Objective: This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2003–2006, adding to results published previously from 1960–2002.
Methods: Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 19,593 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements.
Results: The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups.
Conclusions: These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population.

[Mitchell-T 2007] Tamara Mitchell; Sally Longyear (editor). A Painful Melody: Repetitive Strain Injury among Musicians, 2007, retrieved December 17, 2014. See the University of Memphis web site Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Musikerhalsan 2014] Artist-och Musikerhälsan. Musician Ergonomics, 2014, retrieved August 24, 2014. See the Artist-och Musikerhälsan web site. Musician Ergonomics Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

One citation: Ergonomics of Holding a Native American Flute

[Storm 2006] Seneca A. Storm. “Assessing the Instrumentalist Interface: Modifications, Ergonomics and Maintenance of Play”, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, Volume 17, 2006, pages 893–903, doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2006.08.003 Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

[Wade-MA 2008] Mark Alan Wade. An Annotated Bibliography of Current Research in the Field of the Medical Problems of Trumpet Playing, D.M.A. dissertation – Ohio State University, 2008, xi + 121 pages. Search Google Scholar Flutopedia format citation APA format citation Chicago format citation MLA format citation Wikipedia format citation

Abstract: The very nature of the lifestyle of professional trumpet players is conducive to the occasional medical problem. The life-hours of diligent practice and performance that make a performer capable of musical expression on the trumpet also can cause a host of overuse and repetitive stress ailments. Other medical problems can arise through no fault of the performer or lack of technique, such as the brain disease Task-Specific Focal Dystonia. Ailments like these fall into several large categories and have been individually researched by medical professionals. Articles concerning this narrow field of research are typically published in their respective medical journals, such as the Journal of Applied Physiology. Articles whose research is pertinent to trumpet or horn, the most similar brass instruments with regard to pitch range, resistance and the intrathoracic pressures generated, are often then presented in the instruments’ respective journals, ITG Journal and The Horn Call. Most articles about the medical problems affecting trumpet players are not published in scholarly music journals such as these, rather, are found in health science publications. Herein lies the problem for both musician and doctor; the wealth of new information is not effectively available for dissemination across fields. The purpose of this exhaustive literature search was to produce a single document that collects and annotates current and pertinent research in the field of medical problems of the trumpet player and make it available for the trumpet playing community, music educators, conductors and physicians. The bibliography is divided into sections by topic and entries include a bibliography and abstract. Whenever possible, the abstracts by the original authors are used, as they are the experts on their own research.

 
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To cite this page on Wikipedia: <ref name="Goss_2016_refs_ergo"> {{cite web |last=Goss |first=Clint |title= Ergonomics |url=http://www.Flutopedia.com/refs_ergo.htm |date=20 December 2016 |website=Flutopedia |access-date=<YOUR RETRIEVAL DATE> }}</ref>